Endometrial cancer is a malignancy of the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus, or womb) and is the most common gynaecological cancer, and accounts for 13% of all cancers in women. It is most frequently in women over age 50. A know risk factor is prior oestrogen-replacement therapy (however, oestrogen replacement also lowers risk of heart disease). Symptoms can include pelvic pain, and blood-soaked discharge - though these are also common symptoms related to menopausal changes.
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Kaizu H, Ogino I, Hata M, et al. Chemoradiation as a definitive treatment for cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(11):5187-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess the treatment outcomes of chemoradiation for cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary site (CUP), and to identify for prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients diagnosed as having CUP, and receiving chemoradiation as a definitive treatment were included in the analysis. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated, and the factors affecting treatment outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 25 months for surviving patients, the two- and five-year LRC, DFS, and OS rates were 56%/45%, 46%/36%, and 69%/52%, respectively. On univariate analysis, lower performance status (PS; p=0.001), and limitation of disease to level 2 or 3 lymph nodes (p=0.009) were significantly associated with better DFS. Low PS (p=0.002) was significantly associated with better LRC. No late toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. CONCLUSION: Definitive chemoradiation for CUP was well-tolerated, with improvement of DFS/LRC for those with good PS and disease limited to level 2 or 3 lymph nodes.
González-Rodilla I, Aller L, Llorca J, et al. The E-Cadherin expression vs. tumor cell proliferation paradox in endometrial cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(11):5091-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: E-Cadherin is a putative marker of good prognosis in endometrial cancer. Paradoxically, in a previous study of endometrial carcinoma we found that E-Cadherin is significantly co-expressed with molecular markers of proliferation, usually associated with a worse prognosis in most tumor types. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), Ki67, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER-2, c-ERB-B2), p53 and E-Cadherin was studied by means of immunohistochemistry in 126 endometrial carcinoma samples. The results were correlated with patient survival and included in a multivariate model, in order to identify factors independently associated with the patient outcome. RESULTS: E-Cadherin overexpression was associated with a significantly better overall survival in the whole group of patients with endometrial carcinoma (p=0.012), as well as in the group of patients exclusively harboring endometrioid tumors (p=0.004). In a restricted multivariate model, only tumor stage and E-Cadherin expression retained their independent prognostic power, both for the whole group of tumors (p=0.04), as well as for the subgroup of endometrioid carcinomas (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: E-Cadherin is an independent predictor of survival in endometrial carcinoma, regardless of histological variety. Proliferation, on the other hand, does not seem to play a prominent role in this same context. This may explain why E-Cadherin retains its prognostic power, despite being significantly co-expressed with all tested molecular proliferation markers.
Elshaikh MA, Ruterbusch J, Cote ML, et al. Improved survival of baby boomer women with early-stage uterine cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Study. Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(11):4983-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To study the prognostic impact of baby boomer (BB) generation on survival end-points of patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma (EC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the SEER registry between 1988-2009. Inclusion criteria included women who underwent hysterectomy for stage I-II EC. Patients were divided into two birth cohorts: BB (women born between 1946 and 1964) and pre-boomers (PB) (born between 1926 and 1945). RESULTS: A total of 30,956 patients were analyzed. Considering that women in the PB group were older than those of the BB generation, the statistical analysis was limited to women 50-59 years of age at the time of diagnosis (n=11,473). Baby boomers had a significantly higher percentage of endometrioid histology (p<0.0001), higher percentage of African American women (p<0.0001), lower tumor grade (p<0.0001), higher number of dissected lymph nodes (LN) (p<0.0001), and less utilization of adjuvant radiation therapy (p=0.0003). Overall survival was improved in women in the BB generation compared to the PB generation (p=0.0003) with a trend for improved uterine cancer-specific survival (p=0.0752). On multivariate analysis, birth cohort (BB vs. PB) was not a significant predictor of survival end-points. Factors predictive of survival included: tumor grade, FIGO stage, African-American race, and increased number of dissected LN. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the survival of BB women between 50-60 years of age is better compared to women in the PB generation. As more BB patients are diagnosed with EC, further research is warranted.
Tirumani SH, Shanbhogue AK, Prasad SR Current concepts in the diagnosis and management of endometrial and cervical carcinomas. Radiol Clin North Am. 2013; 51(6):1087-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cross-sectional imaging modalities play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of patients with endometrial and cervical carcinomas. Ultrasonography, including sonohysterography, permits evaluation of endometrial abnormalities and characterization of adnexal masses. Computed tomography, particularly in conjunction with (18)(F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, is increasingly used to stage the cancers and to detect disease recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging plays a major role in accurate locoregional staging of these cancers, and significantly influences treatment decisions and outcomes. This article discusses the role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of these cancers.
Kim TM, Laird PW, Park PJ The landscape of microsatellite instability in colorectal and endometrial cancer genomes. Cell. 2013; 155(4):858-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/11/2014 Related Publications
Microsatellites-simple tandem repeats present at millions of sites in the human genome-can shorten or lengthen due to a defect in DNA mismatch repair. We present here a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the prevalence, mutational spectrum, and functional consequences of microsatellite instability (MSI) in cancer genomes. We analyzed MSI in 277 colorectal and endometrial cancer genomes (including 57 microsatellite-unstable ones) using exome and whole-genome sequencing data. Recurrent MSI events in coding sequences showed tumor type specificity, elevated frameshift-to-inframe ratios, and lower transcript levels than wild-type alleles. Moreover, genome-wide analysis revealed differences in the distribution of MSI versus point mutations, including overrepresentation of MSI in euchromatic and intronic regions compared to heterochromatic and intergenic regions, respectively, and depletion of MSI at nucleosome-occupied sequences. Our results provide a panoramic view of MSI in cancer genomes, highlighting their tumor type specificity, impact on gene expression, and the role of chromatin organization.
