Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (11)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

CDKN2A 9p21.3 ARF, MLM, P14, P16, P19, CMM2, INK4, MTS1, TP16, CDK4I, CDKN2, INK4A, MTS-1, P14ARF, P19ARF, P16INK4, P16INK4A, P16-INK4A -CDKN2A Deletion in Mesothelioma
NF2 22q12.2 ACN, SCH, BANF -NF2 Mutations in Mesothelioma
WT1 11p13 GUD, AWT1, WAGR, WT33, NPHS4, WIT-2, EWS-WT1 Prognostic
-WT1 expression in Mesothelioma
BAP1 3p21.1 UCHL2, hucep-6, HUCEP-13 -BAP1 and Mesothelioma
-BAP1 Germline Mutations in Mesothelioma
TP53 17p13.1 P53, BCC7, LFS1, TRP53 -TP53 Transfer to Mesothelioma Cells (Gene Therapy)
-TP53 mutation in Mesothelioma
PTEN 10q23.31 BZS, DEC, CWS1, GLM2, MHAM, TEP1, MMAC1, PTEN1, 10q23del -PTEN expression in Mesothelioma
LATS2 13q12.11 KPM -LATS2 inactivation in Mesothelioma
MSLN 16p13.3 MPF, SMRP -MSLN and Mesothelioma
MME 3q25.2 NEP, SFE, CD10, CALLA, CMT2T, SCA43 -MME and Mesothelioma
THBS1 15q14 TSP, THBS, TSP1, TSP-1, THBS-1 -THBS1 Expression in Mesothelioma
DTX2P1-UPK3B 7q11.23 PMS2L11 -DTX2P1-UPK3B and Mesothelioma

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Recurrent Chromosome Abnormalities

Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities

This is a highly selective list aiming to capture structural abnormalies which are frequesnt and/or significant in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, and/or characterising specific cancers. For a much more extensive list see the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer.

14q Deletions in Mesothelioma (14q11-q12 and 14q23-q24)

CGH studies indicate that loss of material from chromosome 14q is one of the most frequent aberrations in mesothelioma. A Finnish LOH study of primary tumour samples (Bjorkqvist, 1999) found 10/18 (56%) had 14q loss, with the most commonly involved regions being 14q11.1-q12 and 14q23-q24. Similarly, in an American series (De Rienzo, 2000) 13/30 (43%) of tumours had LOH(14q) and 3 distinct regions were identified as 14q11.2-13.2, 14q22.3-24.3, and 14q32.12.

Björkqvist AM, Wolf M, Nordling S, et al.
Deletions at 14q in malignant mesothelioma detected by microsatellite marker analysis.
Br J Cancer. 1999; 81(7):1111-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous molecular cytogenetic studies by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on primary tumours of human malignant mesothelioma have revealed that loss of genetic material at chromosome 14q is one of the most frequently occurring aberrations. Here we further verify the frequency and pattern of deletions at 14q in mesothelioma. A high-resolution deletion mapping analysis of 23 microsatellite markers was performed on 18 primary mesothelioma tumours. Eight of these had previously been analysed by CGH. Loss of heterozygosity or allelic imbalance with at least one marker was detected in ten of 18 tumours (56%). Partial deletions of varying lengths were more common than loss of all informative markers, which occurred in only one tumour. The highest number of tumours with deletions at a specific marker was detected at 14q11.1-q12 with markers D14S283 (five tumours), D14S972 (seven tumours) and D14S64 (five tumours) and at 14q23-q24 with markers D14S258 (five tumours), D14S77 (five tumours) and D14S284 (six tumours). We conclude from these data that genomic deletions at 14q are more common than previously reported in mesothelioma. Furthermore, confirmation of previous CGH results was obtained in all tumours but one. This tumour showed deletions by allelotyping, but did not show any DNA copy number change at 14q by CGH. Although the number of tumours allelotyped was small and the deletion pattern was complex, 14q11.1-q12 and 14q23-q24 were found to be the most involved regions in deletions. These regions provide a good basis for further molecular analyses and may highlight chromosomal locations of tumour suppressor genes that could be important in the tumorigenesis of malignant mesothelioma.

De Rienzo A, Jhanwar SC, Testa JR
Loss of heterozygosity analysis of 13q and 14q in human malignant mesothelioma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000; 28(3):337-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic investigations of malignant mesothelioma (MM) have revealed frequent losses in chromosomes 13 and 14, suggesting that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) residing in these chromosomes may contribute to mesothelial cell tumorigenesis. To define the shortest region of overlap (SRO) of deletions from these chromosomes, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses on 30 MMs using 25 microsatellite markers in 13q and 21 markers in 14q. Twenty of the 30 MMs (67%) showed allelic loss of at least one marker in 13q. The SRO of deletions was delineated as an approximately 7 centiMorgan region, flanked by markers D13S1253 and D13S291, located at 13q13.3-14.2. Thirteen of the 30 MMs (43%) displayed allelic losses from 14q, with at least three distinct regions of LOH located at segments q11.2-13.2, q22.3-24.3, and q32. 12. These data highlight a single region of chromosomal loss in 13q in many MMs, implicating the involvement of a TSG that is critical to the pathogenesis of this malignancy. In contrast, the lower incidence and diffuse pattern of allelic losses in 14q suggest that several TSGs in this chromosome arm may contribute to tumorigenic progression in a subset of MMs. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 28:337-341, 2000.

