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Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

There are many different types of lung cancer. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers (NSCLC) are grouped together because they tend to be treated in the same way, which is different to Small Cell Lung Cancer. NSCLCs account for abour 85% of all lung cancer cases. The most common types of NSCLC are Adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Less common types of NSCLC include: pleomorphic, carcinoid tumor, salivary gland carcinoma, and unclassified carcinoma of the lung.

Note: most of the resources on the general Lung Cancer page are relevant to NSCLC.

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  • PubMed search for publications about Lung Cancer, Non-Small Cell - Limit search to: [Reviews]

    PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Lung Cancer, Non-Small Cell
    MeSH term: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
    International US National Library of Medicine
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Fiala O, Pesek M, Skrickova J, et al.
Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression is associated with outcome of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pemetrexed is an antifolate cytostatic agent targeting several folate-dependent enzymatic pathways, widely used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic stage non-small cell lung cancer. Aside from the non-squamous histology, there is still no available molecular biomarker predicting treatment efficacy of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the association of thyroid transcription factor 1 expression with outcome of a large cohort of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed. We retrospectively analysed clinical data of 463 patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (IIIB or IV) treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was assessed using indirect immunohistochemical detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue at the time of diagnosis. Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was detected in the tumour tissue from 76.0% of patients, and tumours from 24.0% of patients were thyroid transcription factor 1 negative. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for patients with thyroid transcription factor 1 positive tumours were 4.8 and 11.8 months compared to 2.8 and 8.3 months for those with thyroid transcription factor 1 negative tumours (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model revealed that thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was significantly associated with progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.57, p < 0.001) and also with overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.73, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of the conducted retrospective study suggest that the thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was independently associated with progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced-stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy.

Shi J, Yuan M, Wang ZD, et al.
Comprehensive profiling and quantitation of oncogenic mutations in non-small cell lung carcinoma using single-molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691413 [PubMed] Related Publications
The carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung carcinoma has been found to associate with activating and resistant mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of specific oncogenes. Here, we assessed the type, frequency, and abundance of epithelial growth factor receptor, KRAS, BRAF, and ALK mutations in 154 non-small cell lung carcinoma specimens using single-molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology. We found that epithelial growth factor receptor mutations were the most prevalent (44.2%), followed by KRAS (18.8%), ALK (7.8%), and BRAF (5.8%) mutations. The type and abundance of the mutations in tumor specimens appeared to be heterogeneous. Thus, we conclude that identification of clinically significant oncogenic mutations may improve the classification of patients and provide valuable information for determination of the therapeutic strategies.

Ishikura N, Yanagisawa M, Noguchi-Sasaki M, et al.
Importance of Bevacizumab Maintenance Following Combination Chemotherapy in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Xenograft Models.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):623-629 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapeutics has shown significant survival benefit in clinical studies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Since bevacizumab was administered as standard treatment until disease progression, the importance of bevacizumab during the maintenance phase was not prospectively investigated in these studies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three human NSCLC cell line xenograft models were used to investigate antitumor effect of bevacizumab and tumor microvessel density (MVD) was analyzed.
RESULTS: In A549 and NCI-H292 models, bevacizumab maintenance following combination with paclitaxel exhibited stronger tumor suppression than its absence. In an NCI-H292 model, bevacizumab maintenance continuously inhibited increase of MVD. In an NCI-H2228 model following induction treatment with pemetrexed and bevacizumab, maintenance with pemetrexed plus bevacizumab, had stronger efficacy than pemetrexed alone and led to lower MVD and level of thymidylate synthase.
CONCLUSION: Continuous suppression of angiogenesis by bevacizumab may contribute to the superior efficacy of maintenance treatment containing bevacizumab.

Rafei H, El-Bahesh E, Finianos A, et al.
Immune-based Therapies for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):377-387 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has evolved tremendously over the past decade. Specifically, immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an increasingly interesting target of pharmacological blockade. These immune inhibitors have shown promising results in front-line therapy and after failure of multiple lines, as well as in monotherapy and combination with other therapies. Vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer is also an emerging field of research that holds promising results for the future of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. This review presents a concise update on the most recent data regarding the role of checkpoint inhibitors as well as vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer.

