Gene Summary

Gene:NKX2-1; NK2 homeobox 1
Aliases: BCH, BHC, NK-2, TEBP, TTF1, NKX2A, NMTC1, T/EBP, TITF1, TTF-1, NKX2.1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein initially identified as a thyroid-specific transcription factor. The encoded protein binds to the thyroglobulin promoter and regulates the expression of thyroid-specific genes but has also been shown to regulate the expression of genes involved in morphogenesis. Mutations and deletions in this gene are associated with benign hereditary chorea, choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress, and may be associated with thyroid cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene shares the symbol/alias 'TTF1' with another gene, transcription termination factor 1, which plays a role in ribosomal gene transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein Nkx-2.1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NKX2-1 (cancer-related)

Liu G, Wu K, Sheng Y
Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma by integrated miRNA and mRNA analysis.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):3005-3013 [PubMed] Related Publications
To elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of ATC were systematically explored. A total of 55 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from two mRNA expression datasets including 23 ATC samples and 24 paired normal samples. Gene expression levels of three randomly selected DEGs, VCAN, COL5A1 and KCNJ16, were examined using RT-PCR in 10 ATC samples. Notably, the ATC and normal samples were clearly classified into two groups based on their common DEGs. Moreover 23 common DEGs, such as TG, NKX2-1, KCNJ16 and CTHRC1, were predicted to be the potential targets of 17 identified miRNAs in ATC. Meanwhile, several miRNA target genes were associated with biological processes related to tumor progression such as angiogenesis, cell migration or growth and potassium channel regulation. In summary, the poor prognosis of ATC is possibly caused via complex biological processes. Firstly, angiogenesis was activated by the high expression of CTHRC1, VCAN and POSTN, providing necessary nutrition for tumor cells. Then tumor distant metastasis was induced via stimulation of cell migration and cell growth or regulation of cell-cell interaction. Moreover, intracellular potassium concentration changes promoted ATC progression indirectly. Hence, identification of these critical DEGs was valuable in understanding the molecular mechanisms of ATC.

Nguyen T, Lee MA, Reyes M, Cassarino D
Solitary Firm Abdominal Nodule in a 70-Year-Old Woman: Challenge.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(7):529-30 [PubMed] Related Publications

Czapiewski P, Majewska H, Kutzner H, et al.
TTF-1 and PAX5 Are Frequently Expressed in Combined Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(7):513-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a marker of tumors of pulmonary and thyroid origin, and its expression practically excludes diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). However, TTF-1 expression in combined MCC was recently reported. PAX5 is a marker of B-cell origin that is also expressed in most classical MCC cases; however, its expression was not described in combined MCC. The authors decided to evaluate the expression of both these markers in a group of 5 combined MCCs (2 with invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and 1 with basal cell carcinoma). Expression of TTF-1 was found in 4 of 5 cases; in 3 cases, the marker was shown in the MCC component (weakly in 2 cases and strongly in 1 case), whereas the non-MCC component presented TTF-1 expression in 2 cases. A weak-to-moderate immunoreactivity for PAX5 was identified in all cases of the MCC component but in none of the non-MCC component. The results show that the expression of TTF-1 is a frequent finding in combined MCC and can be present in the neuroendocrine component, which differs from the conventional MCC. In contrast, PAX5 expression pattern is similar to that of the classical MCC.

Lam JC, Robinson SR, Schell A, Vaughan S
Pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma mimicking neurocysticercosis: a case report.
J Med Case Rep. 2016; 10(1):144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis occurs when the eggs of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) migrate and hatch into larvae within the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of seizures in the developing world and is characterized on brain imaging by cysts in different stages of evolution. In Canada, cases of neurocysticercosis are rare and most of these patients acquire the disease outside of Canada. We report the case of a patient with multiple intracranial lesions whose history and diagnostic imaging were consistent with neurocysticercosis. Pathological investigations ultimately demonstrated that her brain lesions were secondary to malignancy. Brain metastases are considered to be the most common cause of intracranial cystic lesions.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 60-year-old Canadian-born Caucasian woman with a subacute history of ataxia, lower extremity hyper-reflexia, and otalgia who resided near a pig farm for most of her childhood. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that she had multiple heterogeneous intracranial cysts, suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Despite a heavy burden of disease, serological tests for cysticercosis were negative. This result and a lack of the central scolices on neuroimaging that are pathognomonic of neurocysticercosis prompted whole-body computed tomography imaging to identify another etiology. The whole-body computed tomography revealed right hilar lymphadenopathy associated with soft tissue nodules in her chest wall and abdomen. A biopsy of an anterior chest wall nodule demonstrated high-grade poorly differentiated carcinoma with necrosis, which stained strongly positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and synaptophysin on immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of stage 4 metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was made and our patient was referred for oncological palliative treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the importance of the diagnostic approach to intracranial lesions. Our patient's diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma was delayed because of her nontraditional presentation. Despite extensive metastatic burden, the lack of perilesional edema and the identification of lesions appearing to be in various stages of development led to a pursuit of neurocysticercosis as the diagnosis. The absence of constitutional symptoms should not discount the possibility of malignancy from the differential diagnosis.

