Prostate cancer accounts for over a quarter of all cancers in men. The prostate is a small male sex gland located below the bladder, it produces fluid that becomes semen. Prostate cancer occurs mostly in older men, it is rare before the age of 50, and the risk increases with age. There has been an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer since the early 1980's, most likely due to an increased use of screening using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. However, the role as screening for prostate cancer remains controversial. World-wide about 395,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year.
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MeSH term: Prostatic Neoplasms
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Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer: beyond enumeration.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2017; 15(1):63-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patterns of care and survival outcomes of palliative radiation for prostate cancer with bone metastases: comparison of ≤5 fractions to ≥10 fractions.
Ann Palliat Med. 2017; 6(1):55-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 3,871 patients from the NCDB were included in the analysis (patients treated from 2004-2012). The following fractionation regimens were analyzed [8 Gy × 1, 4 Gy × 5 (short course radiation therapy)], were compared to 3 Gy × 10, 2.50 Gy × 14-15 and 2 Gy × 20-30 (long course radiation therapy). Descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and multivariable cox regression analysis were utilized to assess the data.
RESULTS: Longer fractionation schemes were used for 91.7% of patients. Treatment at an academic center (OR, 2.93), increasing distance from treatment center (OR, 1.48-1.59), treatment to the ribs (OR, 2.47), and year of diagnosis 2009 or later (OR, 2.31-3.26) were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving short course radiation, while treatment to the spine (OR, 0.34) was associated with a decreased likelihood of short course radiation. On multivariable analysis, longer course of radiation was associated with increased overall survival (HR =0.66; 95% CI: 0.56-0.78, P<0.001.). However, on landmark analysis this difference disappeared once limiting the survival analysis to men who survived ≥18 months [HR =0.83; 95% CI: 0.62-1.11, P=0.21].
CONCLUSIONS: Fractionation schemes of ≥10 treatments remain the dominant palliative course of radiation therapy offered for metastatic prostate cancer. However, utilization of ≤5 fractions is slowly increasing, particularly at academic centers.
Anti-tumor effects of a recombinant anti-prostate specific membrane antigen immunotoxin against prostate cancer cells.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We established a novel fusion gene, immunocasp-3, composed of NH2-terminal leader sequence fused with an anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) antibody (J591), the furin cleavage sequences of diphtheria toxin (Fdt), and the reverse coding sequences of the large and small subunits of caspase-3 (revcaspase-3). The expressing level of the immunocasp-3 gene was evaluated by using the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Cell viability assay and cytotoxicity assay were used to evaluate its anti-tumor effects in vitro. Apoptosis was confirmed by electron microscopy and Annexin V-FITC staining. The antitumor effects of immunocasp-3 were assessed in nude mice xenograft models containing PSMA-overexpressing LNCaP cells.
RESULTS: This study shows that the immunocasp-3 proteins selectively recognized and induced apoptotic death in PSMA-overexpressing LNCaP cells in vitro, where apoptotic cells were present in 15.3% of the cells transfected with the immunocasp-3 expression vector at 48 h after the transfection, in contrast to 5.5% in the control cells. Moreover, LNCaP cells were significantly killed under the condition of the co-culture of the immunocasp-3-secreting Jurkat cells and more than 50% of the LNCaP cells died when the two cell lines were co-cultured within 5 days. In addition, The expression of immunocasp-3 also significantly suppressed tumor growth and greatly prolonged the animal survival rate in vivo.
CONCLUSION: A novel fusion gene, immunocasp-3, may represent a viable approach to treating PSMA-positive prostate cancer.
Targeting Prostate Cancer with a Combination of WNT Inhibitors and a Bi-functional Peptide.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):555-559 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bi-functional peptide (TP-LYT) was designed with a target domain (LTVSPWY) and a lytic domain (KLAKLAK)2, and a second peptide with the same lytic domain but a random sequence instead of the target domain was used as a negative control. Two different WNT inhibitors were used, ethacrynic acid and ciclopiroxolamine. They were tested on prostate cancer cells using the WST-8 assay.
RESULTS: A synergistic effect of peptides and WNT inhibitors was demonstrated, increasing the toxicity against cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings potentially allow safer treatment since lower concentrations of WNT inhibitors can be used in combination with this bi-functional peptide.