Koba T, Kijima T, Takimoto T, et al.
Rapid intracranial response to osimertinib, without radiotherapy, in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients harboring the EGFR T790M mutation: Two Case Reports.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(6):e6087 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Most of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations eventually acquire resistance to the first EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy after varying periods of treatment. Of note, approximately one-third of those patients develop brain metastases, which deteriorate their quality of life and survival. The effect of systemic chemotherapy on brain metastases after acquisition of EGFR-TKI resistance is limited, and thus far, whole-brain radiation therapy, which may cause the harmful effect on neurocognitive functions, has been the only established therapeutic option for especially symptomatic brain metastases. Osimertinib is a third-generation oral, potent, and irreversible EGFR-TKI. It can bind to EGFRs with high affinity even when the EGFR T790M mutation exists in addition to the sensitizing mutations. Its clinical efficacy for NSCLC patients harboring the T790M mutation has already been shown; however, the evidence of osimertinib on brain metastases has not been documented well, especially in terms of the appropriate timing for treatment and its response evaluation.
PATIENT CONCERNS, DIAGNOSES, AND INTERVENTIONS: We experienced 2 NSCLC patients with the EGFR T790M mutation; a 67-year-old woman with symptomatic multiple brain metastases administered osimertinib as seventh-line chemotherapy, and a 76-year old man with an asymptomatic single brain metastasis administered osimertinib as fifth-line chemotherapy.
OUTCOMES: These patients showed great response to osimertinib within 2 weeks without radiation therapy.
LESSONS: These are the first reports to reveal the rapid response of the brain metastases to osimertinib within 2 weeks. These cases suggest the possibility that preemptive administration of osimertinib may help patients to postpone or avoid radiation exposures. In addition, rapid reassessment of the effect of osimertinib on brain metastases could prevent patients from being too late to receive essential radiotherapy.

Yu N, Xiong Y, Wang C
Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:3692797 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy.

Jeong E, Hyun SH, Moon SH, et al.
Relation between tumor FDG uptake and hematologic prognostic indicators in stage I lung cancer patients following curative resection.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e5935 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hematologic parameters of systemic inflammation are receiving attention as promising prognostic indicators in cancer patients. Here, we investigated the relation and compared the prognostic values of circulating blood cell-based parameters and tumor F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in patients with stage I nonsmall cell lung cancers (NSCLC).Subjects were 1034 patients with newly diagnosed stage I NSCLC who underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) followed by curative resection. Total white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were obtained. Tumor FDG uptake was measured as SUVmax.WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and NLR demonstrated weak but significant correlation to tumor SUVmax. Using the upper quartile as cutoff, patients with high tumor SUVmax had significantly higher WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and greater NLR. There were 144 recurrences (13.9%) over a median follow-up of 29.5 months. On Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, WBC count, tumor SUVmax, age, gender, smoking, cell type, and tumor stage were significant univariate prognostic factors. On multivariate analysis, high tumor SUVmax (HR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.52-3.25; P < 0.001), tumor stage 1B (HR = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.47-3.01; P < 0.001), and old age (HR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P = 0.002) were significant independent predictors of poor survival. Finally, high tumor SUVmax remained a significant predictor of prognosis in both low and WBC count groups.Circulating blood counts showed significant correlation to tumor FDG uptake in early stage NSCLC. WBC count was a significant univariate variable, but tumor FDG uptake was a superior and independent predictor of outcome. Hence, tumor FDG uptake effectively stratified prognosis in patients with low as well as high WBC count.

Lin PY, Tsai CT, Chuang WL, et al.
Chlorella sorokiniana induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in vivo.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. Marine microalgae are a source of biologically active compounds and are widely consumed as a nutritional supplement in East Asian countries. It has been reported that Chlorella or Chlorella extracts have various beneficial pharmacological compounds that modulate immune responses; however, no studies have investigated the anti-cancer effects of Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of CS in two human NSCLC cell lines (A549 and CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells), and its effects on tumor growth in a subcutaneous xenograft tumor model. We also investigated the possible molecular mechanisms governing the pharmacological function of CS.
RESULTS: Our results showed that exposure of the two cell lines to CS resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in cell viability. In addition, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that CS might induce apoptosis in human NSCLC cells. Western blot analysis revealed that exposure to CS resulted in increased protein expression of the cleaved/activated forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP, except caspase-8. ZDEVD (caspase-3 inhibitor) and Z-LEHD (caspase-9 inhibitor) were sufficient at preventing apoptosis in both A549 and CL1-5 cells, proving that CS induced cell death via the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Exposure of A549 and CL1-5 cells to CS for 24 h resulted in decreased expression of Bcl-2 protein and increased expression of Bax protein as well as decreased expression of two IAP family proteins, survivin and XIAP.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that CS induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells via downregulation of Bcl-2, XIAP and survivin. In addition, we also found that the tumors growth of subcutaneous xenograft in vivo was markedly inhibited after oral intake of CS.

Zhou X, Wang W, Zhang S, et al.
CACNA1B (Cav2.2) Overexpression and Its Association with Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Unfavorable Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:6136401 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CACNA1B (Cav2.2) encodes an N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) ubiquitously expressed in brain and peripheral nervous system that is important for regulating neuropathic pain. Because intracellular calcium concentration is a key player in cell proliferation and apoptosis, VGCCs are implicated in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have identified CACNA1B (Cav2.2) being overexpressed in prostate and breast cancer tissues when compared to adjacent normal tissues; however, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been investigated. In this study, we determined the mRNA and protein expression of CACNA1B (Cav2.2) in NSCLC tumorous and adjacent nontumorous tissues by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC), respectively. CACNA1B (Cav2.2) protein expressions in tumorous tissues were correlated with NSCLC patients' clinical characteristics and overall survival. CACNA1B (Cav2.2) mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in NSCLC tumorous tissues than in nontumorous tissues. High CACNA1B (Cav2.2) protein expression was associated with higher TNM stages, and CACNA1B (Cav2.2) protein expression is an independent prognostic marker in NSCLC. Based on our results, we conclude that CACNA1B (Cav2.2) plays a role in NSCLC development and progression. Elucidating the underlying mechanism may help design novel treatment by specifically targeting the calcium regulation pathway for NSCLC, a devastating disease with increasing incidence and mortality in China.

