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"One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; ( DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth." (Source: MeSH)

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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Kumar N, Gangappa D, Gupta G, Karnati R
Chebulagic acid from Terminalia chebula causes G1 arrest, inhibits NFκB and induces apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:319 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Plants are the valuable source of natural products with important medicinal properties. Most of the approved anti cancer drugs have a natural product origin or are natural products. Retinoblastoma is the most common ocular cancer of children. Although chemotherapy is the preferred mode of therapy, a successful treatment for retinoblastoma requires enucleation. Chebulagic acid (CA) from Terminalia chebula was shown to have anti-proliferative properties in the studies on cancerous cell lines. Due to anti cancer properties of CA and due to limitation in treatment options for retinoblastoma, the present study is undertaken to understand the role of CA on the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells.
METHODS: Anti proliferative potential of CA was determined by MTT assay. The expression levels of various cell death mediators in retinoblastoma cells with CA treatment were assessed by Western blotting. Flowcytometer analysis was used to estimate the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and to determine the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis.
RESULTS: The present study showed CA inhibited the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells in a dose dependent manner. CA modulated MMP, induced release of Cytochrome c, activated caspase 3 and shifted the ratio of BAX and Bcl2 towards cell death. G1 arrest, noticed in CA treated cells, is mediated by the increase in the expression of CDK inhibitor p27. CA treatment also decreased the levels of NFκB in the nucleus. This decrease is mediated by suppression in degradation of IκBα.
CONCLUSION: CA has shown significant anti proliferative potential on retinoblastoma cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that CA induces G1 arrest, inhibits NFκB and induces apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells.

Related: Retinoblastoma

Moirangthem DS, Laishram S, Borah JC, et al.
Cephalotaxus griffithii Hook.f. needle extract induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and suppression of hTERT and hTR expression on human breast cancer cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:305 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess anticancer potential. In this present work, for the first time the effects of C. griffithii needle (CGN) extracts on human cancer cells were examined.
METHODS: The CGN was successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE), acetone and methanol. The extracts were tested for its effect on proliferation of cancer cells (MTT assay on HeLa, ZR751 and HepG2). Extract that showed the maximum growth inhibitory effect was subjected for mechanism of action study. These included apoptosis (morphological and DNA fragmentation assay), cell cycle (flow cytometry), caspase expression (Western blot) and activity (assay kit), p53 (western blot and TP53 siRNA interference) and telomerase expression (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis.
RESULTS: Among the extracts, PE extract induced maximum cytotoxicity, with highest death occurred in ZR751 cells. Since, PE extract induced cell death was highest among the CGN extracts, with maximum cancer cell death occurred in ZR751 cells; we carried out mechanism study of PE extract induced ZR751 cell death. It was observed that PE extract induced ZR751 cell death was associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Knock down study revealed that p53 is essential for loss of ZR751 cell viability induced by PE extract. Further, PE extract down-regulated hTERT, hTR, and c-Myc expression. Thin layer chromatography analysis indicated the presence of unique phytochemicals in PE extract.
CONCLUSION: Based on the observations, we concluded that PE extract of C. griffithii needle contains important phyto-components with multiple cellular targets for control of breast cancer and is worthy of future studies.

Related: Breast Cancer TERC

Moghadamtousi SZ, Kadir HA, Paydar M, et al.
Annona muricata leaves induced apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial-mediated pathway and involvement of NF-κB.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:299 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annona muricata leaves have been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed mechanism has yet to be defined. The current study was designed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of A. muricata leaves ethyl acetate extract (AMEAE) against lung cancer A549 cells.
METHODS: The effect of AMEAE on cell proliferation of different cell lines was analyzed by MTT assay. High content screening (HCS) was applied to investigate the suppression of NF-κB translocation, cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c translocation from mitochondria to cytosol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and activation of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 were measured while treatment. The western blot analysis also carried out to determine the protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and -9. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the cell cycle distribution and phosphatidylserine externalization. Quantitative PCR analysis was performed to measure the gene expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins.
RESULTS: Cell viability analysis revealed the selective cytotoxic effect of AMEAE towards lung cancer cells, A549, with an IC50 value of 5.09 ± 0.41 μg/mL after 72 h of treatment. Significant LDH leakage and phosphatidylserine externalization were observed in AMEAE treated cells by fluorescence analysis. Treatment of A549 cells with AMEAE significantly elevated ROS formation, followed by attenuation of MMP via upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, accompanied by cytochrome c release to the cytosol. The incubation of A549 cells with superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity caused by AMEAE, indicating that intracellular ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. In addition, AMEAE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, AMEAE suppressed the induced translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed for the first time that the ethyl acetate extract of Annona muricata inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death through activation of the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway with the involvement of the NF-kB signalling pathway.