Purinergic Receptor Expression and Cellular Responses to Purinergic Agonists in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):529-537 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PCa cell lines representing different stages of PCa were used. The effects of ATP and adenosine on PCa growth and migration on different extracellular matrix proteins were examined by MTT and wound-healing assays. Purinergic receptor profiling was carried out by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
RESULTS: A growth-inhibitory effect of ATP and adenosine was observed on all PCa cell lines tested. Several ATP-recognized P2 receptors and adenosine receptors were commonly expressed in PCa cell lines. Neither ATP nor adenosine had any significant effect on PCa migration.
CONCLUSION: ATP and adenosine had an antiproliferative effect on PCa cells without affecting their motility, indicating their potential as a novel therapy for PCa.
Prostate Transglutaminase (TGase-4) Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):481-487 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of PCa cell lines: CA-HPV-10, PZ-HPV-7, PC-3 and DU-145 were used. An anti-TGase-4 transgene was constructed to eliminate the expression of TGase-4 in CA-HPV-10 (positive for TGase-4). An expression construct for human TGase-4 was used to transfect PCa cells negative for TGase-4. The pattern of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin in these cells were evaluated using immunofluorescent staining. Cell motility was assessed using scratch wounding and ekectric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) assays.
RESULTS: Treatment of PZ-HPV-7 and CA-HPV-10 cells with rhTGase-4 resulted in a significant increase in cell migration (1,407.9 Ω±6.4 Ω vs. 1,691.2 Ω±8.3 Ω in non-treated and rhTGase-4 treated cells, respectively, p<0.01). Cells strongly expressing E-cadherin showed substantial changes of E-cadherin staining in that, after treatment with TGase-4, the intercellular staining of E-cadherin was diminished. Concomitantly, there was acquisition of N-cadherin in TGase-4-treated cells. Elimination of TGase-4 from CA-HPV-10 cells significantly decreased cell motility (128.1 Ω±107.4 Ω vs. 31.7 Ω±26.2 Ω, in CA-HPV-10 control and CA-HPV-10/TGase-4 knockout cells). Knocking- out TGase-4 from CA-HPV-10 cells also resulted in substantial loss of N-cadherin in the cells.
CONCLUSION: TGase-4 resulted in loss of E-cadherin/acquisition of N-cadherin and cell migration indicating it is a keen regulator of EMT in prostate epithelia-derived cancer cells. In concert with its other properties involved in disease progression, the present observations suggest TGase-4 as a prospective marker of disease progression.
Italian Prostate Biopsies Group: 2016 Updated Guidelines Insights.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):413-424 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the new data emerging from 2012-2015 was performed by a panel of 14 selected Italian experts in urology, pathology and radiology. The experts collected articles published in the English-language literature by performing a search using Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library database. The articles were evaluated using a systematic weighting and grading of the level of the evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework system.
RESULTS: An initial prostate biopsy is strongly recommended when i) prostate specific antigen (PSA) >10 ng/ml, ii) digital rectal examination is abnormal, iii) multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has a Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) ≥4, even if it is not recommended. The use of mpMRI is strongly recommended only in patients with previous negative biopsy. At least 12 cores should be taken in each patient plus targeted (fusion or cognitive) biopsies of suspicious area (at mpMRI or transrectal ultrasound). Saturation biopsies are optional in all settings. The optimal strategy for reducing infection complications is still a controversial topic and the instruments to reduce them are actually weak. The adoption of Gleason grade groups in adjunction to the Gleason score when reporting prostate biopsy results is advisable.
CONCLUSION: These updated guidelines and recommendations are intended to assist physicians and patients in the decision-making regarding when and how to perform a prostatic biopsy.
High Levels of Medical Mistrust Are Associated With Low Quality of Life Among Black and White Men With Prostate Cancer.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):72-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 877 men (415 black, 462 white) with prostate cancer between the ages of 40 to 81 years who entered the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry during the years 2007 and 2008 were retrospectively recruited. The dependent variable was overall QOL measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate questionnaire. The primary independent variable was medical mistrust. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the association between medical mistrust and overall QOL.
RESULTS: Compared with white men, black men reported a higher level of medical mistrust (black = 2.7, white = 2.4; P < .001) and lower QOL (black = 134.4, white = 139.5; P < 0.001). After controlling for demographical and clinical variables, higher levels of medical mistrust were associated with a reduction in overall QOL among men with prostate cancer (beta = -7.73; standard error = 1.54) CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of medical mistrust are associated with reduced overall QOL among black and white men with prostate cancer. Interventions targeted to reduce medical mistrust may be effective in increasing the overall QOL of men with prostate cancer.
Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk: A MOOSE-compliant meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e5944 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radiation with or without Antiandrogen Therapy in Recurrent Prostate Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2017; 376(5):417-428 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms in key hypoxia-regulated downstream molecules and phenotypic correlation in prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Representative areas of prostate carcinoma (n = 51) and of nodular prostate hyperplasia (n = 20) were analysed for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), lysyl oxidase (LOX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR2) immunohistochemistry expression using a tissue microarray. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and used to genotype functional polymorphisms at the corresponding genes (HIF1A +1772 C > T, rs11549465; CA9 + 201 A > G; rs2071676; LOX +473 G > A, rs1800449; KDR - 604 T > C, rs2071559).
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry analyses disclosed predominance of positive CAIX and VEGFR2 expression in epithelial cells of prostate carcinomas compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.043 and P = 0.035, respectively). In addition, the VEGFR2 expression score in prostate epithelial cells was higher in organ-confined and extra prostatic carcinoma compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.031 and P = 0.004, respectively). Notably, for LOX protein the immunoreactivity score was significantly higher in organ-confined carcinomas compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.015). The genotype-phenotype analyses showed higher LOX staining intensity for carriers of the homozygous LOX +473 G-allele (P = 0.011). Still, carriers of the KDR-604 T-allele were more prone to have higher VEGFR2 expression in prostate epithelial cells (P < 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression of hypoxia markers (VEGFR2, CAIX and LOX) on prostate epithelial cells was different between malignant and benign prostate disease. Two genetic polymorphisms (LOX +473 G > A and KDR-604 T > C) were correlated with protein level, accounting for a potential gene-environment effect in the activation of hypoxia-driven pathways in prostate carcinoma. Further research in larger series is warranted to validate present findings.
Risk and preventive factors for prostate cancer in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective (JPHC) study.
J Epidemiol. 2017; 27(1):2-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate MR Imaging: An Update.
Radiol Clin North Am. 2017; 55(2):303-320 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytotoxic Effects of the Therapeutic Radionuclide Rhenium-188 Combined with Taxanes in Human Prostate Carcinoma Cell Lines.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2017; 32(1):16-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of single and combined treatment with taxanes and (188)Re were investigated in three human prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC-3, DU 145, and LNCaP), using the colony-forming assay. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of all individual agents was determined. The combined treatment was studied at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 times the EC50 of each agent. The interaction was investigated with a regression model.
RESULTS: The survival curves showed dose-dependent cell growth inhibition for both the taxanes and (188)Re. The regression model showed a good capability of explaining the data. It proved additivity in all combination experiments and confirmed a general trend to a slight subadditive effect.
CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-mechanism study exploring radiosensitization by combining (188)Re and taxanes showed no synergism, but significant additivity. This encourages the design of in vivo studies. Future research should explore the potential added value of concomitant treatment of bone metastases with chemotherapy and (188)Re-HEDP.
Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy: What Do Clinicians Have to Know?
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6829875 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The immune infiltrate in prostate, bladder and testicular tumors: An old friend for new challenges.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 53:138-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinicopathological study of 9 cases of prostate cancer involving the rectal wall.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: Out of 9504 patients with rectal tumors between January 2003 and January 2015, 9 patients (elderly with a mean age of 74 years) with prostate cancer involving the rectal wall were clinically misdiagnosed with rectal cancer. The lesions were located in the rectum, and included 3 circumferential rectal masses, 1 ulceration lesion, 1 crater-like mass, and 4 protruding lesions. Specimens were acquired using biopsy, fine needle aspiration, or resection. The initial symptoms of these patients included rectal urgency, bowel obstruction, and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Prostate-related symptoms were not obvious. Histologically, 2 cases showed cancer cell invasion in the mucosa, 1 showed transmural invasion from the mucosa to subserosal soft tissues, and 7 cases had submucosa and muscularis propria involvement. All the 9 cases had muscularis propria involvement. However, there were no intraepithelial neoplasias in the mucosal layer, which is reminiscent of rectal carcinoma. The tumors consisted of small-sized or foamy cells that formed acinus-like, duct-like, and cribriform-like structures. We conducted histological staining and an immunohistochemical analysis for CDX-2, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), P504s, villin, carcinoembryonic antigen, CK-pan, cytokeratin 20, and Ki-67. All tumors were PSA and CK-pan positive, 5 of 9 tumors were P504s-positive, and all tumors were negative for the other markers. All patients underwent standard therapy for prostate cancer after the definitive pathological diagnosis. As of March 31, 2015, 8 patients were alive and 1 had died of prostate cancer 6 months posttreatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Adenocarcinoma appearing in the rectal wall is not always rectal carcinoma. It is necessary to perform a differential diagnosis for prostate cancer in cases of rectal malignant tumors in elderly male patients. Any treatment should be postponed until the final definitive diagnosis is reached.