Sun JM, Lee SH, Ahn JS, et al.
Osimertinib for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017; 18(2):225-231 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The T790 M mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is the most common mechanism underlying resistance to first- or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR TKI, shows robust clinical efficacy in patients with T790 M-mutated lung cancer. Areas covered: We analyzed and reviewed clinical data for which patients who experienced acquired resistance to first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs. In addition, we briefly reviewed the potential role of osimertinib as a first-line therapy. Expert opinion: Osimertinib was recently licensed for use in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to other EGFR TKIs due to a T790 M mutation. However, unresolved issues surrounding the optimal application of osimertinib remain, specifically the development of a plasma-based mutation test to overcome the difficulty of repeat biopsy, the efficacy of osimertinib for brain or leptomeningeal metastases, the development of resistance to osimertinib, and the use of osimertinib therapy as a first-line treatment. Many ongoing studies are currently exploring these issues.

Remon J, Le Rhun E, Besse B
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients: A continuing challenge in the personalized treatment era.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 53:128-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leptomeningeal metastasis is a fatal manifestation seen in advanced cancer patients. Its incidence is increasing, reaching 3.8% in molecularly unselected non-small cell lung cancer patients and up to 5% and 9% in ALK-rearranged and EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients, respectively. The prognosis remains poor despite systemic treatment, intrathecal chemotherapy, radiation therapy and personalized treatments in molecularly selected patients. However, new therapies with improved cerebral-spinal fluid penetration have been developed for subgroups of molecular selected patients indicating they could be promising therapeutic options for managing leptomeningeal disease. Systemic chemotherapy, which may be combined with intrathecal chemotherapy, remains standard treatment for lung cancer patients with leptomeningeal disease and a good-risk profile. We summarize evidence reported in the literature for managing this complication in lung cancer patients. Based on this, we have selected potential therapeutic strategies that could be used in daily clinical practice.

Matikas A, Mistriotis D, Georgoulias V, Kotsakis A
Targeting KRAS mutated non-small cell lung cancer: A history of failures and a future of hope for a diverse entity.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 110:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. However, the discovery of several oncogenic driver mutations and the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors resulted in improved clinical outcomes for most patients. Although activating KRAS mutations are the most common recurring molecular events in lung adenocarcinoma, little progress has been made during the past decades with no new agents being approved for this indication. The elucidation of the underlying biology of this diverse patient subgroup offers great potential and renewed hope regarding the rational development, rigorous evaluation and subsequent approval of novel targeted agents and combinations which will effectively suppress compensatory escape routes and the emergence of resistance, issues that have plagued previous attempts. Here, we review in a structured manner all aspects of KRAS positive non-small cell lung cancer, including the molecular biology, clinicopathologic characteristics, the prognostic and predictive value of KRAS mutations, as well as previous and contemporary approaches towards the treatment of this elusive target.

Abe Y, Tanaka N
The Hedgehog Signaling Networks in Lung Cancer: The Mechanisms and Roles in Tumor Progression and Implications for Cancer Therapy.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:7969286 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is classified into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several gene mutations that contribute to aberrant cell proliferation have been identified in lung adenocarcinoma, a part of NSCLC. Various anticancer drugs that target these mutated molecules have been developed for NSCLC treatment. However, although molecularly targeted drugs are initially effective for patients, the 5-year survival rate remains low because of tumor relapse. Therefore, more effective drugs for lung cancer treatment should be developed. The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway contributes to organ development and stem cell maintenance, and aberrant activation of this signaling pathway is observed in various cancers including lung cancer. In lung cancer, HH signaling pathway upregulates cancer cell proliferation and maintains cancer stem cells as well as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Furthermore, physical contact between CAFs and NSCLC cells induces HH signaling pathway activation in NSCLC cells to enhance their metastatic potential. Therefore, HH signaling pathway inhibitors could be a useful option for lung cancer therapy.