Related: Lung Cancer Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer Signal Transduction

Yin Z, Sun J
Curcumin induces human SKOV3 cell apoptosis via the activation of Rho-kinase.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014; 35(4):433-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Curcumin has been showed anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effect in various cancer cells such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and so on. However the pro-apoptosis effect and the mechanism of curcumin in ovarian cell is still not very clear. In this study, the authors demonstrated that curcumin induced human SKOV3 cell apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanism concerning Rho A/Rho-kinase pathway.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human SKOV3 cell was performed with MTT assay to measure the cell viability with curcumin. The cell was treatment with 15 microM or 30 microM curcumin and flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis analysis was performed to measure the cell apoptosis level. In order to explore the mechanism concerning pro-apoptosis activity of curcumin, the cells were pre-treatment with Y-27632, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, before curcumin was added. Then the expression of activated caspase-3 and Rho A, Rho-kinase was detected by western blot.
RESULTS: Treatment with 15 microM or 30 microM curcumin significantly promoted the apoptosis of SKOV3 cell (p < 0.05) and the apoptosis rate is dose-dependent. Curcumin also activated the expression of Rho A and Rho-kinase in a dose-dependent effect. When pre-treatment with Y-27632, the expression of activated caspase-3 was significantly decreased compared to the group without Y-27632 pre-treatment (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin induced human SKOV3 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent effect. The pro-apoptosis effect of curcumin is partly mediated via the activation of Rho A/Rho-kinase signal pathway. This may help to further clarify the mechanisms of curcumin in ovarian cancer therapy.

Related: Ovarian Cancer Signal Transduction

Lázaro-Ibáñez E, Sanz-Garcia A, Visakorpi T, et al.
Different gDNA content in the subpopulations of prostate cancer extracellular vesicles: apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes.
Prostate. 2014; 74(14):1379-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane vesicles. EVs contain several RNAs such as mRNA, microRNAs, and ncRNAs, but less is known of their genomic DNA (gDNA) content. It is also unknown whether the DNA cargo is randomly sorted or if it is systematically packed into specific EV subpopulations. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different prostate cancer (PCa) cell-derived EV subpopulations (apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes) carry different gDNA fragments.
METHODS: EV subpopulations were isolated from three PCa cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3, and RC92a/hTERT) and the plasma of PCa patients and healthy donors, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and total protein content. gDNA fragments of different genes were detected by real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: We report that the concentration of EVs was higher in the cancer patients than in the healthy controls. EV subpopulations differed from each other in terms of total protein and DNA content. Analysis of gDNA fragments of MLH1, PTEN, and TP53 genes from the PCa cell-derived EV subpopulations showed that different EVs carried different gDNA content, which could even harbor specific mutations. Altogether, these results suggest that both nucleic acids and proteins are selectively and cell-dependently packed into the EV subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: EVs derived from PCa cell lines and human plasma samples contain double-stranded gDNA fragments which could be used to detect specific mutations, making EVs potential biomarkers for cancer diagnostics and prognostics.

Related: PTEN Prostate Cancer

Yen HK, Fauzi AR, Din LB, et al.
Involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in urinary bladder cancer cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Selective Alzheimer Disease Indicator-1 (or Seladin-1) is a multifunctional protein first discovered by downregulation of its expression in Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, the expression of this protein is upregulated in several cancers, including primary bladder cancer. However, its role in cancer formation has yet to be discovered. Goniothalamin is a natural product that has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we have elucidated the role of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity towards human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4.
METHODS: The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin in human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4 was assessed using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI labeling assay. Finally, the expression of Seladin-1 protein in goniothalamin-treated RT4 cells was determined by Western blot.
RESULTS: MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of goniothalamin on RT4 cells was concentration and time dependent with IC50 values of 61 μM (24 hr), 38 μM (48 hr) and 31 μM for 72 hr, respectively. Cell death induced was confirmed through apoptosis; as assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/PI labeling assay. Furthermore, the involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis was evidenced through the cleavage of 60 kDa protein to 40 kDa and 20 kDa. This was followed by a gradual increase of 20 kDa fragment suggesting the involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis on RT4 cells.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that goniothalamin induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis on RT4 cells. The involvement of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis further suggested that Seladin-1 may play a role in the formation of primary bladder cancer.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Han SM, Kim JM, Park KK, et al.
Neuroprotective effects of melittin on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:286 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Free radicals are involved in neuronal cell death in human neurodegenerative diseases. Since ancient times, honeybee venom has been used in a complementary medicine to treat various diseases and neurologic disorders. Melittin, the main component of honeybee venom, has various biologic effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory activities.
METHODS: We investigated the neuroprotective effects of melittin against H2O2-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The neuroprotective effects of melittin on H2O2-induced apoptosis were investigated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide assay, caspase 3 activity, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, Western blots, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The H2O2-treated cells had decreased cell viability with apoptotic features and increased production of caspase-3. On the other hand, melittin treatment increased cell viability and decreased apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Melittin attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease in mRNA and protein production of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, melittin inhibited both the H2O2-induced mRNA and protein expression of Bax-associated pro-apoptotic factor and caspase-3.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that melittin has potential therapeutic effects as an agent for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Jin Y, Ding K, Wang D, et al.
Novel thiazole amine class tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce apoptosis in human mast cells expressing D816V KIT mutation.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 353(1):115-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gain-of-function mutations of receptor tyrosine kinase KIT play a critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic mastocytosis (SM) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. D816V KIT mutation, found in ∼80% of SM, is resistant to the currently available tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) (e.g. imatinib mesylate). Therefore, development of promising TKIs for the treatment of D816V KIT mutation is still urgently needed. We synthesized thiazole amine compounds and chose one representative designated 126332 to investigate its effect on human mast cells expressing KIT mutations. We found 126332 inhibited the phosphorylation of KIT and its downstream signaling molecules Stat3 and Stat5. 126332 inhibited the proliferation of D816V KIT expressing cells. 126332 induced apoptosis and downregulated levels of Mcl-1 and survivin. Furthermore, 126332 inhibited the tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcription and DNA binding of TCF. Moreover, 126332 also exhibited in vivo antineoplastic activity against cells harboring D816V mutation. Our findings suggest thiazole amine compounds may be promising agents for the treatment of diseases caused by KIT mutation.