Fisher C, Mo A, Warrillow S, et al. Utility of thromboelastography in managing acquired Factor VIII inhibitor associated massive haemorrhage. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2013; 41(6):799-803 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disorders of clotting and coagulation are common in the intensive care unit. Diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of these disorders are traditionally based on conventional coagulation tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalised ratio (INR). We present here a patient who developed massive postoperative haemorrhage secondary to an acquired factor VIII inhibitor. The case highlights the utility and sensitivity of thromboelastography (TEG) in the diagnosis of the condition and monitoring the response to therapy.
Wei JJ, Paintal A, Keh P Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses of endometrial carcinomas: experiences from endometrial biopsies in 358 consultation cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2013; 137(11):1574-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Uterine serous carcinoma is biologically more aggressive than the endometrioid carcinoma. Because uterine serous carcinoma has a high propensity for lymphovascular invasion and intraperitoneal and extra-abdominal spread, accurate diagnosis of this tumor type in endometrial biopsies/curettings is critical for appropriate clinical management. OBJECTIVE: To share our experience in the evaluation of endometrial biopsy specimens in type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinoma. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed 358 biopsies containing endometrial carcinoma during a recent 3 year period of our consultation records. In cases in which our interpretation differed from the submitting diagnosis, a panel of immunostains was performed. The performance characteristics of each antibody in our panel was calculated in this group of challenging cases. RESULTS: Among the endometrial carcinomas we examined, a diagnosis of type I carcinoma accounted for 91% of cases (327 of 358) and type II carcinoma for 9% of cases (31 of 358); 41 cases (11.5%) were ambiguous or discordant (differing from submitted diagnoses and reviewed) based on histology alone. All 41 ambiguous and discordant cases were further evaluated with a battery of immunohistochemical markers. Of the 41 cases, 36 (88%) were ultimately classified (10 cases [24%] were endometrioid carcinoma; 18 cases [44%] were uterine serous carcinoma; 8 cases [20%] resulted in various other outcomes) and 5 cases (12%) remained indeterminate. CONCLUSIONS: Making the distinction between type I and II endometrial carcinoma remains a common problem in general practice. Although no one biomarker provides excellent statistical performance, a panel of immunohistochemical markers is often useful in difficult cases.
Kang MY, Sykes P, Herbison PY, Petrich S Retrospective analysis on timeframes of referral, diagnosis and treatment of patients with endometrial carcinomas in Dunedin Hospital, 2008-2011. N Z Med J. 2013; 126(1384):84-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To quantify time taken for patients diagnosed and treated for endometrial cancer in Dunedin Hospital in context of Ministry of Health New Zealand (MoHNZ) best practice indicators for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and to identify factors which could potentially cause delays if present. METHOD: Retrospective audit was carried out based on patients discussed at a Gynaecology-Oncology Multi-Disciplinary Meeting (GOMDM) at Dunedin Hospital during 2008-2011 for primary endometrial cancer. Median time taken between referral dates, first specialist appointment, date of histological diagnosis, staging scan, date when patients were waitlisted for surgery, and date of first treatment were calculated. Possible factors which could contribute to delay if present were identified and further explored. RESULT: 44 eligible patients were identified. Compared to MoHNZ recommendations delays were present from initial referral to first treatment (93 days actual timeframe vs. 62 days recommended timeframe) and some delays present from initial referral to first specialist assessment (21 days vs. 14 days), with only 20% and 32% of patients being seen and treated within the best practice timeframes respectively. Patients were treated within the recommended time once they were wait-listed for first definitive treatment (19 days vs. 31 days) with 75% of patients being treated within the recommended timeframe. Waiting time for hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage was seen to contribute towards considerably longer delays in diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancers. Other potential factors contributing to delay identified were patients not attending clinic appointments and difficulty in obtaining a conclusive histological sample through pipelle biopsy at the initial clinic visit. CONCLUSION: Currently the practice in Dunedin Hospital does not meet the planned MoHNZ standards, and significant changes in practice and reallocation of resource will be required to meet the MOH standards for women with endometrial cancer. Training of General Practitioners in pipelle biopsy, better patient education about post-menopausal bleeding, reducing the time taken for radiological scans, and expediting referrals to the first specialist appointment and hysteroscopy for patients with high suspicion, could reduce delays.
Daniels MS, Urbauer DL, Zangeneh A, et al. Outcomes of screening endometrial cancer patients for Lynch syndrome by patient-administered checklist. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):619-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to implement a patient-administered checklist designed to identify endometrial cancer patients at elevated risk for Lynch syndrome; measure subsequent genetic counseling and testing; and identify differences between those who attended genetic counseling and those who did not. METHODS: We developed a 4-item yes/no checklist of personal and family history risk factors for Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial cancer and recommended referral for genetic counseling for patients meeting any of the criteria. Retrospective chart review was performed to determine subsequent genetic counseling and testing outcomes over a 15 month period. RESULTS: 6/387 (1.6%) of endometrial cancer patients tested positive for a Lynch syndrome mutation. 4/24 (17%) of endometrial cancer patients who met referral criteria and attended genetic counseling tested positive. 38/70 (55%) of patients who met referral criteria were not seen for genetic counseling. Patients who were diagnosed with endometrial cancer at younger ages, who had primary surgery at our institution, or who met more than one referral criteria were more likely to be seen for genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial cancer patients who met referral criteria and attended genetic counseling comprised a population enriched for Lynch syndrome. This approach allowed Lynch syndrome evaluation resources to be targeted to a population of patients that is high risk and interested in the information. The referral rate of at-risk patients needs to be improved, and allocating resources towards this goal could increase the identification of Lynch syndrome while avoiding some of the pitfalls of universal screening.