Dong L, Huang J, Huang L, et al.
Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma of the Kidney in a Patient with Skull and Meningeal Metastasis: A Unique Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(15):e3314 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK) is an extremely rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma with close resemblance to the well-differentiated thyroid follicular neoplasms. TLFCK has not been included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification due to the limited data available. Only 27 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Herein, we report a unique case of TLFCK that presented as a striking skull and meningeal metastasis 5 years after the initial diagnosis; this is the first case of TLFCK with such a novel metastasis pattern. A 68-year-old woman was found to have a right renal lesion using computed tomography (CT) during her regular clinical follow-up visit for bladder cancer, but she exhibited no obvious clinical symptoms. The CT scan showed a 4.4-cm diameter, slightly lobulated soft tissue mass in the right lower kidney, the pathological findings of which showed a TLFCK. Five years later, the patient had progressed to skull and meningeal metastasis. Both the renal tumor and the metastasis lesion were composed almost entirely of follicles with a dense, colloid-like material that resembled thyroid follicular carcinoma. However, no lesion was found in the thyroid gland. The neoplastic epithelial cells were strongly immunoreactive for cytokeratin 7 (and vimentin but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin. This is the first reported case of TLFCK to consist of widespread metastases to the skull and meninges and provides evidence that this rare variant of renal cell carcinoma has uncertain malignant potential and can be more clinically aggressive than previously believed.

Kanmaz ZD, Aras G, Tuncay E, et al.
Contribution of ¹⁸Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography uptake and TTF-1 expression in the evaluation of the EGFR mutation in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(3):489-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of PET-CT scan for the prediction of EGFR mutation status and the contribution of TTF-1 expression to PET-CT scan.
METHODS: We retrospectively studied 218 cases with a diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma between 2012-2014 which underwent EGFR analysis, TTF-1 and PET-CT before treatment.
RESULTS: The EGFR mutation was present in 28.9% (n= 63) of cases. TTF-1 positivity was 66.9% (n= 105). Standardized uptake value (SUV max) was 16.7 ± 6.8 in EGFR mutant type, 13.8 ± 7.6 in cases having no EGFR mutations. According to our evaluations, high SUVmax is positively correlated with EGFR mutation status. TTF-1 expression in multivariate analysis strengthens the accuracy of detecting an EGFR mutation.
CONCLUSION: PET-CT FDG uptake may, together with TTF-1 expression, help diagnosis in lung adenocarcinoma cases when evaluating for EGFR mutation status.

Shi J, Liu H, Ma XJ, et al.
Ribonucleic Acid In Situ Hybridization Is a More Sensitive Method Than Immunohistochemistry in Detection of Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 and Napsin A Expression in Lung Adenocarcinomas.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016; 140(4):332-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: TTF-1 and napsin A immunomarkers have a crucial role in differentiating lung adenocarcinoma from lung squamous cell carcinoma and in identifying a primary lung adenocarcinoma when working on a tumor of unknown origin.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic sensitivity of ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization (RNAscope) in the detection of expression of these biomarkers in lung adenocarcinomas and to compare RNAscope to immunohistochemical techniques.
DESIGN: Both RNAscope and the immunohistochemical assays for TTF-1 and napsin A were performed on tissue microarray sections containing 80 lung adenocarcinomas and 80 lung squamous cell carcinomas. The RNAscope assay for both TTF-1 and napsin A was also performed on 220 adenocarcinomas from various organs.
RESULTS: The RNAscope assay for TTF-1 gave positive results in 92.5% (74 of 80) of the lung adenocarcinomas; in contrast, immunohistochemistry gave positive results in 82.5% (66 of 80) of those cases. The RNAscope assay for napsin A gave positive results in 90% (72 of 80) of lung adenocarcinomas; immunohistochemistry results were positive in 77.5% (62 of 80) of those cases. Napsin A expression was not seen in lung squamous cell carcinomas by either method. In contrast, TTF-1 expression was seen in 3.8% (3 of 80) (1(+)) and 10% (8 of 80) (1(+)) of the squamous cell carcinomas by immunochemistry and the RNAscope, respectively. All nonpulmonary adenocarcinoma results were negative for TTF-1 by the RNAscope assay.
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data suggest that RNAscope is superior to immunohistochemistry in detecting TTF-1 and napsin A expression in primary lung adenocarcinomas. Therefore, performing an RNAscope assay may be considered for both TTF-1(-) and napsin A(-) cases with a clinical suspicion of lung adenocarcinoma. The TTF-1 results should be interpreted with caution because a small percentage of squamous cell carcinomas can be focally positive by either assay.

