It usually takes many years to develop new treatments; the scientific process typically has 4 tightly controlled steps before a new therapy can become widely used:
a. Basic Lab Based Research
b. Phase I Clinical Trials
c. Phase II Clinical Trials
d. Phase III Clinical Trials
Also, epidemiological (population based) research includes monitoring trends in cancer incidence and mortality, identifying the causes of cancer, and studies in cancer prevention.
Research depends on the goodwill and participation of people with cancer.
UK Research Organisations
There are a large number of national and local organisations involved in cancer research in the UK. Most of the Government financed clinical research is done by the Medical Research Council. However, most cancer research is funded by independent
charities; two of the largest and best known national charities involved in research are Cancer Research UK (this was formed in 2002 following the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and Imperial Cancer Research Fund) and The Leukaemia Research Fund.
There are many, many more charitable organisations involved in cancer research, including those related to one particular type of cancer, locality or particular hospital. Much of the cancer research in the UK is co-ordinated by the National Cancer Research
Network (clinical) and the National Transitional Cancer Research Network (basic science).
Many of the research organisations are listed in this site under;