Research IndicatorsGraph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (1)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: NKTR (cancer-related)
Orr B, Riddick AC, Stewart GD, et al.Identification of stromally expressed molecules in the prostate by tag-profiling of cancer-associated fibroblasts, normal fibroblasts and fetal prostate.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(9):1130-42 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The stromal microenvironment has key roles in prostate development and cancer, and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) stimulate tumourigenesis via several mechanisms including the expression of pro-tumourigenic factors. Mesenchyme (embryonic stroma) controls prostate organogenesis, and in some circumstances can re-differentiate prostate tumours. We have applied next-generation Tag profiling to fetal human prostate, normal human prostate fibroblasts (NPFs) and CAFs to identify molecules expressed in prostatic stroma. Comparison of gene expression profiles of a patient-matched pair of NPFs vs CAFs identified 671 transcripts that were enriched in CAFs and 356 transcripts whose levels were decreased, relative to NPFs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that CAF-enriched transcripts were associated with prostate morphogenesis and CAF-depleted transcripts were associated with cell cycle. We selected mRNAs to follow-up by comparison of our data sets with published prostate cancer fibroblast microarray profiles as well as by focusing on transcripts encoding secreted and peripheral membrane proteins, as well as mesenchymal transcripts identified in a previous study from our group. We confirmed differential transcript expression between CAFs and NPFs using QrtPCR, and defined protein localization using immunohistochemistry in fetal prostate, adult prostate and prostate cancer. We demonstrated that ASPN, CAV1, CFH, CTSK, DCN, FBLN1, FHL1, FN, NKTR, OGN, PARVA, S100A6, SPARC, STC1 and ZEB1 proteins showed specific and varied expression patterns in fetal human prostate and in prostate cancer. Colocalization studies suggested that some stromally expressed molecules were also expressed in subsets of tumour epithelia, indicating that they may be novel markers of EMT. Additionally, two molecules (ASPN and STC1) marked overlapping and distinct subregions of stroma associated with tumour epithelia and may represent new CAF markers.
Overexpression of the centrosome-associated serine/threonine kinase Aurora Kinase A (AURKA) has been demonstrated in both advanced prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. The single-nucleotide polymorphism T91A (Phe31Ile) has been implicated in AURKA overexpression and has been suggested as a low-penetrance susceptibility allele in multiple human cancers, including prostate cancer. We studied the transcriptional consequences of the AURKA Ile31 allele in 28 commercial normal prostate tissue RNA samples (median age, 27 years). Significant overexpression of AURKA was demonstrated in homozygous and heterozygous AURKA Ile31 prostate RNA (2.07-fold and 1.93-fold, respectively; P < .05). Expression levels of 1509 genes differentiated between samples homozygous for Phe31 alleles and samples homozygous for Ile31 alleles (P = .05). Gene Ontology classification revealed overrepresentation of cell cycle arrest, ubiquitin cycle, antiapoptosis, and angiogenesis-related genes. When these hypothesis-generating results were subjected to more stringent statistical criteria, overexpression of a novel transcript of the natural killer tumor recognition sequence (NKTR) gene was revealed and validated in homozygous Ile31 samples (2.6-fold; P < .05). In summary, our data suggest an association between the AURKA Ile31 allele and an altered transcriptome in normal non-neoplastic prostates.
Comtesse N, Zippel A, Walle S, et al.Complex humoral immune response against a benign tumor: frequent antibody response against specific antigens as diagnostic targets.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102(27):9601-6 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There are numerous studies on the immune response against malignant human tumors. This study was aimed to address the complexity and specificity of humoral immune response against a benign human tumor. We assembled a panel of 62 meningioma-expressed antigens that show reactivity with serum antibodies of meningioma patients, including 41 previously uncharacterized antigens by screening of a fetal brain expression library. We tested the panel for reactivity with 48 sera, including sera of patients with common-type, atypical, and anaplastic meningioma, respectively. Meningioma sera detected an average of 14.6 antigens per serum and normal sera an average of 7.8 antigens per serum (P = 0.0001). We found a decline of seroreactivity with malignancy with a statistical significant difference between common-type and anaplastic meningioma (P < 0.05). We detected 17 antigens exclusively with patient sera, including 12 sera that were reactive against KIAA1344, 9 against natural killer tumor recognition (NKTR), and 7 against SRY (sex determining region Y)-box2 (SOX2). More than 80% of meningioma patients had antibodies against at least one of the antigens KIAA1344, SC65, SOX2, and C6orf153. Our results show a highly complex but specific humoral immune response against a benign tumor with a distinct serum reactivity pattern and a decline of complexity with malignancy. The frequent antibody response against specific antigens offers new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for meningioma. We developed a statistical learning method to differentiate sera of meningioma patients from sera of healthy donors.
Shew JY, Chen PL, Bookstein R, et al.Deletion of a splice donor site ablates expression of the following exon and produces an unphosphorylated RB protein unable to bind SV40 T antigen.
Cell Growth Differ. 1990; 1(1):17-25 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Studies of mutated retinoblastoma (RB) proteins in human tumor cells potentially reveal regions of the normal RB gene product that are required for its cancer suppression function. We here characterize a mutated RB protein of Mr 104,000 (p104) from a primary small-cell lung carcinoma. Unlike normal RB protein (pp110RB), p104 was unphosphorylated and unable to bind T antigen of SV40 both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, nuclear localization and DNA binding activity were preserved in the mutated protein. p104 was immunoprecipitable with four separate polyclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of the RB polypeptide, suggesting the presence of most exons in their correct reading frame. Following reverse transcription and in vitro amplification, RB mRNA from this tumor was shown to lack nucleotides encoded by exon 16. Analysis of genomic DNA from this tumor showed that exon 16 and its flanking splice donor and acceptor sequences were present and entirely normal; however, a 43-base pair (bp) region containing the splice donor site of intron 15 was deleted instead. Exon 15 was joined directly to exon 17 during mRNA processing via a cryptic splice donor site; exon 16 was presumably skipped because the preceding mutated intron was of insufficient length (less than 80 bp) for normal RB mRNA processing. These results demonstrate that loss of a single small exon disrupts several important biochemical properties of RB protein. In addition, sequence features of the 43-bp depletion suggest involvement of a novel deletional mechanism.