Latest Publications

Blum Y, Meiller C, Quetel L, et al.
Dissecting heterogeneity in malignant pleural mesothelioma through histo-molecular gradients for clinical applications.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1333 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is recognized as heterogeneous based both on histology and molecular profiling. Histology addresses inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity in MPM and describes three major types: epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic, a combination of the former two types. Molecular profiling studies have not addressed intra-tumor heterogeneity in MPM to date. Here, we use a deconvolution approach and show that molecular gradients shed new light on the intra-tumor heterogeneity of MPM, leading to a reconsideration of MPM molecular classifications. We show that each tumor can be decomposed as a combination of epithelioid-like and sarcomatoid-like components whose proportions are highly associated with the prognosis. Moreover, we show that this more subtle way of characterizing MPM heterogeneity provides a better understanding of the underlying oncogenic pathways and the related epigenetic regulation and immune and stromal contexts. We discuss the implications of these findings for guiding therapeutic strategies, particularly immunotherapies and targeted therapies.

Wang Y, Jiang Z, Yan J, Ying S
HMGB1 as a Potential Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Malignant Mesothelioma.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:4183157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare, aggressive, and highly lethal cancer that is substantially induced by exposure to asbestos fibers. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an intriguing proinflammatory molecule involved in MM. In this review, we describe the possible crucial roles of HMGB1 in carcinogenic mechanisms based on

Shrestha R, Nabavi N, Lin YY, et al.
BAP1 haploinsufficiency predicts a distinct immunogenic class of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.
Genome Med. 2019; 11(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (PeM) is a rare and fatal cancer that originates from the peritoneal lining of the abdomen. Standard treatment of PeM is limited to cytoreductive surgery and/or chemotherapy, and no effective targeted therapies for PeM exist. Some immune checkpoint inhibitor studies of mesothelioma have found positivity to be associated with a worse prognosis.
METHODS: To search for novel therapeutic targets for PeM, we performed a comprehensive integrative multi-omics analysis of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome of 19 treatment-naïve PeM, and in particular, we examined BAP1 mutation and copy number status and its relationship to immune checkpoint inhibitor activation.
RESULTS: We found that PeM could be divided into tumors with an inflammatory tumor microenvironment and those without and that this distinction correlated with haploinsufficiency of BAP1. To further investigate the role of BAP1, we used our recently developed cancer driver gene prioritization algorithm, HIT'nDRIVE, and observed that PeM with BAP1 haploinsufficiency form a distinct molecular subtype characterized by distinct gene expression patterns of chromatin remodeling, DNA repair pathways, and immune checkpoint receptor activation. We demonstrate that this subtype is correlated with an inflammatory tumor microenvironment and thus is a candidate for immune checkpoint blockade therapies.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal BAP1 to be a potential, easily trackable prognostic and predictive biomarker for PeM immunotherapy that refines PeM disease classification. BAP1 stratification may improve drug response rates in ongoing phases I and II clinical trials exploring the use of immune checkpoint blockade therapies in PeM in which BAP1 status is not considered. This integrated molecular characterization provides a comprehensive foundation for improved management of a subset of PeM patients.

Borchert S, Wessolly M, Schmeller J, et al.
Gene expression profiling of homologous recombination repair pathway indicates susceptibility for olaparib treatment in malignant pleural mesothelioma in vitro.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumour arising from pleural cavities with poor prognosis. Multimodality treatment with pemetrexed combined with cisplatin shows unsatisfying response-rates of 40%. The reasons for the rather poor efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment are largely unknown. However, it is conceivable that DNA repair mechanisms lead to an impaired therapy response. We hypothesize a major role of homologous recombination (HR) for genome stability and survival of this tumour. Therefore, we analysed genes compiled under the term "BRCAness". An inhibition of this pathway with olaparib might abrogate this effect and induce apoptosis.
METHODS: We investigated the response of three MPM cell lines and lung fibroblasts serving as a control to treatment with pemetrexed, cisplatin and olaparib. Furthermore, we aimed to find possible correlations between response and gene expression patterns associated with BRCAness phenotype. Therefore, 91 clinical MPM samples were digitally screened for gene expression patterns of HR members.
RESULTS: A BRCAness-dependent increase of apoptosis and senescence during olaparib-based treatment of BRCA-associated-protein 1 (BAP1)-mutated cell lines was observed. The gene expression pattern identified could be found in approx. 10% of patient samples. Against this background, patients could be grouped according to their defects in the HR system. Gene expression levels of Aurora Kinase A (AURKA), RAD50 as well as DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) could be identified as prognostic markers in MPM.
CONCLUSIONS: Defects in HR compiled under the term BRCAness are a common event in MPM. The present data can lead to a better understanding of the underlaying cellular mechanisms and leave the door wide open for new therapeutic approaches for this severe disease with infaust prognosis. Response to Poly (ADP-ribose)-Polymerase (PARP)-Inhibition could be demonstrated in the BAP1-mutated NCI-H2452 cells, especially when combined with cisplatin. Thus, this combination therapy might be effective for up to 2/3 of patients, promising to enhance patients' clinical management and outcome.

Neviere Z, Berthet P, Polycarpe F, et al.
[Malignant mesothelioma and constitutional BAP1 gene mutations].
Rev Mal Respir. 2019; 36(2):241-248 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumour, usually the result of asbestos exposure. Several cases of familial aggregation have been reported and recently shown to be associated with constitutional mutations of the BAP1 gene. BAP1 is a deubiquitinating enzyme implicated in several different cellular mechanisms such as the repair or differentiation of DNA. About a half of malignant mesotheliomas present a somatic, bi-allelic inactivation of BAP1, demonstrated by nuclear extinction on histochemistry. Constitutional alterations of BAP1 are extremely rare. Present in the heterozygous state they are transmitted as an autosomal dominant. They are associated with a risk of developing other tumours such as uveal and cutaneous melanomas, benign melanocytic tumours (melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumour or MBAITS) and clear cell renal carcinomas. The causal link between mesothelioma and germinal mutations of BAP1 has still not been clearly identified. At present there is, in France, no consensus on recommendations for the management of patients with these mutations. This article is a synthesis of the literature on the functions of the BAP1 gene, the tumour risks related to its alteration and the follow up of patients bearing a constitutional mutation.