Cykowski MD, Takei H, Baskin DS, et al.
Epithelial and organ-related marker expression in pituitary adenomas.
Neuropathology. 2016; 36(4):354-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The histologic expression of epithelial and organ-related immunohistochemical markers in primary sellar region tumors has received little attention to date. This lack of empirical data may lead to mistaken assumptions in the evaluation of sellar region neoplasms. To address this issue, the frequency and specificity of epithelial (cytokeratin 7(CK7), CK20) and organ-related differentiation markers (gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, paired box 8 (PAX-8), hepatocyte paraffin 1 (HepPar1) and estrogen receptor (ER)) were studied in 40 patients with adenomas comprising five hormonal sub-types. Non-parametric statistical procedures were used to examine associations between marker expression and tumor sub-type. CK7 and CK20 immunoreactivity were seen in 48% and 8% of tumors, respectively, although never in a diffuse pattern. CK20 expression was nearly exclusive to corticotrophs, whereas CK7 frequently highlighted cells with dendritic-type morphology. The specificity of organ-related differentiation markers was 100% (monoclonal Napsin A, GCDFP-15 and TTF-1), 97% (HepPar1 and PAX-8), 90% (polyclonal Napsin A) and 72% (ER); no tumors demonstrated significant co-expression of these organ-related markers with either CK7 or CK20. The first major conclusion of this study is that CK7 staining in adenoma is more frequent than has been previously than has been previously described. CK7 immunoreactive cells often displayed a dendritic-type morphology, including within large macroadenomas, which raises the question as to whether these represent tumor cells with folliculo-stellate cell-type differentiation, as these also have dendritic cell-type morphology and express CK7 in non-neoplastic glands. The second major conclusion, which confirms earlier findings, is that CK20 staining is a very infrequent immunohistochemical finding in adenomas that is virtually limited to corticotrophs and thus is helpful in diagnostic confirmation of that sub-type. The final conclusion is in regard to those features that separate adenomas from sellar region metastases: adenomas do not demonstrate significant expression of TTF-1, monoclonal Napsin A, PAX-8, HepPar1 or GCDFP-15, nor do they exhibit diffuse expression of CK7 and CK20.

Xu XL, Song W, Sui X, et al.
Computed Tomographic and Pathological Features of Primary Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2016; 38(1):93-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the computed tomographic (CT) and pathological features of primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC).
METHODS: The clinical data and CT images of 20 patients with pathologically confirmed PSC were retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: Solitary pulmonary mass was identified in 18 patients and multiple pulmonary masses in 2 patients, amounting to 22 masses. There were 17 peripheral masses and 5 central masses, including 11 masses larger than 5 cm. The smooth margin was identified in 9 masses, deep lobulation and/or spinous protuberance in 11 masses, and ill-defined margin in 2 masses. Pleural indentation was identified in 2 masses and pleural thickening with wide basement was identified in 14 masses. On plain CT, cavity was observed in 5 masses, hypo-density in 7 masses, and homogeneous density in 10 masses. On contrast-enhanced CT scanning, irregular ring/patchy enhancement were shown in 15 masses and slightly homogenous enhancement in 2 masses. Of all patients, 6 patients had unilateral or bilateral hilar and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. There were 16 pleomorphic carcinomas and 4 spindle cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, anti-pan cytokeratin antibody was positive in 13 patients, cytokeratin was positive in 8 patients, Vimentin was positive in 15 patients, epithelial membrane antigen was positive in 1 patient, and thyroid transcription factor-1 was positive in 8 patients.
CONCLUSION: PSC has some specific CT features; however, the final confirmation of PSC still depends on pathological and immunohistochemical examinations.

Richter G, Heidersdorf H, Hirschfeld D, Krebbel F
Positive TTF-1 Expression in Malignant Mesothelioma: A Case Report.
Am J Case Rep. 2016; 17:133-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The histopathological diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is based mainly on the immunohistological profile of the neoplasia, using different immunohistochemical markers to distinguish between a malignant mesothelioma and a carcinoma.
CASE REPORT: A female patient presented with a right paravertebral rapidly growing tumor and severe pain. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, we present the first case of a malignant mesothelioma with immunohistochemical expression of thyroid transcription factor-1.
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of a positive reaction for thyroid transcription factor-1 in the tumor cells may not exclude a malignant mesothelioma.

Bonney A, Beaty A, See K, et al.
Diagnostic Utility of Bronchial Brush-Tip Washings for the Immunohistochemical Assessment of Peripheral Lung Lesions.
Acta Cytol. 2016; 60(1):74-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important component of lung cancer diagnosis and management, although performance can be limited due to tissue availability. We describe a novel technique for processing brush-tip washings (BTW) and evaluate the feasibility of IHC testing on these samples.
STUDY DESIGN: All patients who had cell blocks (CB) created from BTW following bronchoscopic investigation of peripheral lung lesions were included. CB were assessed for adequate material before undergoing IHC staining.
RESULTS: 75 patients were included in the study, with bronchoscopic diagnosis of malignancy achieved in 77%. Sixty-seven samples (89%) had sufficient cells for diagnosis on CB and 56 of these (84%) proved amenable to IHC. CB created from BTW were the sole specimens available for IHC subtyping in 7 patients (9%).
CONCLUSIONS: CB are easily created from BTW and are a simple method for increasing the diagnostic utility of bronchoscopic specimens without increasing the risk or duration of bronchoscopy. IHC can be easily performed in a high proportion of cases, increasing the likelihood of accurate sub-typing of tumours following diagnostic bronchoscopy.

