Research IndicatorsGraph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CKAP4 (cancer-related)
Dadhania V, Zhang M, Zhang L, et al.Meta-Analysis of the Luminal and Basal Subtypes of Bladder Cancer and the Identification of Signature Immunohistochemical Markers for Clinical Use.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 12:105-117 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that bladder cancer can be divided into two molecular subtypes referred to as luminal and basal with distinct clinical behaviors and sensitivities to chemotherapy. We aimed to validate these subtypes in several clinical cohorts and identify signature immunohistochemical markers that would permit simple and cost-effective classification of the disease in primary care centers.
METHODS: We analyzed genomic expression profiles of bladder cancer in three cohorts of fresh frozen tumor samples: MD Anderson (n=132), Lund (n=308), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=408) to validate the expression signatures of luminal and basal subtypes and relate them to clinical follow-up data. We also used an MD Anderson cohort of archival bladder tumor samples (n=89) and a parallel tissue microarray to identify immunohistochemical markers that permitted the molecular classification of bladder cancer.
FINDINGS: Bladder cancers could be assigned to two candidate intrinsic molecular subtypes referred to here as luminal and basal in all of the datasets analyzed. Luminal tumors were characterized by the expression signature similar to the intermediate/superficial layers of normal urothelium. They showed the upregulation of PPARγ target genes and the enrichment for FGFR3, ELF3, CDKN1A, and TSC1 mutations. In addition, luminal tumors were characterized by the overexpression of E-Cadherin, HER2/3, Rab-25, and Src. Basal tumors showed the expression signature similar to the basal layer of normal urothelium. They showed the upregulation of p63 target genes, the enrichment for TP53 and RB1 mutations, and overexpression of CD49, Cyclin B1, and EGFR. Survival analyses showed that the muscle-invasive basal bladder cancers were more aggressive when compared to luminal cancers. The immunohistochemical expressions of only two markers, luminal (GATA3) and basal (KRT5/6), were sufficient to identify the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer with over 90% accuracy.
INTERPRETATION: The molecular subtypes of bladder cancer have distinct clinical behaviors and sensitivities to chemotherapy, and a simple two-marker immunohistochemical classifier can be used for prognostic and therapeutic stratification.
FUNDING: U.S. National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Health.
Romano RC, Gardner JM, Shalin SC, et al.High Relative Expression of Pannexin 3 (PANX3) in an Axillary Sweat Gland Carcinoma With Osteosarcomatous Transformation.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(11):846-851 [PubMed
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Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinomas (SGCs) are rare tumors that commonly involve axillae, have a high local recurrence rate, and rarely show sarcomatoid transformation. A 68-year-old man presented with rapid enlargement of a previously stable, asymptomatic pea-sized nodule in the left axilla. Initial excision (with positive surgical margins) at another institution showed characteristic histologic features of a high-grade osteosarcoma and molecular analysis using a 92-gene real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed a diagnosis of osteosarcoma with 96% certainty. Notably, the molecular assay demonstrated consistently high relative expression of pannexin 3 (PANX3), a gene involved in normal osteoblast differentiation which, when highly expressed, strongly predicts osteosarcoma per the assay's algorithm. However, on further histologic review, the tumor also contained focal cystic areas, nests, and ducts composed of malignant epithelial cells reminiscent of SGC; these areas directly transitioned into the osteosarcomatous component and were strongly positive for pancytokeratin, CK7, and p63. Within 2 weeks, the lesion recurred and grew rapidly, prompting complete resection, histologic sections of which showed high-grade osteosarcoma without residual epithelial elements. This is the fifth report, to our knowledge, of osteosarcomatous transformation in a SGC, and the only report to date including molecular data. This case demonstrates that osteosarcoma arising from a SGC has a similar molecular profile to de novo primary osteosarcoma of bone. It also emphasizes the importance of histopathologic findings as the established diagnostic gold standard and the need to interpret molecular results within the clinical context.
Coimbra EC, DA Conceição Gomes Leitão M, Júnior MR, et al.Expression Profile of MicroRNA-203 and its ΔNp63 Target in Cervical Carcinogenesis: Prospects for Cervical Cancer Screening.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3939-46 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: Host molecules disturbed by human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins have been shown to be potential biomarkers of cervical carcinogenesis and represent an alternative or supplementary aid to cytological testing and HPV detection. The miR-203 and one of its targets, ΔNp63, are known to be host molecules that interact with each other to control the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes; both have been found to be dysregulated in many cancers. As the role of p63 and miR-203 in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet well-understood, we have, thus, decided to evaluate the changes of expression of both in cervical carcinogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out by obtaining quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data from cervical biopsies.
RESULTS: miR-203 and ΔNp63 displayed a similar expression pattern across cervical tissues and both targets showed statistically significant differences between low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) x high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); HSIL x Cancer. Additionally, we did not observe an inverse correlation between ΔNp63 mRNA and miR-203 levels as expected but, rather, a positive correlation between cervical tissues.
CONCLUSION: Although preliminary, the expression levels of ΔNp63 mRNA and miR-203 seem to be promising for cervical cancer screening. In addition, positive correlation between miR-203 and ΔNp63 expression suggests the possible existence of some indirect pathways. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of ΔNp63 and miR-203 in cervical carcinogenesis and, thus, determine how they can be applied in new strategies for diagnosis.
Bachurska SY, Staykov DG, Ivanov GP, Belovezhdov VTLack of ERG-antibody in Benign Mimickers of Prostate Cancer.
Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2016; 58(1):48-53 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Prostate carcinoma (PC) is the second most diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Prostate tissue in needle biopsy expresses a wide variety of architectural patterns some of which are difficult to interpret. Immunohistochemical markers, such as AMACR, p63 and 34βE12 that are currently used in diagnosing prostate cancer, are of great value, but often their interpretation is ambiguous. In 2005 Tomlins et al. identified an emerging marker, erythroblastosis E26 rearrangement gene (ERG), which is a member of the family of genes encoding erythroblast-transformation specific transcription factors (ETS) with frequent expression in PC.
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of ERG in benign mimickers of PC in needle biopsies and its diagnostic value alone and in combination with AMACK and 34βE12.
RESULTS: Of the selected 46 biopsies, two were eventually diagnosed as PC Gleason score 6 as they were simultaneously ERG and AMACR-positive and 34βE12-negative. One case was considered atypical. The remaining 43 biopsies were diagnosed as benign cases: simple atrophy in 13 cases, partial atrophy in 11, adenosis in 9, basal cell hyperplasia in 3, post-atrophic hyperplasia in 3, clear cell hyperplasia in 2 and sclerotic adenosis in 2 cases. None of the 43 benign cores showed evidence of ERG expression.
CONCLUSION: ERG could be preferably used in diagnosing prostate needle biopsies, lesions that are hard to interpret and controversial expression of AMACR/34βE12.
Genova SN, Bichev SN, Kanarev VGEpidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activating Mutations in Squamous Histology of Lung Cancer Patients of Southern Bulgaria.
Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2015 Jul-Dec; 57(3-4):191-9 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: There is only limited data on the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the lung in patients of the Southern Bulgarian region and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
AIM: Previous reports for Bulgarian population showed high incidence of EGFR mutations in the squamous cell carcinomas, so we set the goal to investigate their frequency in Southern Bulgaria, after precise immunohistochemical verification of lung cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six lung carcinomas were included in this prospective study. All biopsies were initially analysed with p63, TTF1, Napsin A, CK7, CK34βE12, synaptophysin, CK20 and CDX2. Two hundred and twenty-five non-small cell lung carcinomas were studied with real-time PCR technology to assess the status of the EGFR gene.
RESULTS: We detected 132 adenocarcinomas (58.7%), 89 squamous cell carcinomas (39.2%), 4 adenosquamous carcinomas (1.8%), 9 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (3.8%) and 2 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas (0.8%). Activating mutations in the EGF receptor had 3 out of 89 squamous cell carcinomas (3.37%). We have established mutations in L858R, deletion in exon 19 and rare mutation in S7681. One out of four adenosquamous carcinomas had a point mutation in the L858R (25%).
CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EGFR mutations we found in lung squamous cell carcinomas in a Southern Bulgarian region is lower than that in European countries. Ethnic diversity in the region does not play role of an independent predictive factor in terms of mutation frequency.
Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors and the Kazakh national minority (ethnic) in Xinjiang (northwest of China) has been reported to be one of the highest incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the world. MicroRNA-203 (miR-203) was described as a tumor-suppressive miRNA in several cancers, but little study about the role of miR-203 in Kazakh ESCC. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-203 in the occurrence and progression of Kazakh ESCC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect miR-203 expression, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine P63 expression. The expression level of miR-203 in ESCC was significantly lower than that of cancer adjacent normal (CAN) samples (P < 0.05). Whereas the expression level of P63 in ESCC was significantly higher than that of CAN samples (P < 0.05), an inverse association between the expression of P63 and miR-203 was found but was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that miR-203 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays an important role in inhibiting the occurrence of Kazakh ESCC in Xinjiang, China.
Yamaguchi T, Okumura T, Hirano K, et al.p75 neurotrophin receptor expression is a characteristic of the mitotically quiescent cancer stem cell population present in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(5):1943-54 [PubMed
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Mitotically quiescent cancer stem cells (CSC) are hypothesized to exhibit a more aggressive phenotype involving greater therapeutic resistance and metastasis. The aim of our study was to develop a method for identifying quiescent CSC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) based on their expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and other proposed CSC markers, such as CD44 and CD90. Double immunostaining of surgical ESCC specimens revealed that the mean Ki-67-labeling index of the p75NTR-positive cells was significantly lower than that of the p75NTR-negative cells. Real-time PCR analysis of sorted fractions of ESCC cell lines (KYSE cells) revealed that stem cell-related genes (Nanog, p63 and Bmi-1) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes (N-cadherin and fibronectin) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the p75NTR-positive fractions than in the CD44-positive or CD90-positive fractions. In addition, the p75NTR-positive fractions exhibited significantly higher colony formation in vitro, significantly enhanced tumor formation in mice, and significantly greater chemoresistance against cisplatin (CDDP) than the CD44‑positive or CD90‑positive fractions. Furthermore, in both the cultured cells and those from the mouse xenograft tumors, the p75NTR‑positive/CD44-negative and p75NTR‑positive/CD90-negative KYSE cell fractions contained significantly higher proportions of mitotically quiescent cells. These results suggest that the mitotically quiescent CSC population in ESCC can be identified and isolated based on their p75NTR expression, providing researchers with a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Zhao W, Choi YL, Song JY, et al.ALK, ROS1 and RET rearrangements in lung squamous cell carcinoma are very rare.