Magnolin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:714-720 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used cell culture and the BALB/c nu/nu mouse xenograft model to investigate whether or not magnolin can inhibit the growth of PC3 and Du145 prostate cancer cells. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to estimate the proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis of the cells in vitro. Clone formation assay was also conducted. In the animal study, Ki-67 immunostaining and TUNEL assay were carried out to evaluate cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. To elucidate the possible mechanism by which magnolin attenuates prostate cancer cell growth, we estimated the expression levels of Akt/p-Akt, P53, P21, BCL-2, and cleaved Caspase3 by using Western blot 48h after magnolin-treatment of the cells.
RESULTS: Magnolin inhibited the proliferation and viability of the tumor cells by triggering cell cycle arrest via P53/P21 activation and inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Magnolin downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt protein kinase and upregulated cleaved Caspase3 during anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Magnolin may be a novel medicine for prostate cancer therapy.
Changes in the Level of Circulating hsa-miR-297 and hsa-miR-19b-3p miRNA Are Associated with Generalization of Prostate Cancer.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017; 162(3):379-382 [PubMed] Related Publications
The addition of a sagittal image fusion improves the prostate cancer detection in a sensor-based MRI /ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: During July 2013 and September 2015, 251 patients with at least one suspicious lesion on mpMRI (rated by PI-RADS) were included into the analysis. All patients underwent MRI/US targeted biopsy (TB) in combination with a 10 core systematic prostate biopsy (SB). All biopsies were performed on a sensor-based fusion system. Group A included 162 men who received TB by an axial MRI/US image fusion. Group B comprised 89 men in whom the TB was performed with an additional sagittal image fusion.
RESULTS: The median age in group A was 67 years (IQR 61-72) and in group B 68 years (IQR 60-71). The median PSA level in group A was 8.10 ng/ml (IQR 6.05-14) and in group B 8.59 ng/ml (IQR 5.65-12.32). In group A the proportion of patients with a suspicious digital rectal examination (DRE) (14 vs. 29%, p = 0.007) and the proportion of primary biopsies (33 vs 46%, p = 0.046) were significantly lower. The rate of PI-RADS 3 lesions were overrepresented in group A compared to group B (19 vs. 9%; p = 0.044). Classified according to PI-RADS 3, 4 and 5, the detection rates of TB were 42, 48, 75% in group A and 25, 74, 90% in group B. The rate of PCa with a Gleason score ≥7 missed by TB was 33% (18 cases) in group A and 9% (5 cases) in group B; p-value 0.072. An explorative multivariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that PI-RADS, a suspicious DRE and performing an additional sagittal image fusion were significant predictors for PCa detection in TB. 9 PCa were only detected by TB with sagittal fusion (sTB) and sTB identified 10 additional clinically significant PCa (Gleason ≥7).
CONCLUSION: Performing an additional sagittal image fusion besides the standard axial fusion appears to improve the accuracy of the sensor-based MRI/US fusion platform.
Quality of life and functional outcome after infravesical desobstruction and HIFU treatment for localized prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: One hundred thirty-one patients, treated with TURP and HIFU in a single institution were followed up for oncological and functional outcome. Oncological outcome was quantified by biochemical recurrence free survival using the Stuttgart and Phoenix criteria. Quality of life was assessed by usage of standardized QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 questionnaires. In addition, functional questionnaires such as IPSS and IIEF-5 were used. Complications were assessed by the Clavien-Dindo classification.
RESULTS: One hundred thirty-one patients with a mean age of 72.8 years (SD: 6.0) underwent HIFU for prostate cancer (29.0% low risk, 58.8% intermediate risk, 12.2% high risk). PSA nadir was 0.6 ng/ml (SD: 1.2) after a mean of 4.6 months (SD: 5.7). Biochemical recurrence free survival defined by Stuttgart criteria was 73.7%, 84.4% and 62.5% for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients after 22.2 months. Complications were grouped according to Clavien-Dindo and occurred in 10.7% (grade II) and 11.5% (grade IIIa) of cases. 35.1% of patients needed further treatment for bladder neck stricture. Regarding incontinence, 14.3%, 2.9% and 0% of patients had de novo urinary incontinence grade I°, II° and III° and 3.8% urge incontinence due to HIFU treatment. Patients were asked for the ability to have intercourse: 15.8%, 58.6% and 66.7% of patients after non-, onesided and bothsided nervesparing procedure were able to obtain sufficient erection for intercourse, respectively. Regarding quality of life, mean global health score according to QLQ-C30 was 69.4%.