Wood LW, Cox NI, Phelps CA, et al.
Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 Reprograms Angiogenic Activities of Secretome.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:19857 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Through both gain- and loss-of-TTF-1 expression strategies, we show that TTF-1 positively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and that the VEGF promoter element contains multiple TTF-1-responsive sequences. The major signaling receptor for VEGF, i.e VEGFR2, also appears to be under a direct and positive regulation of TTF-1. The TTF-1-dependent upregulation of VEGF was moderately sensitive to rapamycin, implicating a partial involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). However, hypoxia did not further increase the secreted VEGF level of the TTF-1(+) lung cancer cells. The TTF-1-induced VEGF upregulation occurs in both compartments (exosomes and exosome-depleted media (EDM)) of the conditioned media. Surprisingly, the EDM of TTF-1(+) lung cancer cells (designated EDM-TTF-1(+)) displayed an anti-angiogenic activity in the endothelial cell tube formation assay. Mechanistic studies suggest that the increased granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) level in the EDM-TTF-1(+) conferred the antiangiogenic activities. In human lung cancer, the expression of TTF-1 and GM-CSF exhibits a statistically significant and positive correlation. In summary, this study provides evidence that TTF-1 may reprogram lung cancer secreted proteome into an antiangiogenic state, offering a novel basis to account for the long-standing observation of favorable prognosis associated with TTF-1(+) lung adenocarcinomas.

Udupa KS, Rajendranath R, Sagar TG, et al.
Dual surrogate markers for rapid prediction of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status in advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung: A novel approach in resource-limited setting.
Indian J Cancer. 2015 Jul-Sep; 52(3):266-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic lung cancer in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Amplified refractory mutation system (ARMS)-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the current standard for detecting EGFR mutation status is time-consuming and highly expensive. Consequently any surrogate test which are cheaper, faster and as accurate as the PCR method will help in early diagnosis and management of patients with lung cancer, especially in resource-limited settings.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients, all of South Indian origin, with adenocarcinoma of lung, registered between October 2009 and January 2013, were evaluated for EGFR mutation status by using scorpion probe based ARMS RT-PCR method. Immunohistochemical (IHC) was performed using the phosphorylated AKT (P-AKT) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) on above patient's sample, and the results were compared with EGFR mutation tests.
RESULTS: EGFR mutation was positive in 34 of 85 patients (40%). P-AKT and TTF-1 were positive in 50 (58.8%) and 68 (80%) patients respectively. Both P-AKT and TTF-1 had statistically significant correlation with EGFR mutation status. Positive and negative predictive value of P-AKT in diagnosing EGFR mutation was 58% and 85.5% and that for TTF-1 was 48.5% and 94.1%, respectively. The problem of low positive predictive value can partly be overcome by testing P-AKT and TTF-1 simultaneously.
CONCLUSION: P-AKT and TTF-1 using IHC had statistically significant correlation with EGFR mutation with high negative predictive value. In the case of urgency of starting treatment, EGFR mutation testing may be avoided in those patients who are negative for these IHC markers and can be started on chemotherapy.

Hwang DH, Sholl LM, Rojas-Rudilla V, et al.
KRAS and NKX2-1 Mutations in Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Lung.
J Thorac Oncol. 2016; 11(4):496-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mucinous differentiation is observed in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas with unique clinical and pathological features, but the biology of these neoplasms is poorly understood.
METHODS: We apply targeted next-generation sequencing to characterize the mutational profiles of 21 invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas, mixed mucinous/nonmucinous adenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas with mucinous features of the lung and validate key findings on 954 additional lung adenocarcinomas from our institution and 514 lung adenocarcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas.
RESULTS: Sequencing identifies pathogenic mutations in the oncogenes Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), and anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) and recurrent mutations in tumor protein p53 (TP53), serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1), and SET domain containing 2 (SETD2). In the combined discovery and validation cohorts, we identify nine neoplasms with distinct molecular and pathological features. All are invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas or mixed mucinous/nonmucinous adenocarcinomas with mutations of KRAS and frameshift or nonsense mutations of NKX2-1. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that these neoplasms are associated with altered differentiation states, including loss of expression of the pulmonary marker thyroid transcription factor 1 (also called Nkx2.1) and expression of gastrointestinal markers.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings describe recurrent NKX2-1 mutations in invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas of the lung and support NKX2-1 as a lineage-specific tumor suppressor gene in lung carcinogenesis.