Lung Cancer. 2016; 94:22-7 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: Chromosomal rearrangements of ALK and ROS1 genes in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) define a molecular subgroup of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) that is amenable to targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) crizotinib. Emerging clinical studies have demonstrated that patients with RET-rearranged NSCLC may also benefit from existing RET TKIs, including cabozantinib and vandetanib. However, the reported cases of lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) harboring gene rearrangements have been detected via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) from materials such as biopsy or resection. Fusion events identified in lung SCC raise the question of whether this histologic subtype should also be evaluated for merit molecular testing. This work was undertaken to study the prevalence of lung SCC harboring ALK, ROS1, and RET translocations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Squamous cell carcinomas were confirmed using both histological examination by pathologists and immunohistochemistry analysis with positive staining of P63 and CK5/6 combined with negative CK7 and TTF-1 staining. 214 samples from surgically resected patient tissues were used to search for ALK, ROS1, and RET rearrangements by a NanoString analysis method. Fusion events were detected in a single-tube, multiplex assay system that relied on a complementary strategy of interrogation of 3' gene overexpression and detection of specific fusion transcript variants.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: ALK, ROS1 or RET gene rearrangements appeared 0 times out of 214 cases of lung SCC. Our data revealed that these fusions may be very rare in lung squamous cancer. The molecular screening strategy should therefore be focused on lung adenocarcinoma as the current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline recommends.
Varinot J, Furudoï A, Drouin S, et al.HOXB13 protein expression in metastatic lesions is a promising marker for prostate origin.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 468(5):619-22 [PubMed
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The HOXB13 gene is a member of the homeobox gene family, and prostate development depends on HOXB13 function. HOXB13 is a very sensitive and specific marker of prostate tissue and prostate cancer. When the origin of a tumor in a resection specimen or in biopsy material is unclear, it allows determining the prostate as the primary. Our aim was to determine whether HOXB13 has similar sensitivity for determining prostate origin of lymph node and bone metastases. We retrieved cases of lymph node and bone metastases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer (PCa) and selected lymph node metastases of urothelial carcinoma (UCa). A panel of antibodies against HOXB13, PSA, ERG, Androgen receptors, p504S, p63, GATA-3, CK7, and Uroplakin 2 and 3 was tested on these tissue samples. Two pathologists analysed and scored staining as either 0 (negative) or + (positive). The selected cohort consisted of 74 cases of lymph node and 15 of bone metastases of PCa and 15 of lymph node metastases of UCa. HOXB13 was expressed in 93 % of lymph node and in 33 % of bone metastases of PCa. All lymph node metastases of UCa were negative. Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a marker for prostate origin in lymph node metastases was 93 % and for bone metastases 33 %. Inter-observer variability in assessment of staining was good, as only two (1.9 %) of lymph node metastasis of PCa were discordant. HOXB13 is a useful marker for prostate origin when doubt exists regarding the site of the primary of a metastatic lesion. On bone metastases, HOXB13 immunohistochemistry performed less well, probably due to the use of tissue decalcification.
CLCA2 is a p53-, p63-inducible transmembrane protein that is frequently downregulated in breast cancer. It is induced during differentiation of human mammary epithelial cells, and its knockdown causes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To determine how CLCA2 promotes epithelial differentiation, we searched for interactors using membrane dihybrid screening. We discovered a strong interaction with the cell junctional protein EVA1 (Epithelial V-like Antigen 1) and confirmed it by co-immunoprecipitation. Like CLCA2, EVA1 is a type I transmembrane protein that is regulated by p53 and p63. It is thought to mediate homophilic cell-cell adhesion in diverse epithelial tissues. We found that EVA1 is frequently downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, especially those of mesenchymal phenotype. Moreover, knockdown of EVA1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) caused EMT, implying that EVA1 is essential for epithelial differentiation. Both EVA1 and CLCA2 co-localized with E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. The interacting domains were delimited by deletion analysis, revealing the site of interaction to be the transmembrane segment (TMS). The primary sequence of the CLCA2 TMS was found to be conserved in CLCA2 orthologs throughout mammals, suggesting that its interaction with EVA1 co-evolved with the mammary gland. A screen for other junctional interactors revealed that CLCA2 was involved in two different complexes, one with EVA1 and ZO-1, the other with beta catenin. Overexpression of CLCA2 caused downregulation of beta catenin and beta catenin-activated genes. Thus, CLCA2 links a junctional adhesion molecule to cytosolic signaling proteins that modulate proliferation and differentiation. These results may explain how attenuation of CLCA2 causes EMT and why CLCA2 and EVA1 are frequently downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cell lines.
Xu-Monette ZY, Zhang S, Li X, et al.p63 expression confers significantly better survival outcomes in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates p53-like and p53-independent tumor suppressor function.
Aging (Albany NY). 2016; 8(2):345-65 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of p53 family member p63 in oncogenesis is the subject of controversy. Limited research has been done on the clinical implications of p63 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this study, we assessed p63 expression in de novo DLBCL samples (n=795) by immunohistochemistry with a pan-p63-monoclonal antibody and correlated it with other clinicopathologic factors and clinical outcomes. p63 expression was observed in 42.5% of DLBCL, did not correlate with p53 levels, but correlated with p21, MDM2, p16INK4A, Ki-67, Bcl-6, IRF4/MUM-1 and CD30 expression, REL gains, and BCL6 translocation. p63 was an independent favorable prognostic factor in DLBCL, which was most significant in patients with International Prognostic Index (IPI) >2, and in activated-B-cell-like DLBCL patients with wide- type TP53. The prognostic impact in germinal-center-B-cell-like DLBCL was not apparent, which was likely due to the association of p63 expression with high-risk IPI, and potential presence of ∆Np63 isoform in TP63 rearranged patients (a mere speculation). Gene expression profiling suggested that p63 has both overlapping and distinct functions compared with p53, and that p63 and mutated p53 antagonize each other. In summary, p63 has p53-like and p53-independent functions and favorable prognostic impact, however this protective effect can be abolished by TP53 mutations.