Kim GJ, Lee JH, Lee DH
Clinical and prognostic significance of Merkel cell polyomavirus in nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(3):e5413 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, an association between Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was reported. However, the underlying carcinogenic effects and the prognosis related to MCPyV are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the incidence and prognosis related to MCPyV infections in NSCLC.Tissue samples from 167 NSCLC patients (92 with squamous cell carcinomas [SCCs] and 75 with adenocarcinomas) were analyzed for the presence of MCPyV and EGFR mutations. Clinicopathological characteristics, disease-free survival rate, and overall survival rate were assessed with respect to MCPyV.MCPyV DNA was detected in 30 patients (18.0%) out of 167 patients, and EGFR mutations were found in 31 out of 127 patients (24.4%). EGFR mutations were more frequently detected in MCPyV-positive patients than in MCPyV-negative patients; however, this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.075). There was no difference in overall survival between patients with and without MCPyV infections. The disease-free survival rate of patients with pN0 stage, SCC, or EGFR mutations was lower for patients with MCPyV than without MCPyV (P = 0.036, 0.042, and 0.050, respectively).Although the prevalence of MCPyV infection was relatively low, the presence of MCPyV DNA was significantly correlated with cancer prognosis in subgroups of NSCLC patients. These results suggest that MCPyV may be partly associated with pathogenesis and prognosis in some cases of NSCLC.

Zhao Z, Wang J, Wang S, et al.
LncRNA CCAT2 promotes tumorigenesis by over-expressed Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:692-697 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains one of the most important death-related diseases, with poor effective diagnosis and less therapeutic biomarkers. LncRNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) was identified as an oncogenic lncRNA and over-expressed in many tumor cells. The aims of this study were to detect the correlation between CCAT2 and its regulatory genes and then explore the potential mechanism between them in NSCLC.
METHODS: In this study, qRT-PCR was used to detect CCAT2, Pokemon and p21 expression. Western-blot was used to detect protein levels of Pokemon and p21. CCK-8 assay and Transwell chambers were used to assess cell viability and invasion.
RESULTS: CCAT2 and Pokemon were over-expressed in NSCLC tissue and cells. In NSCLC cells, CCAT2 knockdown significantly decreased cell viability and invasion as well as Pokemon expression, but increased the expression of p21; then CCAT2 overexpression revealed an opposite result. In addition, over-expressed Pokemon reversed the results that induced by si-CCAT2, while down-regulation of Pokemon significantly reversed the results that induced by CCAT2 overexpression.
CONCLUSION: The results indicated that CCAT2 promotes tumorigenesis by over-expression of Pokemon, and the potential mechanism might relate to the Pokemon related gene p21.

Sugiura Y, Fujimoto H, Naruke M, et al.
The first rib hypoplasia and the aberrant pulmonary artery branch detected by three-dimensional computed tomography in a surgical case with apical lung cancer, a case report.
BMC Surg. 2017; 17(1):4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The complete resection is one of the most crucial requirements to achieve favorable outcomes in oncologic surgery. The apex of the lung is surrounded complicatedly by the clavicle, the first rib, the subclavian artery and vein, and the brachial plexus. Therefore, the image information especially about the infiltration of adjacent anatomic structures, facilitates the surgery in the apical lung cancer.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man presented at our hospital with a computed tomography (CT) scan showing a tumor at the left lung apex that infiltrated the chest wall. Two anatomical anomalies were found, which were the first rib hypoplasia and the aberrant pulmonary artery branch. The three-dimensional (3D) CT enhanced with using bolus tracking method, simultaneously revealed that the subclavian vessels existed between the clavicle and the second rib, and the left lingual pulmonary artery and the ventrobasal pulmonary artery diverged from the left main pulmonary artery as the first branch. We diagnosed the tumor as a primary lung squamous cell carcinoma that infiltrated the second rib, because sputum cytology suggested squamous cell carcinoma. Left lung upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection and chest wall resection (the second and third ribs) were performed with caution for the anatomical anomalies. The pathological diagnosis was pleomorphic carcinoma (5.0 × 3.0 × 1.9 cm) that invaded the second costal bone, and the pathological stage was confirmed to be pT3N0M0. Pathologically curative resection was accomplished. The patient was discharged from the hospital on 10 days after surgery.
CONCLUSION: The 3D-CT precisely detected the anomalous structure consisted with the clavicle, the second rib, the subclavian artery and vein, the aberrant pulmonary artery branch. In the present case with the apical lung cancer, the evaluation of the anatomical structure via 3D-CT facilitated to achieve a pathological complete resection.

Rossi A, Sacco PC, Santabarbara G, et al.
Developments in pharmacotherapy for treating metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017; 18(2):151-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Most patients with non-small cell lung (NSCLC), including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma, have advanced disease at diagnosis and systemic therapy is the standard-of-care. About 20% of Caucasian patients are affected by an oncogene-addicted advanced NSCLC for which correspondent inhibitors are available. Areas covered: The main state-of-the-art synthetic anticancer drugs in the groups of chemotherapeutics, epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors for NSCLC treatment, are reviewed and discussed from phase III randomized practice-changing trials onwards. A structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature and of main meetings using a focused review question was undertaken. Expert opinion: The survival of NSCLC patients is increasing, regardless of the presence or not of a specific target, due to the availability of new generation drugs. The continuous deep knowledge of the mechanisms of NSCLC development and the constant research into new drugs should lead to the discovery of new potential targets and the synthesis of corresponding inhibitors to improve the outcomes of each subgroup of patients in order to control the disease in a constantly growing percentage of patients.