Related: Signal Transduction

Gao H, Gong XC, Chen ZD, et al.
Induction of apoptosis in hormone-resistant human prostate cancer PC3 cells by inactivated Sendai virus.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2014; 27(7):506-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Inactivated Sendai virus particle [hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E)] has a potential oncolytic effect due to its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction in cancer cells mediated by HVJ-E has not been fully elucidated. This paper aims to investigate the underlying mechanism of apoptosis induction by HVJ-E in prostate cancer cells (PC3).
METHODS: PC3 cells were treated with HVJ-E at various MOI, and then interferon-β (IFN-β) production, and the cell viability and apoptosis were detected by ELISA, MTT-based assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Next, the roles of Jak-Stat, MAPK and Akt pathways played in HVJ-E-induced apoptosis in PC3 cells were analyzed by immunoblot assay. To further evaluate the cytotoxic effect of HVJ-E on PC3 cells, HVJ-E was intratumorally injected into prostate cancers on BALB/c-nude mice, and the tumor volume was monitored for 36 days.
RESULTS: HVJ-E induced IFN-β production and activated Jak-Stat signaling pathway, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP in PC3 prostate cancer cells post HVJ-E treatment. Furthermore, we observed for the first time that p38 and Jnk MAPKs in PC3 cells contributed to HVJ-E-induced apoptosis. In addition, intratumoral HVJ-E treatment displayed a direct inhibitory effect in an in vivo BALB/c nude mouse prostate cancer model.
CONCLUSION: Our findings have provided novel insights into the underlying mechanisms by which HVJ-E induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

Related: Prostate Cancer Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer- Molecular Biology

Jiang XR, Yu XY, Fan JH, et al.
RFT2 is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and promotes tumorigenesis by sustaining cell proliferation and protecting against cell death.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 353(1):78-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human riboflavin transporter 2 (RFT2, also termed as SLC52A3) was recently identified as a susceptibility gene to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, its expression and biologic function has remained unclear in ESCC. In this study, we demonstrated that RFT2 was frequently overexpressed in tumor samples compared with normal adjacent tissue in ESCC patients. Knockdown of RFT2 in ESCC cells resulted in decreases of intracellular flavin status, mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, and inhibitions of cell proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth. Knockdown of RFT2 increased p21 and p27 protein levels, decreased their downstream targets cyclin E1 and Cdk2 protein levels and caused pRb hypophosphorylation, leading to cell cycle arrest at G1-G1/S. Knockdown of RFT2 also reduced anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and survivin levels, caused activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of RFT2 in ESCC cells promoted cell proliferation under restricted conditions (soft agar), conferred resistance to cisplatin, and enhanced tumorigenicity in nude mice. These results suggest that RFT2 contributes to ESCC tumorigenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

Related: Cisplatin Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer

Zhang Z, Zheng Y, Zhu R, et al.
The ERK/eIF4F/Bcl-XL pathway mediates SGP-2 induced osteosarcoma cells apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 352(2):203-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to assess the molecular foundation of anti-tumor activity of SGP-2 in osteosarcoma cells. SGP-2 significantly blocks cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma U2OS cell model and inhibits tumor growth without causing apparent toxicity effect in mouse sarcoma S-180 cell-derived tumor model. Moreover, SGP-2 induces intrinsic apoptosis including the activation of caspase-3/7/9, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion, controlled by the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL). Further research reveals that SGP-2 inhibits the assembly of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex which is responsible for the decline of Bcl-XL. Finally, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) controls SGP-2 induced intrinsic apoptosis. Taken together, SGP-2 exerts anti-tumor effect through intrinsic apoptotic pathway controlled by ERK/eIF4F/Bcl-XL pathway.