Zhao W, Wang H, Han X, et al.ΔNp63α attenuates tumor aggressiveness by suppressing miR-205/ZEB1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10621-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of the most common female cancers worldwide. Although the therapeutic outcomes of patients with early-stage cervical cancer have been significantly improved in the past decades, tumor metastasis and recurrence remain the major causes of cervical cancer-related deaths. In cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the aberrant activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial process in invasion and metastasis of epithelial cancer, could promote lymph nodal metastasis and recurrence, and predicts poor prognosis. In this study, we show that the expression levels of EMT markers, β-catenin and Vimentin, are associated with the p63 isoform ΔNp63α in SCC by using immunohistochemistry staining and analysis. Compared to the control SiHa cells (SiHa-NC), the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin are upregulated, while Vimentin and ZEB1 are downregulated in the constructed SiHa cell line with stable ΔNp63α overexpression (SiHa-ΔNp63α). Besides, the migration and invasion abilities are also suppressed in SiHa-ΔNp63α cells with a typical epithelial morphology with cobblestone-like shape, suggesting that ΔNp63α is a vital EMT repressor in SCC cells. In addition, the involvement of miR-205/ZEB1 axis in the inhibition effect of ΔNp63α on EMT program is revealed by a miRNA array and confirmed by the subsequent transfection of the miR-205 mimic and antagomir. Moreover, SCC patients with low ΔNp63α expression and high EMT level show more frequent metastasis and recurrence as well as reduced overall survival. Therefore, EMT program and its vital repressor ΔNp63α could be used as biomarkers for tumor metastasis and recurrence in cervical cancer.
Bladder cancer represents a significant human tumor burden, accounting for about 7.7% and 2.4% of all cancer cases in males and females, respectively. While men have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer, women tend to present at a later stage of disease and with more aggressive tumors. Previous studies have suggested a promotional role of androgen signaling in enhancing bladder cancer development. To directly assess the role of androgens in bladder tumorigenesis, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse strain, R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+, in which the human AR transgene is conditionally expressed in bladder urothelium. Intriguingly, both male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice display a higher incidence of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) than the age and sex matched control littermates in response to the carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). We detect expression of the human AR transgene in CK5-positive and p63-positive basal cells in bladder urothelium. Further analyses of UCC tissues from R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice showed that the majority of tumor cells are of urothelial basal cell origin. Positive immunostaining of transgenic AR protein was observed in the majority of tumor cells of the transgenic mice, providing a link between transgenic AR expression and oncogenic transformation. We observed an increase in Ki67 positive cells within the UCC lesions of transgenic AR mice. Manipulating endogenous androgen levels by castration and androgen supplementation directly affected bladder tumor development in male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice, respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that conditional activation of transgenic AR expression in bladder urothelium enhances carciongen-induced bladder tumor formation in mice. This new AR transgenic mouse line mimics certain features of human bladder cancer and can be used to study bladder tumorigenesis and for drug development.
Lau KW, Aubry MC, Tan GS, et al.Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor: a solitary peripheral lung nodule in a teenage girl.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 49:22-6 [PubMed
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Papillary tumors of the peripheral lung containing ciliated cells and extracellular mucin include solitary peripheral ciliated glandular papilloma, ciliated muconodular papillary tumor, and well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with cilia formation. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who was a nonsmoker and presented with an incidental small peripheral lung nodule. The resection specimen showed a soft grayish nodule. Histologic examination further revealed a relatively circumscribed mucinous nodule featuring a tubulopapillary tumor composed of ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells, accompanied with abundant extracellular mucin. No lepidic growth pattern was evident. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin 7, thyroid transcription factor-1, and carcinoembryonic antigen, whereas p63 and cytokeratin 5/6 highlighted the presence of basal cells. Next-generation sequencing did not identify any genetic alterations in targeted regions and mutational hotspots of a panel of 22 genes commonly implicated in lung and colon cancers. Taken together, our case was most likely a ciliated muconodular papillary tumor.
Orzol P, Nekulova M, Holcakova J, et al.ΔNp63 regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration in the BL2 subtype of basal-like breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10133-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) comprise a heterogeneous subgroup of tumors with a generally poor prognosis. Subclassification of TNBC based on genomic analyses shows that basal-like TNBCs, specifically the basal A or BL2 subtype, are characterized by the expression of ΔNp63, a transcription factor that has been attributed a variety of roles in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival. To investigate the role(s) of p63 in basal-like breast cancers, we used HCC1806 cells that are classified as basal A/BL2. We show that these cells endogenously express p63, mainly as the ΔNp63α isoform. TP63 gene knockout by CRISPR resulted in viable cells that proliferate more slowly and adhere less tightly, with an increased rate of migration. Analysis of adhesion-related gene expression revealed a complex set of alterations in p63-depleted cells, with both increased and decreased adhesion molecules and adhesion substrates compared to parental cells expressing p63. Examination of the phenotype of these cells indicated that endogenous p63 is required to suppress the expression of luminal markers and maintain the basal epithelial phenotype, with increased levels of both CK8 and CK18 and a reduction in N-cadherin levels in cells lacking p63. On the other hand, the level of CK5 was not decreased and ER was not increased, indicating that p63 loss is insufficient to induce full luminal-type differentiation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that p63 exerts multiple pro-oncogenic effects on cell differentiation, proliferation and adhesion in basal-like breast cancers.
p63 is a member of the p53 transcription factor family and a linchpin of epithelial development and homeostasis. p63 drives the expression of many target genes involved in cell survival, adhesion, migration and cancer. In this study, we identify C-terminal tensin-like (CTEN) molecule as a downstream target of ΔNp63α, the predominant p63 isoform expressed in epithelium. CTEN belongs to the tensin family and is mainly localized to focal adhesions, which mediate many biological events such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and gene expression. Our study demonstrate that ΔNp63 and CTEN are both highly expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells and are down-regulated in prostate cancer. In addition, reduced expression of CTEN and ΔNp63 is correlated with prostate cancer progression from primary tumors to metastatic lesions. Silencing of ΔNp63 leads to decreased mRNA and protein levels of CTEN. ΔNp63α induces transcriptional activity of the CTEN promoter and a 140-bp fragment upstream of the transcription initiation site is the minimal promoter region required for activation. A putative binding site for p63 is located between -61 and -36 within the CTEN promoter and mutations of the critical nucleotides in this region abolish ΔNp63α-induced promoter activity. The direct interaction of ΔNp63α with the CTEN promoter was demonstrated using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Moreover, impaired cell adhesion caused by ΔNp63α depletion is rescued by over-expression of CTEN, suggesting that CTEN is a downstream effector of ΔNp63α-mediated cell adhesion. In summary, our findings demonstrate that ΔNp63α functions as a trans-activation factor of CTEN promoter and regulates cell adhesion through modulating CTEN. Our study further contributes to the potential regulatory mechanisms of CTEN in prostate cancer progression.
Seipel AH, Samaratunga H, Delahunt B, et al.Immunohistochemistry of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate and adenocarcinomas of non-prostatic origin: a comparative study.
APMIS. 2016; 124(4):263-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAC) has morphological similarities to adenocarcinomas of other organs. DAC behaves in an aggressive manner and may present with metastases. These metastases may occur at unusual sites, which itself may cause diagnostic difficulties. It is important for therapeutic decisions that a prostatic origin of these metastases be established. Our aim was to compare the protein expression of DAC and adenocarcinomas of colon, endometrium, lung, pancreas, stomach and urinary bladder. A tissue microarray was constructed using 60 DAC, 6 colonic, 7 endometrial, 7 lung, 5 pancreatic, 5 gastric, and 9 urinary bladder adenocarcinomas. Slides were stained for estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptor, prolactin, PSA, prostein, PSMA, PSAP, CDX2, lysozyme, villin, monoclonal CEA, CK7, CK20, HMWCK, p63, p504s, c-Myc, EGFR, Ki-67, p16, p21, p27, p53, PTEN, ERG, and PAX-8. Androgen receptor, prostein, PSA, and PSAP were almost invariably expressed in DAC. Ki-67-labeling index was lower in DAC than in other adenocarcinomas. The expression patterns of intestinal markers and cytokeratins in DAC were less specific and may lead to diagnostic errors if not combined with prostate-specific markers.
Argyris PP, Wetzel SL, Greipp P, et al.Clinical utility of myb rearrangement detection and p63/p40 immunophenotyping in the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of minor salivary glands: a pilot study.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016; 121(3):282-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: MYB rearrangement is observed in approximately 28% to 86% of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs). Also, ACC features a p63+/p40+ immunophenotype in greater than 90% of cases, compared with p63+/p40- polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). Our aim was to investigate the incidence of (1) MYB rearrangement and (2) p63/p40 immunoreactivity in ACC and PLGA of minor salivary glands (MSGs).
STUDY DESIGN: Seven cases of ACC as well as five of PLGA were evaluated by using a MYB (6 q23.3) break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe. In addition, all cases were immunohistochemically stained with p63 and p40 antibodies.
RESULTS: All five successfully hybridized ACCs featured MYB rearrangement, whereas PLGAs did not show MYB rearrangement. Interestingly, one case of PLGA demonstrated a single intact copy of MYB in greater than 88% of the neoplastic cells. All ACCs exhibited consistent p63+/p40+ staining, whereas PLGAs demonstrated a p63+/p40- immunophenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: (1) MYB rearrangement is encountered in ACCs but not PLGAs of MSGs; (2) MYB aberrations, for example, monosomy or deletion, can be seen in PLGAs; (3) combined p63/p40 immunostaining can be used to differentiate ACC from PLGA in incisionally biopsied specimens; and (4) performance of either FISH or p63/p40 immunohistochemistry is expected to be able to confirm the diagnosis of ACC or PLGA in small intraoral biopsies, since both techniques appeared to be diagnostically accurate in this pilot study.
Amin R, Morita-Fujimura Y, Tawarayama H, et al.ΔNp63α induces quiescence and downregulates the BRCA1 pathway in estrogen receptor-positive luminal breast cancer cell line MCF7 but not in other breast cancer cell lines.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(4):575-93 [PubMed
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Despite apparent resection of tumors, breast cancer patients often suffer relapse due to remnant dormant tumor cells. Although quiescence of cancer stem cells is thought as one of the mechanisms regulating dormancy, the mechanism underlying quiescence is unclear. Since ΔNp63α, an isoform of p51/p63, is crucial in the maintenance of stem cells within mammary epithelium, we investigated its roles in the regulation of dormancy in normal and malignant breast cells. Inducible expression of ΔNp63α in MCF7 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) luminal breast cancer cells led to quiescence and acquisition of progenitor-like properties. Judging from mRNA-microRNA microarray analysis, activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and inhibition of Wnt signaling emerged as prominent mechanisms underlying ΔNp63α-dependent induction of quiescence and acquisition of stemness in MCF7. More interestingly, through Ingenuity Pathway analysis, we found for the first time that BRCA1 pathway was the most significantly downregulated pathway by ΔNp63α expression in quiescent MCF7 cells, where miR-205 was a downstream mediator. Furthermore, ΔNp63α-expressing MCF7 cells exhibited resistance to paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Expression of ΔNp63α in normal MCF10A basal cells increased proliferation and stemness, but did not affect more aggressive luminal (T47D) and basal (MDA-MB-231) cells with p53 mutation. Gene expression datasets analyses suggested that ΔNp63 expression is associated with relapse-free survival of luminal A/B-type patients, but not of the other subtypes. Our results established a cell type-specific function of ΔNp63α in induction of quiescence and downregulation of the BRCA1 pathway which suggested a role of ΔNp63α in the dormancy of luminal breast cancers.