Chung YC, Chen CH, Tsai YT, et al.
Litchi seed extract inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and growth of Two Non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Litchi seeds possess rich amounts of phenolics and have been shown to inhibit proliferation of several types of cancer cells. However, the suppression of EGFR signaling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by litchi seed extract (LCSE) has not been fully understood.
METHODS: In this study, the effects of LCSE on EGFR signaling, cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis in A549 adenocarcinoma cells and NCI- H661 large-cell carcinoma cells were examined.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that LCSE potently reduced the number of cancer cells and induced growth inhibition, cell-cycle arrest in the G1 or G2/M phase, and apoptotic death in the cellular experiment. Only low cytotoxicity effect was noted in normal lung MRC-5 cells. LCSE also suppressed cyclins and Bcl-2 and elevated Kip1/p27, Bax and caspase 8, 9 and 3 activities, which are closely associated with the downregulation of EGFR and its downstream Akt and Erk-1/-2 signaling.
CONCLUSION: The results implied that LCSE suppressed EGFR signaling and inhibited NSCLC cell growth. This study provided in vitro evidence that LCSE could serve as a potential agent for the adjuvant treatment of NSCLC.

Jiang S, Zhu R, He X, et al.
Enhanced photocytotoxicity of curcumin delivered by solid lipid nanoparticles.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2017; 12:167-178 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Curcumin (Cur) is a promising photosensitizer that could be used in photodynamic therapy. However, its poor solubility and hydrolytic instability limit its clinical use. The aim of the present study was to encapsulate Cur into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in order to improve its therapeutic activity. The Cur-loaded SLNs (Cur-SLNs) were prepared using an emulsification and low-temperature solidification method. The functions of Cur and Cur-SLNs were studied on the non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for photodynamic therapy. The results revealed that Cur-SLNs induced ~2.27-fold toxicity higher than free Cur at a low concentration of 15 μM under light excitation, stocking more cell cycle at G2/M phase. Cur-SLNs could act as an efficient drug delivery system to increase the intracellular concentration of Cur and its accumulation in mitochondria; meanwhile, the hydrolytic stability of free Cur could be improved. Furthermore, Cur-SLNs exposed to 430 nm light could produce more reactive oxygen species to induce the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot analysis revealed that Cur-SLNs increased the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9 proteins and promoted the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Overall, the results from these studies demonstrated that the SLNs could enhance the phototoxic effects of Cur.

Chisaki Y, Nakamura N, Yano Y
Time-Series Modeling and Simulation for Comparative Cost-Effective Analysis in Cancer Chemotherapy: An Application to Platinum-Based Regimens for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2017; 40(1):73-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to propose a time-series modeling and simulation (M&S) strategy for probabilistic cost-effective analysis in cancer chemotherapy using a Monte-Carlo method based on data available from the literature. The simulation included the cost for chemotherapy, for pharmaceutical care for adverse events (AEs) and other medical costs. As an application example, we describe the analysis for the comparison of four regimens, cisplatin plus irinotecan, carboplatin plus paclitaxel, cisplatin plus gemcitabine (GP), and cisplatin plus vinorelbine, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The factors, drug efficacy explained by overall survival or time to treatment failure, frequency and severity of AEs, utility value of AEs to determine QOL, the drugs' and other medical costs in Japan, were included in the model. The simulation was performed and quality adjusted life years (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated. An index, percentage of superiority (%SUP) which is the rate of the increased cost vs. QALY-gained plots within the area of positive QALY-gained and also below some threshold values of the ICER, was calculated as functions of threshold values of the ICER. An M&S process was developed, and for the simulation example, the GP regimen was the most cost-effective, in case of threshold values of the ICER=$70000/year, the %SUP for the GP are more than 50%. We developed an M&S process for probabilistic cost-effective analysis, this method would be useful for decision-making in choosing a cancer chemotherapy regimen in terms of pharmacoeconomic.

Ramírez-Bellver JL, Macías E, Bernárdez C, et al.
Anti-NXP2-Positive Paraneoplastic Dermatomyositis With Histopathologic Changes Confined to the Acrosyringia.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2017; 39(1):e3-e7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic syndromes consist of a group of disorders that are not related to the extension of the primary tumor or its metastases and that might be the first manifestation of a hidden neoplasm. It is a well-known association between dermatomyositis (DM) and cancer, especially gynecological tumors in women and lung cancer in men.
METHODS: We describe the case of a 67-year-old male who developed muscular weakness and pruritic skin lesions. Skin biopsies were performed and histologic findings were consistent with DM.
RESULTS: Skin biopsy showed interface dermatitis with vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer, dermal mucin deposits, and necrotic keratinocytes in the acrosyringia, a finding that has been previously reported in lupus erythematous but not in DM. Autoimmunity tests showed positivity for antinuclear antibodies and anti-NXP2, a recently described antibody associated with juvenile DM and, more rarely, with paraneoplastic DM.
CONCLUSION: We present the first case in the literature with histopathologic changes of DM affecting the acrosyringia. Besides, our patient autoimmunity results support the utility of the new myositis-specific autoantibodies and its relation with a clinical phenotype.