Takanashi Y, Tajima S, Hayakawa T, et al.
KRAS mutation-positive bronchial surface epithelium (BSE)-type lung adenocarcinoma with strong expression of TTF-1: a case providing a further insight as for the role of TTF-1 in the oncogenesis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(11):15338-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bronchial surface epithelium (BSE)-type lung adenocarcinoma is a subtype of non-terminal respiratory unit (TRU)-type lung adenocarcinoma originating in the bronchial surface epithelium. However, there are few known cases of BSE-type adenocarcinoma with marked expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). This paper describes a very rare case of KRAS mutation-positive BSE-type adenocarcinoma that exhibited strong expression of TTF-1 that was putatively involved in oncogenesis. An 84-year-old woman, a never smoker, was referred to our hospital because of an abnormal chest radiograph. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a solid mass lesion, 15 mm × 10 mm, with a relatively smooth margin in the left upper lobe. The patient underwent partial resection of the left upper lobe for strongly suspected lung cancer with a clinical stage of cT1aN0M0. Histopathological findings showed continuous migration of papillary, hyperplastic, atypical columnar tumor cells originating from normal bronchial surface epithelium, leading to a diagnosis of BSE-type adenocarcinoma. TTF-1 was strongly expressed in almost 100% of the tumor cells, which tested positive for the KRAS mutation. TTF-1 has recently attracted attention as an oncogene, and it is purportedly involved in the carcinogenesis and survival of lung adenocarcinoma cells. There is typically an inverse correlation between the respective expressions of KRAS and TTF-1, but in the present study, they appeared simultaneously and were both putatively involved as oncogenic driver alterations. This case is important in that it sheds some light on the largely unknown pathogenic mechanism of BSE-type adenocarcinoma.

Shen Y, Pang C, Shen K, et al.
Diagnostic value of thyroid transcription factor-1 for pleural or other serous metastases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:19785 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) in the diagnosis of metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinomas in pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal effusions has not been defined. This study aimed to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of TTF-1 for metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinomas in pleural or other effusions. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and other databases to find eligible publications. Quality was assessed according to standardized QUADAS-2 criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio (PLR/NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to assess overall performance of the TTF-1 assay. A systematic search revealed 20 studies comprising a total of 1,213 subjects in this meta-analysis. The summary estimates were listed as follows: sensitivity, 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69-0.79); specificity, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00); PLR, 78.16 (95% CI: 27.15-225.05); NLR, 0.26 (95% CI: 0.22-0.32); and diagnostic odds ratio, 297.75 (95% CI: 104.16-851.19). Estimated positive and negative post-probability values for metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinomas prevalence of 20% were 95% and 6%, respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.96. TTF-1 shows significant potential as a diagnostic marker to differentiate metastatic pulmonary from non-pulmonary adenocarcinomas in pleural or other effusions. These results justify larger, more rigorous studies to confirm such a diagnostic role.

Nishiyama A, Yoshioka H, Ikeo S, et al.
Retroperitoneal Metastasis from Lung Adenocarcinoma Mimics Retroperitoneal Fibrosis.
J Thorac Oncol. 2016; 11(2):266-7 [PubMed] Related Publications

Miyauchi E, Motoi N, Ono H, et al.
Distinct Characteristics of Small Cell Lung Cancer Correlate With Central or Peripheral Origin: Subtyping Based on Location and Expression of Transcription Factor TTF-1.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(51):e2324 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation and a poor prognosis that is widely believed to arise in the central lung. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a peripheral marker of lung adenocarcinoma that is also highly expressed in SCLC. In this study, we examined whether SCLC is really a central-type tumor and the relationship between tumor location, TTF-1 expression and prognosis of SCLC.Ninety six SCLCs, diagnosed from biopsies or surgical materials, for which detailed computed tomography (CT) images were available, were collected consecutively from Japanese patients between 2004 and 2011. We examined the location of the primary tumor (central or peripheral) using thin-sliced CT, a TTF-1 immunohistochemical expression, and clinicopathology including prognosis.Of the 96 SCLCs, 74% (71/96) were of the peripheral type and found to have a significantly worse prognosis than central-type tumors. TTF-1 immunoreactivity was identified in 79 tumors (82%), 78% of which (62/79) were of the peripheral type and 22% of which were central. TTF-1 expression was significantly correlated with peripheral location (P = 0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that high TNM stages and the peripheral location were independent markers for poor survival.The majority of SCLCs were of the peripheral type. The peripheral-type SCLC expressed TTF-1 more frequently and had a poorer prognosis than central-type tumors did. Further analysis on original sites of SCLC, using molecular methodology, or based on another ethnicity, should be warranted.

Kawai T, Tominaga S, Hiroi S, et al.
Expressions of Thyroid Transcription Factor-1, Napsin A, p40, p63, CK5/6 and Desmocollin-3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, as Revealed by Imprint Cytology Using a Malinol-Based Cell-Transfer Technique.
Acta Cytol. 2015; 59(6):457-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The introduction of new therapies has made it important to differentiate between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. To allow the use of various immunocytochemical stains on limited materials, we tried transferring cells from a given smear to multiple slides. Using touch-preparation samples of 215 surgically resected non-small cell lung carcinomas of confirmed histologic classification (adenocarcinoma,n = 101; squamous cell carcinoma,n = 114), we performed immunocytochemistry for thyroid transcription factor-1, napsin A, p40, p63, CK5/6 and desmocollin-3, and compared cytologic staining results with the corresponding resection.
METHODS: We examined: (a) the expressions of the above 6 antibodies on cells transferred from touch imprints of resected specimens, the extent of staining being considered positive if more than 5% of the area was stained, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each antibody.
RESULTS: The histologic corresponding rate with Papanicolaou staining was only 73%. Regarding the differentiation of adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity for napsin A in adenocarcinoma were 80 and 97%, respectively, while those for p40 in squamous cell carcinoma were 84 and 98%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The immunocytochemical expressions of napsin A and p40 in imprint cytology seem to be of great utility for the accurate histological differentiation of lung cancers.