Nagar H, Boothe D, Parikh A, et al. Administration of concurrent vaginal brachytherapy during chemotherapy for treatment of endometrial cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013; 87(4):665-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the tolerability and toxicity of administering vaginal brachytherapy (VB) concurrently during chemotherapy compared with the sequential approach for patients with endometrial cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of 372 surgically staged patients with endometrial cancer American Joint Committee on Cancer 2009 stages I to IV treated with adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at our institution from 2001 to 2012 was conducted. All patients received VB+external beam RT (EBRT)+6 cycles of adjuvant carboplatin- and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. The VB mean dose was 15.08 Gy (range, 15-20 Gy), with 3 to 4 weekly applications, and the EBRT mean dose was 45 Gy delivered with 3-dimensional or intensity modulated RT techniques. Hematologic, gastrointestinal (GI), and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were assessed by Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and compared between sequential and concurrent chemotherapy and VB schedules. RESULTS: Among patients who received RT and adjuvant chemotherapy, 180 of 372 patients (48%) received RT sandwiched between cycles 3 and 4 of chemotherapy. A separate group of 192 patients (52%) were treated with VB during the first 3 cycles of chemotherapy, with a weekly application on nonchemotherapy days, and received the EBRT portion in a sandwiched fashion. Patients treated with VB during chemotherapy had a decreased overall treatment time by 4 weeks (P<.001; 95% confidence interval: 3.99-4.02) and sustained no difference in CTC-graded acute hematologic, GI, or GU toxicities in comparison with the patients treated with VB and chemotherapy in a sequential manner (P>.05). CTC grade 3 or 4 hematologic, GI, and GU toxicities were zero. CONCLUSIONS: VB during chemotherapy is well tolerated, decreases overall treatment time, and does not render more toxicity than the sequential regimen.
Chang-Halpenny CN, Natarajan S, Hwang-Graziano J Early stage papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma confined to or involving an endometrial polyp: outcomes with and without adjuvant therapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):598-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical outcomes of stage IA uterine papillary serous (UPSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CC) arising from or associated with a polyp. METHODS: From 1995 to 2011, we identified 51 cases of stage IA UPSC (67%), CC (8%) or mixed histology (26%) endometrial cancer. Of these, 32 had disease confined to polyp (seven with no residual disease after hysterectomy), 14 had surface spread, 1 had myometrial invasion (MMI) and 4 had both. The majority of patients did not receive adjuvant therapy (80%). Patients given adjuvant treatment (either platinum-based chemotherapy alone, radiation alone, or a combination of the two) had incomplete staging or abnormal cytology. RESULTS: At mean follow-up of 58.3 months, only 4 patients had progressed, via pelvic adenopathy, carcinomatosis or both. There were no vaginal cuff recurrences. Kaplan-Meier 5 year estimates were pelvic control of 92.1%, disease-free survival 93% and OS 80.6%. Only 9% (3/32) of cases confined to polyp progressed. One responded to salvage chemoradiation, but two died despite salvage. Only 5% (1/19) of cases with surface and MMI progressed. On univariate analysis, only MMI and abnormal/positive cytology were significantly associated with increased pelvic recurrence (MMI p=0.0059, cytology p=0.0036) and worse DFS (MMI p=0.0018, cytology p=0.0054). Two patients given adjuvant treatment developed new gynecologic malignancies. CONCLUSION: In our study, patients with limited UPSC/CC disease involving a polyp who have complete workup did well without adjuvant therapy, with recurrence rates similar to UPSC/CC stage IA disease. Late and extensive pelvic relapses may occur in the few who do relapse.
Hahne JC, Meyer SR, Kranke P, et al. Studies on the role of osteopontin-1 in endometrial cancer cell lines. Strahlenther Onkol. 2013; 189(12):1040-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteopontin-1 is a well characterized protein in many tumour entities. Multiple roles in the processes invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of tumours are attributed to osteopontin-1. The putative role of osteopontin-1 has not been characterized for endometrial cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated multiple endometrial cancer cell lines for osteopontin-1 mRNA- and protein-expression. Osteopontin-1 dependent effects were analysed in vitro by siRNA inhibition. RESULTS: All endometrial cell lines expressed osteopontin-1. Expression of osteopontin-1 was successfully inhibited by specific siRNA. Cells with reduced osteopontin-1 expression showed decreased migration in the Boyden chamber assay and invasion was reduced in the wound-healing assay. Osteopontin-1 seems to play a role in apoptotic processes of endometrial cancer cells. Inhibition of osteopontin-1 expression was associated with an increased susceptibility for radiation therapy. CONCLUSION: Osteopontin-1 seems to play a role in endometrial cancer. Inhibition of osteopontin-1 expression leads to a higher susceptibility for radiation therapy. Our results suggest that a reduced expression of osteopontin-1 in endometrial cancer could inhibit the development of invasion and metastasis in these cells.
