Prostate cancer accounts for over a quarter of all cancers in men. The prostate is a small male sex gland located below the bladder, it produces fluid that becomes semen. Prostate cancer occurs mostly in older men, it is rare before the age of 50, and the risk increases with age. There has been an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer since the early 1980's, most likely due to an increased use of screening using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. However, the role as screening for prostate cancer remains controversial. World-wide about 395,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year.
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MeSH term: Prostatic Neoplasms
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Reducing Skeletal-Related Events in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Oncology (Williston Park). 2015; 29(6):416-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Significance of microvessel density in prostate cancer core biopsy.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2015; 72(4):317-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The study population included 61 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate carcinoma patients and did not receive chemohormonal, or radiation therapy before surgery. Tumor blocks were immunostained using the endothelial-specific antibody CD31 and subsequently evaluated at x 400 magnification in both biopsies and corresponding prostatectomies.
RESULTS: When comparing microvessel density in core biopsies and corresponding prostatectomies, no statistically significant difference was found (p > 0.1). A statistically significant positive correlation was found when determining correlation between microvessel density (as linear and categorical variable, i.e., with the cut-off value of 48) that was associated with the Gleason score (p < 0.05) and tumor stage (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between microvessel density and preoperative values of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (p > 0.1).
CONCLUSION: Microvessel density can be reliably applied to needle prostate biopsy specimens. Quantification of the microvascular density in biopsies is an accurate pre-operative predictor of tumor stage, discriminating between organ-confined and organ-extending neoplasms.
Nanoemulsion based concomitant delivery of curcumin and etoposide: impact on cross talk between prostate cancer cells and osteoblast during metastasis.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 10(11):3381-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
In-vitro and in-vivo diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer: a review.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 10(10):2747-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in Bulgarian patients with prostate cancer: a pilot study.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(3-4):329-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 53 male patients (mean age 67.0 ± 7.1 years) with clinical suspicion for PCa were enrolled in the study. All patients were subjected to systemic transrectal ultrasound-guided tru-cut prostate biopsies (10 cores at least). Detected tumors were graded using the Gleason grading system. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum levels were measured immunochemically. The 25OHD assay was performed by a validated HPLC-UV method. Other covariates (BMI, age, family history of PCa) were collected by interview at the time of hospitalization. One-way ANOVA with Kruskal Wallis statistics was used for comparison of medians of different parameters. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05.
RESULTS: Significantly lower 25OHD levels were detected in PCa patients compared to those with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) (p < 0.05). Patients with high grade tumors (Gleason score ≥ 7) showed significantly lower 25OHD levels, while those with low grade tumors (Gleason score < 7) revealed better 25OHD status (50.49 vs. 63.17 nmol/L, p < 0.05). A moderate negative correlation between 25OHD levels and the Gleason score was established (Spearman r = -0.46, p < 0.05). Significant seasonal variations in 25OHD levels, both for PCa and BPH patients, were detected (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study shows an association between 25OHD status and classical markers characterizing the severity of PCa. The results might suggest a potential beneficial role of vitamin D for PCa patients. Further prospective studies are needed to strengthen the interrelationships between 25OHD levels and variables related with PCa and to test them for causality.
The need for a personalized approach for prostate cancer management.
BMC Med. 2015; 13:109 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Optimal post-treatment surveillance in cancer survivors: is more really better?
Oncology (Williston Park). 2015; 29(4):230-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
The risk of prostate cancer in pilots: a meta-analysis.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(2):112-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: All studies pertaining to prostate cancer in pilots were retrieved from multiple databases and from a manual search. Any study that assessed the incidence of prostate cancer relative to the incidence in the general population was included regardless of language or size. A random effect model was used to pool relative risks (RR) across studies. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic and I².
RESULTS: Eight studies with a low risk of bias were included in the meta-analysis. Pilots had an increased risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population [RR 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-2.7]. The analysis was associated with substantial heterogeneity (I² = 79%). Several subgroups had significantly increased risk, such as African American pilots (RR 10.00; 95% CI, 5.04-19.86) and military pilots (RR 3.30; 95% CI, 2.03-5.39).
CONCLUSION: Pilots are at least twice as likely to develop prostate cancer compared to the general population. The implications of these findings are important considering the high prevalence of prostate cancer and the large number of pilots in the workforce.
miR-128 modulates chemosensitivity and invasion of prostate cancer cells through targeting ZEB1.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2015; 45(5):474-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The miR-128 expression pattern of prostate cancer cell lines and tissues was detected by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 were measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to find the direct target of miR-128. Furthermore, prostate cancer cells were treated with miR-128 mimic or zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1-siRNA, and then the cells' chemosensitivity and invasion were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and transwell assay, respectively.