Related: Bone Cancers Osteosarcoma Signal Transduction

Gupta R, Dong Y, Solomon PD, et al.
Synergistic tumor suppression by combined inhibition of telomerase and CDKN1A.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(30):E3062-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/01/2015 Related Publications
Tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in mediating growth inhibition upon telomere dysfunction. Here, we show that loss of the p53 target gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, also known as p21(WAF1/CIP1)) increases apoptosis induction following telomerase inhibition in a variety of cancer cell lines and mouse xenografts. This effect is highly specific to p21, as loss of other checkpoint proteins and CDK inhibitors did not affect apoptosis. In telomerase, inhibited cell loss of p21 leads to E2F1- and p53-mediated transcriptional activation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis, resulting in increased apoptosis. Combined genetic or pharmacological inhibition of telomerase and p21 synergistically suppresses tumor growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of telomerase and p21 also suppresses growth of tumors containing mutant p53 following pharmacological restoration of p53 activity. Collectively, our results establish that inactivation of p21 leads to increased apoptosis upon telomerase inhibition and thus identify a genetic vulnerability that can be exploited to treat many human cancers containing either wild-type or mutant p53.

Related: CDKN1A TP53

Su L, Zheng H, Li Z, et al.
Mechanistic studies on the anticancer activity of 2,4-disubstituted quinazoline derivative.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1840(10):3123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accelerated proliferation of solid tumor and hematologic cancer cells is related to accelerated transcription of ribosomal DNA by the RNA polymerase I to produce elevated level of ribosomal RNA. Therefore, down-regulation of RNA polymerase I transcription in cancer cells is an important anticancer therapeutic strategy.
METHODS: A variety of methods were used, including cloning, expression and purification of protein, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy, CD-melting, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), chromatin immunoprecipitation (Ch-IP), RNA interference, RT-PCR, Western blot, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell assay.
RESULTS: Our results showed that 2,4-disubstituted quinazoline derivative Sysu12d could down-regulate c-myc through stabilization of c-myc promoter G-quadruplex, resulting in down-regulation of nucleolin expression. Sysu12d could also disrupt nucleolin/G-quadruplex complex. Both of the above contributed to the down-regulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis, followed by activation of p53 and then cancer cell apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These mechanistic studies set up the basis for further development of Sysu12d as a new type of lead compound for cancer treatment.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: 2,4-Disubstituted quinazoline derivatives may have multi-functional effect for cancer treatment.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction TP53

Brehm H, Niesen J, Mladenov R, et al.
A CSPG4-specific immunotoxin kills rhabdomyosarcoma cells and binds to primary tumor tissues.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 352(2):228-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) remains challenging, with metastatic and alveolar RMS offering a particularly poor prognosis. Therefore, the identification and evaluation of novel antigens, which are suitable targets for immunotherapy, is one attractive possibility to improve the treatment of this disease. Here we show that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is expressed on RMS cell lines and RMS patient material. We evaluated the immunotoxin (IT) αMCSP-ETA', which specifically recognizes CSPG4 on the RMS cell lines RD, FL-OH1, TE-671 and Rh30. It is internalized rapidly, induces apoptosis and thus kills RMS cells selectively. We also demonstrate the specific binding of this IT to RMS primary tumor material from three different patients.

Related: Rhabdomyosarcoma

Jaura AI, Flood G, Gallagher HC, Buggy DJ
Differential effects of serum from patients administered distinct anaesthetic techniques on apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vitro: a pilot study.
Br J Anaesth. 2014; 113 Suppl 1:i63-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In vitro and retrospective clinical studies suggest an association between anaesthetic technique during primary breast cancer surgery and cancer outcome. Apoptosis is an important step in the mechanism of breast cancer metastasis, but whether it is influenced by anaesthetic technique is unknown. Using serum from breast cancer surgery patients randomized to receive distinct anaesthetic techniques, we investigated its effect on apoptosis in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells in vitro.
METHODS: Women with biopsy-proven breast cancer were randomized to receive either propofol general anaesthesia with paravertebral analgesia (PPA) or standard sevoflurane general anaesthesia with opioid analgesia (SGA) in an ongoing, prospective clinical trial (NCT 00418457). Serum from a randomly selected subset of these patients (10 PPA and 10 SGA) who had donated 20 ml venous blood immediately before anaesthetic induction and at 1 h after operation was exposed to ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Apoptosis was measured using ApoLive-Glo Multiplex Assay™.
RESULTS: Exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to postoperative serum of PPA patients resulted in higher luminescence ratio (apoptosis) than SGA patients, median (25-75%), 0.40 (0.35-0.43) compared with 0.22 (0.21-0.30), respectively (P=0.001). The luminescence ratio of postoperative serum from SGA was reduced compared with preoperative SGA 0.22 (0.21-0.30) compared with 0.3 (0.25-0.35) (P=0.045).
CONCLUSIONS: Serum from patients given sevoflurane anaesthesia and opioids for primary breast cancer surgery reduces apoptosis in ER-negative breast cancer cells to a greater extent than serum from patients given propofol-paravertebral anaesthesia. Anaesthetic technique might affect the serum milieu in a manner that impacts cancer cell apoptosis, and thereby tumour metastasis.