Robbins JR, Gayar OH, Zaki M, et al. Impact of age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity score on outcomes for patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):593-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity (AAC) index score on survival outcomes for patients with early stage endometrial cancer. METHODS: After IRB-approval, AAC score at time of hysterectomy was retrospectively tabulated by physician chart review for 671 patients with 2009 FIGO stage I-II endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Patients were grouped based on their AAC scores as follows: 0-1 (n=204), 2-3 (n=293) and >3 (n=174). Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test methods and univariate and multivariate modeling with Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant predictors of each survival endpoint. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 85 months, 225 deaths were recorded (34 from EC and 191 from other causes) with a 7-year Overall (OS) and Disease-specific survival (DSS) of 77.6% and 94.0%, respectively. Based on AAC grouping, the 7-year OS, DSS, and Recurrence-free survival (RFS) were: 92.9%, 96.8%, and 94.9% for AAC 0-1; 81.7%, 95.3%, and 89.8% for AAC 2-3: and 56%, 88.2%, and 84.9% for AAC>3 (p<0.0001, p=0.005 and p=0.013, respectively). On multivariate analyses, higher AAC score, tumor grade, lower uterine segment involvement, and lymphovascular space invasion were significantly independent predictors for shorter OS, while for DSS and RFS, higher tumor grade and lymphovascular space invasion were significant predictors of worse outcome, but higher AAC score was not. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidity score is as important as pathological features for predicting overall survival outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Higher AAC scores accurately predicted for worse OS. Comorbidity score should be considered in prospective clinical trials of endometrial carcinoma.
Mell LK, Carmona R, Gulaya S, et al. Cause-specific effects of radiotherapy and lymphadenectomy in stage I-II endometrial cancer: a population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(21):1656-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy and lymphadenectomy have been associated with improved survival in population-based studies of endometrial cancer, which is in contrast with findings from randomized trials and meta-analyses. The primary study aim was to estimate the cause-specific effects of adjuvant radiotherapy and lymphadenectomy on competing causes of mortality. METHODS: We analyzed Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data from 1988 to 2006. The sample comprised 58172 patients with stage I and II endometrial adenocarcinoma. Patients were risk stratified by stage, grade, and age. Cumulative incidences and cause-specific hazards of competing causes of mortality were estimated according to treatment. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pelvic radiotherapy was associated with statistically significantly increased endometrial cancer mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52 to 1.82) in all stage I and II patients and decreased noncancer mortality in intermediate and high-risk stage I and II patients (HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.77 to 0.89). Lymphadenectomy was associated with increased endometrial cancer mortality in stage I patients (HR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.39), decreased endometrial cancer mortality in stage II patients (HR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.72), and decreased noncancer mortality in both stage I and II patients (HR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.88). Effects of radiotherapy and lymphadenectomy on second cancer mortality varied according to risk strata. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy and lymphadenectomy are associated with statistically significantly reduced noncancer mortality in stage I and II endometrial cancer. The improved overall survival associated with these treatments reported from SEER studies is largely attributable to their selective application in healthier patients rather than their effects on endometrial cancer.
Masand RP, Euscher ED, Deavers MT, Malpica A Endometrioid stromal sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 63 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(11):1635-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrioid stromal sarcoma (also known as extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma [EESS]) is an uncommon tumor that occurs in women over a wide age range. The extrauterine location, non-gynecologic symptoms and signs at presentation, and confounding histologic features can pose a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features of 63 cases of EESS seen during a period of 21 years at our institution. Clinical information and pathology material were reviewed. Ages ranged from 27 to 87 years (median: 50 years). The most common symptoms and signs were an abdominal or pelvic mass, pain, vaginal bleeding, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 24.5 cm. The most common sites of involvement were the ovaries (25), bowel wall (28), abdomen/peritoneum (37), pelvis (20), and vagina (6). Multiple sites were involved in 40 cases. Forty-six of 49 tumors had a classic microscopic appearance, and 3 had dedifferentiation; in 20 cases, there was vascular invasion. Fibroma-like stroma was seen in 30, hyaline plaques in 23, sex cord elements in 11, smooth muscle differentiation in 4, and myxoid change in 4 cases. Endometriosis was noted in 30 cases. Immunohistochemical results included: CD10 positivity in 31, desmin positivity in 9 (focal), estrogen receptor positivity in 28, and progesterone receptor positivity in 33 cases. In 25% of cases, an initial diagnosis other than EESS was made: sex cord-stromal tumors (4), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (3), leiomyosarcoma (3), liposarcoma (1), müllerian adenosarcoma (1), synovial sarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1), small round blue cell tumor (1), and atypical stromal endometriosis (1). Primary treatment was cytoreductive surgery for 61 patients and hormonal therapy for 2 patients. Adjuvant treatment included hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Follow-up (5 to 336 months) information was available for 53 patients: alive with no evidence of disease, 29; alive with disease, 15; and dead of disease, 9 (median period of 70 months from diagnosis to death). Thirty-three patients had recurrent disease, and 10 patients were lost to follow-up. EESS is commonly associated with endometriosis and tends to be indolent with a propensity for recurrence. Seven of 9 patients who died of the disease had bowel involvement, and 3 had tumors with dedifferentiation. Besides the latter, no other histologic finding correlated with the clinical behavior of these tumors.