Guazzelli A, Meysami P, Bakker E, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a cancer with poor prognosis and resistance to standard treatments. Recent reports have highlighted the role of the

Sépult C, Bellefroid M, Rocks N, et al.
ADAM10 mediates malignant pleural mesothelioma invasiveness.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(18):3521-3534 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options and treatment efficiency. Even if the latency period between asbestos exposure, the main risk factor, and mesothelioma development is very long, the local invasion of mesothelioma is very rapid leading to a mean survival of one year after diagnosis. ADAM10 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) sheddase targets membrane-bound substrates and its overexpression is associated with progression in several cancers. However, nothing is known about ADAM10 implication in MPM. In this study, we demonstrated higher ADAM10 expression levels in human MPM as compared to control pleural samples and in human MPM cell line. This ADAM10 overexpression was also observed in murine MPM samples. Two mouse mesothelioma cell lines were used in this study including one primary cell line obtained by repeated asbestos fibre injections. We show, in vitro, that ADAM10 targeting through shRNA and pharmacological (GI254023X) approaches reduced drastically mesothelioma cell migration and invasion, as well as for human mesothelioma cells treated with siRNA targeting ADAM10. Moreover, ADAM10 downregulation in murine mesothelioma cells significantly impairs MPM progression in vivo after intrapleural cell injection. We also demonstrate that ADAM10 sheddase downregulation decreases the production of a soluble N-cadherin fragment through membrane N-cadherin, which stimulated mesothelioma cell migration. Taken together, we demonstrate that ADAM10 is overexpressed in MPM and takes part to MPM progression through the generation of N-cadherin fragment that stimulates mesothelioma cell migration. ADAM10 inhibition is worth considering as a therapeutic perspective in mesothelioma context.

Bahnasy AA, El-Din RS, Sabri NA, et al.
BAP1 gene mutations in Egyptian patients with advanced sporadic malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM): relation with clinical outcomes and survival.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:83-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal cancer with few therapeutic options. Patients with MPM have a poor prognosis, with estimated 1 year median survival and currently no treatment is curative. The BRCA associated protein 1 (BAP1) has the highest prevalence of protein-altering mutations identified in MPM.
AIMS: Assessment of the frequency and pattern of BAP1 gene mutations in Egyptian patients with advanced sporadic MPM in relation to disease progression and survival rates in order to identify a novel therapeutic target for MPM.
METHODS: This prospective, cohort study included 122 patients who were diagnosed and treated as advanced MPM. BAP1 gene mutations were assessed from circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing and these mutations have been confirmed using the tumor tissue. BAP1 immunohistochemistry was performed using the Dako Envision visualization system. The relationship between BAP1 gene mutations, PFS and OS rates was assessed using the log rank test. The relationship between BAP1 gene mutations, clinical response and patient's clinicopathological characteristics was assessed using chi-square test.
RESULTS: Forty seven (38.5%) MPM cases showed one or more mutations in BAP1 gene. The presence of BAP1 mutations associated significantly with BAP1 protein expression (p < 0.001), the incidence of organ metastasis (p = 0.04), PFS after second line treatment (p = 0.04) and clinical response after second line treatment (p = 0.01) only.
CONCLUSION: BAP1 gene mutations are relatively common in Egyptian patients with advanced sporadic MPM. BAP1 mutations are associated with disease progression especially after second line therapy and the incidence of organ metastasis.

Felley-Bosco E
Special Issue on Mechanisms of Mesothelioma Heterogeneity: Highlights and Open Questions.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This editorial aims to synthesize the eleven papers that have contributed to this special issue, where the mechanisms of mesothelioma heterogeneity have been tackled from different angles.

Wahiduzzaman M, Karnan S, Ota A, et al.
Establishment and characterization of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated NF2
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(1):180-193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a highly refractory tumor, is currently incurable due to the lack of an early diagnosis method and medication, both of which are urgently needed to improve the survival and/or quality of life of patients. NF2 is a tumor suppressor gene and is frequently mutated in MPM. Using a CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated an NF2-knockout human mesothelial cell line, MeT-5A (NF2-KO). In NF2-KO cell clones, cell growth, clonogenic activity, migration activity, and invasion activity significantly increased compared with those in NF2-WT cell clones. Complementary DNA microarray analysis clearly revealed the differences in global gene expression profile between NF2-WT and NF2-KO cell clones. Quantitative PCR analysis and western blot analysis showed that the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was concomitant with the increases in phosphorylation levels of JNK, c-Jun, and retinoblastoma (Rb) in NF2-KO cell clones. These increases were all abrogated by the exogenous expression of NF2 in the NF2-KO clone. In addition, the disruption of FGFR2 in the NF2-KO cell clone suppressed cell proliferation as well as the phosphorylation levels of JNK, c-Jun, and Rb. Notably, FGFR2 was found to be highly expressed in NF2-negative human mesothelioma tissues (11/12 cases, 91.7%) but less expressed in NF2-positive tissues. Collectively, these findings suggest that NF2 deficiency might play a role in the tumorigenesis of human mesothelium through mediating FGFR2 expression; FGFR2 would be a candidate molecule to develop therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for targeting MPM with NF2 loss.