Michalak S, Rybacka-Mossakowska J, Ambrosius W, et al.
The Markers of Glutamate Metabolism in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Neurological Complications in Lung Cancer Patients.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:2895972 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective. To evaluate the involvement of glutamate metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the development of neurological complications in lung cancer and during chemotherapy. Methods. The prospective study included 221 lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutics. Neurological status and cognitive functions were evaluated at baseline and after 6-month follow-up. Glutamate level, the activities of glutaminase- (GLS-) glutamate synthetizing enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and glutamate decarboxylase catalyzing glutamate degradation were analyzed in PBMC and in sera of lung cancer patients by means of spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods. Results. Chemotherapy of lung neoplasms induced increase of glutamate content in PBMC and its concentration in serum increased the activity of GDH in PBMC and decreased activity of glutaminase in PBMC. The changes in glutamate metabolism markers were associated with initial manifestation of neurological deficit in lung cancer patients and with new symptoms, which appear as a complication of chemotherapy. Moreover, the analyzed parameters of glutamate control correlated with a spectrum of cognitive functions measures in lung cancer patients. Conclusion. We have demonstrated dysregulation in glutamate and glutamate metabolism controlling enzymes as promising indicators of risk for chemotherapy-induced neurological complications in lung cancer patients with particular emphasis on cognitive impairment.

Ma P, Zhang M, Nie F, et al.
Transcriptome analysis of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors resistance associated long noncoding RNA in non-small cell lung cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:20-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harbor mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can be therapeutically targeted by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as gefitinib, and show improved progression-free survival. However, most of the patients who are initially responsive to EGFR TKIs with activating EGFR mutations eventually develop acquired resistance after long-term therapy, and are followed by disease progression. Recently, diverse mechanisms of acquired EGFR TKI resistance have been reported, but little is known about the role of long noncoding RNAs in EGFR TKIs resistance. To gain insight into the expression pattern and potential function of lncRNAs in NSCLC cells EGFR-TKI resistance, we analyzed expression patterns in EGFR-TKIs-resistant cell lines and compared it with their parental sensitive cell line by using gene profiling datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Then, the expression levels of five chose lncRNAs were validated in PC9-gefitinib resistant cells (PC9G) and sensitive cells by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Among of these five lncRNAs, CASC9 expression was upregulated in PC9G and knockdown of its expression could increase the sensitivity of PC9G cells to gefitinib, while EWAST1 (LINC00227) is downregulated in PC9G cells and overexpressed EWAST1 also lead to increased sensitivity of PC9G cells to gefitinib. As indicated by GO analysis, the CASC9 and EWAST1 co-expressed genes are involved in several important pathways including regulation of cell growth, regulation of cell apoptosis and Chromatin assembly. Taken together, dysregulated lncRNAs play critical roles in EGFR-TKIs resistant NSCLC cells and might be used as novel potential targets to reverse EGFR-TKI resistance for NSCLC patients.

Li J, Yi W, Jiang P, et al.
Effects of ambroxol hydrochloride on concentrations of paclitaxel and carboplatin in lung cancer patients at different administration times.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(13):85-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous preliminary study revealed a synergistic effect of ambroxol hydrochloride with chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel and carboplatin in lung cancer. However, the optimal conditions such as administration time and drug concentration of ambroxol hydrochloride to achieve the maximum synergistic effect remained unclear. Therefore, concentration changes of the chemotherapy drugs paclitaxel and carboplatin in the sputum were observed after ambroxol hydrochloride administration at different times in order to determine the most effective time frame of ambroxol hydrochloride administration. In this study, 470 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were divided into different groups with ambroxol hydrochloride administered at different time points prior to chemotherapy, while another 171 cases received no ambroxol hydrochloride prior to chemotherapy. The results showed the concentrations of paclitaxel and carboplatin in sputum of patients treated with ambroxol hydrochloride were significantly higher than those of the control group, suggesting that ambroxol hydrochloride significantly increased the local concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents in lung tissues of NSCLC. Furthermore, the intravenous administration of ambroxol hydrochloride more than 48 hours before chemotherapy showed an optimized schedule and much greater efficacy in increasing drug concentrations than that of the control group. No statistical differences were found in the rates of grade 2 or above myelosuppression between the ambroxol intervention and control groups. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ambroxol hydrochloride administered intravenously more than 48 hours prior to chemotherapy optimally increased the concentrations of paclitaxel and carboplatin in lung tissue without significantly increasing hematologic toxicity.

