Gene Summary

Gene:NKTR; natural killer cell triggering receptor
Aliases: p104
Summary:This gene encodes a membrane-anchored protein with a hydrophobic amino terminal domain and a cyclophilin-like PPIase domain. It is present on the surface of natural killer cells and facilitates their binding to targets. Its expression is regulated by IL2 activation of the cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:NK-tumor recognition protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • NKTR
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Staging
  • Cultured Cells
  • Hormone-Dependent Cancers
  • Aurora Kinase A
  • Chromosome 3
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Prostate
  • Androgens
  • Signal Transduction
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Transcription
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Aurora Kinases
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Protein Transport
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Transcriptome
  • Thy-1 Antigens
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Lung
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Alleles
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cadherins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Base Sequence
  • RT-PCR
  • Lung Cancer
  • Proteome
  • Mitosis
  • Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NKTR (cancer-related)

Wang J, Song J, Gao Z, et al.
Analysis of gene expression profiles of non-small cell lung cancer at different stages reveals significantly altered biological functions and candidate genes.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(3):1736-1746 [PubMed] Related Publications
We attempt to dissect the pathology of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at different stages and discover the novel candidate genes. Microarray data (GSE21933) were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differential expression profiles of lung tumor tissues during different stages were analyzed. The significantly altered functions and pathways were assessed and the key nodes in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were screened out. Then, the coexpression gene pairs and tumor-related genes were assessed. RT-PCR analysis was performed to validate the candidate gene, natural killer-tumor recognition sequence (NKTR). The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for stage IB, IIB, IIIA and IV tumors were 499, 602, 592 and 457, respectively. Most of the DEGs were NSCLC-related genes identified through literature research. A few genes were commonly downregulated in all the 4 stages of tumors, such as CNTN6 and LBX2. The DEGs in early‑stage tumors were closely related with the negative regulation of signal transduction, the apoptosis pathway and the p53 signaling pathway. DEGs in late-stage tumors were significantly enriched in transcription, response to organic substances and synapse regulation-related biological processes. A total of 16 genes (including NKTR) made up the significant coexpression network. NKTR was a key node in the PPI network and was significantly upregulated in lung cancer cells. The mechanism of NSCLC progression in different tumor stages may be different. NKTR may be the target candidate for NSCLC prevention and treatment.

Orr B, Riddick AC, Stewart GD, et al.
Identification of stromally expressed molecules in the prostate by tag-profiling of cancer-associated fibroblasts, normal fibroblasts and fetal prostate.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(9):1130-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The stromal microenvironment has key roles in prostate development and cancer, and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) stimulate tumourigenesis via several mechanisms including the expression of pro-tumourigenic factors. Mesenchyme (embryonic stroma) controls prostate organogenesis, and in some circumstances can re-differentiate prostate tumours. We have applied next-generation Tag profiling to fetal human prostate, normal human prostate fibroblasts (NPFs) and CAFs to identify molecules expressed in prostatic stroma. Comparison of gene expression profiles of a patient-matched pair of NPFs vs CAFs identified 671 transcripts that were enriched in CAFs and 356 transcripts whose levels were decreased, relative to NPFs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that CAF-enriched transcripts were associated with prostate morphogenesis and CAF-depleted transcripts were associated with cell cycle. We selected mRNAs to follow-up by comparison of our data sets with published prostate cancer fibroblast microarray profiles as well as by focusing on transcripts encoding secreted and peripheral membrane proteins, as well as mesenchymal transcripts identified in a previous study from our group. We confirmed differential transcript expression between CAFs and NPFs using QrtPCR, and defined protein localization using immunohistochemistry in fetal prostate, adult prostate and prostate cancer. We demonstrated that ASPN, CAV1, CFH, CTSK, DCN, FBLN1, FHL1, FN, NKTR, OGN, PARVA, S100A6, SPARC, STC1 and ZEB1 proteins showed specific and varied expression patterns in fetal human prostate and in prostate cancer. Colocalization studies suggested that some stromally expressed molecules were also expressed in subsets of tumour epithelia, indicating that they may be novel markers of EMT. Additionally, two molecules (ASPN and STC1) marked overlapping and distinct subregions of stroma associated with tumour epithelia and may represent new CAF markers.