Ida L, Yamaguchi T, Yanagisawa K, et al.
Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1, a target of NKX2-1/TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene, inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-mediated pro-apoptotic signaling in lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(2):155-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously identified receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) as a transcriptional target of the NKX2-1/TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinoma. ROR1 consequently sustains a favorable balance between pro-survival phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B and pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-p38MAPK signaling. In contrast to recent advances in understanding how ROR1 sustains pro-survival signaling, the mechanism of ROR1 repression of pro-apoptotic signaling remains rather elusive. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of ROR1-mediated inhibition of the ASK1-p38MAPK signaling pathway. Growth inhibition mediated by siROR1 was partially but significantly alleviated by ASK1 co-knockdown in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Also, ASK1 phosphorylation at Thr845, which reflects its activated state, was clearly inhibited by ROR1 overexpression in both steady state and oxidative stress-elicited conditions in MSTO-211H cells. In addition, we found that ROR1 was physically associated with ASK1 at the C-terminal serine threonine-rich domain of ROR1. Furthermore, ROR1 kinase activity was shown to be required to repress the ASK1-p38 axis and oxidative stress-induced cell death. The present findings thus support our notion that ROR1 sustains lung adenocarcinoma survival, at least in part, through direct physical interaction with ASK1 and consequential repression of the pro-apoptotic ASK1-p38 axis in a ROR1 kinase activity-dependent manner.

Buckley K, Iwenofu OH
Limited Utility of p63 in the Sole Evaluation of Suspected Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Cautionary Tale!
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2016; 24(1):e1-3 [PubMed] Related Publications

Ianniello A, Sansovini M, Severi S, et al.
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE in advanced bronchial carcinoids: prognostic role of thyroid transcription factor 1 and (18)F-FDG PET.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016; 43(6):1040-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Typical and atypical carcinoids (TC and AC) represent 20 - 25 % of all neuroendocrine tumours. No standard therapeutic approach is available for patients with advanced disease. The aim of this phase II study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE (Lu-PRRT) and the role of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and (18)F-FDG PET as prognostic factors in patients with advanced TC or AC.
METHODS: A total of 34 consecutive patients with radiologically documented progressive disease were treated with Lu-PRRT at a therapeutic cumulative activity of 18.5 or 27.8 GBq in four or five cycles according to the patient's kidney function and bone marrow reserve. Information on TTF-1 was available in all patients. FDG PET studies prior to Lu-PRRT were available in 29 patients.
RESULTS: The median follow-up was 29 months (range 7 - 69 months). The disease control rate (DCR) in patients with TC was 80 %: 6 % complete response, 27 % partial response and 47 % stable disease. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 20.1 months (95 % CI 11.8 - 26.8 months). Stable disease was achieved in 47 % of patients with AC with a mPFS of 15.7 months (95 % CI 10.6 - 25.9 months). No major acute or delayed toxicity occurred in either group or with either cumulative activity. mPFS in patients with TTF-1-negative TC was 26.3 months (95 % CI 12.9 - 45.2 months), but in patients with TTF-1-positive TC mPFS was 7.2 months (4.2 - 14.0 months; p = 0.0009). FDG PET was negative in 13 patients (10 TC and 3 AC) and positive in 16 patients (4 TC and 12 AC). The mPFS in the FDG PET-negative group was 26.4 months (95 % CI 14.2 - 48.9 months) and 15.3 months (11.7 - 31.1 months) in the FDG PET-positive group.
CONCLUSION: Lu-PRRT showed antitumour activity in terms of DCR and PFS and proved safe, even in patients with a higher risk of side effects. TTF-1 would appear to be a prognostic factor. FDG PET positivity in bronchial carcinoids is a hallmark of aggressive tumour and is more frequent in patients with AC than in those with TC.