RESULTS: We found miR-128 expression obviously decreased in prostate cancer tissues compared with paired normal tissues. Restored miR-128 expression sensitized prostate cancer cells to cisplatin and inhibited the invasion. Furthermore, there was an inverse expression pattern between miR-128 and zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 in prostate cancer cells and tissues, and zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 was identified as a direct target of miR-128 in prostate cancer. Knockdown of zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 expression efficiently sensitized prostate cancer cells to cisplatin and inhibited the invasion. However, ectopic zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 expression impaired the effects of miR-128 on chemosensitivity and invasion in prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-128 functions as a potential cancer suppressor in prostate cancer progression and rational therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer would be developed based on miR-128/zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 axis.
Enhanced Sensitivity to Sunitinib by Inhibition of Akt1 Expression in Human Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells Both In Vitro and In Vivo.
Urology. 2015; 85(5):1215.e1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We initially established PC3 in which the expression vector containing a short hairpin ribonucleic acid targeting Akt1 was introduced (PC3/sh-Akt1). Changes in various phenotypes of PC3/sh-Akt1 after treatment with sunitinib were compared with those of PC3 transfected with control vector alone (PC3/C) both in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: When cultured in the standard medium, in vitro growth of PC3/sh-Akt1 was almost similar to that of PC3/C. However, compared with PC3/C, PC3/sh-Akt1 showed a significantly higher sensitivity to sunitinib, accompanying impaired phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, downregulation of Bcl-2, and upregulation of Bax. In addition, treatment with sunitinib significantly suppressed the migration ability of PC3/sh-Akt1 compared with that of PC3/C. In vivo, administration of sunitinib induced the significantly marked growth inhibition of PC3/sh-Akt1 compared with that of PC3/C, and apoptotic index in PC3/sh-Akt1 tumor in mice treated with sunitinib was significantly greater than that in PC3/C tumor.
CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with Akt1 inhibitor and sunitinib could be a promising therapeutic approach for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Variation of Prostate-specific Antigen Value in Men and Risk of High-grade Prostate Cancer: Analysis of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Study.
Urology. 2015; 85(5):1117-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Data were extracted from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial study data set on all men in the interventional arm, with 2 tests performed in a period of < 2 years and with an initial result of the first test <4 ng/mL. The range of variation between first and second tests was computed. Risks of cancer stratified on Gleason score were computed using logistic regression.
RESULTS: A total of 31,286 men had 2 PSA tests within 2 years and with an initial value < 4 ng/mL. From the first to the second test, the median variation of PSA levels was 3.4% (interquartile range, -15% to +26%). The variation in PSA value was not associated with the delay between the first and the second test (P = .36), age (P = .16), body mass index (P = .41), and race (P = .12). A total of 2,781 prostate cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. Adjusting for age and initial PSA level, the risk of prostate cancer increased linearly with increasing PSA level at the second test, with an odds ratio of 1.079 (95% confidence interval, 1.058-1.101) for each percent increase in PSA level. However, the variation in PSA was not associated with a higher Gleason score (P = .95 for level variations in cancer of Gleason score < 7 vs ≥ 7).
CONCLUSION: Although an increase in PSA level over time is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, this association is not related to more aggressive tumors.
Screening Prostate-specific Antigen Concentration and Prostate Cancer Mortality: The Korean Heart Study.
Urology. 2015; 85(5):1111-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We included 118,665 men in the Korean Heart Study, a large prospective cohort study of participants who voluntarily underwent private health examinations that included PSA-based prostate cancer screening. The baseline visit occurred between January 1994 and December 2004, and follow-up was through December 2011. Deaths from prostate cancer were ascertained from the underlying cause of death from a computerized search of death certificate data from the National Statistical Office in Korea. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association between serum PSA and risk of prostate cancer death adjusting the baseline age, cigarette smoking status, and body mass index.
RESULTS: During 1,381,901 person-years of follow-up, 6036 men died of any cause, and of these, 56 men died of prostate cancer. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for prostate cancer death statistically significantly increased across PSA concentrations (P trend <.0001). The hazard ratio increased 7% per 1-ng/mL increase in PSA. The association between PSA concentration and death from prostate cancer was stronger in younger than in older men and in heavier than leaner men.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, an increased screening PSA level is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death in Korean men. Our findings may have implications for the development of targeted PSA cutpoints for biopsy recommendation.