Related: Breast Cancer

Maharath A, Fucharoen S, Tanyong DI
p53 and nitric oxide are involved in cytokine-induced apoptosis in Kasumi-1 and Molt-4 Leukemics cells.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2014; 32(2):133-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has been developed to treat cancers. There are many signaling pathways involved in cytokine induced apoptosis of many cancers but their role remains unclear in some cancers such as leukemia.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) and p53 tumor suppressor gene in apoptotic pathways induced by cytokines in leukemic cell lines.
METHODS: Leukemic cell lines, Kasumi-1 (AML-M2) and Molt- 4 (ALL) were treated with cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The effect of cytokines on the induction cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. In addition, nitric oxide production and p53 protein levels were measured by using the Griess method and Western blot, respectively.
RESULTS: Upon cytokine treatment, there was a significant increase in the percentage of cell apoptosis in both leukemic cell lines. The highest apoptosis was shown in 40 U/ml IFN-γ treated cells. In addition, nitric oxide and p53 protein increased in IFN-γ treated cells. There was a reduction of apoptosis and p53 level after adding the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, SMT.
CONCLUSION: p53 and nitric oxide are involved in the mediation of apoptosis induced by cytokines in Kasumi-1 and Molt-4 leukemic cell lines.

Related: Cytokines Leukemia TP53

Liu X, Liu Q, Fan Y, et al.
Downregulation of PPP2R5E expression by miR-23a suppresses apoptosis to facilitate the growth of gastric cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(17):3160-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PPP2R5E belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family and acts as a tumor suppressor in human cancer. However, the role of PPP2R5E in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer is unclear. Here, we declare that PPP2R5E is downregulated by miR-23a and induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, ASO-miR-23a suppresses tumor growth derived from MGC803 cells in vivo. PPP2R5E is identified as a new target of miR-23a. Moreover, overexpression of PPP2R5E reversed the negative effects of miR-23a. We highlight the significance of miR-23a and PPP2R5E in the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Wilson JM, Kunnimalaiyaan S, Gamblin TC, Kunnimalaiyaan M
MK2206 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cellular proliferation via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
J Surg Res. 2014; 191(2):280-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is commonly diagnosed at an advanced stage and has limited effective treatment options. The aberrant regulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in HCC makes it an attractive therapeutic target. The effect of MK2206, a novel, allosteric Akt inhibitor, on HCC cells is not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of Akt by MK2206 would impact cellular viability.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cell lines were treated with 0-2 μM of MK2206 for 96 h. Cell viability was determined by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression level of various protein markers to assess the mechanism of drug action and proliferation inhibition.
RESULTS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed a reduction in cellular viability by ≥55% for all cell lines (control versus 2 μM MK2206; P <0.001). Western blot analysis revealed reduction in the level of phosphorylated AKT-Ser473 with no change in AKT-thr308 expression confirming the specificity of MK2206. There was an observed reduction in caspase-9 and survivin. Importantly, there were increases in p21 and p27 along with decreased cyclinD1 expression after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the anti-tumor activity of MK2206 in HCC cells. The observed reduction in survivin and pro-caspase 9 suggests that MK2206 induces apoptosis. However, HCC proliferation is also halted via induction of cell cycle arrest as indicated by the increase in p21 and p27 expression and decrease in cyclinD1. Importantly, the concentration needed to achieve growth inhibition in HCC is lower than that needed for other cancer types.

Related: Liver Cancer AKT1

Li ZJ, Li XM, Piao YJ, et al.
Genkwadaphnin induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(2):1115-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genkwadaphnin is a daphnane diterpene ester molecule isolated from the flower buds of Daphne genkwa. In the present study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing effect of genkwadaphnin in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Apoptosis was triggered in SCC12 cells following genkwadaphnin treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Genkwadaphnin treatment increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Knockdown of JNK and p38 MAPK by recombinant adenovirus expressing microRNA (miR) resulted in significant inhibition of genkwadaphnin-induced apoptosis in SCC12 cells. Finally, pretreatment with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly reduced SCC12 cell apoptosis, concomitant with significant inhibition of MAPK activation. These results indicate that genkwadaphnin has the potential to induce apoptosis in SCC cells, providing information on which to base further research with the aim of developing a cure for SCC.

Related: Skin Cancer

Abdul Rahman A, Jamal AR, Harun R, et al.
Gamma-tocotrienol and hydroxy-chavicol synergistically inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human glioma cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:213 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gamma-tocotrienol (GTT), an isomer of vitamin E and hydroxy-chavicol (HC), a major bioactive compound in Piper betle, has been reported to possess anti-carcinogenic properties by modulating different cellular signaling events. One possible strategy to overcome multi-drug resistance and high toxic doses of treatment is by applying combinational therapy especially using natural bioactives in cancer treatment.
METHODS: In this study, we investigated the interaction of GTT and HC and its mode of cell death on glioma cell lines. GTT or HC alone and in combination were tested for cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines 1321N1 (Grade II), SW1783 (Grade III) and LN18 (Grade IV) by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)- 2H- tetrazolium, inner salt] MTS assay. The interactions of each combination were evaluated by using the combination index (CI) obtained from an isobologram.
RESULTS: Individually, GTT or HC displayed mild growth inhibitory effects against glioma cancer cell lines at concentration values ranging from 42-100 μg/ml and 75-119 μg/ml respectively. However, the combination of sub-lethal doses of GTT + HC dramatically enhanced the inhibition of glioma cancer cell proliferation and exhibited a strong synergistic effect on 1321N1 with CI of 0.55, and CI = 0.54 for SW1783. While in LN18 cells, moderate synergistic interaction of GTT + HC was observed with CI value of 0.73. Exposure of grade II, III and IV cells to combined treatments for 24 hours led to increased apoptosis as determined by annexin-V FITC/PI staining and caspase-3 apoptosis assay, showing caspase-3 activation of 27%, 7.1% and 79% respectively.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, combined treatments with sub-effective doses of GTT and HC resulted in synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis of human glioma cells in vitro.

