Gene Summary

Gene:TGCT1; testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility 1
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Seminoma
  • Pedigree
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Transcription Factors
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Germ Cell Tumours
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Testis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis
  • X Chromosome
  • Germ Cells
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • Staging
  • Cryptorchidism
  • XIST non-coding RNA
  • FISH
  • Genotype
  • Germinoma
  • Risk Factors
  • Chromosome X
  • Risk Assessment
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Sertoli Cells
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • MCF2
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • DNA Methylation
  • Prevalence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Age Distribution
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Biopsy, Needle
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TGCT1 (cancer-related)

Xu WH, Zhang C, Zhao WM, et al.
Mutational analysis of proto-oncogene Dbl on Xq27 in testicular germ cell tumors reveals a rare SNP in a patient with bilateral undescended testis.
World J Urol. 2009; 27(6):811-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: An abundance of X chromosomes in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), and a candidate TGCTs susceptibility gene (TGCT1) on Xq27 highlight the potential involvement of X chromosomes in TGCT pathogenesis. However, the TGCT1 on Xq27 has so far not been identified. We hypothesized that a somatic mutation of dbl oncogene on Xq27 may play a role for the development of TGCTs.
METHODS: We have screened 41 TGCT tissues for dbl mutations using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. These tissues are composed of 25 seminomatous TGCTs tissues and 16 non-seminomatous TGCTs tissues, including two cases with a rhabdomyosarcoma component.
RESULTS: Somatic mutations were not detected in the 25 exons of dbl in these TGCTs. However, we found a rare single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (T to C nucleotide change) within intron 22 in one out of the 41 TGCTs cases (2%). Furthermore, the sample with the rare SNP was identified as the sole TGCTs case associated with bilateral undescended testis in our series.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that proto-oncogene dbl is not a major target for sporadic TGCTs. However, the rare SNP in dbl may affect the susceptibility to undescended testis. Determining the frequency of this SNP in patients with various types of undescended testis in different ethnic groups is a warranted study.

del Vecchio MT, Epistolato MC, Tripodi SA, et al.
Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type.
Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2006; 28(3):157-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type (IGCNU) is the precursor lesion of adult testicular germ cell invasive tumors. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are recognized as the cells of origin of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) because of the genetic and phenotypic characteristics analyzed. The most important risk factors responsible for abnormal development of PGCs are environmental, including the testicular dysgenetic syndromes that generate a better microenvironmentfor survival of IGCNU cells, an abnormal relationship with Sertoli cells, and an abnormal hormonal exposure at the time of testicular differentiation in utero. Furthermore, a familial TGCT susceptibility gene (TGCT1), localized at Xq27, is associated with a higher risk for bilateral tumors and possibly cryptorchidism. The normal tetraploid pattern and the consequent genomic instability of germinal cell DNA are considered sufficient per se for neoplastic transformation. The altered expression of oncogenes and suppressor genes due to nonrandom chromosomal numerical aberrations are involved in the development of IGCNU. Some of these genes are considered responsible for bilaterality, while other genes characterize the similarity between IGCNU cells and PGCs or are involved in the neoplastic transformation, histotype differentiation, and invasivity. In spite of the monomorphic seminomatous appearance of cells in IGCNU, it is becoming increasingly evident that they hide an intrinsic heterogeneity capable of committing neoplastic cells to an embryonal and pluripotent development associated or not with a seminomatous phenotype.

Lutke Holzik MF, Rapley EA, Hoekstra HJ, et al.
Genetic predisposition to testicular germ-cell tumours.
Lancet Oncol. 2004; 5(6):363-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Testicular germ-cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common neoplasm in young men. Various studies have suggested the existence of an inherited predisposition to development of these tumours. Genome-wide screens subsequently provided evidence of a TGCT susceptibility gene on chromosome Xq27 (TGCT1) that might also predispose to cryptorchism. However, this putative gene has yet to be identified, and other TGCT susceptibility genes probably exist. Completion of the human gene map and advances in genetic research will facilitate further investigation of genetic predisposition to TGCT. Insight into inheritance of TGCT might lead to the identification of individuals at increased risk of developing the disorder, increase our understanding of the mutation pathways that lead to sporadic cases, and contribute to improvement in diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians should record the family history of cancer and urogenital differentiation defects in patients with TGCT.

Rapley EA, Crockford GP, Easton DF, et al.
Localisation of susceptibility genes for familial testicular germ cell tumour.
APMIS. 2003; 111(1):128-33; discussion 33-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 1700 men in the United Kingdom develop testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) per year. Among the known risk factors a family history of disease remains one of the strongest (1, 2). Two-percent of TGCT cases report another affected family member. Epidemiological studies have shown that there is an eight to ten fold increase in relative risk of TGCT to brothers of patients and a fourfold increased risk to fathers and sons (2-5). This relative risk is considerably higher than for most other common cancers, which rarely exceeds four and strongly suggests that genes may play an important role in TGCT. Linkage analysis of the set of families compatible with X-linkage (i.e. no male to male transmission) provided the first statistically significant evidence for a TGCT predisposition locus (6). The gene called TGCT1 is located at Xq27 and seems to be associated with a risk of bilateral disease and undescended testis. However TGCT1 does not account for all TGCT pedigrees and additional susceptibility genes must exist. Our group has now genotyped 179 TGCT pedigrees and identified additional genomic regions that might also harbour TGCT susceptibility genes. This paper reviews the current data for the region at Xq27 and presents evidence for several other possible candidate regions.

Kawakami T, Okamoto K, Sugihara H, et al.
The roles of supernumerical X chromosomes and XIST expression in testicular germ cell tumors.
J Urol. 2003; 169(4):1546-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: An overabundance of X chromosomes in testicular germ cell tumors and the identification of the candidate testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility gene TGCT1 on Xq27 highlight the potential involvement of X chromosomes in testicular germ cell tumor pathogenesis. The current study was designed to shed light on the question whether the multiple X chromosomes in testicular germ cell tumor are active or inactive through a complex mechanism of X chromosomal gain and XIST expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 4 testicular germ cell tumor derived cell lines and 20 primary testicular germ cell tumor tissues. The number of X chromosomes was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the X chromosome specific probe. The expression patterns of XIST and the 3 X-linked genes androgen receptor (AR), fragile X mental retardation (FMR1 ) and Glypican 3 (GPC3 ) were studied by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Bisulfite genomic sequencing was used to analyze the methylation patterns of the AR, FMR1 and GPC3 genes. The relative expression levels of the 2 X-linked proto-oncogenes ARAF1 and ELK1 were assayed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: XIST expression was common in seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (2 of 2 or 100% of seminoma derived cell lines and 10 of 12 or 83% of seminomatous testicular germ cell tumor tissues) but not in nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (0 of 2 or 0% nonseminoma derived cell lines and 2 of 8 or 25% of nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumor tissues). However, X chromosomal gain was consistently observed in the 2 types of tumors. XIST expression in testicular germ cell tumors and normal testicular parenchyma was not associated with methylation of the AR, FMR1 or GPC3 genes. After determining the expression patterns of AR, FMR1 and GPC3 in testicular germ cell tumor samples we concluded that multiple X chromosomes in testicular germ cell tumors were predominantly hypomethylated and active regardless of XIST expression. The biological significance of excess active X chromosomes in testicular germ cell tumors was suggested by enhanced expression of the 2 X-linked oncogenes ARAF1 and ELK1 in the testicular germ cell tumor derived cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: The current data may suggest the potential oncogenic implications of X chromosomal gain in testicular germ cell tumors.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TGCT1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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