Adipocyte-derived monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) promotes prostate cancer progression through the induction of MMP-2 activity.
Prostate. 2015; 75(10):1009-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Human pre-adipocytes (HPAds) were cultured and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Conditioned medium (CM) from HPAd cells was obtained using phenol red-free RPMI1640 medium. We performed a cytokine membrane array analysis to detect cytokines in the CM. To characterize the physiological function of MCP-1 in the CM, we performed an MTT-assay, a wound-healing and invasion assay with anti-MCP-1 antibody using three prostate cancer cell lines: DU145, LNCaP, and PC-3. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities were evaluated by gelatin zymography. A qPCR and Western blotting were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-2.
RESULTS: The cytokine membrane array of the CM showed a strong signal of MCP-1compared to the control medium, and we thus focused our attention on MCP-1 in the CM. The CM up-regulated the cancer cell proliferation, and the neutralization by anti-MCP-1 antibody inhibited the proliferative effect of the prostate cancer cell lines. The CM greatly increased the invasive activity in the prostate cancer cell lines, and anti-MCP-1 antibody decreased the invasiveness. Gelatin zymography revealed that the CM markedly enhanced the enzymatic activity of MMP-2, and anti-MCP-1 antibody down-regulated its effect. MMP-2 mRNA expression was undetected and the MMP-2 protein level was unchanged between the control medium and CM in DU145 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1 from adipocytes enhances the growth and invasion activity of prostate cancer cells. The inhibition of MCP-1 derived from adipocytes might be an effective treatment for prostate cancer.
Effect of enzalutamide on health-related quality of life, pain, and skeletal-related events in asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PREVAIL): results from a randomised, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(5):509-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind trial, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive enzalutamide 160 mg/day (n=872) or placebo (n=845) orally. HRQoL was assessed at baseline and during treatment using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and EQ-5D questionnaires. Pain status was assessed at screening, baseline, week 13, and week 25 with the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF). The primary analysis of HRQoL data used a mixed-effects model to test the difference between least square means change from baseline at week 61. We assessed change from baseline, percentage improvement, and time to deterioration in HRQoL and pain, the proportion of patients with a skeletal-related event, and time to first skeletal-related event. Analysis was done on the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01212991.
FINDINGS: Median treatment duration was 16·6 months (IQR 10·1-21·1) in the enzalutamide group and 4·6 months (2·8-9·7) in the placebo group. The mixed-effects model analyses showed significant treatment differences in change from baseline to week 61 with enzalutamide compared with placebo for most FACT-P endpoints and EQ-5D visual analogue scale. Median time to deterioration in FACT-P total score was 11·3 months (95% CI 11·1-13·9) in the enzalutamide group and 5·6 months (5·5-5·6) in the placebo groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0·62 [95% CI 0·54-0·72]; p<0·0001). A significantly greater proportion of patients in the enzalutamide group than in the placebo group reported clinically meaningful improvements in FACT-P total score (327 [40%] of 826 vs 181 [23%] of 790), in EQ-5D utility index (224 [28%] of 812 vs 99 [16%] of 623), and visual analogue scale (218 [27%] of 803 vs 106 of [18%] 603; all p<0·0001). Median time to progression in BPI-SF pain at its worst was 5·7 months (95% CI 5·6-5·7) in the enzalutamide group and 5·6 months (5·4-5·6) in the placebo group (HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·53-0·74]; p<0·0001). Progression of pain at its worst was less common in the enzalutamide group than in the placebo group at week 13 (220 [29%] of 769 vs 257 [42%] of 610; p<0·0001), but not at week 25 (225 [32%] of 705 vs 135 [38%] of 360; p=0·068). 278 (32%) of 872 patients in the enzalutamide group and 309 (37%) of 845 patients in the placebo group had experienced a skeletal-related event by data cutoff. Median time to first skeletal-related events in the enzalutamide group was 31·1 months (95% CI 29·5-not reached) and 31·3 months (95% CI 23·9-not reached) in the placebo group (HR 0·72 [95% CI 0·61-0·84]; p<0·0001).
INTERPRETATION: In addition to improving overall survival relative to placebo, enzalutamide significantly improves patient-related outcomes and delays occurrence of first skeletal-related event in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
FUNDING: Astellas Pharma and Medivation.