Matsushita A, Sato T, Mukai S, et al.
TAZ activation by Hippo pathway dysregulation induces cytokine gene expression and promotes mesothelial cell transformation.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(11):1966-1978 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) constitutes a very aggressive tumor that is caused by asbestos exposure after long latency. The NF2 tumor suppressor gene is mutated in 40-50% of MM; moreover, one of its downstream signaling cascades, the Hippo signaling pathway, is also frequently inactivated in MM cells. Although the YAP transcriptional coactivator, which is regulated by the Hippo pathway, can function as a pro-oncogenic protein, the role of TAZ, a paralog of YAP, in MM cells has not yet been clarified. Here, we show that TAZ is expressed and underphosphorylated (activated) in the majority of MM cells compared to immortalized mesothelial cells. ShRNA-mediated TAZ knockdown highly suppressed cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell motility, and invasion in MM cells harboring activated TAZ. Conversely, transduction of an activated form of TAZ in immortalized mesothelial cells enhanced these in vitro phenotypes and conferred tumorigenicity in vivo. Microarray analysis determined that activated TAZ most significantly enhanced the transcription of genes related to "cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction." Among selected cytokines, we found that IL-1 signaling activation plays a major role in proliferation in TAZ-activated MM cells. Both IL1B knockdown and an IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly suppressed malignant phenotypes of immortalized mesothelial cells and MM cells with activated TAZ. Overall, these results indicate an oncogenic role for TAZ in MMs via transcriptional induction of distinct pro-oncogenic genes including cytokines. Among these, IL-1 signaling appears as one of the most important cascades, thus potentially serving as a target pathway in MM cells harboring Hippo pathway inactivation.

Betti M, Aspesi A, Ferrante D, et al.
Sensitivity to asbestos is increased in patients with mesothelioma and pathogenic germline variants in BAP1 or other DNA repair genes.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(11):573-583 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pathogenic germline variants in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene can cause a cancer syndrome called BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS), which is characterized by predisposition to mesothelioma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and other tumors. Other genes that may predispose to mesothelioma are CDKN2A and DNA repair genes. Asbestos exposure has often been reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and germline variants in BAP1, but this exposure has never been quantified. We aimed to search for germline variants in BAP1 among 25 new Italian probands with suspected BAP1-TPDS, summarize the prevalence of these variants in 39 Italian patients with familial MPM and other tumors recruited over a 5-year period, and compare cumulative asbestos exposure in 14 patients with MPM and pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes with that of 67 patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes. We report here a new pathogenic germline variant in BAP1: c.783 + 2 T > C. The prevalence of pathogenic germline variants in BAP1 was 7.7% among patients with familial MPM (3/39). Patients with pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes showed lower cumulative asbestos exposure than patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes (P = .00002). This suggests an interaction between genetic risk factors and asbestos in the development of mesothelioma.

Funahashi S, Okazaki Y, Nishiyama T, et al.
Global overexpression of divalent metal transporter 1 delays crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis in male mice.
Free Radic Res. 2018; 52(9):1030-1039 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exposure to asbestos fiber is central to mesothelial carcinogenesis, for which iron overload in or near mesothelial cells is a key pathogenic mechanism. Alternatively, iron chelation therapy with deferasirox or regular phlebotomy was significantly preventive against crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis in rats. However, the role of iron transporters during asbestos-induced carcinogenesis remains elusive. Here, we studied the role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1; Slc11a2), which is a Fe(II) transporter, that is present not only on the apical plasma membrane of duodenal cells but also on the lysosomal membrane of every cell, in crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis using DMT1 transgenic (DMT1Tg) mice. DMT1Tg mice show mucosal block of iron absorption without cancer susceptibility under normal diet. We unexpectedly found that superoxide production was significantly decreased upon stimulation with crocidolite both in neutrophils and macrophages of DMT1Tg mice, and the macrophage surface revealed higher iron content 1 h after contact with crocidolite. Intraperitoneal injection of 3 mg crocidolite ultimately induced malignant mesothelioma in ∼50% of both wild-type and DMT1Tg mice (23/47 and 14/28, respectively); this effect was marginally (p = 0.069) delayed in DMT1Tg mice, promoting survival. The promotional effect of nitrilotriacetic acid was limited, and the liver showed significantly higher iron content both in DMT1Tg mice and after crocidolite exposure. The results indicate that global DMT1 overexpression causes decreased superoxide generation upon stimulation in inflammatory cells, which presumably delayed the promotional stage of crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis. DMT1Tg mice with low-stamina inflammatory cells may be helpful to evaluate the involvement of inflammation in various pathologies.

Sarun KH, Lee K, Williams M, et al.
Genomic Deletion of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly cancer that is caused by asbestos exposure and that has limited treatment options. The current standard of MPM diagnosis requires the testing of multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to differentiate MPM from other lung malignancies. To date, no single biomarker exists for definitive diagnosis of MPM due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity; therefore, there is ongoing research and development in order to identify alternative biomarkers for this purpose. In this study, we utilized primary MPM cell lines and tested the expression of clinically used biomarker panels, including CK8/18, Calretinin, CK 5/6, CD141, HBME-1, WT-1, D2-40, EMA, CEA, TAG72, BG8, CD15, TTF-1, BAP1, and Ber-Ep4. The genomic alteration of