TP53 is highly mutated in human cancers, thus targeting this tumor suppressor pathway is highly desirable and will impact many cancer patients. (1,2) Therapeutic strategies to reactivate the p53-pathway have been challenging, (3,4) and no effective treatment exists. (5) We utilized the p53-family members, p63 and p73, which are not frequently mutated in cancer, to treat p53-defective cancers. The N-terminal splice variants of p63 and p73 are denoted as the TA and ΔN isoforms. We recently demonstrated that deletion of either ΔNp63 or ΔNp73 in p53-deficient mouse tumors results in tumor regression mediated by metabolic programming. Using this strategy, we identified pramlintide, a synthetic analog of amylin, as an effective treatment for p53 deficient and mutant tumors. Here, we show the utility of using pramlintide, as a potential cancer preventive option for p53-deficient tumors in mouse models. Additionally, we found that in vivo inhibition of both ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 in combination accelerates tumor regression and increases survival of p53-deficient mice. We report that inhibition of both ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 in combination results in upregulation of 3 key metabolic regulators, IAPP, GLS2, and TIGAR resulting in an increase in apoptosis and tumor regression in ΔNp63/ΔNp73/p53 deficient thymic lymphomas. These data highlight the value of generating inhibitors that will simultaneously target ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 to treat cancer patients with alterations in p53.
Vergne F, Quéré G, Andrieu-Key S, et al.ALK-rearranged squamous cell lung carcinoma responding to crizotinib: A missing link in the field of non-small cell lung cancer?
Lung Cancer. 2016; 91:67-9 [PubMed
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ALK-rearrangements are mainly encountered in lung adenocarcinomas and allow treating patients with anti-ALK targeted therapy. ALK-rearranged squamous cell lung carcinomas are rare tumors that can also respond to anti-ALK-targeted therapy. Nevertheless, ALK screening is not always performed in patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas making the identification and treatment of this molecular tumor subtype challenging. We intend to report a rare case of ALK-rearranged lung squamous cell carcinoma with response to crizotinib therapy. We report clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent in situ hybridization data concerning a patient having an ALK-rearranged squamous cell lung cancer diagnosed in our institution. The patient was a 58-year old woman with a metastatic-stage lung cancer. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on a bronchial biopsy sample and concluded in a non-keratinizing squamous cell lung carcinoma expressing strongly cytokeratin 5/6, p63 and p40, which are classic hallmarks of lung squamous cell carcinomas, but also cytokeratin 7 which is more commonly expressed in lung adenocarcinomas. The tumor did not express thyroid transcription factor-1. ALK rearrangement was searched because of the never-smoker status of the patient and resulted in strong positive fluorescent in situ hybridization test and ALK/p80 immunohistochemistry. The patient responded to crizotinib therapy during 213 days. Our observation points out the interest of considering ALK screening in patients with metastatic lung squamous cell carcinomas, especially in patients lacking a usual heavy-smoker clinical history. The histopathological and immunohistochemical features of this particular tumor highlighting the overlapping criteria between lung adenocarcinomas and rare ALK-rearranged squamous cell lung carcinomas could also be relevant to extend ALK screening to tumors with intermediate phenotypes between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas and/or arising in non-smokers.
Squillaci S, Pitino A, Spairani C, et al.Mucinous Variant of Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2016; 24(2):170-6 [PubMed
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The rare reports of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland have not provided enough evidence to support the recognition of these tumors as a distinct clinicopathologic entity or to understand their etiopathogenesis. We report the fourth case of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma displaying a minimally invasive tumor with diffuse expression of thyroglobulin, TTF-1, CD56, PAX-8, cytokeratins 7 and 19, in the absence of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 20, chromogranin, HBME-1, P63 expression, and BRAF gene mutation, in a 51-year-old woman who is alive without signs of disease 13 months after total thyroidectomy, bilateral neck dissection, and radioactive iodine. Herein, fine-needle aspiration cytology disclosed "worrisome" cytologic features consisting of large epithelial cells arranged in clusters or singularly, with high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, nuclear grooves and evident nucleoli which were shared by those of mucin-producing papillary thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, knowledge of the cytological and histopathological spectrum of this lesion is important to avoid misdiagnosis. The morphologic clues leading to the correct diagnosis of mucinous variant of follicular neoplasm have been correlated with the data of the literature, and the differential diagnosis is briefly discussed.
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PMEC) is an uncommon neoplasm of the lung and the main salivary gland-type lung carcinoma. The aims of this study were to review the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of PMEC and characterize the genetic events in PMEC.
METHODS: We reviewed the pathology cases in our hospital and found 34 initially diagnosed PMEC cases, 26 of which were confirmed as PMEC after excluding 8 cases of MEC-like pulmonary carcinoma. The clinicopathological characteristics of the 26 PMEC cases and the 8 cases of MEC-like pulmonary carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. MAML2 rearrangement was detected by fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Immunostains of ALK, calponin, collagen IV, CK7, EGFR, HER2, Ki-67, Muc5Ac, p63, p40, and TTF-1 were performed. DNA was extracted from 23 cases of PMEC. Mutation profiling of the EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ALK, PIK3CA, PDGFRA, and DDR2 genes were carried out using next-generation sequencing (NGS), Sanger sequencing, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) in 9 successfully amplified cases.