Fadare O, Parkash V, Gwin K, et al. Utility of α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase (p504s) immunohistochemistry in distinguishing endometrial clear cell carcinomas from serous and endometrioid carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(12):2814-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2014 Related Publications
The expression of α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase (AMACR) has previously been reported in 75% to 100% of urethral/bladder clear cell carcinomas, tumors that are known to display broad phenotypic overlap with their identically named müllerian counterparts. Herein, we assess the utility of AMACR in distinguishing endometrial clear cell carcinomas (CCCs) from endometrial serous carcinomas (ESCs) and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (EECs). A total of 111 endometrial carcinomas in a tissue microarray, including 49 CCCs, 13 ESCs, and 49 EECs, were assessed for AMACR immunoreactivity, with results scored semiquantitatively (scores 0, 1+, 2+, 3+ for 0%, 1%-5%, 6%-50%, >50% immunoreactive cells, respectively). Fifty (45%) of the 111 carcinomas were AMACR positive, with the following score distribution: CCC: 0 (n = 12), 1+ (n = 12), 2+ (n = 3), 3+ (n = 22); EEC: 0 (n = 38), 1+ (n = 4), 2+ (n = 4), 3+ (n = 3); ESC: 0 (n = 11), 1+ (n = 1), 2+ (n = 0), 3+ (n = 1). AMACR expression was significantly more frequent in CCC (75%) than in ESC (15%) or EEC (22%); P < .0001. The sensitivity and specificity of AMACR expression in classifying a carcinoma as CCC were 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.86) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.88), respectively, with an odds ratio of 11.62 (95% CI, 5-28; P < .001) and an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.88). These findings indicate that AMACR expression is strongly associated with CCC and displays a relatively robust diagnostic test performance. However, its practical utility may be limited by the focal nature of its expression in 32% of the AMACR-positive CCC cases as well as its expression in 15% to 22% of the non-CCC histotypes.
Kim CH, Khoury-Collado F, Barber EL, et al. Sentinel lymph node mapping with pathologic ultrastaging: a valuable tool for assessing nodal metastasis in low-grade endometrial cancer with superficial myoinvasion. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):714-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2014 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of nodal metastases in patients presenting with presumed low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas using a sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping protocol including pathologic ultrastaging. METHODS: All patients from 9/2005 to 12/2011 who underwent endometrial cancer staging surgery with attempted SLN mapping for preoperative grade 1 (G1) or grade 2 (G2) tumors with <50% invasion on final pathology, were included. All lymph nodes were examined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Negative SLNs were further examined using an ultrastaging protocol to detect micrometastases and isolated tumor cells. RESULTS: Of 425 patients, lymph node metastasis was found in 25 patients (5.9%) on final pathology-13 cases on routine H&E, 12 cases after ultrastaging. Patients whose tumors had a DMI <50% were more likely to have positive SLNs on routine H&E (p<0.005) or after ultrastaging (p=0.01) compared to those without myoinvasion. CONCLUSIONS: Applying a standardized SLN mapping algorithm with ultrastaging allows for the detection of nodal disease in a presumably low-risk group of patients who in some practices may not undergo any nodal evaluation. Ultrastaging of SLNs can likely be eliminated in endometrioid adenocarcinoma with no myoinvasion. The long-term clinical significance of ultrastage-detected nodal disease requires further investigation as recurrences were noted in some of these cases.
Liang MI, Rosen MA, Rath KS, et al. Reducing readmissions after robotic surgical management of endometrial cancer: a potential for improved quality care. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):508-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe readmission patterns after robotic surgery for endometrial cancer and identify risk factors for readmission within 90 days of discharge. METHODS: Patients with endometrial cancer who underwent robotic surgical management at an academic institution from 2006 to 2010 were identified. Patient characteristics, intraoperative data, and postoperative complications were analyzed. Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare patients readmitted within 90 days to those who were not. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety-five patients were included. Thirty (7.6%) were readmitted within 90 days of surgical discharge. Length of stay greater than one day (40.0% vs. 23.0%, p=0.04) and postoperative complication (63.3% vs. 13.4%, p<0.01) were associated with readmission. The median interval to readmission was 9.5 days and median duration of subsequent hospitalization was 2.5 days. Fever (31.3%) and workup for vaginal drainage (25.0%) were the most common reasons for readmission. Only 2 of the 10 patients readmitted with fever had culture-proven infection, and no patients readmitted for vaginal drainage had a confirmed urinary tract injury. Of the 30 patients readmitted, 5 required a second operation - 3 for vaginal cuff dehiscence and 2 for port site hernia. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic surgery for endometrial cancer was associated with a 7.6% readmission rate. The most common reasons for readmission, fever and evaluation for urinary tract injury, were frequently not associated with severe illness. This supports additional education to consider raising the threshold for readmission by using more widespread outpatient evaluation for the potential complications of robotic endometrial cancer surgery.
Hoang LN, McConechy MK, Köbel M, et al. Histotype-genotype correlation in 36 high-grade endometrial carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(9):1421-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrioid, serous, and clear cell carcinomas are the major types of endometrial carcinoma. Histologic distinction between these different tumor types can be difficult in high-grade cases, in which significant interobserver diagnostic disagreement exists. Endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas frequently harbor ARID1A and/or PTEN mutations. Serous carcinoma acquires TP53 mutations/inactivation at onset, with a significant subset harboring an additional mutation in PPP2R1A. This study examines the correlation between tumor histotype and genotype in 36 previously genotyped high-grade endometrial carcinomas. This included 23 endometrioid/clear cell genotype and 13 serous genotype tumors. Eight subspecialty pathologists reviewed representative online slides and rendered diagnoses before and after receiving p53, p16, and estrogen receptor immunostaining results. κ statistics for histotype-genotype concordance were calculated. The average κ values for histotype-genotype concordance was 0.55 (range, 0.30 to 0.67) on the basis of morphologic evaluation alone and it improved to 0.68 (range, 0.54 to 0.81) after immunophenotype consideration (P<0.001). Genotype-incompatible diagnoses were rendered by at least 2 pathologists in 12 of 36 cases (33%) (3 cases by 2/8 pathologists, 2 by 3/8, 2 by 4/8, 3 by 6/8, 1 by 7/8, and 1 case by 8/8 pathologists). Six of the 12 were endometrioid/clear cell genotype tumors, and the other 6 were serous genotype tumors. The histopathologic features associated with histotype-genotype-discordant cases were reviewed, and specific diagnostic recommendations were made to improve concordance. This study found that although the majority of morphologic diagnoses are genotype concordant, genotype-incompatible diagnoses are made in a significant subset of cases. Judicious use and interpretation of p53 immunohistochemistry in selected scenarios can improve histotype-genotype concordance.