He T, McColl K, Sakre N, et al.
Post-transcriptional regulation of PIAS3 expression by miR-18a in malignant mesothelioma.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(12):2124-2135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) is an endogenous suppressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. By directly interacting with phosphorylated STAT3, PIAS3 can block the downstream transcriptional activity of STAT3, which is hyper-activated in various cancers. We previously reported that in malignant mesothelioma (MM), low PIAS3 expression is associated with increased STAT3 activation and correlates with poor patient survival, yet the regulatory mechanism(s) governing PIAS3 expression in MM remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PIAS3 protein expression does not correlate with its mRNA level in MM cell lines, indicating that PIAS3 expression is regulated at a post-transcriptional level. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation with MG132 (10 μm) or bortezomib (1 μm), alone and in combination, did not increase PIAS3 protein levels; furthermore, inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide treatment did not decrease PIAS3 levels within 48 h, suggesting that PIAS3 expression is not actively regulated at a post-translational level. To determine whether miRNA (miRs) can translationally regulate PIAS3 expression, we combined miR microarray analysis with bioinformatic screening to identify candidate miRs, in MM cell lines with low PIAS3 expression, followed by luciferase reporter assays to validate miR regulation of the PIAS3 3'UTR. We identified miR-18a as a suppressor of PIAS3 expression that is upregulated in MM cells and whose inhibition can increase PIAS3 expression and suppress STAT3 activity. Moreover, we showed that miR-18a inhibition can decrease MM cell viability and that its expression is negatively correlated with MM patient survival. Taken together, these results suggest that targeting miR-18a may have therapeutic benefit in MM.

Zhang C, Kang Y, Ma R, et al.
Expression of Numb and Gli1 in malignant pleural mesothelioma and their clinical significance.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018 Jul-Sep; 14(5):970-976 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim of Study: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly lethal and refractory to multimodal treatment tumor. Numb is considered as a tumor suppressor playing critical roles in determining cell fate and has been shown to target the oncogenic transcription factor Gli1 for Itch-dependent ubiquitination, resulting in suppression of the oncogenic sonic hedgehog signaling in medulloblastoma. This study was designed to analysis the role of Numb and Gli1 in MPM.
Materials and Methods: Tissues of 61 MPM patients and 22 normal pleura as control were investigated. Numb and Gli1 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The associations with clinical and pathological parameters of the two markers were statistically analyzed, and the correlation between them was also demonstrated.
Results: The expression levels of Numb with nuclear Gli1 exhibited a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.361 P < 0.05). In addition, Numb has an inverse correlation with ki-67 labeling index (P < 0.05), and nuclear Gli1 was found in associated with the tumor International Mesothelioma Interest Group-stage (P < 0.05). The overall survival was influenced by the expression of Numb (P < 0.05) and histological subtype (P < 0.05), further regression analysis showed that only histological subtype has a prognostic influence on survival (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results provide new evidence of Numb and Gli1 on the clinical characteristics of MPM, which may be helpful in clinical diagnosis and targeted therapy. Further research with larger sample size is needed.

Mijalovsky A, Halperin D, Perez Y, et al.
Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma in an Infant With Familial ATM Mutations.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018; 40(8):e511-e515 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive neurologic dysfunction, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, and cancer susceptibility, is caused by mutations in the ATM gene. A previous study of 4 A-T patients identified 2 rare homozygous missense mutations residing on the same allele of the ATM gene: c.1514T>C and c.1547T>C, which were shown to decrease ATM levels and increase T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia predisposition. We studied 5 patients from 2 consanguineous Bedouin families of the same tribe, presenting with A-T. Whole-exome sequencing data identified the 2 aforementioned mutations in ATM, which segregated within all family members as expected of autosomal recessive heredity. Interestingly, one individual was diagnosed with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM), an extremely rare neoplasm in pediatric patients. Here, we describe a case of a 4-month-old infant homozygous for the 2 ATM mutations, who developed MPM and died by the age of 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of peritoneal mesothelioma in an infant bearing ATM mutations, and one of the youngest pediatric mesotheliomas described. Thus, the risk of MPM might be considered in the follow-up of A-T patients, and ATM mutations sought in cases of early-onset MPM.

Löffler MW, Steinhilber J, Hilke FJ, et al.
First case report of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and oral verrucous carcinoma in a patient with a germline PTEN mutation: a combination of extremely rare diseases with probable further implications.
BMC Med Genet. 2018; 19(1):144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The PTEN-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome (PHTS) is caused by germline mutations in Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) and predisposes to the development of several typical malignancies. Whereas PTEN mutations have been implicated in the occurrence of malignant mesotheliomas, the genetic landscape of verrucous carcinomas (VC) is largely uncharted. Both VC and malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPM) are exceedingly rare and a potential link between these malignancies and PHTS has never been reported.
CASE PRESENTATION: We here describe the clinical course of a PHTS patient who, in addition to a typical thyroid carcinoma at the age of 36 years, developed a highly-differentiated oral VC and an epithelioid MPM six years later. The patient with a history of occupational asbestos exposure underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for MPM. The clinical diagnosis of PHTS was consequently corroborated by a germline PTEN deletion. Sequencing of tumor tissue revealed a second hit in PTEN in the thyroid carcinoma and VC, confirmed by a PTEN loss and activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, additional somatic mutations in the thyroid carcinoma as well as in the VC were detected, whereas the genetics of MPM remained unrevealing.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We here report the very unusual clinical course of a patient with rare tumors that have a germline mutation first hit in PTEN in common. Since this patient was exposed to asbestos and current evidence suggests molecular mechanisms that might render PHTS patients particularly susceptible to mesothelioma, we strongly recommend PHTS patients to avoid even minimal exposure.

