Cervical cancer is a common type of malignancy accounting for about 6% of all cancers found in women. It is a disease in which cancerous cells develop in the uterine cervix (this is the connecting passage between the uterus and vagina). The human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the principal cause of most cervical cancers. The peak incidence of cervical cancer occurs between the ages of 40 to 55. It is rare before the age of 35, however the incidence of cervical cancer in younger women rose dramatically during the two decades after 1960. Regular Pap smear tests may detect abnormal changes in the cervical tissues, before cancer develops. Symptoms of cervical cancer may include vaginal bleeding after intercourse or bleeding between periods. However, in the early stages of the disease there are often no obvious signs or symptoms, so regular smear tests are important.
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Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer
Cervical Cancer Screening (including the PAP smear test)
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MeSH term: Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
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The vaccine and cervical cancer screen (VACCS) project: acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination in a school-based programme in two provinces of South Africa.
S Afr Med J. 2015; 105(1):40-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate acceptance of school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, as well as the information provided, methods of obtaining consent and assent, and completion rates achieved.
METHODS: Information on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was provided to 19 primary schools in Western Cape and Gauteng provinces participating in the study. Girls with parental consent and child assent were vaccinated during school hours at their schools.
RESULTS: A total of 3 465 girls were invited to receive HPV vaccine, of whom 2 046 provided written parental consent as well as child assent. At least one dose of vaccine was delivered to 2 030 girls (99.2% of the consented cohort), while a total of 1 782 girls received all three doses. Sufficient vaccination was achieved in 91.6% of the vaccinated cohort. Of all invited girls, 56.9% in Gauteng and 50.7% in the Western Cape were sufficiently vaccinated.
CONCLUSION: This implementation project demonstrated that HPV vaccination is practical and safe in SA schools. Political and community acceptance was good, and positive attitudes towards vaccination were encountered. During the study, which mimicked a governmental vaccine roll-out programme, high completion rates were achieved in spite of several challenges encountered.
Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report and literature review.
Bol Asoc Med P R. 2015 Jan-Mar; 107(1):55-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Unifying screening processes within the PROSPR consortium: a conceptual model for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(6):djv120 [PubMed] Related Publications
Association of 42 SNPs with genetic risk for cervical cancer: an extensive meta-analysis.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Electronic searches of PubMed and Embase were conducted for all publications about the association between gene polymorphisms and cervical cancer. One-hundred and sixty-seven association studies were included in our research. For each SNP, three models (the allele, dominant and recessive effect models) were adopted in the meta-analysis. For each model, the effect summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated by Cochran's Q test. If the p value of Q test was less than 0.01, a random effect model was used; otherwise, a fixed effect model was used.
RESULTS: The results of our meta-analysis showed that: (1) There were 8, 2 and 8 SNPs that were significantly associated with cervical cancer (P < 0.01) in the allele, dominant and recessive effect models, respectively. (2) rs1048943 (CYP1A1 A4889G) showed the strongest association with cervical cancer in the allele effect model (1.83[1.57, 2.13]); in addition, rs1048943 (CYP1A1 A4889G) had a very strong association in the dominant and recessive effect model. (3) 15, 11 and 10 SNPs had high heterogeneity (P < 0.01) in the three models, respectively. (4) There was no published bias for most of the SNPs according to Egger's test (P < 0.01) and Funnel plot analysis. For some SNPs, their association with cervical cancer was only tested in a few studies and, therefore, might have been subjected to published bias. More studies on these loci are required.
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of cervical cancer association studies.
Effect of structured teaching programme on VIA test for early detection and diagnosis of cervical cancer.
Nurs J India. 2014 Sep-Oct; 105(5):221-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Correlation of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient with uterine cervical pathologic finding.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 204(5):1125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Seventy-three patients with cervical cancer (33-69 years old; 35 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB cervical cancer) and 38 patients (38-61 years old) with normal cervix or cervical benign lesions (control group) were enrolled. All patients underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm(2). ADC values of the entire tumor in the patient group and the whole cervix volume in the control group were assessed. Mean ADC, median ADC, 25th and 75th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis were calculated. Histogram parameters were compared between different pathologic features, as well as between stage IB cervical cancer and control groups.