RESULTS: Twenty-six cases of PMEC (18 low-grade, 8 high-grade) included 13 men and 13 women aged 12-79 years. Twenty-two cases had a central/endobronchial growth pattern, and 4 cases had a peribronchial growth pattern. Immunohistochemically, CK7, Muc5Ac, p40, and p63 were positive in all cases (26/26);EGFR was positive in 11 cases (11/26); TTF-1, Calponin, HER2 and ALK were negative in all cases (0/26). MAML2 rearrangement was identified in 12 of 18 PMEC cases. No mutations were detected in any of the 7 genes in the 9 cases that qualified for mutation analysis. Twenty-three PMEC patients had follow-up information with a median interval of 32.6 months. Both the 5- and 10-year overall survival rates (OS) were 72.1%, and a high-grade tumor was an adverse prognostic factor in PMEC. There were 8 cases of MEC-like pulmonary carcinoma aged 36-78 years: 2 cases were located in the bronchus, and 6 cases were located in the lung. p63 and TTF-1 were positive in all cases (8/8), p40 was positive in 5 cases (5/8), and ALK was positive in 5 cases (5/8). No cases of MAML2 rearrangement were detected, but there were 5 cases of ALK rearrangement.
CONCLUSIONS: PMEC is a primary malignant pulmonary tumor with a relatively good prognosis that is historically characterized by the presence of mucous cells and a lack of keratinization. There are distinct differences between PMEC and MEC-like pulmonary carcinoma in tumor location preference, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics, and the differential diagnosis is critical due to the therapeutic and prognostic considerations.
Kiselyov A, Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky S, Startsev VKey signaling pathways in the muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: Clinical markers for disease modeling and optimized treatment.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(11):2562-9 [PubMed
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In this review, we evaluate key molecular pathways and markers of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Overexpression and activation of EGFR, p63, and EMT genes are suggestive of basal MIBC subtype generally responsive to chemotherapy. Alterations in PPARγ, ERBB2/3, and FGFR3 gene products and their signaling along with deregulated p53, cytokeratins KRT5/6/14 in combination with the cellular proliferation (Ki-67), and cell cycle markers (p16) indicate the need for more radical treatment protocols. Similarly, the "bell-shape" dynamics of Shh expression levels may suggest aggressive MIBC. A panel of diverse biological markers may be suitable for simulation studies of MIBC and development of an optimized treatment protocol. We conducted a critical evaluation of PubMed/Medline and SciFinder databases related to MIBC covering the period 2009-2015. The free-text search was extended by adding the following keywords and phrases: bladder cancer, metastatic, muscle-invasive, basal, luminal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell, mutations, immune response, signaling, biological markers, molecular markers, mathematical models, simulation, epigenetics, transmembrane, transcription factor, kinase, predictor, prognosis. The resulting selection of ca 500 abstracts was further analyzed in order to select the latest publications relevant to MIBC molecular markers of immediate clinical significance.
Medulloblastoma (MB), a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor and remains incurable in about a third of patients. Currently, survivors carry a significant burden of late treatment effects. The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a crucial role in influencing cell survival in response to cellular stress and while the p53 pathway is considered a key determinant of anti-tumor responses in many tumors, its role in cell survival in MB is much less well defined. Herein, we report that the experimental drug VMY-1-103 acts through induction of a partial DNA damage-like response as well induction of non-survival autophagy. Surprisingly, the genetic or chemical silencing of p53 significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of both VMY and the DNA damaging drug, doxorubicin. The inhibition of p53 in the presence of VMY revealed increased late stage apoptosis, increased DNA fragmentation and increased expression of genes involved in apoptosis, including CAPN12 and TRPM8, p63, p73, BIK, EndoG, CIDEB, P27Kip1 and P21cip1. These data provide the groundwork for additional studies on VMY as a therapeutic drug and support further investigations into the intriguing possibility that targeting p53 function may be an effective means of enhancing clinical outcomes in MB.
Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) is one of the most common cancers with high mortality all over the world. Many studies have proposed that genes could be used to predict prognosis in KIRC. In this study, RNA expression data from next-generation sequencing and clinical information of 523 patients downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed in order to identify the relationship between gene expression level and the prognosis of KIRC patients. A set of five genes that significantly associated with overall survival time was identified and a model containing these five genes was constructed by Cox regression analysis. By Kaplan-Meier and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, we confirmed that the model had good sensitivity and specificity. In summary, expression of the five-gene model is associated with the prognosis outcomes of KIRC patients, and it may have an important clinical significance.
Li Y, Ahmad A, Sarkar FHASPP and iASPP: Implication in cancer development and progression.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015; 61(6):2-8 [PubMed
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The well-known guardian of genome, p53 plays critical roles in the induction of apoptosis typically upon DNA damage whereas mutant p53 containing cells are unable to undergo apoptosis which leads to aggressive tumor growth and drug resistance. Moreover, another molecule regulating wild-ype p53 function is ASPP (apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53) family. ASPP family consists of ASPP1 and ASPP2, and functions as tumor suppressors whereas the inhibitor of ASPP (iASPP) functions as oncogene. By binding to apoptosis regulating proteins such as p53, p63, p73, Bcl-2, NF-κB p65, etc., ASPP1 and ASPP2 promote apoptosis while overexpression of iASPP inhibits apoptotic cell death typically after DNA damage. In cancer cells, the aberrant expressions of ASPP1, ASPP2 and iASPP have been observed, especially, the high expression of iASPP in cancers is associated with worse disease status, therapy resistance and poor survival of patients with cancers. The molecular interactions between the members of ASPP family and their binding proteins in apoptotic pathway together with other regulators such as miR-124, NF-κB regulated Twist, snail, etc. form a complex signal transduction network to control apoptosis and tumor growth. Therefore, targeting ASPP family could regulate the aberrant communications in the signal transduction network to induce apoptosis and drug sensitivity. Several peptides, miRNAs and natural agents have been used to target ASPP family and show encouraging results in the induction of apoptosis of cancer cells; however, more in vivo animal studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the true value of targeting ASPP family in the treatment of cancers.