Beyond PSA: managing modern therapeutic options in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
South Med J. 2015; 108(4):224-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokine profiling of docetaxel-resistant castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(8):1340-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/04/2016 Related Publications
METHODS: PC3 cells or their docetaxel-resistant subline (PC3Rx) were co-cultured with U937 monocytes, with and without docetaxel treatment, and cytokine levels were measured. The circulating levels of 28 cytokines were measured pre-/post cycle 1 of docetaxel from 55 men with CRPC, and compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response.
RESULTS: PC3Rx-U937 co-culture expressed more cytokines, chiefly markers of alternative macrophage differentiation, compared with PC3-U937 co-culture. Docetaxel treatment enhanced cytokine production by PC3Rx-U937 co-culture, while reducing cytokine levels in PC3-U937. In patients, changes in the levels of seven circulating cytokines (macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC1), interleukin (IL)-1ra, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and IFNγ) after cycle 1 of docetaxel were associated with progressive disease (all P<0.05). The combination of changes in MIC1, IL-4 and IL-6 most strongly predicted PSA response (P=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: In vitro studies suggest docetaxel resistance is mediated, at least in part, by cytokines induced by the interaction between the docetaxel-resistant tumour cells and macrophages. Early changes in circulating cytokine levels were associated with docetaxel resistance in CRPC patients. When considered together, these data suggest a significant role for the inflammatory response and macrophages in the development of docetaxel resistance in CRPC.
The comparison between vitamin d concentration in upper silesia patients with prostate cancer and with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Jan-Mar; 29(1):207-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer incidence in Podkarpackie province in 2002-2011.
Przegl Epidemiol. 2015; 69(1):65-72, 163-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This article aims at analyzing incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in 2002-2011.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis was based on data retrieved from the Podkarpackie Cancer Registry in Rzeszów. A total of 4 263 prostate cancer cases and 2 032 fatal cases were analyzed from the list of orderly arranged patients. Crude and standardized rates of incidence and mortality, cumulative risk and percentage share of prostate cancer out of all cancers were calculated.
RESULTS: Compared to 2002, the number of cases increased by 150.5% in 2011. Cumulative risk rose from 1.8% in 2002 to 4.7% in 2011. Percentage of prostate cancer cases out of all registered cancers increased more than twofold in the analyzed decade. There was a 22.3% increase in the number of fatal cases due to prostate cancer, accompanied by a slight decrease of standardized mortality rate from 13.2/100 000 in 2002 to 12.6/100 000 in 2011. In the analyzed period, 41.8% of patients were diagnosed with locally adavanced prostate cancer.
FGF19 promotes progression of prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2015; 75(10):1092-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The effect of FGF19 on the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of LNCaP and PC3 cells was examined using MTT assay and Western blotting. Serum concentration of FGF19 was measured by ELISA in 209 patients with PCa, and the association between clinicopathological features and the presence of FGF19-positive cells in tissues derived from 155 patients who undergone radical prostatectomy was investigated.
RESULTS: Under androgen-deprived conditions achieved by incubation in medium with FGF19, the expression of N-cadherin in LNCaP cells was enhanced, that of E-cadherin and caspase 3 was suppressed, and the viability of LNCaP and PC3 cells was significantly enhanced. Significantly higher levels of PSA were recorded in the group determined by immunohistochemistry staining to be FGF19-positive (P = 0.0046). The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy was 46.4% in the FGF19-positive group and 70.0% in the FGF19-negative group (P = 0.0027). In multivariate analysis, the presence of FGF19-positive tissues was an independent factor for worse prognosis after radical prostatectomy (P = 0.0052). Serum FGF19 levels in high Gleason grade group were higher than that in low Gleason grade group (P = 0.0009).
CONCLUSIONS: FGF19 might be associated with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy by promoting cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of PCa.
Obesity and Prostate Cancer Risk According to Tumor TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusion Status.
Am J Epidemiol. 2015; 181(9):706-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
Urinary biomarkers for the detection of prostate cancer in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
Prostate. 2015; 75(10):1102-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We measured the expression of 21 candidate mRNA biomarkers using quantitative PCR in urine sediment samples from a cohort of 90 patients with initial diagnosis of HGPIN and a posterior follow up of at least two years. Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to analyze the candidate biomarkers and multiplex models using combinations of these biomarkers.