RESULTS: Mean ADC, median ADC, and 25th percentile of ADC were significantly higher for adenocarcinoma (p = 0.021, 0.006, and 0.004, respectively), and skewness was significantly higher for squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.011). Median ADC was statistically significantly higher for well or moderately differentiated tumors (p = 0.044), and skewness was statistically significantly higher for poorly differentiated tumors (p = 0.004). No statistically significant difference of ADC histogram was observed between lymphovascular space invasion subgroups. All histogram parameters differed significantly between stage IB cervical cancer and control groups (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Distribution of ADCs characterized by histogram analysis may help to distinguish early-stage cervical cancer from normal cervix or cervical benign lesions and may be useful for evaluating the different pathologic features of cervical cancer.
Prevalence of human papillomavirus and the correlation of HPV infection with cervical disease in Weihai, China.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):73-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A random sample of 9,460 volunteers was simultaneously screened using gene chips and examined by ThinPrep liquid-based cytology test (TCT). Cervical biopsy samples were collected from women with positive HPV-DNA and abnormal TCT for pathological diagnosis.
RESULTS: The overall HPV prevalence was 6.93% (656 of 9,460). A total of 753 subjects were infected with HPV subtypes (including multiple HPV infections). Of those with infections, 688 were infected with high-risk (HR) types (91.37%), and 65 were infected with low-risk subtypes (8.63%). The single-infection rate was 63.1%.The prevalence rates of HPV in women aged 20 to 39 years and 40 to 59 years were 7.29% and 6.71%, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV16. The HR genotypes were associated with cervical diseases such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (37.9%), atypical squamous cells high grade (ASC-H) (42.5%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (50%), and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion HSIL (66.7%). Cervical biopsy results show that the HPV detection rate increased in the following biopsy samples: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (74.11%), CIN II (84.31%), CIN III (90.32%), and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) (100%).
CONCLUSIONS: The HPV infection rate with associated cervical disease in Weihai is equal to those in foreign countries but is lower than the average rate in China. The prevalence of HPV was higher in young people. The most common HPV genotype was 16, followed by 52 and 58. HR HPV is the most probable infection factor for cervical diseases.
Expressions of survivin, P16(INK4a), COX-2, and Ki-67 in cervical cancer progression reveal the potential clinical application.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):62-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 129 cases including 24 squamous carcinoma of the cervix (SCC), 70 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN), 15 cervical condyloma acuminatum (CCA), ten chronic cervicitis (CC), and ten normal cervix (NC). Protein expressions were evaluated using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Survivin, P16(INK4a); COX-2, and Ki-67 were highly expressed in SCC and CIN compared with others. Their expression rates were gradually increased in CIN I, CIN II, CIN III, and SCC groups, showing 72.00%, 88.00%, 90.00%, and 95.83% for P16(INK4a), 68.00%, 84.00%, 95.00% and 100.00% for COX-2, 76.00%, 96.00%, 100.00%, and 100.00 for Ki-67, respectively. There were significant correlations between survivin and P16(INK4a), COX-2, Ki-67, as well as P16(INK4a) and Ki-67.
CONCLUSION: Survivin, P16(INK4a), COX-2 and Ki-67 play critical roles for development and progression of cervical cancer.
Pyometra in elderly post-menopausal women: a sign of malignity.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):59-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors examined the medical records of 12 patients with pyometra, who were treated between 2009 and 2013.
RESULTS: All patients were post-menopausal, and their mean age was 70.83 ± 6.978 years (min = 61, max = 82). To remove purulent fluid via dilation and because of the probability of malignancy, three patients (25%) underwent cervical biopsy and endometrial curettage; the other nine patients (75%) underwent curettage alone, with suitable antibiotic therapy. Of the 12 patients, nine (75%) had gynecologic malignancy [(endometrial cancer, n = 5, 41.6%), (cervical cancer, n = 3, 25%), (uterine leiomyosarcoma, n = 1, 8.3%)]. In three (25%) patients, the cause of pyometra was benign pathologies, among which the most common were leiomyomas (n = 2, 66.6%).
CONCLUSION: Pyometra diagnosed during the post-menopausal period should be considered a complication caused by gynecological malignancy until proven otherwise.