Zhao T, Jin Y, Mao G, et al.
CYFRA 21-1 is an early predictor of chemotherapeutic effectiveness in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: An observational study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5748 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) has been found to be a useful prognostic marker in lung cancer. Previous studies have revealed that change in CYFRA21-1 synchronously predicted therapeutic effectiveness in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after the second cycle of chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the early predictive value of percentage change in serum CYFRA21-1 from pretreatment to completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy for chemotherapeutic effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients.Ninety-seven advanced NSCLC patients with elevated serum CYFRA21-1 level (≥3.8 μg/L), who received 2 platinum-containing drugs, were included in this retrospective study. Serum CYFRA21-1 had been assayed before and after the first cycle of chemotherapy. To evaluate the effectiveness of chemotherapy, patients were allocated to disease control (DC) and progressive disease groups. The percentage changes of serum CYFRA21-1 concentration before and after first-cycle chemotherapy that occurred in each group were evaluated for their ability to predict achievement of radiologic DC, that is, to predict therapeutic effectiveness.The percentage change of serum CYFRA21-1 and the prevalence of ≥5% weight loss were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with DC. The differences in other clinical and pathological variables including age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, cigarette smoking, histological type, gross type, clinical stage, and chemotherapy regimens of the 2 groups were not significant. Both multiple generalized linear model analysis and linear trend tests indicated that the percentage change of serum CYFRA21-1 concentration was independently and negatively linked to the effectiveness of chemotherapy for NSCLC (P < 0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the percentage change in prediction of DC was 0.84 and the optimal cut-off value was17.5% (P < 0.001).The percentage change of serum CYFRA21-1 after completing the first cycle of chemotherapy was predictive of treatment effects and might be helpful in making early decisions to change chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC.

Wang P, Zhang D, Guo XG, et al.
A propensity-matched analysis of surgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer in the elderly.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5723 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Elderly patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who undergo surgical resection are at a high risk of treatment-related complications. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is considered an alternative treatment option with a favorable safety profile. Given that prospective comparative data on SBRT and surgical treatments are limited, we compared the 2 treatments for early stage NSCLC in the elderly.We retrospectively collected information from the database at our geriatric institution on patients with clinical stage IA/B NSCLC who were treated with surgery or SBRT. The patients were matched using a propensity score based on gender, age, T stage, tumor location, pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% and FEV1), Charlson comorbidity score, and World Health Organization performance score. We compared locoregional control rate, recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) between the 2 treatment cohorts before and after propensity score matching.A total of 106 patients underwent surgery, and 74 received SBRT. Surgical patients were significantly younger (72.6 ± 7.9 vs 82.6 ± 4.1 years, P = 0.000), with a significantly higher rate of adenocarcinoma (P = 0.000), better Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance scores (P = 0.039), and better pulmonary function test results (P = 0.034 for predicted FEV1 and P = 0.032 for FEV1). In an unmatched comparison, there were significant differences in locoregional control (P = 0.0012) and RFS (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS was 69% in patients who underwent surgery and 44.6% in patients who underwent SBRT (P = 0.0007). The 5-year CSS was 73.9% in the surgery group and 57.5% in the SBRT group (P = 0.0029). Thirty-five inoperable or marginally operable surgical patients and 35 patients who underwent SBRT were matched to their outcomes in a blinded manner (1:1 ratio, caliper distance = 0.25). In this matched comparison, the follow-up period of this subgroup ranged from 4.2 to 138.1 months, with a median of 58.7 months. Surgery was associated with significantly better locoregional control (P = 0.0191) and RFS (P = 0.0178), whereas no significant differences were found in OS (5-year OS, 67.8% for surgery vs 47.4% for SBRT, P = 0.07) or CSS (67.8% for surgery vs 58.2% for SBRT, P = 0.1816).This retrospective analysis found superior locoregional control rates and RFS after surgery compared with SBRT, but there were no differences in OS or CSS. SBRT is an alternative treatment option to surgery in elderly NSCLC patients who cannot tolerate surgical resection because of medical comorbidities. Our findings support the need to compare the 2 treatments in randomized controlled trials.

Wang C, Yu X, Wang W
A meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5539 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-patients treated with standard chemotherapy experienced progression rapidly. A novel therapy based on programed death 1 (PD-1)/programed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors showed an increasing potential in several malignancies including advanced NSCLC.
OBJECTIVES: This article is a meta-analysis aiming to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of PD-1/PD-L1 agents in patients with NSCLC.
DATA SOURCES: Data were collected from eligible studies searched from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science.
SYNTHESIS METHODS: Pooled hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was estimated to assess the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors versus docetaxel, pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for objective response rate (ORR). The overall frequency was estimated for 1-year OS, 1-year progression-free survival, and ORR. A subgroup analysis among NSCLC patients tested with different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status was also performed to figure out the relationship between EGFR status and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. OR for occurrence of any grade and grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse effect was calculated for evaluating the safety of PD-1/PD-L1 therapies.
RESULTS: Nine studies were included in this analysis. The pooled HRs for OS and PFS were 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.75) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.91), respectively, the pooled OR for ORR was 1.83 (95% CI 1.41-2.36), indicating a significant improvement in OS, PFS, and ORR. In the results of subgroup analysis, the HR for OS in NSCLC patients was 1.05 (95% CI 0.69-1.59) in patients with mutant EGFR and 0.66 (95% CI 0.57-0.77) in patients with wild-type EGFR status. OR for occurrence was 0.36 (95% CI 0.28-0.46) in any grade treatment-related adverse effect and 0.18 (95% CI 0.14-0.22) in grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse effect, suggesting a superior safety profile of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: The PD-1/PD-L1 therapy significantly prolonged the OS and improved the ORR, simultaneously lowering the treatment-related adverse effect events versus docetaxel.