Jean D, Jaurand MC
Mesotheliomas in Genetically Engineered Mice Unravel Mechanism of Mesothelial Carcinogenesis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM), a rare and severe cancer, mainly caused as a result of past-asbestos exposure, is presently a public health concern. Current molecular studies aim to improve the outcome of the disease, providing efficient therapies based on the principles of precision medicine. To model the molecular profile of human malignant mesothelioma, animal models have been developed in rodents, wild type animals and genetically engineered mice harbouring mutations in tumour suppressor genes, especially selecting genes known to be inactivated in human malignant mesothelioma. Animals were either exposed or not exposed to asbestos or to other carcinogenic fibres, to understand the mechanism of action of fibres at the molecular level, and the role of the selected genes in mesothelial carcinogenesis. The aim of the manuscript was to compare mesothelioma models to human malignant mesothelioma and to specify the clue genes playing a role in mesothelial carcinogenesis. Collectively, MM models recapitulate the clinical features of human MM. At least two altered genes are needed to induce malignant mesothelioma in mice. Two pathways regulated by

Kittaneh M, Berkelhammer C
Detecting germline BAP1 mutations in patients with peritoneal mesothelioma: benefits to patient and family members.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):194 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Germline mutations in the BRCA-1 associated tumor protein 1 (BAP1) increase susceptibility to mesothelioma and other cancers. We describe a patient with a family history of peritoneal mesothelioma, who developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma at age 45 in the absence of known asbestos exposure. These findings lead us to hypothesize that the mesothelioma occurred in the setting of germline a BAP1 mutation. This was confirmed by genetic testing. The subsequent therapeutic choices for the patient and testing of at-risk family members highlight the importance of recognizing this genetic syndrome and screening for individuals at high risk.

Hylebos M, Op de Beeck K, van den Ende J, et al.
Molecular analysis of an asbestos-exposed Belgian family with a high prevalence of mesothelioma.
Fam Cancer. 2018; 17(4):569-576 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial clustering of malignant mesothelioma (MM) has been linked to the presence of germline mutations in BAP1. However, families with multiple MM patients, without segregating BAP1 mutation were described, suggesting the existence of other predisposing genetic factors. In this study, we report a previously undescribed Belgian family, in which BAP1 was found to be absent in the epithelial malignant mesothelial cells of the index patient. Whole exome analysis did not reveal a germline or somatic BAP1 variant. Also, no germline or somatic copy number changes in the BAP1 region could be identified. However, germline variants, predicted to be damaging, were detected in 11 other 'Cancer census genes' (i.e. MPL, RBM15, TET2, FAT1, HLA-A, EGFR, KMT2C, BRD3, NOTCH1, RB1 and MYO5A). Of these, the one in RBM15 seems to be the most interesting given its low minor allele frequency and absence in the germline DNA of the index patient's mother. The importance of this 'Cancer census gene' in familial MM clustering needs to be evaluated further. Nevertheless, this study strengthens the suspicion that, next to germline BAP1 alterations, other genetic factors might predispose families to the development of MM.

Bensaid D, Blondy T, Deshayes S, et al.
Assessment of new HDAC inhibitors for immunotherapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a very rare and highly aggressive cancer of the pleura associated in most cases with asbestos exposure. To date, no really efficient treatments are available for this pathology. Recently, it has been shown that epigenetic drugs, particularly DNA methylation or histone acetylation modulating agents, could be very efficient in terms of cytotoxicity for several types of cancer cells. We previously showed that a hypomethylating agent (decitabine) and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) (valproic acid (VPA)) combination was immunogenic and led to the induction of an anti-tumor immune response in a mice model of mesothelioma. However, VPA is not very specific, is active at millimolar concentrations and is responsible for side effects in clinic. To improve this approach, we studied four newly synthetized HDACi, two hydroxamates (ODH and NODH) and two benzamides (ODB and NODB), in comparison with VPA and SAHA. We evaluated their toxicity on immune cells and their immunogenicity on MPM cells in combination with decitabine.
Results: All the tested HDACi were toxic for immune cells at high concentrations. Combination with decitabine increased toxicity of HDACi only towards T-cell clone. A decrease in the proportion of regulatory T cells and natural killer cells was observed in particular with VPA and ODH. In MPM cells, all HDACi combinations induced NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigen (CTA) expression and the recognition of the treated cells by a NY-ESO-1 specific T-CD8 clone. However, for MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 and XAGE-1b mRNA expression, the results obtained depended on the HDACi used and on the CTA studied. Depending on the MPM cell line studied, molecules alone increased moderately PD-L1 expression. When combined, a higher stimulation of this immune check point inhibitor expression was observed. Decitabine-induced anti-viral response seemed to be inhibited in the presence of HDACi.
Conclusions: This work shows that the combination of decitabine and HDACi could be of interest for MPM immunotherapy. However, this combination induced PD-L1 expression which suggests that an association with anti-PD-L1 therapy should be performed to induce an efficient anti-tumor immune response.

Oehl K, Vrugt B, Opitz I, Meerang M
Heterogeneity in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite advances in malignant pleural mesothelioma therapy, life expectancy of affected patients remains short. The limited efficiency of treatment options is mainly caused by inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity of mesotheliomas. This diversity can be observed at the morphological and molecular levels. Molecular analyses reveal a high heterogeneity (i) between patients; (ii) within different areas of a given tumor in terms of different clonal compositions; and (iii) during treatment over time. The aim of the present review is to highlight this diversity and its therapeutic implications.