Combination therapy of liposomal paclitaxel and cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):54-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with cervical cancer who received NACT with liposomal paclitaxel and cisplatin at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from April 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. Liposomal paclitaxel and cisplatin was administrated intravenously at a dose of 175 mg/m2 and 75 mg/m2, respectively.
RESULTS: The total response rate was 86.1% (62/72) including a complete response and partial response rate of 27.8% (20/72) and 58.3% (42/72), respectively. Stable disease was observed in 12.5% (9/72) of patients and progressive disease in 1.4% (1/72). Hematological toxicities were the major dose-limiting toxicities. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and anemia developed in 18.1% (13/72) and 6.9% (5/72) of patients, respectively. Peripheral neuropathy occurred in 6.9% (5/72) of patients (all grade 1).
CONCLUSION: The study findings support further evaluation of liposomal paclitaxel with cisplatin as an additional chemotherapy regimen which may be efficacious and tolerable in the NACT of cervical cancer.
The role of mTOR signaling pathway in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):36-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 38 cases diagnosed as LSIL, 31 cases as HSIL, 29 cases as Ca, and eight control cases from normal cervix. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of pAkt, p4E-BP1 and pS6.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between HSIL and Ca groups compared to controls regarding intensity, positivity, and total scores for all three molecules (p < 0.001). A trend for higher expression with increasing grade of dysplasia was demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: These results strongly support the view that the mTOR signaling pathway is involved in cervical carcinogenesis.
The prognostic significance of pretreatment [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging in patients with uterine cervical cancer: preliminary results.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):30-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cervical cancer in FIGO Stages IB1 to IVB were imaged with PET/CT prior to treatment during one of the staging work-ups. The patients were observed for a median of 31.4 months (range, six to 89 months) after the initial treatment. The standardized uptake value (SUV) max of the primary cervical tumor mass was compared with the prognostic factors. RESULTs: A total of 81 patients who were primarily treated with radical hysterectomy (RH, n = 45) or concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT, n = 36) were analyzed. Multivariate analysis indicated that larger tumor size (> 4 cm, OR 8.694, 95% CI, 1.638-46.146), deep stromal invasion (≥ 1 cm, OR 7.249, 95% CI, 1.141-46.039) by the primary tumor, and pathologically confirmed pelvic lymph node involvement (positive, OR 14.586, 95% CI, 2.072-102.674) were significantly associated with recurrence after treatment. However, pretreatment SUVmax was not a significant independent predictor of disease recurrence (OR 1.058, 95% CI, 0.255-4.398).
CONCLUSION: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by the primary tumor showed a significant association with several risk factors that have been identified as treatment predictors. However, a high pretreatment SUVmax was not predictive of recurrence in uter- ine cervical cancer patients.
Laparoscopic ovarian transposition in young women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated by primary pelvic irradiation.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):25-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven premenopausal patients were treated with radiotherapy for a cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition to paracolic gutters with uterine conservation with pelvic common iliac lymph node and para-aortic lymph node sampling were performed in ten patients at the same time of laparoscopic ovarian transposition. Preservation of ovarian function was assessed by patients' symptoms and serum follicle-stimulating hormone level.
RESULTS: Bilateral or unilateral laparoscopic ovarian transposition was performed in 27 patients: 22 cases Stage IIB, one case Stage IIIA, and four cases Stage IIIB. No immediate intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Two of the ten patients were confirmed by lymph node metastases. One patient was lost to follow-up. Ovarian preservation was achieved in 18 (69.2%) of 26 patients. No patient was detected with ovarian metastasis at follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic ovarian transposition is a safe and effective procedure for preserving ovarian function. This procedure may be considered in premenopausal women who need to undergo pelvic irradiation for cervical squamous cell carcinoma, especially for those less than 40 years of age. Otherwise, para-aortic lymph node or common iliac lymph nods sampling at the same time of laparoscopic ovarian transposition may preferably guide radiation therapy.
Nerve sparing radical hysterectomy in early stage cervical cancer. Latest developments and review of the literature.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):5-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: According to the current evidence NSRH seems to be a suitable technique for gynaecologist-oncologist familiar with the method in early stage cervical cancer. It is a technique which improves significantly postoperative bladder recovery and the patients' quality of life (QoL), without compromising the oncological standard.
Audit of cervical cancer screening and colposcopy attendance in rural South Africa.