Hirschowitz L, Mayall FG, Ganesan R, McCluggage WG Intravascular adenomyomatosis: expanding the morphologic spectrum of intravascular leiomyomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(9):1395-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intravascular leiomyomatosis (IVL) is characterized by the presence of smooth muscle in venous and lymphatic spaces within the myometrium. Although the intravascular component usually consists solely of typical smooth muscle or variants of smooth muscle differentiation, we report 5 cases in which the intravascular component also included endometrioid glandular and stromal elements. We propose the term "intravenous adenomyomatosis" to describe this unusual variant of IVL. The mean age of the patients in this series was 50.2 years, slightly older than that of patients with conventional IVL. In addition to intravenous adenomyomatosis, both adenomyosis and leiomyomas were identified in all of our cases, supporting the hypothesis that the intravascular smooth muscle component in IVL is derived from associated myometrial pathology rather than from vessel walls. In our series, intravenous adenomyomatosis had a similar benign clinical behavior to most cases of IVL with no metastatic or recurrent disease identified at follow-up in 4 cases for which follow-up information was available. The main differential diagnoses are adenomyosis with vascular involvement, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS), including ESS with smooth muscle and glandular differentiation, and adenosarcoma with lymphovascular invasion. The possibility of intravenous adenomyomatosis should be borne in mind when considering these diagnoses, particularly ESS and adenosarcoma, which have different implications for patient management and prognosis.
Mao TL, Ardighieri L, Ayhan A, et al. Loss of ARID1A expression correlates with stages of tumor progression in uterine endometrioid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(9):1342-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2014 Related Publications
ARID1A is a recently identified tumor suppressor that functions in chromatin remodeling. Inactivating mutations of ARID1A and loss of its expression most frequently occur in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, and uterine endometrioid carcinoma. In this study, we performed a detailed immunostaining analysis of ARID1A in 246 cases including benign endometrium and endometrioid carcinoma at different stages of progression. Special attention was paid to recording intratumoral heterogeneity of clonal loss of ARID1A immunoreactivity. All normal endometria (n=51) and endometrial polyps (n=14) retained ARID1A expression. Among complex atypical hyperplasias (n=38), 16% exhibited clonal loss of ARID1A, but none showed complete loss. Among low-grade endometrioid carcinomas (n=88), 25% exhibited complete loss and 24% exhibited clonal loss. In contrast, 44% of high-grade endometrioid carcinomas (n=55) showed complete loss of ARID1A, and 9% exhibited clonal loss. We found that 19 high-grade carcinomas also contained concurrent low-grade carcinomas. In the high-grade areas, 63% exhibited complete loss and 11% exhibited clonal loss, whereas in the low-grade areas, 37% exhibited complete loss and 42% clonal loss. In 5 of these 19 cases, progressive loss of ARID1A from retention or clonal loss to complete loss was observed between the low-grade and high-grade areas. Overall, the percentage of complete ARID1A loss increased from 0% in complex atypical hyperplasia, to 25% in low-grade endometrioid carcinoma, to 44% in high-grade endometrioid carcinoma. These findings suggest that loss of ARID1A expression, presumably due to mutation, plays an important role in tumor progression of uterine endometrioid carcinoma.
Nagao S, Nishio S, Michimae H, et al. Applicability of the concept of "platinum sensitivity" to recurrent endometrial cancer: the SGSG-012/GOTIC-004/Intergroup study. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):567-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The concept of "platinum sensitivity" has been widely applied in the management of recurrent ovarian cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of this concept to recurrent endometrial cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, the clinical data of patients with recurrent endometrial cancer, who had a history of receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and who received second-line platinum-based chemotherapy at the time of recurrence between January 2005 and December 2009 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 262 patients from 30 centers with initial FIGO stage classifications of I (29), II (23), III (122), and IV (88) were enrolled. In total, 153 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 34 serous adenocarcinomas, 17 clear cell adenocarcinomas, 36 carcinosarcomas, and 22 "other" tumors were documented. The response rates for patients with platinum-free intervals of <6 months, 6-11 months, 12-23 months, and ≥24 months were 25%, 38%, 61%, and 65%, respectively. The median progression-free survival after second-line platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with platinum-free intervals of <12 months and ≥12 months was 4.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=3.7-5.8) months and 10.3 (95% CI=8.2-12.6) months, respectively (log-rank P<0.0001), and the median overall survival was 13.8 (95% CI=10.6-18.1) months and 40.9 (95% CI=25.3-54.2) months, respectively (log-rank P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Platinum-free interval is a predictor of response and survival after second-line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. The concept of "platinum sensitivity" could be applicable to recurrent endometrial cancer.