Xu X, Liu H, Jiang H, et al.
[Combined detection of thyroid transcription factor 1 and napsin A in pleural fluid cell blocks facilitates cytopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2015; 35(11):1610-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of detecting thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and Noval aspartic proteinase of pepsin family A (napsin A) in pleural fluid cell blocks in cytopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: Conventional cell smears of pleural effusions were obtained from 48 patients with a history of lung adenocarcinoma for cytological analysis. The cell blocks were prepared using the cytological specimens and examined with immunohistochemistry for TTF-1 and napsin A. The rates of a positive diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma were compared between the two methods, and the diagnositic value of TTF-1 and napsin A in pleural fluid cell blocks was evaluated.
RESULTS: Immuno- histochemistry of the cell block sections yielded a significantly higher positive rate of diagnosis than cytological analysis of conventional cell smear (84.44% vs 55.56%, P<0.05). Most of the pleural fluid cell blocks showed positive expressions of TTF-1 (36/38, 94.74%) and napsin A (30/38, 78.95%), and none of samples showed TTF-1 or napsin A expression in the mesothelial cells (P<0.05). The combination detection of TTF-1 and napsin A in pleural fluid cell blocks had a high diagnosis value with a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.37% and a specificity of 100% for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: The combined detection of TTF-1 and napsin A in pleural fluid cell blocks facilitates cytopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Lew M, Pang JC, Roh MH, Jing X
Cytologic Features and Immunocytochemical Profiles of Malignant Effusions with Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series from a Single Institution.
Acta Cytol. 2015; 59(5):412-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Malignant effusions due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are rare, but portend a poor prognosis. PTC metastases, although rare, most frequently occur in the lungs and bone. Therefore, differentiating thyroid etiology of malignant effusions from other sites becomes clinically significant in patient management. This study examines morphologic and immunocytochemical findings in 5 cases of malignant effusions with PTC involvement.
STUDY DESIGN: The electronic database at the University of Michigan was searched from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2014 for malignant pleural effusions with PTC involvement. Clinicopathologic data were obtained from electronic medical records. Cytologic slides were reviewed.
RESULTS: Five cases of malignant effusions due to PTC were identified. Characteristic cytologic features of PTC, including ovoid nuclei, irregular nuclear contours, and psammomatous calcifications, were seen. However, the predominant cytologic feature observed was moderate amounts of delicate to vacuolated cytoplasm within the tumor cells. A review of immunocytochemistry demonstrated that all 5 cases showed patchy to diffuse TTF-1 positivity and diffuse positivity for Pax-8. Thyroglobulin only showed focal to patchy positivity in 3 of 5 cases.
CONCLUSION: Given the morphologic features found in our case series, an immunocytochemical workup for the evaluation of involvement of an effusion by a thyroid primary is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate clinical treatment.

Forest F, Casteillo F, Manet R, et al.
A 48-YEar-Old Male with a Pituitary Tumor.
Brain Pathol. 2016; 26(1):130-1 [PubMed] Related Publications

Clarke N, Biscocho J, Kwei KA, et al.
Integrative Genomics Implicates EGFR as a Downstream Mediator in NKX2-1 Amplified Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142061 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NKX2-1, encoding a homeobox transcription factor, is amplified in approximately 15% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), where it is thought to drive cancer cell proliferation and survival. However, its mechanism of action remains largely unknown. To identify relevant downstream transcriptional targets, here we carried out a combined NKX2-1 transcriptome (NKX2-1 knockdown followed by RNAseq) and cistrome (NKX2-1 binding sites by ChIPseq) analysis in four NKX2-1-amplified human NSCLC cell lines. While NKX2-1 regulated genes differed among the four cell lines assayed, cell proliferation emerged as a common theme. Moreover, in 3 of the 4 cell lines, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was among the top NKX2-1 upregulated targets, which we confirmed at the protein level by western blot. Interestingly, EGFR knockdown led to upregulation of NKX2-1, suggesting a negative feedback loop. Consistent with this finding, combined knockdown of NKX2-1 and EGFR in NCI-H1819 lung cancer cells reduced cell proliferation (as well as MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase signaling) more than knockdown of either alone. Likewise, NKX2-1 knockdown enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of the EGFR-inhibitor erlotinib. Taken together, our findings implicate EGFR as a downstream effector of NKX2-1 in NKX2-1 amplified NSCLC, with possible clinical implications, and provide a rich dataset for investigating additional mediators of NKX2-1 driven oncogenesis.

Ding M, Li X, Qiu T
Combination of multiple gene markers to detect circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer using real-time PCR.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):13033-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study aims to determine the clinical significance of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) mRNA expressions in peripheral blood (PB) of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the gene expressions of hTERT, Skp2, TTF-1 as in the PB of 60 patients with NSCLC and 20 benign lung diseases. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the correlation between the expression of these mRNA markers and the clinical pathological features of NSCLC. We found that hTERT, Skp2, and TTF-1 were overexpressed in the PB of NSCLC patients, and demonstrated high specificity as well as sensitivity when used for NSCLC diagnosis. Significant correlation was observed between disease stage and the three markers (P < 0.05). This study suggests that the genes hTERT, Skp2, and TTF-1 play important roles in tumor genesis and development, and can be used as diagnosis markers in NSCLC patients. The expression of three markers in combination can significantly improve the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis relative to single marker diagnosis, and provides a reliable method to detect CTCs in the PB. Additionally, these markers can also be used as diagnostic markers for clinical stages of NSCLC.