Afr J Reprod Health. 2014; 18(4):70-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid: a good alternative to pap smear for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited setting.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2015; 65(2):192-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi from July 1 to December 31, 2012 and comprised all sexually active women aged 19-60 years. During speculum examination 3% acetic acid was applied over the cervix with the help of cotton swab. The observations were noted as positive or negative on visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application according to acetowhite changes. Colposcopy-guided cervical biopsy was done in patients with positive or abnormal looking cervix. Colposcopic-directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard to assess visual inspection readings. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: There were 500 subjects with a mean age of 35.74 ± 9.64 years. Sensitivity, specifically, positive predicted value, negative predicted value of visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application was 93.5%, 95.8%, 76.3%, 99%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.6%.
CONCLUSION: Visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application is an effective method of detecting pre-invasive phase of cervical cancer and a good alternative to cytological screening for cervical cancer in resource-poor setting like Pakistan and can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.
Cervical cancer prevention: immunization and screening 2015.
Med Clin North Am. 2015; 99(3):469-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanistic basis of a combination D-penicillamine and platinum drugs synergistically inhibits tumor growth in oxaliplatin-resistant human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2015; 95(1):28-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Value of conventional cervical cytology as a screening test for cervical cancer.
Nepal Med Coll J. 2014; 16(1):63-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
IKKβ/NF-κB mediated the low doses of bisphenol A induced migration of cervical cancer cells.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015; 573:52-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follow-up outcomes in a large cohort of patients with HPV-negative LSIL cervical screening test results.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143(4):485-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In total, 680 patients with Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen, Hinden, Germany) high-risk HPV-negative LSIL ThinPrep (Hologic, Marlborough, MA) results were identified. Patients' ages and histopathologic, cytologic, and HPV follow-up results were identified.
RESULTS: Among 680 patients with HPV-negative LSILs, 468 had follow-up within 1 year. During the study period, 14 (3.0%) of 468 had follow-up high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 184 (39.3%) LSIL findings. No diagnoses of cervical carcinoma were documented. There were no significant follow-up differences between age groups. Of the 321 patients who had follow-up HPV testing, 271 (84.4%) had negative and 50 (15.6%) had positive HPV results.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study documenting follow-up results for patients with HPV-negative LSIL results based on prevalent US FDA-approved co-testing methods from one collection vial. These data document that risk for follow-up HSILs in these patients is low and also that no cervical cancers were diagnosed. These findings support recent recommendations for repeat co-testing after 1 year as an appropriate option for patients with HPV-negative LSIL results.
Mortality from cervical cancer in Serbia in the period 1991-2011.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):231-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this descriptive epidemiological study, unpublished data of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia were used for the analysis of mortality due to CC among women in Serbia, from 1991 to 2011. Three different types of rates were calculated: crude, age-specific and age-adjusted rates. The age-standardized rates were calculated by the direct method of standardization using the World Standard Population as standard. The trends were assessed by joinpoint linear regression analysis. An average annual percentage change (AAPC) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed for trends.
RESULTS: The average age-standardized CC mortality rate (ASCCMR) was 7.03 per 100,000. The lowest value of the ASCCMR was at the beginning of the observed period (6.05 per 100,000) and the highest was 8.17 per 100,000 in 2008. The age-adjusted CC mortality rates have been continuously and significantly increasing (AAPC=+0.7, 95% CI=0.3- 1.1, p<0.05). In all age groups we found increasing trends, except in the age group of 65-74 years.
CONCLUSION: Since ASCCMR has been steadily increasing during the period observed, reducing these rates is highly warranted. To achieve this target, an organized CC screening program is essential.
miR-21 modulates resistance of HR-HPV positive cervical cancer cells to radiation through targeting LATS1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(4):679-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Factors associated with a lack of pap smear utilization in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2015; 24(4):308-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
METHODS: National cohort data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DES Combined Cohort Follow-up Study during 1994, 1997, 2001, and 2006 were used to determine which factors were associated with Pap smear screening nonutilization in 2006 among DES-exposed and unexposed women. Self-reported questionnaire data from 2,861 DES-exposed and 1,027 unexposed women were analyzed using binary logistic regression models.