Sato A, Ueno H, Fusegi M, et al.
A Succinate Ether Derivative of Tocotrienol Enhances Dickkopf-1 Gene Expression through Epigenetic Alterations in Malignant Mesothelioma Cells.
Pharmacology. 2018; 102(1-2):26-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wnt signaling plays an essential role in tumor cell growth, including the development of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Epigenetic silencing of negative Wnt regulators leading to constitutive Wnt signaling has been observed in various cancers and warrants further attention. We have reported that a succinate ether derivative of α-tocotrienol (T3E) has potent cytotoxic effects in MM cells. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether the anti-MM effect of T3E could be mediated via the epigenetic alteration of the Wnt antagonist gene, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1).
METHODS: WST-1 and cell analyzers were employed to analyze the effects of T3E on cell viability and apoptosis of human MM cell lines (H2452, H28). Real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to evaluate the expression at mRNA and protein levels. Methylation status and epigenetic modifications of DKK1's promoter regions after T3E treatment in MM cells were studied using methylation-specific PCR and Chromatin immunoprecipitation. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown -(siRNA), and specific inhibitors, were used to validate DKK1 as a target of T3E.
RESULTS: T3E markedly impaired MM cell viability, increased the expression of phosphorylated-JNK and DKK1 and suppressed cyclin D, a downstream target gene of Wnt signaling. Knockdown of DKK1 expression by siRNA or a specific JNK inhibitor confirmed the contribution of DKK1 and JNK to T3E-induced cytotoxicity in MM cells. On the other hand, cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) expression, which promotes cell proliferation as a Wnt-independent DKK1 receptor was inhibited by T3E. Silencing CKAP4 by -siRNA did not appear to directly affect MM cell viability, thereby indicating that expression of both DKK1 and CKAP4 is required. Furthermore, T3E-mediated inhibition of both DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, 3A, and 3B) and histone deacetylases (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) in MM cells leads to increased DKK1 expression, thereby promoting tumor growth inhibition. MM cells treated with Zebularine (a DNMT inhibitor) and sodium butyrate (an HDAC inhibitor) exhibited cytotoxic effects, which may explain the inhibitory action of T3E on MM cells. In addition, an enhanced expression of DKK1 in MM cells following T3E treatment is positively correlated with the methylation status of its promoter; T3E decreased DNA methylation and increased histone acetylation. Moreover, T3E specifically increased histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation activity, whereas no effects were observed on histone H3K9 and H3K27.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeting the epigenetic induction of DKK1 may lead to effective treatment of MM, and T3E has great potential to induce anti-MM activity.

Kresoja-Rakic J, Felley-Bosco E
Desthiobiotin-Streptavidin-Affinity Mediated Purification of RNA-Interacting Proteins in Mesothelioma Cells.
J Vis Exp. 2018; (134) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/04/2020 Related Publications
The in vitro RNA-pulldown is still largely used in the first steps of protocols aimed at identifying RNA-binding proteins that recognize specific RNA structures and motifs. In this RNA-pulldown protocol, commercially synthesized RNA probes are labeled with a modified form of biotin, desthiobiotin, at the 3' terminus of the RNA strand, which reversibly binds to streptavidin and thus allows elution of proteins under more physiological conditions. The RNA-desthiobiotin is immobilized through interaction with streptavidin on magnetic beads, which are used to pull down proteins that specifically interact with the RNA of interest. Non-denatured and active proteins from the cytosolic fraction of mesothelioma cells are used as the source of proteins. The method described here can be applied to detect the interaction between known RNA binding proteins and a 25-nucleotide (nt) long RNA probe containing a sequence of interest. This is useful to complete the functional characterization of stabilizing or destabilizing elements present in RNA molecules achieved using a reporter vector assay.

Singh AS, Heery R, Gray SG
In Silico and In Vitro Analyses of LncRNAs as Potential Regulators in the Transition from the Epithelioid to Sarcomatoid Histotype of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM).
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/04/2020 Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. At present, treatment options are limited, with no second line chemotherapy for those who fail first line therapy. Extensive efforts are ongoing in a bid to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma. Recent research has determined that between 70⁻90% of our genome is transcribed. As only 2% of our genome is protein coding, the roles of the remaining proportion of non-coding RNA in biological processes has many applications, including roles in carcinogenesis and epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process thought to play important roles in MPM pathogenesis. Non-coding RNAs can be separated loosely into two subtypes, short non-coding RNAs (<200 nucleotides) or long (>200 nucleotides). A significant body of evidence has emerged for the roles of short non-coding RNAs in MPM. Less is known about the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in this disease setting. LncRNAs have been shown to play diverse roles in EMT, and it has been suggested that EMT may play a role in the aggressiveness of MPM histological subsets. In this report, using both in vitro analyses on mesothelioma patient material and in silico analyses of existing RNA datasets, we posit that various lncRNAs may play important roles in EMT within MPM, and we review the current literature regarding these lncRNAs with respect to both EMT and MPM.

Blum W, Pecze L, Rodriguez JW, et al.
Regulation of calretinin in malignant mesothelioma is mediated by septin 7 binding to the CALB2 promoter.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):475 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The calcium-binding protein calretinin (gene name: CALB2) is currently considered as the most sensitive and specific marker for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is a very aggressive tumor strongly linked to asbestos exposure and with no existing cure so far. The mechanisms of calretinin regulation, as well as its distinct function in MM are still poorly understood.
METHODS: We searched for transcription factors binding to the CALB2 promoter and modulating calretinin expression. For this, DNA-binding assays followed by peptide shotgun-mass spectroscopy analyses were used. CALB2 promoter activity was assessed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of CALB2 promoter-binding proteins by lentiviral-mediated overexpression or down-regulation of identified proteins in MM cells. The modulation of expression of such proteins by butyrate was determined by subsequent Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of embryonic mouse lung tissue served to verify the simultaneous co-expression of calretinin and proteins interacting with the CALB2 promoter during early development. Finally, direct interactions of calretinin with target proteins were evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation experiments.
RESULTS: Septin 7 was identified as a butyrate-dependent transcription factor binding to a CALB2 promoter region containing butyrate-responsive elements (BRE) resulting in decreased calretinin expression. Accordingly, septin 7 overexpression decreased calretinin expression levels in MM cells. The regulation was found to operate bi-directionally, i.e. calretinin overexpression also decreased septin 7 levels. During murine embryonic development calretinin and septin 7 were found to be co-expressed in embryonic mesenchyme and undifferentiated mesothelial cells. In MM cells, calretinin and septin 7 colocalized during cytokinesis in distinct regions of the cleavage furrow and in the midbody region of mitotic cells. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed this co-localization to be the result of a direct interaction between calretinin and septin 7.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate septin 7 not only serving as a "cytoskeletal" protein, but also as a transcription factor repressing calretinin expression. The negative regulation of calretinin by septin 7 and vice versa sheds new light on mechanisms possibly implicated in MM formation and identifies these proteins as transcriptional regulators and putative targets for MM therapy.