Thangavelu A, Hewitt MJ, Quinton ND, Duffy SR Neoadjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer using anastrozole: a randomised pilot study. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):613-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Excessive oestrogenic stimulation is a well-known risk factor for the development and progression of endometrial cancer. Aromatase is the key enzyme which catalyses the conversion of androgens to oestrogens in postmenopausal women. Inhibition of aromatase may therefore be a useful strategy in the management of endometrial cancer. A pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility of a neoadjuvant model and understand the biological effects of anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, in the treatment of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Patients with endometrial cancer who consented to participate in the study were randomised to receive anastrozole or placebo for a minimum of 14 days prior to definitive surgery. Endometrial samples were obtained before and after treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed to ascertain the expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), ki-67 and Bcl2 before and after treatment in glands and stroma of the endometrium. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were randomised to the anastrozole arm and 8 to the placebo arm (2:1 randomisation). A significant decrease in the glandular expression of ERα and AR was observed in the anastrozole arm. There was no significant change in the expression of PR or Bcl2. Expression of ki-67, a proliferation marker, also decreased significantly following treatment with anastrozole. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with anastrozole caused a significant decrease in proliferation as demonstrated by decreased ki-67 expression. A large randomised controlled trial is warranted to fully assess the role of anastrozole in the neoadjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer.
Zhang X, Dong Y, Ti H, et al. Down-regulation of miR-145 and miR-143 might be associated with DNA methyltransferase 3B overexpression and worse prognosis in endometrioid carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(11):2571-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic significance of miR-145 and miR-143 down-regulation in endometrial cancers. The microRNA profiles were analyzed by microRNA microarray. The expression levels of miR-145 and miR-143 in 73 endometrial cancers were further determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Potential targets of miR-145/143 were defined. The status of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B), mutL homologs 1, and phosphatase and tensin homolog was assessed using immunohistochemistry. miR-145 and miR-143 frequently co-down-regulated in endometrial cancers, but the expression levels varied greatly between endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) and non-ECs (NECs); they were significantly lower in ECs than in NECs (P < .05). DNMT3B was defined as a potential target of miR-145/143 by Internet algorithms. In ECs, DNMT3B overexpression occurred more often in the miR-145 and miR-143 down-regulation subgroups, and the correlation between DNMT3B and miR-145 status reached statistical significance (P = .021), whereas such phenomena were not present in NECs (P > .05). In univariate analysis, the combination of DNMT3B overexpression and miR-145 or miR-143 down-regulation was more powerful in predicting shorter survival (P < .05) than use of the biomarkers individually (P > .05). In multivariate analysis, such combination was not an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P > .05). Our findings suggest that the target and function of miR-145 and miR-143 may differ in ECs versus NECs. DNMT3B might be a potential target of miR-145 and miR-143 in ECs. Furthermore, the combined miR-145 or miR-143 and DNMT3B status may have a prognostic impact on ECs.
Euscher E, Fox P, Bassett R, et al. The pattern of myometrial invasion as a predictor of lymph node metastasis or extrauterine disease in low-grade endometrial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(11):1728-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2014 Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of lymph node (LN) metastases or extrauterine disease (ED) in low-grade (FIGO grade 1 or 2) endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) in a multi-institutional setting. For LGEC with and without LN metastasis or ED, each of the 9 participating institutions evaluated patients' age, tumor size, myometrial invasion (MI), FIGO grade, % solid component, the presence or absence of papillary architecture, microcystic, elongated, and fragmented glands (MELF), single-cell/cell-cluster invasion (SCI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), lower uterine segment (LUS) and cervical stromal (CX) involvement, and numbers of pelvic and para-aortic LNs sampled. A total of 304 cases were reviewed: LN(+) or ED(+), 96; LN(-)/ED(-), 208. Patients' ages ranged from 23 to 91 years (median 61 y). Table 1 summarizes the histopathologic variables that were noted for the LN(+) or ED(+) group: tumor size ≥2 cm, 93/96 (97%); MI>50%, 54/96 (56%); MELF, 67/96 (70%); SCI, 33/96 (34%); LVI, 79/96 (82%); >20% solid, 65/96 (68%); papillary architecture present, 68/96 (72%); LUS involved, 64/96 (67%); and CX involved, 41/96 (43%). For the LN(-)/ED(-) group, the results were as follows: tumor size ≥2 cm, 152/208 (73%); MI>50%, 56/208 (27%); MELF, 79/208 (38%); SCI, 19/208 (9%); LVI, 56/208 (27%); >20% solid, 160/208 (77%); papillary architecture present, 122/208 (59%); LUS involved, 77/208 (37%); CX involved, 24/208 (12%). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of pelvic or para-aortic LNs sampled between groups (P=0.9 and 0.1, respectively). After multivariate analysis, the depth of MI, CX involvement, LVI, and SCI emerged as significant predictors of advanced-stage disease. Although univariate analysis pointed to LUS involvement, MELF pattern of invasion, and papillary architecture as possible predictors of advanced-stage disease, these were not shown to be significant by multivariate analysis. This study validates MI, CX involvement, and LVI as significant predictors of LN(+) or ED(+). The association of SCI pattern with advanced-stage LGEC is a novel finding.