BACKGROUND: A new molecular marker of carcinoma in the urinary bladder is needed as a diagnostic tool or as a therapeutic target. Potential markers include microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short, low molecular weight RNAs 19-24 nt long that regulate genes associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and development in various cancers. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which miR-145 promotes survival of urothelial carcinoma cells and differentiation into multiple lineages. We found miR-145 to regulate expression of syndecan-1, a heparin sulfate proteoglycan.
METHODS: Cell proliferation in the human urothelial carcinoma cell lines T24 and KU7 was assessed by MTS assay. Cellular senescence and apoptosis were measured by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and TUNEL assay, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of various genes, including syndecan-1, stem cell factors, and markers of differentiation into squamous, glandular, or neuroendocrine cells.
RESULTS: Overexpression of miR-145 induced cell senescence, and thus significantly inhibited cell proliferation in T24 and KU7 cells. Syndecan-1 expression diminished, whereas stem cell markers such as SOX2, NANOG, OCT4, and E2F3 increased. miR-145 also up-regulated markers of differentiation into squamous (p63, TP63, and CK5), glandular (MUC-1, MUC-2, and MUC-5 AC), and neuroendocrine cells (NSE and UCHL-1). Finally, expression of miR-145 was down-regulated in high-grade urothelial carcinomas, but not in low-grade tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that miR-145 suppresses syndecan-1 and, by this mechanism, up-regulates stem cell factors and induces cell senescence and differentiation. We propose that miR-145 may confer stem cell-like properties on urothelial carcinoma cells and thus facilitate differentiation into multiple cell types.
Ishibashi K, Ito Y, Masaki A, et al.Warthin-like Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A Combined Study of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Whole-slide Imaging.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(11):1479-87 [PubMed
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There has been some debate as to whether a subset of metaplastic Warthin tumors (mWTs) harbor the mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC)-associated CRTC1-MAML2 fusion. We analyzed 15 tumors originally diagnosed as mWT (mWT-like tumors), 2 of which had concurrent MECs. We looked for the CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusion transcripts and performed immunohistochemistry for p63 and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the MAML2 split. To localize MAML2 split-positive cells at the cellular level, whole tumor tissue sections were digitalized (whole-slide imaging [WSI]). The CRTC1-MAML2, but not CRTC3-MAML2 was detected in 5/15 mWT-like tumors. FISH-WSI results showed that all epithelial cells harbored the MAML2 split in fusion-positive mWT-like tumors and were totally negative in fusion-negative mWT-like tumors. A review of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides showed that morphology of the "metaplastic" epithelium was virtually indistinguishable between fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors. However, oncocytic bilayered tumor epithelium, characteristic to typical WT, was always found somewhere in the fusion-negative tumors but not in the fusion-positive tumors. This distinguishing histologic finding enabled 5 pathologists to easily differentiate the 2 tumor groups with 100% accuracy. The age and sex distribution of fusion-positive mWT-like tumor cases was similar to that of fusion-positive MEC cases and significantly different from those of fusion-negative mWT-like tumor and typical WT cases. In addition, only fusion-positive mWT-like tumors possessed concurrent low-grade MECs. In conclusion, a subset of mWT-like tumors were positive for the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion and had many features that are more in accord with MEC than with WT. The term Warthin-like MEC should be considered for fusion-positive mWT-like tumors.
Yaman B, Nart D, Ekren PK, et al.Expression of p63, TTF-1 and Maspin in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Their Effect on the Prognosis and Differential Diagnosis.
Turk Patoloji Derg. 2015; 31(3):163-74 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer mortality. Antiapoptotic genes and protease inhibitors play an important role in the development of lung cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: p63, TTF-1 and maspin expression and their role in the differential diagnosis, overall survival, progression-free survival and other clinicopathological characteristics of the patients were investigated in 80 surgically-resected non-small cell lung carcinomas.
RESULTS: The maximal tumor diameter range was 1.5-11 cm (mean: 4.06±1.8 cm). Forty-five (56.3%) tumors were adenocarcinoma, 23 (28.8%) squamous cell carcinoma, four (5%) large cell carcinoma, six (7.5%) large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, one (1.2%) sarcomatoid carcinoma while one was (1.2%) both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The patients with advanced TNM stage and a tumor diameter more than 3 cm had markedly poor survival. Immunohistochemically, p63 staining was present in 87.5% of squamous cell carcinomas, 4.3% of adenocarcinomas, 25% of large cell carcinomas, and 16.7% of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Similarly, maspin was positive in 66.7% of squamous cell carcinomas and 17.4% of adenocarcinomas. The TTF-1 staining rate was higher in adenocarcinomas (84.8%). There was no immunoreactivity in squamous cell carcinomas (p < 0.001). We found that p63 and TTF-1 had no significant effect on survival in either tumor group (p > 0.05) while maspin has a negative prognostic effect in adenocarcinoma (p=0.048).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that p63 and TTF-1 are reliable markers in non-small cell lung carcinoma and can be used in differential diagnosis. Maspin has been identified as a prognostic marker in adenocarcinoma. However, more studies are required to elucidate the significance of maspin.