Rupachandra S, Sarada DV
Anti-proliferative and apoptotic properties of a peptide from the seeds of Polyalthia longifolia against human cancer cell lines.
Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2014; 51(2):127-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The peptides produced enzymatically from various plants have shown various biological activities including cytotoxicity. Different types of cytotoxic peptides have been reported from the seeds and leaves of Violaceae, Rubiaceae and Annonaceae families. In this study, we report purification and characterization of peptide(s) showing cytotoxic activity against A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines from the seeds of Polyalthia longifolia (Annonaceae). Seed proteins of P. longifolia were extracted and hydrolyzed using trypsin. The enzyme hydrolysate was applied on to a Sephadex G10 column and eluted using Tris-HC1 buffer (pH 7.5). Two fractions F1 and F2 were obtained, of which F2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against lung (A549) cancer cells at 10 microg/mL and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines at 30 microg/mL, as revealed by the MTT assay. DNA fragmentation was observed in the tested cancer cell lines treated with F2 peptide at a concentration of 10microg/mL and 30 pg/mL, respectively. Further, increased number of apoptotic cells was observed in sub-G0 phase of cell cycle of A549 and HeLa cell lines, when treated with 10 microg/mL and 30 microg/mL of F2, as revealed by the flow cytometric analyses. FTIR spectrum of F2 peptide detected the presence of stretching vibrations of carboxylic acid OH residue with peak at 3420 cm-and carbonyl (C=O) groups at 1636 cm-1, respectively. RP-HPLC analysis of F2 peptide showed a single peak at a retention time of 12.8 min detected at 280 nm, depicting the purity of F2 to be more than 90%. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed the average theoretical mass of F2 to be 679.8 using m/z ratios. In conclusion, the findings suggest that F2 peptide is an effective inducer of apoptosis of cancer cells, thus offers an important strategy in the development of cancer therapeutics.

Related: Lung Cancer

Inoue S, Setoyama Y, Odaka A
Phagocytosis of bafilomycin A1-treated apoptotic neuroblastoma cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells initiates a CD8α+ lymphocyte response to neuroblastoma.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014; 36(5):e290-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to determine whether bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1), a vacuolar H-ATPase inhibitor, could promote an immune response after the induction of apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma cells. Mouse neuro-2a cells were cultured in a medium containing Baf-A1, and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. To examine the influence in the phagocytic cell, CD11b spleen cells or bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) were cocultured with Baf-A1-treated neuro-2a. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production was used as an index of the immune response, and CDDP was used as the negative control. When CD8α cells were cocultured with CD11b cells and Baf-A1-treated neuro-2a cells in the presence of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) (a toll-like receptor 9 [TLR-9] agonist), CD8α lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ were observed. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by BM-DCs was maximal after simultaneous stimulation with CpG-ODN and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a TLR-4 agonist). IFN-γ secretion was maximal when Baf-A1-treated neuro-2a cells and CD8α lymphocytes were cocultured with BM-DCs and stimulated with CpG-ODN. In contrast, IFN-γ production was not increased when the cells were cultured with LPS. When cells were stimulated with both CpG-ODN and LPS, promotion of IFN-γ production by CpG-ODN was suppressed. Induction of apoptosis by Baf-A1 could possibly enhance antitumor immunity in patients receiving chemotherapy for neuroblastoma. Stimulation of BM-DCs with a TLR-9 agonist could promote antitumor activity after Baf-A1 treatment.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Huang Liu R, Chen SP, Lu TM, et al.
Selective apoptotic cell death effects of oral cancer cells treated with destruxin B.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14:207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that destruxins (Dtx) have potent cytotoxic activities on individual cancer cells, however, data on oral cancer cells especial human are absent.
METHODS: Destruxin B (DB) was isolated and used to evaluate the selective cytotoxicity with human oral cancer cell lines, GNM (Neck metastasis of gingival carcinoma) and TSCCa (Tongue squamous cell carcinoma) cells, and normal gingival fibroblasts (GF) were also included as controls. Cells were tested with different concentrations of DB for 24, 48, and 72 h by MTT assay. Moreover, the mechanism of cytotoxicity was investigated using caspase-3 Immunofluorescence, annexin V/PI staining, and the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 by western blotting after treated with different concentrations of DB for 72 h as parameters for apoptosis analyses.
RESULTS: The results show that DB exhibited significant (p < 0.01) and selective time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on GNM and TSCCa cells viability but not on GF cells. The data suggested that DB is capable to induce tumor specific growth inhibition in oral GNM and TSCCa cancer cells via Bax/Bcl-2-mediated intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in time- and dose-dependent manners.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the anti-proliferation effect of DB in oral cancer cells. The results reported here may offer further evidences to the development of DB as a potential complementary chemotherapeutic target for oral cancer complications.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology Oral Cancer