RESULTS: PSMA, PCA3, PSGR, GOLM, KLK3, CDH1, and SPINK1 behaved as predictors for PCa presence in repeat biopsies. Multiplex models outperformed (AUC = 0.81-0.86) the predictive power of single genes, including the FDA-approved PCA3 (AUC = 0.70). With a fixed sensitivity of 95%, the specificity of our multiplex models was of 41-58%, compared to the 30% of PCA3. The PPV of our models (30-38%) was also higher than the PPV of PCA3 (27%), suggesting that benign cases could be more accurately identified. Applying statistical models, we estimated that 33% to 47% of repeat biopsies could be prevented with a multiplex PCR model, representing an easy applicable and significant advantage over the current gold standard in urine sediment.
DISCUSSION: Using multiplex RTqPCR-based models in urine sediment it is possible to improve the current diagnostic method of choice (PCA3) to differentiate between benign HGPIN and PCa cases.
The protective effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism against prostate cancer risk: Evidence from 23 case-control studies.
Gene. 2015; 565(1):90-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fluorine-18-fluoroethylcholine PET/CT in the detection of prostate cancer: a South African experience.
Hell J Nucl Med. 2015 Jan-Apr; 18(1):53-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
SUBJECT AND METHODS: Fifty patients were prospectively recruited and imaged, of which 40 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Our patients had an average age of 65.5 years. Fifteen patients were referred for initial staging, with the remaining 25 referred for restaging and all patients had histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma. Patients were imaged by (18)F-FECh PET/CT. Findings were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively and compared to the results of histology, PSA, Gleason score and bone scintigraphy. The prostate SUVmax was also used.
RESULTS: Thirty-one patients demonstrated abnormal pelvic- and or extra- pelvic findings on (18)F-FECh PET/CT, which was consistent with malignant or metastatic involvement. The prostate SUVmax could not be used to predict the presence or absence of metastatic disease.
CONCLUSION: Findings of this paper suggest that (18)F-FECh PET/CT in 30/40 cases (estimated as 75%) was helpful in the initial staging, restaging and lymph node detection of patients with PC. The SUVmax was not helpful. We diagnosed more PC cases in our African-American patients as compared to the Caucasian patients.
Low-temperature plasma treatment induces DNA damage leading to necrotic cell death in primary prostate epithelial cells.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(9):1536-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
METHOD: The cytopathic effect of low-temperature plasma was first verified in two commonly used prostate cell lines: BPH-1 and PC-3 cells. The study was then extended to analyse the effects in paired normal and tumour (Gleason grade 7) prostate epithelial cells cultured directly from patient tissue. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and staurosporine were used as controls throughout.
RESULTS: Low-temperature plasma (LTP) exposure resulted in high levels of DNA damage, a reduction in cell viability, and colony-forming ability. H2O2 formed in the culture medium was a likely facilitator of these effects. Necrosis and autophagy were recorded in primary cells, whereas cell lines exhibited apoptosis and necrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that LTP treatment causes cytotoxic insult in primary prostate cells, leading to rapid necrotic cell death. It also highlights the need to study primary cultures in order to gain more realistic insight into patient response.
Role of the technical aspects of hypofractionated radiation therapy treatment of prostate cancer: a review.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(1):182-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Linear energy transfer painting with proton therapy: a means of reducing radiation doses with equivalent clinical effectiveness.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1057-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The target is painted with LETd by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LETd within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the DRBE the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]).
RESULTS: The LETd increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LETd led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the Drbe at 90% of the volume (Drbe, 90) constant to FTP.
CONCLUSIONS: LETd painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.
Evaluation of online/offline image guidance/adaptation approaches for prostate cancer radiation therapy.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1026-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three treatment techniques were evaluated retrospectively using daily pre- and posttreatment CBCT images on 22 prostate cancer patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (SV), rectal wall, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. For each patient, a pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan with clinical target volume (CTV) = prostate + SV and planning target volume (PTV) = CTV + 3 mm was created. The 3 treatment techniques were as follows: (1) Daily Correction: The pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan was delivered after online CBCT imaging, and position correction; (2) Online Planning: Daily online inverse plans with 3-mm CTV-to-PTV margin were created using online CBCT images, and delivered; and (3) Hybrid Adaption: Daily Correction plus an offline adaptive inverse planning performed after the first week of treatment. The adaptive plan was delivered for all remaining 15 fractions. Treatment dose for each technique was constructed using the daily posttreatment CBCT images via deformable image registration. Evaluation was performed using treatment dose distribution in target and critical organs.