Cowan ML, Li QK, Illei PB
CDX-2 Expression in Primary Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2016; 24(1):16-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenocarcinoma with enteric differentiation is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma that is recognized as a variant type of primary adenocarcinoma in the 2015 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors. Published immunohistochemistry studies show variable staining pattern for CDX-2 ranging from positivity in 71% of the cases to no staining. As little is known about CDX-2 expression in lung adenocarcinomas lacking histologic features of enteric differentiation, our aim was to determine the rate of CDX-2 positivity in non-enteric-type lung adenocarcinomas. We performed immunohistochemistry for CDX-2, CK7, CK20, TTF-1, napsin A, and p40 using 4-μm sections of a previously constructed tissue microarray containing 93 primary lung adenocarcinomas that lack morphologic evidence of enteric differentiation. The cohort included 22 well, 54 moderately, and 17 poorly differentiated tumors (55 female, 38 male; age range: 42 to 86, median: 64.5). All 93 tumors were strongly CK7 positive, whereas variable CK20 staining was seen in 4 tumors (1 strong, 1 moderate, and 2 focal). Both TTF-1 and napsin A were positive in 81 of 93 (87%) tumors with only 6 of 93 (6.5%) tumors negative for both the markers. Eleven tumors were CDX-2 positive (5 strong, 3 moderate, and 3 weak), all of which were also TTF-1 and napsin A positive and p40 negative. One CDX-2-positive tumor showed focal CK20 staining. Mutation studies for EGFR/K-ras/ALK were performed in four CDX-2-positive tumors and detected a K-ras mutation in one of them. CDX-2 positivity can be seen in a subset (12%) of lung adenocarcinoma. These tumors are CK7, TTF-1, and napsin A positive and p40 negative. Focal CK20 staining is only seen in rare cases. CDX-2 positivity should not be used as the only criteria to exclude lung origin.

Yaman B, Nart D, Ekren PK, et al.
Expression of p63, TTF-1 and Maspin in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Their Effect on the Prognosis and Differential Diagnosis.
Turk Patoloji Derg. 2015; 31(3):163-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer mortality. Antiapoptotic genes and protease inhibitors play an important role in the development of lung cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: p63, TTF-1 and maspin expression and their role in the differential diagnosis, overall survival, progression-free survival and other clinicopathological characteristics of the patients were investigated in 80 surgically-resected non-small cell lung carcinomas.
RESULTS: The maximal tumor diameter range was 1.5-11 cm (mean: 4.06±1.8 cm). Forty-five (56.3%) tumors were adenocarcinoma, 23 (28.8%) squamous cell carcinoma, four (5%) large cell carcinoma, six (7.5%) large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, one (1.2%) sarcomatoid carcinoma while one was (1.2%) both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The patients with advanced TNM stage and a tumor diameter more than 3 cm had markedly poor survival. Immunohistochemically, p63 staining was present in 87.5% of squamous cell carcinomas, 4.3% of adenocarcinomas, 25% of large cell carcinomas, and 16.7% of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Similarly, maspin was positive in 66.7% of squamous cell carcinomas and 17.4% of adenocarcinomas. The TTF-1 staining rate was higher in adenocarcinomas (84.8%). There was no immunoreactivity in squamous cell carcinomas (p < 0.001). We found that p63 and TTF-1 had no significant effect on survival in either tumor group (p > 0.05) while maspin has a negative prognostic effect in adenocarcinoma (p=0.048).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that p63 and TTF-1 are reliable markers in non-small cell lung carcinoma and can be used in differential diagnosis. Maspin has been identified as a prognostic marker in adenocarcinoma. However, more studies are required to elucidate the significance of maspin.

El-Maqsoud NM, Tawfiek ER, Abdelmeged A, et al.
The diagnostic utility of the triple markers Napsin A, TTF-1, and PAX8 in differentiating between primary and metastatic lung carcinomas.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):3123-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) are useful biomarkers for differentiating lung adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma and also for differentiating primary lung adenocarcinoma from metastatic lung carcinoma. Pair-boxed 8 (PAX8) can help in distinguishing primary lung carcinoma from metastatic carcinomas and help to determine the primary sites of metastatic carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry for Napsin A, TTF-1, and PAX8 were performed on 193 cases of carcinoma: 50 primary lung carcinoma and 143 carcinomas from other sites. Napsin A and TTF-1 were positive in 54, 52 % of lung carcinomas cases, respectively. While in adenocarcinoma cases, their expressions were 86.7 and 83.3 %, respectively. PAX8 was negative in all lung carcinomas. TTF-1 and PAX8 were positive in 93.3 and 96.7 % of thyroid carcinoma cases and in 87.5 and 93.8 % of papillary carcinoma respectively, and both were positive in 100 % of follicular carcinoma. Napsin A was negative in all thyroid carcinomas. Napsin A and PAX8 were positive in 50 and 93.3 % of renal carcinoma cases and in 81.8 and 100 % of papillary carcinoma, 38.5 and 92.3 % of clear cell carcinoma, and 16.7 and 83.3 % of chromophobe carcinoma respectively. TTF-1 was negative in all renal carcinomas. PAX8 was positive in 80 % of ovarian carcinoma cases; 100 and 60 % of serous mucinous carcinomas, respectively. It was also positive in 100 % of endometrial carcinoma. Napsin A and TTF-1 were negative in both ovarian and endometrial carcinomas. Our data demonstrated that combined use of Napsin A, TTF-1, and PAX8 may help in differentiating between primary lung adenocarcinoma and metastatic lung carcinomas.

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