Lu Q, Liu H, Liu C, et al. Comparison of laparoscopy and laparotomy for management of endometrial carcinoma: a prospective randomized study with 11-year experience. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(11):1853-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We compared laparoscopic approach with the conventional laparotomy approach for the treatment of patients with endometrial carcinoma in developing country. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-two patients with endometrial carcinoma were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial and treated with laparoscopic or laparotomy approach. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one patients were treated by laparoscopy, while one hundred and twenty-one patients were treated by laparotomy. The median operative time was 211 min in the laparoscopy group and 231 min in the laparotomy group (P > 0.05). The median blood loss was 86 ml in the laparoscopy group and 419 ml in the laparotomy group (P < 0.05). The median length of hospital stay was 3 days in the laparoscopy group and 6 days in the laparotomy group (P < 0.05). Pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed in all the patients. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed in 15 % of the laparoscopy and 31.4 % of laparotomy group (P < 0.05). The overall survival and 5-year survival rate for the TLH were 94 and 96 % compared with 90.1 and 91 % in the TAH, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and reliable alternative to laparotomy in the management of endometrial carcinoma patients, with significantly reduced hospital stay and postoperative complications; however, it does not seem to improve the overall survival and 5-year survival rate, although multicenter randomized trials are required to evaluate the overall oncologic outcomes of this procedure.
Akashi D, Todo Y, Shimada C, et al. Successful use of dydrogesterone as maintenance therapy in recurrent endometrial stromal sarcoma: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013; 43(11):1145-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcoma is known to be a hormone-dependent tumor. Efficacy of hormonal therapy including high-dose progestins, aromatase inhibitors or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs has been reported. We report a case of recurrent endometrial stromal sarcoma, the tumor cells of which were strongly positive for CD10, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Although almost all of the pelvic tumors infiltrating the rectum or pelvic side wall remained, the patient is alive with slight disease 9 years and 6 months after the initial failure. During the treatment period of 4 years and 3 months, the patient was treated exclusively with dydrogesterone at a daily dose of 10 mg and the tumor clinically disappeared. Dydrogesterone at a daily dose of 10 mg may be effective in treating low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Jutzi L, Hoskins P, Lim P, et al. The importance of adjuvant chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in high-risk early stage endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):581-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of a policy change in which women with high-risk early stage endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of British Columbia Cancer Registry patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2012 with high-risk early stage EEC, who received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after primary surgery. High-risk early stage was defined as the presence of two or more high-risk uterine factors: grade 3 tumor, more than 50% myometrial invasion, and/or cervical stromal involvement. Adjuvant therapy consisted of 3 or 4 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy, followed by pelvic radiotherapy. Sites and rate of recurrence were compared to a historical cohort diagnosed from 2005 to 2008 in which none of the patients received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates were calculated. RESULTS: The study includes 55 patients. All patients except for 2 received at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy. All patients received pelvic radiotherapy except for 2 who received brachytherapy only. Median follow-up was 27 months (7-56 months). Four patients (7.3%) recurred, including three with distant recurrence only and one with both a pelvic and paraaortic nodal recurrence. The historical cohort had a 29.4% recurrence rate, and therefore the hazard ratio for recurrence was 0.27 (95% CI 0.02-4.11). Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 88.6% and 97.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with high-risk early stage endometrial carcinoma treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy have a low rate of recurrence compared to those not receiving such therapy.
Zakhour M, Li AJ, Walsh CS, et al. Post treatment surveillance of type II endometrial cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):609-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: There are few studies analyzing surveillance for Type II endometrial cancer recurrence. Our objective was to determine the types of post treatment surveillance tests performed in our institution and the efficacy of these tests in detecting recurrence in type II endometrial cancer patients. METHODS: One hundred and thirty six cases of type II endometrial cancers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center from January of 2000 to August of 2011 were identified and 106 patients met inclusion criteria. Medical charts were reviewed for surveillance methods and number of follow up visits. For patients who underwent a recurrence of disease, the surveillance method utilized for detection was documented. RESULTS: Forty-seven of the 106 (44%) patients developed recurrence with a mean progression free interval of 11 months. All patients had a history and physical at each surveillance visit, 78% had Pap testing, 57% had CA-125 levels drawn, 59% had CT (computed tomography) scans done, 6% had PET (positron emission tomography) scans done for surveillance. In our cohort, recurrence was detected by symptoms in 16, by CA-125 in 11, by physical exam in 7, by CT scan in 12, and by PET scan in one patient. No patients had recurrence detected by vaginal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Although performed in the majority of patients, Pap testing did not detect any recurrences within this cohort. History and physical exam detected the most recurrences. These findings suggest that educating patients about relevant symptoms and performing thorough follow-up exams may be the most important aspects of detecting type II endometrial cancer recurrence.
Song T, Seong SJ, Bae DS, et al. Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary in young women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):624-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Some authors have recommended the use of diagnostic laparoscopy as a pretreatment assessment step for conservative hormonal treatment in young women with endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of synchronous primary cancer of the endometrium and ovary in young women. METHODS: The medical records of 3240 patients with endometrial cancer who underwent primary surgery between 1995 and 2010 were collected from 7 institutions and were retrospectively reviewed. Low-risk endometrial cancer was defined as tumors without myometrial invasion; normal or benign-looking ovaries; normal CA-125; grade 1 endometrioid histology; and early stage endometrial cancer on pretreatment assessment. RESULTS: Fifteen percent (471/3240) were younger than 40 years of age. The incidence of synchronous ovarian cancer in young women with endometrial cancer was 4.5% (21/471). In patients with low-risk endometrial cancer, synchronous cancers were not identified. CONCLUSION: The incidence of synchronous ovarian malignancies in young women with endometrial cancer was quiet low (4.5%), unlike previous studies have revealed (11-29%). Therefore, diagnostic laparoscopy is not mandatory in patients with low-risk early stage endometrial cancer selected for conservative treatment to confirm the absence of ovarian malignancy.