RESULTS: DES exposure, not having a previous gynecologic dysplasia diagnosis, lack of insurance, originating cohort, increasing age, and previous screening behavior were all factors associated with not reporting a Pap smear examination in the 2006 questionnaire, although college education reduced nonutilization.
CONCLUSIONS: Understanding which factors are associated with not acquiring a screening exam can help clinicians better identify which DES-exposed women are at risk for nonutilization and possibly tailor their standard of care to aid in the early detection of cervical and vaginal adenocarcinomas in this high-risk group.
A systematic review of the effects of visual inspection with acetic acid, cryotherapy, and loop electrosurgical excision procedures for cervical dysplasia in HIV-infected women in low- and middle-income countries.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015; 68 Suppl 3:S350-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed evidence of the effects of screening with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and outpatient treatment for cervical precancer among HIV-infected women in LMIC.
METHODS: A systematic review of articles published from January 1995 through July 2013 was conducted using key terms for VIA cervical screening, cervical precancer treatment with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure, HIV-infected women, low-resource settings, and outcomes, including morbidity and mortality.
RESULTS: Of 2159 articles screened, 14 met inclusion criteria; all considered only morbidity outcomes. No articles dealt with the long-term impact of screening/treatment on cervical cancer incidence or mortality among HIV-infected women. Articles reported on performance of VIA, prevalence of cervical dysplasia, and complications and rates of recurrent dysplasia after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Dysplasia prevalence and recurrence were higher among HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected women but morbidity from treatment was similar. Few data exist on long-term outcomes of VIA, cryotherapy, or loop electrosurgical excision procedure interventions among HIV-infected women in LMIC; longer-term outcomes research is needed to assess the effects of VIA or other screening modalities and outpatient treatment on prevention of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women.
Associations between provider designation and female-specific cancer screening in women Veterans.
Med Care. 2015; 53(4 Suppl 1):S47-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between cervical and breast cancer screening rates among age-appropriate women Veterans and designation of primary-care provider (DWHP vs. non-DWHP).
RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses using the fiscal year 2012 data on VA women's health providers, administrative files, and patient-specific quality measures.
SUBJECTS: The sample included 37,128 women Veterans aged 21 through 69 years.
MEASURES: Variables included patient demographic and clinical factors (ie, age, race, ethnicity, mental health diagnoses, obesity, and site), and provider factors (ie, DWHP status, sex, and panel size). Screening measures were defined by age-appropriate subgroups using VA national guidelines.
RESULTS: Female-specific cancer screening rates were higher among patients assigned to DWHPs (cervical cytology 94.4% vs. 91.9%, P<0.0001; mammography 86.3% vs. 83.3%, P<0.0001). In multivariable models with adjustment for patient and provider characteristics, patients assigned to DWHPs had higher odds of cervical cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.47; P<0.0001) and breast cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.39; P<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: As the proportion of women Veterans increases, assignment to DWHPs may raise rate of female-specific cancer screening within VA. Separate evaluation of sex neutral measures is needed to determine whether other measures accrue benefits for patients with DWHPs.
Anticancer activity of selected Colocasia gigantia fractions.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2015; 98 Suppl 1:S98-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: a case-control study.
Indian J Public Health. 2015 Jan-Mar; 59(1):45-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(3):515-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Integrated HPV genomes tend to integrate in gene desert areas in the CaSki, HeLa, and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines.
Life Sci. 2015; 127:46-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
MAIN METHODS: In this study, three cervical cancer cell lines (CaSki, HeLa, and SiHa) were subjected for HPV genome status determination by amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT) assay. The numbers of viral copies in human genomes and numbers of viral-human fusion mRNAs in three HPV-integrated cervical cancer cell lines were measured and analysed.
KEY FINDINGS: The results revealed that the gene desert region 8q24 of the HPV type 18 integrated HeLa cell line and the 13q21-22 region of the HPV type 16 integrated CaSki and SiHa cell lines were hotspots for HPV integration, and the numbers of viral copies in the human genomes of the three cell lines that we detected were not in accordance with those reported in previous studies.
SIGNIFICANCE: Integration of the HPV genome into the host cell chromosome suggests that persistent HPV infection is vital for malignant cell transformation and carcinogenesis. This study provides information to benefit health care professionals seeking more comprehensive and accurate diagnostics for HPV-related disease"? Please check, and amend as necessary.