Blackmore JK, Karmakar S, Gu G, et al.
The SMRT coregulator enhances growth of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer cells by promotion of cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(9):3251-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The SMRT coregulator functions as a dual coactivator and corepressor for estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in a gene-specific manner, and in several studies its elevated expression correlates with poor outcome for breast cancer patients. A specific role of SMRT in breast cancer progression has not been elucidated, but SMRT knock-down limits estradiol-dependent growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In this study, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) approaches were used to determine the effects of SMRT depletion on growth of ERα-positive MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells, as well as the ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line. Depletion of SMRT inhibited growth of ERα-positive cells grown in monolayer but had no effect on growth of the ERα-negative cells. Reduced SMRT levels also negatively impacted the anchorage-independent growth of MCF-7 cells as assessed by soft agar colony formation assays. The observed growth inhibitions were due to a loss of estradiol-induced progression through the G1/S transition of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis in SMRT-depleted compared with control cells. Gene expression analyses indicated that SMRT inhibits apoptosis by a coordinated regulation of genes involved in apoptosis. Functioning as a dual coactivator for anti-apoptotic genes and corepressor for pro-apoptotic genes, SMRT can limit apoptosis. Together these data indicate that SMRT promotes breast cancer progression through multiple pathways leading to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis.

Related: Breast Cancer ESR1

Zhang L, Huang L, Liu Q, et al.
N-butanol fraction of Entada phaseoloides ethanol extract inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis.
J BUON. 2014 Apr-Jun; 19(2):406-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To screen for substances with inhibitory effects on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell line from extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal plants including Heliciopsis lobata (Merr.) Sleum, Bidens pilosa, Entada phaseoloides, Plantago major, and Smilax, and unveil their mechanism of action.
METHODS: 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by plant extracts. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 staining and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔCgr;m) dissipation was measured using JC-1 probe by fluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS: Heliciopsis lobata, Bidens, Plantago, and Smilax extracts showed reduced inhibitory effects on HepG2 cell proliferation compared with Entada phaseoloides (all p<0.05). The n-butanol fraction of Entada phaseoloides ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibition rate. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 500, 250, and 100 μg/ml n-butanol extract resulted in 89.92±0.58%, IC50 81.66±0.42%, 68.85±0.57% decrease in cell viability, respectively, indicating an IC50 of 9.27 μg/ml. In the presence of 100 μg/ml entada phaseoloides n-butanol extract for 24h, apoptotic nuclei and hyperchromatic, dense fluorescent massive granules were observed in the cytoplasm, effects that increased with extract concentrations in HepG2 cells. Finally, we showed that Entada phaseoloides n-butanol extract induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential.
CONCLUSIONS: Entada phaseoloides n-butanol extract inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis likely through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This extract is therefore a potential natural source towards the discovery for a new drug-candidate for the treatment of HCC.

Related: Liver Cancer

He D, Wu H, Ding L, Li Y
Combination of BCL11A siRNA with vincristine increases the apoptosis of SUDHL6 cells.
Eur J Med Res. 2014; 19:34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 11 A (BCL11A) is associated with human B cell malignancy initiation. Our previous study has shown that downregulation of BCL11A mRNA by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is capable of inducing apoptosis in the SUDHL6 cell line. To further explore the effects of BCL11A siRNA on the enhanced cytotoxicity of a chemotherapeutic drug, we investigated the effects of BCL11A siRNA combined with vincristine (VCR) on SUDHL6 cell proliferation and apoptosis.
METHODS: Chemically synthesized BCL11A siRNA was transfected into SUDHL6 cells using the HiPerFect Transfection Reagent in combination with VCR. Cell proliferation was measured by the CCK8 assay. The morphology of apoptotic cells was observed with Hoechst 33258 staining. The rate of cell apoptosis was determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis.
RESULTS: After BCL11A siRNA plus VCR treatment, cell proliferation was significantly decreased in comparison with VCR or BCL11A siRNA treatment alone and negative control siRNA plus VCR treatment (P <0.05). The apoptotic rate of BCL11A siRNA plus VCR treated cells was significantly increased compared with BCL11A siRNA and VCR treatment alone and negative control siRNA plus VCR treatment (P <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of BCL11A siRNA and VCR increases apoptosis in SUDHL6 cells. Our study implies that BCL11A siRNA in combination with VCR may be a useful approach for improving effective treatment for B cell lymphoma.