Gridelli C, Camerini A, Pappagallo G, et al.
Clinical and radiological features driving patient selection for antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Cancer Imaging. 2016; 16(1):44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The use of antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires thorough evaluation of patient characteristics in order to avoid potential safety issues, particularly pulmonary haemorrhage (PH). The aim of this consensus by a panel of experts was to identify important criteria for the selection of patients with NSCLC who would benefit from antiangiogenic therapy.
METHODS: Radiologists and oncologists were selected for the expert panel. The nominal group technique (NGT) and the Delphi questionnaire were used for consensus generation. The NGT consisted of four steps, the result of which was used to set the Delphi questionnaire. A final report was generated based on the opinions of the experts from the panel.
RESULTS: An extremely important prerequisite for the evaluation of an antiangiogenic therapeutic approach in patients with NSCLC was thorough clinical and radiological analysis of the relationships between tumour and vascular or anatomical structures (performed in close co-operation by oncologists and radiologists). The panel identified major parameters to be considered before the use of antiangiogenic treatment, collectively agreeing on the relevance of tumour cavitation, vascular infiltration, endobronchial growth and thromboembolism for chest tumour sites, and of the presence of aneurysms, extra-thoracic bleeding, brain metastases or thrombi for extra-thoracic sites. Moreover, a structured report containing information not only on the tumour but also on the general vascular status is essential to guide the treatment choice The experts agreed that tumour localization in the absence of vessel infiltration, cavitation, and the use of antiplatelet therapy are relevant parameters to be assessed, but their presence should not necessarily exclude a patient from receiving antiangiogenic therapy.
CONCLUSION: Close co-operation between oncologists and radiologists in the diagnosis, treatment selection, and assessment of response is essential for ensuring therapeutic appropriateness in the NSCLC setting. It should be noted that neither the use of antiplatelet therapy nor tumour localisation are to be considered as contraindications to antiangiogenic treatment.

Chudasama D, Barr J, Beeson J, et al.
Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells and Survival of Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):169-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients may predict survival. Various platforms exist that allow capture of these cells for further analysis; little work however, has been done with the ScreenCell device, an antibody-independent CTC platform. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ScreenCell device for detection of CTCs in lung cancer patients and to establish correlations of these findings with survival.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients, nine males, and fourteen females, underwent surgical treatment from February to May 2014 for non-small cell lung cancer. Thirteen patients had adenocarcinoma and ten squamous cell carcinoma, while eight were at an early stage (I-II) and five at a later stage (III-IV). Blood samples were obtained prior to surgery and following filtration through the ScreenCell device, were independently reviewed by 2 consultant pathologists.
RESULTS: The pathologists were able to independently identify CTCs in 78.3% (N=18) and 73.9% (N=17) of the cases examined, with overall 80.6% in early stages compared to 60.0% in late stages. The median survival times of positive vs. negative for CTC patients were 1011 and 711 days respectively, with a survival percentage rate of 77.8% and 60% in positive and negative CTC cohorts respectively.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the presence of CTCs analyzed by ScreenCell did not necessarily lead to a poorer prognosis in patients with lung cancer after curative surgery.

Cortinovis D, Gregorc V, Migliorino MR, et al.
New perspectives in the second-line treatment of non squamous NSCLC patients: Results from a large Italian Lung Cancer Working Group.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 109:35-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is still considered a big killer among cancer diseases, due to high incidence and mortality rates. The newer frontiers of therapeutic development regard the discovery of oncogene driven tumours: however, the majority of NSCLC patients are wild type and they cannot be treated with targeted based agents. The recent positive results obtained with immunotherapy and with the combination of angiogenesis inhibitors and docetaxel, changed the therapeutic scenario of the second line therapy of non squamous NSCLC without actionable mutations. A major issue is currently the lack of predictive biomarkers that could help the oncologists in the choice of the best second-line treatment. Aim of this project was to define an optimal therapeutic pathway for patients with non-squamous NSCLC, through a working group of a large number of Italian lung cancer oncologists. Panellists have identified and discussed the more significant criteria in the second-line setting for a therapeutic decision between the combination of angiogenesis inhibitors plus chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Finally, they expressed their preference on each criterion, building a proposal of a decision-making tree for a second-line treatment of non-squamous NSCLC.

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