CONCLUSION: HIFU treatment for localized prostate cancer shows acceptable oncological safety. Quality of life after HIFU is better than in the general population and ranges within those of standard treatment options compared to literature. HIFU seems a safe valuable treatment alternative for patients not suitable for standard treatment.
Screening the key microRNAs and transcription factors in prostate cancer based on microRNA functional synergistic relationships.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5679 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Showing Intense Tracer Uptake on PSMA PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med. 2017; 42(3):200-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Knockdown of FOXR2 suppresses the tumorigenesis, growth and metastasis of prostate cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:471-475 [PubMed] Related Publications
Effects of circadian rhythms and treatment times on the response of radiotherapy for painful bone metastases.
Ann Palliat Med. 2017; 6(1):14-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Patients who received radiation treatment to painful bone metastases from January 2000 to December 2010 were included in our analysis. Demographic and treatment information including performance status, primary site, treatment dose and fraction, and response were collected prospectively. Treatment times were extracted from patient medical records. Patients were allocated to 8:00 AM-11:00 AM, 11:01 AM-2:00 PM, or 2:01 PM-5:00 PM cohorts based on their treatment times. To compare treatment response between the three cohorts, the Fisher exact test was used. A two-sided P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analysis was repeated with males and females separately.
RESULTS: A total of 194 patients were included. The median age was 68 years and 55.5% of patients responded to treatment. The dose and fraction of radiation received differed significantly between treatment cohorts using all allocation methods. Females in the 11:01 AM-2:00 PM cohort exhibited a significantly higher response rate (P=0.02) and differing proportions of response types (P=0.03) compared to the 8:00 AM- 11:00 AM and 2:01 PM-5:00 PM cohorts when allocated using all treatment times. No significant differences in response were seen between cohorts when all patients were analysed together or analysed for males only.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment time may affect response in female patients receiving radiotherapy for painful bone metastases. Subsequent chronotherapy studies in radiation should investigate these gender differences.
Sipuleucel-T and Androgen Receptor-Directed Therapy for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
J Immunol Res. 2016; 2016:4543861 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Level of education and mortality after radical prostatectomy.
Asian J Androl. 2017 Mar-Apr; 19(2):173-177 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Strong cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci for the genes encoding SNHG5 and PEX6.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5793 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and noncancerous tissue in the peripheral zone and central gland using the quantitative parameters of DCE-MRI: A meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5715 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: A search was conducted of the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases from January 2000 to October 2015 using the search terms "prostate cancer," " dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)," "magnetic resonance imaging," "K," "Kep," and "Ve." Studies were selected and included according to strict eligibility criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare K, Kep, and Ve values between PCa and noncancerous tissue.
RESULTS: Fourteen studies representing 484 patients highly suspicious for prostate adenocarcinoma were selected for the meta-analysis. We found that K values measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were significantly higher in PCa tissue than in noncancerous tissue in the PZ (SMD 1.57, 95% CI 0.98-2.16; z = 5.21, P <0.00001) and CG (SMD 1.19, 95% CI 0.46-1.91; z = 3.21, P = 0.001). Kep values measured by DCE-MRI were significantly higher in PCa than in noncancerous tissue in the PZ (SMD 1.41, 95% CI 0.92-1.91; z = 5.59, P < 0.00001) and CG (SMD 1.57, 95% CI 0.69-2.46; z = 3.49, P = 0.0005). Ve values generated by DCE-MRI were slightly higher in PCa than in noncancerous tissue in the PZ (SMD 0.72, 95% CI 0.17-1.27; z = 2.58, P = 0.010), but sensitivity analysis found that the Ve value was unstable for differentiation between PCa and noncancerous PZ tissue. However, there was no significant difference in the Ve value between PCa and noncancerous CG tissue (SMD -0.29, 95% CI -1.18, 0.59; z = 0.65, P = 0.51).
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis shows that K and Kep were the most reliable parameters for differentiating PCa from noncancerous tissue and were critical for evaluation of the internal structure of cancer. The Ve value was not helpful for distinguishing PCa from noncancerous CG tissue; its ability to distinguish between PCa and noncancerous PZ tissue remains uncertain.
Cerebellar Metastases From Prostate Cancer on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med. 2017; 42(3):193-194 [PubMed] Related Publications