Related: Vincristine

Sandu C, Wetie AG, Darie CC, Steller H
Thiostrepton, a natural compound that triggers heat shock response and apoptosis in human cancer cells: a proteomics investigation.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 806:443-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thiostrepton is a natural antibiotic produced by bacteria of Streptomyces genus. We identified Thiostrepton as a strong hit in a cell-based small molecule screen for DIAP1 stability modulators. It was shown previously that Thiostrepton induces upregulation of several gene products in Streptomyces lividans, including the TipAS and TipAL isoforms, and that it can induce apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells. Furthermore, it was suggested that thiostrepton induces oxidative and proteotoxic stress, as inferred from the transcriptional upregulation of stress-related genes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes. We used a combination of biochemical and proteomics approaches to investigate the effect of Thiostrepton and other compounds in human cells. Our mass-spectrometry data and subsequent biochemical validation shows that Thiostrepton (and MG-132 proteasome inhibitor) trigger upregulation of heat shock proteins HspA1A, Hsp70, Hsp90α, or Hsp105 in various human cancer cells. We propose a model where Thiostrepton-induced proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of protein aggregates that trigger a heat shock response and apoptosis in human cancer cells.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Hong M, Kim H, Kim I
Ribosomal protein L19 overexpression activates the unfolded protein response and sensitizes MCF7 breast cancer cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(1):673-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although first identified for their roles in protein synthesis, certain ribosomal proteins exert pleiotropic physiological functions in the cell. Ribosomal protein L19 is overexpressed in breast cancer cells by amplification and copy number variation. In this study, we examined the novel pro-apoptotic role of ribosomal protein L19 in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. Overexpression of RPL19 sensitized MCF7 cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. RPL19 overexpression itself was not cytotoxic; however, cell death induction was enhanced when RPL19 overexpressing cells were incubated with endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agents, and this sensitizing effect was specific to MCF7 cells. Examination of the cell signaling pathways that mediate the unfolded protein response (UPR) revealed that overexpression of RPL19 induced pre-activation of the UPR, including phosphorylation of pERK-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), and activation of p38 MAPK-associated stress signaling. Our findings suggest that upregulation of RPL19 induces ER stress, resulting in increased sensitivity to ER stress and enhanced cell death in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

Related: Breast Cancer

Spears W, Furgerson M, Sweetnam JM, et al.
Hirano bodies differentially modulate cell death induced by tau and the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.
BMC Neurosci. 2014; 15:74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hirano bodies are actin-rich paracrystalline inclusions found in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and in normal aged individuals. Although studies of post-mortem brain tissue provide clues of etiology, the physiological function of Hirano bodies remains unknown. A cell culture model was utilized to study the interactions of mutant tau proteins, model Hirano bodies, and GSK3β in human astrocytoma cells.
RESULTS: Most tau variants showed co-localization with model Hirano bodies. Cosedimentation assays revealed this interaction may be direct, as recombinant purified forms of tau are all capable of binding F-actin. Model Hirano bodies had no effect or enhanced cell death induced by tau in the absence of amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD). In the presence of AICD and tau, synergistic cell death was observed in most cases, and model Hirano bodies decreased this synergistic cell death, except for forms of tau that caused significant cell death in the presence of Hirano bodies only. A role for the kinase GSK3β is suggested by the finding that a dominant negative form of GSK3β reduces this synergistic cell death. A subset of Hirano bodies in brain tissue of both Alzheimer's disease and normal aged individuals was found to contain tau, with some Hirano bodies in Alzheimer's disease brains containing hyperphosphorylated tau.
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate a complex interaction between tau and AICD involving activation of GSK3β in promoting cell death, and the ability of Hirano bodies to modulate this process.

Hotnog D, Mihăilă M, Lancu IV, et al.
Resveratrol modulates apoptosis in 5-fluorouracyl treated colon cancer cell lines.
Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2013 Oct-Dec; 72(4):255-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since cancer is a cellular disease, it is essential to identify the development stages and use the information in the prediction, prevention, early detection and design of drug targets. Colon cancer represents a malignancy with high incidence and mortality throughout the world, its etiology involving many genetic, immunological and biochemical factors. 5-fluorouracyl (5-FU) is one of the most effective anti-cancer agents used in the treatment of colorectal cancers, but tumor chemoresistance is a major limiting factor of its use. In order to choose the most effective chemotherapeutic doses of 5-FU, and thereby diminish the side-effects, we tried to modulate the anticancer properties of 5-FU by adding dietary natural compounds. The study focused on the role of natural compounds as resveratrol (RSV) in sensitization of LoVo human colon adenocarcinoma cell line to 5-FU action. Real-time cell analysis (RTCA) by xCELLigence System was used to continuously monitor the cytotoxic effects of drug treatments on LoVo cells. RTCA allowed us to choose the proper concentrations for further end-point assays, such as flow-cytometry techniques used for the evaluation of apoptotic events, progression through cell cycle phases or nuclear antigen expression of compound-treated LoVo cells. Data obtained showed additional effects of RSV to 5-FU treatments on the increase ofapoptotic events, and suggested alternative approaches to obtain a stronger antitumor response, and diminished side-effects when low concentrations of anti-cancer drugs are used. Modulation of the mechanisms of programmed cell death process seem to be of great importance for malignant transformation, and therefore for anti-cancer therapeutic approaches.

Related: Fluorouracil

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