Wu L, Blum W, Zhu CQ, et al.
Putative cancer stem cells may be the key target to inhibit cancer cell repopulation between the intervals of chemoradiation in murine mesothelioma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):471 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer cell repopulation during chemotherapy or radiotherapy is a major factor limiting the efficacy of treatment. Cancer stem cells (CSC) may play critical roles during this process. We aim to demonstrate the role of mesothelioma stem cells (MSC) in treatment failure and eventually to design specific target therapies against MSC to improve the efficacy of treatment in malignant mesothelioma.
METHODS: Murine mesothelioma AB12 and RN5 cells were used to compare tumorigenicity in mice. The expression of CSC-associated genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in both cell lines treated with chemo-radiation. Stemness properties of MSC-enriched RN5-EOS-Puro2 cells were characterized with flow cytometry and immunostaining. A MSC-specific gene profile was screened by microarray assay and confirmed thereafter. Gene Ontology analysis of the selected genes was performed by GOMiner.
RESULTS: Tumor growth delay of murine mesothelioma AB12 cells was achieved after each cycle of cisplatin treatment, however, tumors grew back rapidly due to cancer cell repopulation between courses of chemotherapy. Strikingly, a 10-times lower number of irradiated cells in both cell lines led to a similar tumor incidence and growth rate as with untreated cells. The expression of CSC-associated genes such as CD24, CD133, CD90 and uPAR was dramatically up-regulated, while others did not change significantly after chemoradiation. Highly enriched MSC after selection with puromycin displayed an increasing GFP-positive population and showed typical properties of stemness. Comparatively, the proportion of MSC significantly increased after RN5-EOS parental cells were treated with either chemotherapy, γ-ray radiation, or a combination of the two, while MSC showed more resistance to the above treatments. A group of identified genes are most likely MSC-specific, and major pathways related to regulation of cell growth or apoptosis are involved. Upregulation of the gene transcripts Tnfsf18, Serpinb9b, Ly6a, and Nppb were confirmed.
CONCLUSION: Putative MSC possess the property of stemness showing more resistance to chemoradiation, suggesting that MSC may play critical roles in cancer cell repopulation. Further identification of selected genes may be used to design novel target therapies against MSC, so as to eliminate cancer cell repopulation in mesothelioma.

Sneddon S, Dick I, Lee YCG, et al.
Malignant cells from pleural fluids in malignant mesothelioma patients reveal novel mutations.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 119:64-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos related tumour affecting cells of serosal cavities. More than 70% of MM patients develop pleural effusions which contain tumour cells, representing a readily accessible source of malignant cells for genetic analysis. Although common somatic mutations and losses have been identified in solid MM tumours, the characterization of tumour cells within pleural effusions could provide novel insights but is little studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA and RNA were extracted from cells from short term cultures of 27 human MM pleural effusion samples. Whole exome and transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent platform. Somatic mutations were identified using VarScan2 and SomaticSniper. Copy number alterations were identified using ExomeCNV in R. Significant copy number alterations were identified across all samples using GISTIC2.0. The association between tumour intrinsic properties and survival was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.
RESULTS: We identified BAP1, CDKN2A and NF2 alterations in the cells from MM pleural effusions at a higher frequency than what is typically seen in MM tumours from surgical series. The median mutation rate was 1.09 mutations/Mb. TRAF7 and LATS2 alterations were also identified at a high frequency (66% and 59% respectively). Novel regions of interest were identified, including alterations in FGFR3, and the regions 19p13.3, 8p23.1 and 1p36.32.
CONCLUSION: Short term cultures of tumour cells from MM pleural effusions offer an accessible alternative to surgical tumour biopsies in the study of MM genomics and reveal novel mutations of interest. Pleural effusion tumour cells provide an opportunity for the monitoring of tumour dynamics, treatment response and the clonal evolution of MM tumours.

Felley-Bosco E, Rehrauer H
Non-Coding Transcript Heterogeneity in Mesothelioma: Insights from Asbestos-Exposed Mice.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(4) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/04/2020 Related Publications
Mesothelioma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal cancer and a better understanding of its molecular heterogeneity may help with making more efficient therapeutic strategies. Non-coding RNAs represent a larger part of the transcriptome but their contribution to diseases is not fully understood yet. We used recently obtained RNA-seq data from asbestos-exposed mice and performed data mining of publicly available datasets in order to evaluate how non-coding RNA contribute to mesothelioma heterogeneity. Nine non-coding RNAs are specifically elevated in mesothelioma tumors and contribute to human mesothelioma heterogeneity. Because some of them have known oncogenic properties, this study supports the concept of non-coding RNAs as cancer progenitor genes.

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