RESULTS: Treatment equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the CTV was within [85.6%, 100.8%] of the pretreatment planned target EUD for Daily Correction; [98.7%, 103.0%] for Online Planning; and [99.2%, 103.4%] for Hybrid Adaptation. Eighteen percent of the 22 patients in Daily Correction had a target dose deficiency >5%. For rectal wall, the mean ± SD of the normalized EUD was 102.6% ± 2.7% for Daily Correction, 99.9% ± 2.5% for Online Planning, and 100.6% ± 2.1% for Hybrid Adaptation. The mean ± SD of the normalized bladder EUD was 108.7% ± 8.2% for Daily Correction, 92.7% ± 8.6% for Online Planning, and 89.4% ± 10.8% for Hybrid Adaptation.
CONCLUSIONS: Both Online Planning and Hybrid Adaptation can achieve comparable target coverage and normal tissue sparing and are superior to the Daily Correction technique. The Daily Correction technique using a 3-mm target margin in the pretreatment plan is not appropriate to compensate for residual variations in CBCT image-guided prostate cancer radiation therapy.
Volumetric modulated arc therapy planning for primary prostate cancer with selective intraprostatic boost determined by 18F-choline PET/CT.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1017-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty patients with localized prostate cancer underwent (18)F-choline PET/CT before treatment. Two VMAT plans, plan79 Gy and plan100-105 Gy, were compared for each patient. The whole-prostate planning target volume (PTVprostate) prescription was 79 Gy in both plans, but plan100-105 Gy added simultaneous boost doses of 100 Gy and 105 Gy to the IDL, defined by 60% and 70% of maximum prostatic uptake on (18)F-choline PET (IDLsuv60% and IDLsuv70%, respectively, with IDLsuv70% nested inside IDLsuv60% to potentially enhance tumor specificity of the maximum point dose). Plan evaluations included histopathological correspondence, isodose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP).
RESULTS: Planning objectives and dose constraints proved feasible in 30 of 30 cases. Prostate sextant histopathology was available for 28 cases, confirming that IDLsuv60% adequately covered all tumor-bearing prostate sextants in 27 cases and provided partial coverage in 1 case. Plan100-105 Gy had significantly higher TCP than plan79 Gy across all prostate regions for α/β ratios ranging from 1.5 Gy to 10 Gy (P<.001 for each case). There were no significant differences in bladder and femoral head NTCP between plans and slightly lower rectal NTCP (endpoint: grade ≥ 2 late toxicity or rectal bleeding) was found for plan100-105 Gy.
CONCLUSIONS: VMAT can potentially increase the likelihood of tumor control in primary prostate cancer while observing normal tissue tolerances through simultaneous delivery of a steep radiation boost to a (18)F-choline PET-defined IDL.
Coping with losses, grief, and mourning in prostate cancer.
Adv Psychosom Med. 2015; 34:109-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Power doppler ultrasonography guided and random prostate biopsy in prostate cancer diagnosis - a comparative study.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2015; 65(1):65-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The prospective study was carried out at the Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to December, 2012, and comprised clinically suspected cases of carcinoma prostate. Power Doppler-guided biopsies using automatic biopsy gun were obtained from the suspected targeted site. One to three cores per suspected site were obtained. Subsequently random sextant biopsies were performed in the same sitting. Six cores were obtained from 6 random sites using the same gun. Biopsies from both sources were processed for routine haematoxylin and eosin stainstained sections for histopathological examination.
RESULTS: Of the 50 patients in the study, 30(60%) were diagnosed with power Doppler-guided biopsy as malignant, whereas random sextant biopsy could pick up 22(44%) cases. For benign prostatic hyperplasia, random sextant biopsy labelled 28(56%)as benign, whereas only 20 (40%) were labelled as benign with power Doppler-guided biopsy. Discrepancy in the results between the two procedures was observed in 14(28%) cases, and of them, 1 1(22%) were labelled as malignant on power Doppler-guided biopsy while histopathology of sextant biopsies labelled these as benign.The sextant biopsies rendered a specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of 60.71%, 86.36%, 85%, 63.33% and 72% respectively.
CONCLUSION: Random sextant biopsy in combination with power Doppler-guided targeted biopsy increases the rate of detection of prostate cancer whereas both procedures in isolation have low sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection.