Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped organs situated inside the chest, they bring oxygen into the body and take out waste carbon dioxide. There is a strong link between smoking and lung cancer. There are two main categories of lung cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) , and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). World-wide over 1 million people are diagnosed with lung cancer each year.
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MeSH term: Lung Neoplasms
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Synthesis and Characterization of Inhalable Flavonoid Nanoparticle for Lung Cancer Cell Targeting.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2016; 12(2):371-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prognostic significance of overexpressed matrix metalloproteinase-2, mouse-double minute: 2 homolog and epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer.
J BUON. 2016 Mar-Apr; 21(2):341-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted from 2003 to 2008 among 184 NSCLC patients who underwent tumor resection. Each patient's clinical history and tumor characteristics were obtained from histopathology reports and medical records. EGFR, MDM2 and MMP2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of the tissue specimens.
RESULTS: MDM2 overexpression was observed in 70 (38%) of the patients studied, and was significantly higher in younger patients (p=0.01). Only 46 (25%) of patients had overexpression of MMP2. EGFR positive staining occurred in 105 (57%percnt;) of the evaluated tumor specimens and was more frequent in specimens with squamous cell carcinoma (p<0.001), the elderly (p<0.001), and in smokers (p<0.001). Independent risk factors for mortality were older age (adjusted odds ratio/aOR 1.3=), being a smoker (aOR 10), having stage II disease (aOR 10.8) or stage III/IV disease (aOR 28.3), expression of EGFR (aOR 5.9) and MMP2 (aOR 4.1). However, the expression of MDM2 independently predicted a reduced risk of death (aOR 0.3).
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of MMP2 and EGFR were independent risk factors for mortality in NSCLC patients, while overexpression of MDM2 independently predicted a reduced risk of death.
Comparison of the efficacy of radiotherapy between postoperative mediastinal lymph node recurrence and stage III disease in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
J BUON. 2016 Mar-Apr; 21(2):333-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Patient characteristics, treatment response and survival were compared between NSCLC patients with mediastinal lymph node metastases treated between 2002-2009 by radiotherapy alone or by chemoradiotherapy (group A, N=33) and those with primary stage III disease (group B, N = 157).
RESULTS: Men accounted for 60.6% of group A and 78.9% of group B (p=0.04 patients). ECOG performance status 0 was detected in 78.7% of group A and 57.3% of group B (p=0.02). The response rates in groups A and B were 66.6 and 72.3%, respectively (p=0.64). Progression-free survival (PFS) was similar between groups A and B (median 15.0 vs 11.0 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.51-1.20; p=0.26). However, overall survival (OS) was better in group A than in group B (median 67.0 vs 39.0 months; HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.29-0.97; p=0.03). Postoperative PFS (median 12.5 vs 19.0 months; HR 1.50; 95% CI 0.64-3.49; p=0.34) and OS (median, 67.0 vs 60.0 months; HR 1.22; 95% CI 0.36-4.14; p=0.74) were similar between the group A treatments (radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Postoperative mediastinal lymph node recurrent NSCLC demonstrated distinctive features including better OS compared to patients with primary stage III disease, despite similar response rates and PFS.
A randomized study comparing the effectiveness of microwave ablation radioimmunotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
J BUON. 2016 Mar-Apr; 21(2):326-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Ninety-six patients with stage II and IIIa NSCLC were randomized into two groups. Group A included 49 patients who were treated with chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy 3-4 weeks after surgery. Group B included 47 patients treated with 131I-chTNT and PMCT sequentially, with follow-up chemotherapy.
RESULTS: The survival rates of patients in group A for the first and second years were 79.59% and 48.98%, respectively. The median survival was 23.0 months. Survival rates at 1 and 2 years for group B were 82.98% and 53.19%, respectively and the median survival was 29.1 months. The survival rate of group B patients for the first and second years was better compared with group A, and the difference in median survival between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, median survival and the incidence of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: 131I-chTNT radioimmunotherapy with PMCT has a complementary effect in NSCLC, which can effectively improve therapeutic ratio and survival of patients effectively and has the same effect as that of post-operative adjuvant chemoradiation.
MiR-31 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Lung Adenocarcinoma Mainly by Targeting HuR.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(4):711-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The levels of miR-31 and HuR in lung carcinoma cells and lung cancer tissues were explored using RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the target gene of miR-31. Cell apoptosis and migration were studied using flow cytometry and the transwell invasion assay. The down-stream genes of HuR were explored with western blot assay.
RESULTS: miR-31 was decreased in lung carcinoma cells and lung cancer tissues, while the protein level of HuR was increased. HuR was the target gene of miR-31. Inhibition of miR-31 and overexpression of HuR resulted in the upregulation of cyclins A2, B1, D1 and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). Furthermore, overexpression of miR-31 prompted lung cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited cell migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of miR-31 expression enhanced lung cancer proliferation and migration by repressing HuR expression.
Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing, Quantitative PCR, and Sanger Sequencing for Mutation Profiling of EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF in Clinical Lung Tumors.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(4):689-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 138 FFPE samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were examined in parallel with assays developed on the next-generation sequencing (NGS), quantitative PCR (QPCR), and Sanger sequencing (Sanger) platforms for somatic mutations in EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF. The assays with the three platforms were compared and analyzed.
RESULTS: Compared with Sanger, NGS and QPCR assays have significant higher sensitivity, as Sanger failed to detect variants with mutation rates lower than 15%. Meanwhile, NGS and QPCR assays showed similar analytical sensitivity, specificity, and high concordance. In addition, the NGS assay exhibited advantages over QPCR in providing accurate information of allele sequence and mutation frequency, and detecting non-hotspot mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: We reported the validation of NextDaySeq-Lung panel for mutation analysis in the clinical samples of lung cancer. The NGS assay has significant technical advantages over Sanger and QPCR assays. It shows good potential as a solid molecular diagnostics assay in the clinical setting.
The combination use of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) and gemcitabine inhibits cell growth and induces cell apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Pharmazie. 2016; 71(4):213-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development and Validation of Risk Models to Select Ever-Smokers for CT Lung Cancer Screening.
JAMA. 2016; 315(21):2300-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of modeled outcomes from risk-based CT lung-screening strategies vs USPSTF recommendations.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Empirical risk models for lung cancer incidence and death in the absence of CT screening using data on ever-smokers from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO; 1993-2009) control group. Covariates included age; education; sex; race; smoking intensity, duration, and quit-years; body mass index; family history of lung cancer; and self-reported emphysema. Model validation in the chest radiography groups of the PLCO and the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; 2002-2009), with additional validation of the death model in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; 1997-2001), a representative sample of the United States. Models were applied to US ever-smokers aged 50 to 80 years (NHIS 2010-2012) to estimate outcomes of risk-based selection for CT lung screening, assuming screening for all ever-smokers, yield the percent changes in lung cancer detection and death observed in the NLST.
EXPOSURES: Annual CT lung screening for 3 years beginning at age 50 years.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: For model validity: calibration (number of model-predicted cases divided by number of observed cases [estimated/observed]) and discrimination (area under curve [AUC]). For modeled screening outcomes: estimated number of screen-avertable lung cancer deaths and estimated screening effectiveness (number needed to screen [NNS] to prevent 1 lung cancer death).
RESULTS: Lung cancer incidence and death risk models were well calibrated in PLCO and NLST. The lung cancer death model calibrated and discriminated well for US ever-smokers aged 50 to 80 years (NHIS 1997-2001: estimated/observed = 0.94 [95%CI, 0.84-1.05]; AUC, 0.78 [95%CI, 0.76-0.80]). Under USPSTF recommendations, the models estimated 9.0 million US ever-smokers would qualify for lung cancer screening and 46,488 (95% CI, 43,924-49,053) lung cancer deaths were estimated as screen-avertable over 5 years (estimated NNS, 194 [95% CI, 187-201]). In contrast, risk-based selection screening of the same number of ever-smokers (9.0 million) at highest 5-year lung cancer risk (≥1.9%) was estimated to avert 20% more deaths (55,717 [95% CI, 53,033-58,400]) and was estimated to reduce the estimated NNS by 17% (NNS, 162 [95% CI, 157-166]).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among a cohort of US ever-smokers aged 50 to 80 years, application of a risk-based model for CT screening for lung cancer compared with a model based on USPSTF recommendations was estimated to be associated with a greater number of lung cancer deaths prevented over 5 years, along with a lower NNS to prevent 1 lung cancer death.
Lung Cancer Care Before and After Medicare Eligibility.
Inquiry. 2016; 53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenocarcinoma of Lung Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2015 Oct-Dec; 57(4):239-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pulmonary Tumourlets: Case Report and Review of Literature.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2015 Oct-Dec; 57(4):235-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) Polymorphism Predicts Prognosis of Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer after Chemoradiotherapy.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(3):301-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: This study included 152 surgically resected NSCLC patients and 277 chemoradiotherapy treated inoperable cases. DNA samples from each patient were genotyped for DUSP6 and TOP2A SNPs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard model were used to evaluate the association between these variants and NSCLC overall survival.
RESULTS: DUSP6 rs2279574 A/A genotype was associated with significantly poor inoperable NSCLC patient overall survival (A/A vs. C/C, adjusted HR = 1.549, 95% CI = 1.019-2.355). Stratification analysis against clinical stage, histology, weight loss, and ECOG performance status revealed that the DUSP6 rs2279574 A/A variant homozygous genotype is associated with a decrease in survival of stage IV NSCLC patients compared to those with the C/C genotype (log-rank, p = 0.003). No association was found among histology, weight loss, and ECOG performance status. Moreover, there was no association of TOP2A SNPs between clinicopathological and survival data.
CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained from the current study demonstrated that functional DUSP6 rs2279574 polymorphism was able to predict inoperable NSCLC patient survival after chemoradiotherapy.
A Preliminary Study on RCN3 Protein Expression in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(3):293-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this study a total of 41 paired NSCLC specimens (cancer group) and the adjacent normal tissues (control group) were obtained from patients undergoing lung lobectomy or pneumonectomy surgeries in Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University. The RCN3 mRNA and protein level in each clinical sample was determined using quantitative real time-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis was utilized to compare the protein expressional patterns of RCN3 between the two clinical sample groups.
RESULTS: Immunoblotting showed that levels of RCN3 protein in the NSCLC tissues were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.001), suggesting ER stress is closely associated with the cancer cells. Accordingly, the ER stress protein GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78, also known as BIP) was remarkably upregulated in the cancer group (p < 0.05). Within the cancer group, a significant difference in RCN3 protein expression was observed in squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma (p < 0.05). In the lung cancer group, however, RCN3 protein levels were not correlated with the age and the gender. In addition, RCN3 mRNA levels showed no significant difference between the cancer and the control groups, suggesting that the differential regulation of RCN3 is likely at post-transcription stage in NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that RCN3 protein level was significantly down regulated in NSCLC, suggesting a potential correlation between RCN3 protein depletion and development of NSCLC. Although the exact cause-effect relationship between RCN3 and NSCLC needs to be further investigated, the study helps to shed additional lights on the molecular regulation of the lung cancer.
A case of endobronchial leiomyoma treated by sleeve resection of the right upper lobe bronchus.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2016; 73(2):208-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE REPORT: The presented case, 39-year-old male, had been admitted to our hospital complaining of hemoptysis. Chest X-ray showed no abnormality in either lung field, but computed tomography scan found the tumor in the upper right bronchus. The diagnosis was made by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimens obtained during bronchoscopy.
CONCLUSION: The presented patient was treated by thoracotomy and sleeve resection of the right upper lobe bronchus with the removal of all the tumor.
Factors related to local recurrence of non small cell lung cancer and its operability.
J BUON. 2016 Jan-Feb; 21(1):221-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The research was conducted on 114 patients with NSCLC and LR that had initial surgery in two reference institutes in Serbia from January 2002 to December 2010. PT size and disease stage were defined according to the revised 2004 WHO classification. PTs were grouped by size into 3 categories. Due to great diversity, surgical procedures were sorted into 6 operation types. Standard statistical methods and tests were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed significant difference in DFS and LR reoperability that were related to PT size, disease stage and the extent of initial surgery. LR localization on the chest wall was favorable for secondary surgery due to LR.
CONCLUSIONS: Squamous cell lung carcinoma relapses locally more frequently than other lung tumor types, and the commonest LR site is the chest wall. This localization provides high possibility for surgical retreatment. Adequate staging, proper indications for surgical treatment and quality surgery provide longer DFS in patients with NSCLC. All these suggest that the surgeon may be considered as the most significant factor of prognosis.
Expression profiles of SMAD1 protein in lung cancer tissues and normal tissues and its effect on lung cancer incidence.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jan-Mar; 30(1):165-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary small cell carcinoma of the vagina with pulmonary metastasis: a case report.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):129-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Can calcified pulmonary metastases detected by (18)F-FDG PET/CT suggest the primary tumor?
Hell J Nucl Med. 2016 Jan-Apr; 19(1):10-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic Lung Carcinoma Involving the Maxillary Gingiva.
J Okla State Med Assoc. 2016; 109(1):15-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Community-Guided Focus Group Analysis to Examine Cancer Disparities.
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2016; 10(1):159-67 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the collaborative process our partnership used to conduct focus groups and to code and analyze the data to inform two components of the ACCURE intervention: 1) a "power analysis" of the cancer care system and 2) the development of the intervention's training component, Healthcare Equity Education and Training (HEET), for cancer center providers and staff.
METHODS: Using active involvement of community and academic partners at every stage in the process, we engaged Black and White breast and lung cancer survivors at two partner cancer centers in eight focus group discussions organized by race and cancer type. Participants were asked to describe "pressure point encounters" or critical incidents during their journey through the cancer system that facilitated or hindered their willingness to continue treatment. Community and academic members collaborated to plan and develop materials, conduct focus groups, and code and analyze data.
CONCLUSIONS: A collaborative qualitative data analysis process strengthened the capacity of our community-medical-academic partnership, enriched our research moving forward, and enhanced the transparency and accountability of our research approach.
ECTOPIC ACTH SECRETION WITH CONCOMITANT HYPERAMYLASEMIA IN A PATIENT WITH SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA: CASE REPORT.
Acta Clin Croat. 2015; 54(4):536-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Research Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of the Invasion and Metastasis of Lung Cancer.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2016; 38(1):108-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Macroscopic Appearance of Computed Tomography-guided Needle Biopsy Specimens Correlates with Tumor Metastasis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Osaka City Med J. 2015; 61(2):105-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 111 patients who underwent CT-guided lung needle biopsy at Osaka City University Hospital between May 2009 and May 2013 were enrolled. Macroscopic appearance was categorized as either loose or tight cohesion. Samples were evaluated using Azan staining to detect collagen fibers. The staining intensity was multiplied by the percentage of positive cells, and the specimen was categorized as having either low (<100) or high expression ( ≥100). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate significant covariates for tumor metastasis.
RESULTS: In the cohort of 111 patients, the diagnostic rates in loose and tight cohesions were 82.6% and 87.5%, respectively (p=0.509). In 60 patients diagnosed with NSCLC, Azan staining of collagen fibers was positive in 93.5% of the samples with tight cohesion and 28.6% of the samples with loose cohesion (p<0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression models, distant metastasis was significantly associated with loose cohesion (p=0.026).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the macroscopic appearance of CT-guided biopsy samples correlates with tumor metastasis in NSCLC.
Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening: Radiology, Pathology, and Clinical Management.
Oncology (Williston Park). 2016; 30(3):266-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Visualization of immediate immune responses to pioneer metastatic cells in the lung.
Nature. 2016; 531(7595):513-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2017 Related Publications
Atezolizumab versus docetaxel for patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (POPLAR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial.
Lancet. 2016; 387(10030):1837-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial, patients with NSCLC who progressed on post-platinum chemotherapy were recruited in 61 academic medical centres and community oncology practices across 13 countries in Europe and North America. Key inclusion criteria were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1), and adequate haematological and end-organ function. Patients were stratified by PD-L1 tumour-infiltrating immune cell status, histology, and previous lines of therapy, and randomly assigned (1:1) by permuted block randomisation (with a block size of four) using an interactive voice or web system to receive intravenous atezolizumab 1200 mg or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks. Baseline PD-L1 expression was scored by immunohistochemistry in tumour cells (as percentage of PD-L1-expressing tumour cells TC3≥50%, TC2≥5% and <50%, TC1≥1% and <5%, and TC0<1%) and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (as percentage of tumour area: IC3≥10%, IC2≥5% and <10%, IC1≥1% and <5%, and IC0<1%). The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population and PD-L1 subgroups at 173 deaths. Biomarkers were assessed in an exploratory analysis. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01903993.
FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled between Aug 5, 2013, and March 31, 2014. 144 patients were randomly allocated to the atezolizumab group, and 143 to the docetaxel group. 142 patients received at least one dose of atezolizumab and 135 received docetaxel. Overall survival in the intention-to-treat population was 12·6 months (95% CI 9·7-16·4) for atezolizumab versus 9·7 months (8·6-12·0) for docetaxel (hazard ratio [HR] 0·73 [95% CI 0·53-0·99]; p=0·04). Increasing improvement in overall survival was associated with increasing PD-L1 expression (TC3 or IC3 HR 0·49 [0·22-1·07; p=0·068], TC2/3 or IC2/3 HR 0·54 [0·33-0·89; p=0·014], TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 HR 0·59 [0·40-0·85; p=0·005], TC0 and IC0 HR 1·04 [0·62-1·75; p=0·871]). In our exploratory analysis, patients with pre-existing immunity, defined by high T-effector-interferon-γ-associated gene expression, had improved overall survival with atezolizumab. 11 (8%) patients in the atezolizumab group discontinued because of adverse events versus 30 (22%) patients in the docetaxel group. 16 (11%) patients in the atezolizumab group versus 52 (39%) patients in the docetaxel group had treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events, and one (<1%) patient in the atezolizumab group versus three (2%) patients in the docetaxel group died from a treatment-related adverse event.
INTERPRETATION: Atezolizumab significantly improved survival compared with docetaxel in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Improvement correlated with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry expression on tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells, suggesting that PD-L1 expression is predictive for atezolizumab benefit. Atezolizumab was well tolerated, with a safety profile distinct from chemotherapy.
FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech Inc.
Computed Tomographic and Pathological Features of Primary Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2016; 38(1):93-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The clinical data and CT images of 20 patients with pathologically confirmed PSC were retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: Solitary pulmonary mass was identified in 18 patients and multiple pulmonary masses in 2 patients, amounting to 22 masses. There were 17 peripheral masses and 5 central masses, including 11 masses larger than 5 cm. The smooth margin was identified in 9 masses, deep lobulation and/or spinous protuberance in 11 masses, and ill-defined margin in 2 masses. Pleural indentation was identified in 2 masses and pleural thickening with wide basement was identified in 14 masses. On plain CT, cavity was observed in 5 masses, hypo-density in 7 masses, and homogeneous density in 10 masses. On contrast-enhanced CT scanning, irregular ring/patchy enhancement were shown in 15 masses and slightly homogenous enhancement in 2 masses. Of all patients, 6 patients had unilateral or bilateral hilar and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. There were 16 pleomorphic carcinomas and 4 spindle cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, anti-pan cytokeratin antibody was positive in 13 patients, cytokeratin was positive in 8 patients, Vimentin was positive in 15 patients, epithelial membrane antigen was positive in 1 patient, and thyroid transcription factor-1 was positive in 8 patients.
CONCLUSION: PSC has some specific CT features; however, the final confirmation of PSC still depends on pathological and immunohistochemical examinations.
Nutritional knowledge, diet quality and breast or lung cancer risk: a case-control study of adults from Warmia and Mazury region in Poland.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2016; 67(1):9-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge, diet quality and risk of breast cancer in women or lung cancer in men from the Warmia and Mazury region in Poland.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 202 subjects aged 23-80 years, including 107 women (17 cases of breast cancer) and 95 men (54 cases of lung cancer) from the Warmia and Mazury region in Poland. Nutritional knowledge was evaluated with the Questionnaire of Eating Behaviours (QEB), including 25 statements. Based on the frequency of the consumption of 16 food items, two diet quality indices were created: the pro-Healthy-Diet-Index-8 (pHDI-8) and the non-Healthy-Diet-Index-8 (nHDI-8). The values of pHDI-8 and nHDI-8 were calculated on the basis of the sum of the daily frequency of consumption of the selected food items and expressed as times/day. The Odds Ratio (OR) of both breast cancer or lung cancer in relation to the level of nutritional knowledge was calculated based on a logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: The incidence of breast or lung cancer in the bottom, middle and upper tertile of nutritional knowledge was 57.6%, 32.6% and 15.8%, respectively. As nutritional knowledge grew in the subsequent tertiles, pHDI-8 was on the increase (2.63 vs. 3.78 vs. 4.22 times/day) and n-HDI-8 was on the decrease (1.32 vs. 1.21 vs. 0.94 times/day). In the upper tertile of nutritional knowledge, the Odds Ratio for the incidence of breast or lung cancers varied from 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.17; p<0.05, with adjustment for cancer type and age) to 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04; 0.69; p<0.05, with adjustment for age and sex) when compared to the bottom tertile (OR=1.00). In the middle tertile of nutritional knowledge, the Odds Ratio of both cancers varied from 0.27 (95% CI: 0.12; 0.62, p<0.05, with adjustment for cancer type and age) to 0.35 (95% CI: 0.18; 0.71, p<0.05, variables without adjustment) when compared to the bottom tertile.
CONCLUSIONS: A higher level of nutritional knowledge was associated with the higher quality of a pro-healthy diet and lower risk of breast cancer in women or lung cancer in men. In contrast, a lower level of nutritional knowledge was associated with a lower diet quality and a higher risk of both types of cancers.
Effect of compound Kushen injection on T-cell subgroups and natural killer cells in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy.
J Tradit Chin Med. 2016; 36(1):14-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We randomly divided 60 patients with locally advanced NSCLC who were treated at our hospital between May 2011 and May 2013 into a treatment group and a control group by drawing. The treatment group (n = 30) received concomitant radiochemotherapy plus compound Keshen injection, and the control group (n = 30) received only radiochemotherapy.
RESULTS: After treatment, levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ and CD16+/CD56+ cells had significantly increased, and CD8+ cells had significantly decreased, in the treatment group compared with both their pretreatment levels and with levels in the control group. In the control group, post-treatment levels of CD3 +, CD4 +, CD4 +/CD8 + and CD16+/CD56+ cells were not significantly changed from pretreatment levels. The two groups did not significantly differ in their rates of toxicity reactions (P> 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Compound Kushen injections can increase immunologic function in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer who receive concomitant radiochemotherapy.
Nicotine-induced resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to treatment--possible mechanisms.
Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2016; 70:186-93 [PubMed] Related Publications