Matarasso N, Bar-Shira A, Rozovski U, et al.
Functional analysis of the Aurora Kinase A Ile31 allelic variant in human prostate.
Neoplasia. 2007; 9(9):707-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of the centrosome-associated serine/threonine kinase Aurora Kinase A (AURKA) has been demonstrated in both advanced prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. The single-nucleotide polymorphism T91A (Phe31Ile) has been implicated in AURKA overexpression and has been suggested as a low-penetrance susceptibility allele in multiple human cancers, including prostate cancer. We studied the transcriptional consequences of the AURKA Ile31 allele in 28 commercial normal prostate tissue RNA samples (median age, 27 years). Significant overexpression of AURKA was demonstrated in homozygous and heterozygous AURKA Ile31 prostate RNA (2.07-fold and 1.93-fold, respectively; P < .05). Expression levels of 1509 genes differentiated between samples homozygous for Phe31 alleles and samples homozygous for Ile31 alleles (P = .05). Gene Ontology classification revealed overrepresentation of cell cycle arrest, ubiquitin cycle, antiapoptosis, and angiogenesis-related genes. When these hypothesis-generating results were subjected to more stringent statistical criteria, overexpression of a novel transcript of the natural killer tumor recognition sequence (NKTR) gene was revealed and validated in homozygous Ile31 samples (2.6-fold; P < .05). In summary, our data suggest an association between the AURKA Ile31 allele and an altered transcriptome in normal non-neoplastic prostates.

Comtesse N, Zippel A, Walle S, et al.
Complex humoral immune response against a benign tumor: frequent antibody response against specific antigens as diagnostic targets.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102(27):9601-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There are numerous studies on the immune response against malignant human tumors. This study was aimed to address the complexity and specificity of humoral immune response against a benign human tumor. We assembled a panel of 62 meningioma-expressed antigens that show reactivity with serum antibodies of meningioma patients, including 41 previously uncharacterized antigens by screening of a fetal brain expression library. We tested the panel for reactivity with 48 sera, including sera of patients with common-type, atypical, and anaplastic meningioma, respectively. Meningioma sera detected an average of 14.6 antigens per serum and normal sera an average of 7.8 antigens per serum (P = 0.0001). We found a decline of seroreactivity with malignancy with a statistical significant difference between common-type and anaplastic meningioma (P < 0.05). We detected 17 antigens exclusively with patient sera, including 12 sera that were reactive against KIAA1344, 9 against natural killer tumor recognition (NKTR), and 7 against SRY (sex determining region Y)-box2 (SOX2). More than 80% of meningioma patients had antibodies against at least one of the antigens KIAA1344, SC65, SOX2, and C6orf153. Our results show a highly complex but specific humoral immune response against a benign tumor with a distinct serum reactivity pattern and a decline of complexity with malignancy. The frequent antibody response against specific antigens offers new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for meningioma. We developed a statistical learning method to differentiate sera of meningioma patients from sera of healthy donors.

Shew JY, Chen PL, Bookstein R, et al.
Deletion of a splice donor site ablates expression of the following exon and produces an unphosphorylated RB protein unable to bind SV40 T antigen.
Cell Growth Differ. 1990; 1(1):17-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies of mutated retinoblastoma (RB) proteins in human tumor cells potentially reveal regions of the normal RB gene product that are required for its cancer suppression function. We here characterize a mutated RB protein of Mr 104,000 (p104) from a primary small-cell lung carcinoma. Unlike normal RB protein (pp110RB), p104 was unphosphorylated and unable to bind T antigen of SV40 both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, nuclear localization and DNA binding activity were preserved in the mutated protein. p104 was immunoprecipitable with four separate polyclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of the RB polypeptide, suggesting the presence of most exons in their correct reading frame. Following reverse transcription and in vitro amplification, RB mRNA from this tumor was shown to lack nucleotides encoded by exon 16. Analysis of genomic DNA from this tumor showed that exon 16 and its flanking splice donor and acceptor sequences were present and entirely normal; however, a 43-base pair (bp) region containing the splice donor site of intron 15 was deleted instead. Exon 15 was joined directly to exon 17 during mRNA processing via a cryptic splice donor site; exon 16 was presumably skipped because the preceding mutated intron was of insufficient length (less than 80 bp) for normal RB mRNA processing. These results demonstrate that loss of a single small exon disrupts several important biochemical properties of RB protein. In addition, sequence features of the 43-bp depletion suggest involvement of a novel deletional mechanism.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. NKTR, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/NKTR.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999