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Gynacological Cancers

Gynaecological cancers are a group of different malignancies of the female reproductive system. The most common types of gynaecologic malignancies are cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial (uterus) cancer. There are other less common gynaecological malignancies including cancer of the vagina, cancer of the vulva, gestational trophoblastic tumours, and fallopian tube cancer. Occasionally skin cancers or sarcomas can also be found in the female genitalia. Generally, most gynaecological cancers are found in women aged over 50, though the incidence rates for younger women have been rising.

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Cervical Cancer
Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer
Fallopian Tube Cancer
Gestational Trophoblastic Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Vaginal Cancer
Vulva Cancer
Uterine Sarcoma
Gynecologic Oncology (specialty)
General Gynacological Cancer Resources
Latest Research Publications

General Gynacological Cancer Resources (15 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Vallius T, Hynninen J, Auranen A, et al.
Postoperative human epididymis protein 4 predicts primary therapy outcome in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691189 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary chemotherapy treatment response monitoring in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is currently based on CT-imaging and serum CA125 values. Serum HE4 profile during first line chemotherapy has not been previously studied. We evaluated the HE4 profile during first line chemotherapy after primary (PDS) and interval debulking surgery (IDS). In total, 49 FIGO stage III/IV EOC patients were included in the study. 22 patients underwent PDS and 27 patients neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by IDS. Serial HE4 and CA125 serum samples were taken during first line chemotherapy. The association of postoperative tumor markers to surgery outcome, primary therapy outcome and progression free survival (PFS) were determined. The lowest HE4 and CA125 values during chemotherapy were compared to primary therapy outcome and PFS. The postoperative HE4 was associated to residual tumor after surgery (p = 0.0001), primary therapy outcome (p = 0.004) and PFS (p = 0.03) in all patients (n = 40). The postoperative CA125 was associated to PFS after IDS (n = 26, p = 0.006), but not after PDS. In multivariate analysis with FIGO stage (III/IV), residual tumor (0/>0) and postoperative CA125, the postoperative HE4 was the only statistically significant prognostic variable predicting PFS. Both HE4 and CA125 nadir corresponded to primary therapy outcome (HE4 p < 0.0001, CA125 p < 0.0001) and PFS (HE4 p = 0.009, CA125 p < 0.0001). HE4 is a promising candidate for EOC response monitoring. In our study, the performance of HE4 in response monitoring of first line chemotherapy was comparable to that of CA125. Of the postoperative values, only HE4 was statistically significantly associated to primary therapy outcome.

Lee H, Lee H, Cho YK
Cytokeratin7 and cytokeratin19 expression in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and squamous cell carcinoma and their possible association in cervical carcinogenesis.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) infects cells at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) of the cervix, causing cancer. Cytokeratin (CK)7 is an SCJ marker, and stains cervical neoplasia. CK19 is a binding partner of CK7 and expressed in cervical cancer. Despite this possible association between CK7/CK19 and cervical cancer, not much is known about the mechanism of CK7/CK19 involvement in HR HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis.
METHODS: We analyzed the expression pattern of CK7, CK19, and p16 by using immunohistochemistry and HPV infection by in situ hybridization in 25 cases of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) and in 30 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
RESULTS: CK19, p16, and HPV expression was positive in all CIN3 and SCC cases. CK7 expression was positive in all CIN3 cases and in 20/30 (66%) SCCs. Each protein showed diffuse or patchy staining with topographic distinction. Patchy staining of CK7 and episomal HPV DNA overlapped in the upper layer of CIN3 and central portion of an invasive nest in the SCC, whereas patchy CK19 staining and integrated HPV DNA were usually noted in the lower layer of CIN3 and the periphery of the SCC nest. The p16 staining pattern coincided with that of CK19 in a subset of SCC.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CK7 may be more related with viral episomal replication and CK19 with viral integration, contributing to viral replication and malignant transformation in HR HPV infected cells. In addition, coordinate CK7/CK19 staining may be used as a valuable marker for predicting physical status of HR HPV and E7 oncoprotein level in cervical tumor.

Rathore R, Arora VK, Singh B
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of cervix: Cytological Features on Conventional Cervical Smear.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(3):239-242 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare neoplasm of the cervix. The importance of distinguishing this undifferentiated carcinoma with a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate lies in the fact that despite being poorly differentiated they have a better prognosis. The diagnosis however becomes more challenging when the pathologist is provided with a small cervical biopsy or a Papanicolaou smear. While the reports describing histology and their relation to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are many, there are only few case reports describing the cytology of these tumors. We describe the cytological features of LELC of cervix on conventional smear and correlate it with the histopathological findings of the same. A 67-year-old multiparous Hindu woman presented to the gynecology outpatient department with the history of postmenopausal bleeding for the past six months. The cytological examination of the cervical smear (Papanicolaou stain) was done followed by cervical and endometrial biopsy. Based on Papanicolaou smear and biopsy suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Hysterectomy specimen showed the morphology of LELC and was then correlated with the cervical smears retrospectively. On review of cytological smears it was seen that the tumor cell clusters had an abundant lymphoid background, which was overlooked earlier. Immunohistochemistry for EBV was negative. We conclude that the presence of undifferentiated tumor cell clusters with ill-defined cell borders and large number of lymphoid cells in the background suggest the diagnosis of LELC on cervical cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:239-242. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Živný JH, Leahomschi S, Klener P, et al.
Comparison of Plasma Osteopontin Levels between Patients with Borderline Ovarian Tumours and Serous Ovarian Carcinoma.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2016; 62(6):258-262 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteopontin (OPN) is a novel biomarker of various cancers including ovarian carcinoma. OPN is a promising adjunct to a major biomarker of ovarian cancer, CA125, in diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of our study was to measure the plasma level of OPN and CA125 in patients with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs), serous ovarian carcinoma, and controls to determine its potential role in the differential diagnosis between serous ovarian carcinoma and BOT. The plasma samples of 66 women were analysed using Luminex technology, designed to simultaneously measure multiple specific protein targets. The mean OPN plasma level for the control group was 23.3 ng/ml; for BOT 26.3 ng/ml; and for patients with serous ovarian carcinoma 59.5 ng/ml. Specifically, there was a significant difference between the OPN levels in patients with ovarian carcinoma and BOT (P < 0.001) as well as controls (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the mean levels of OPN in patients with BOT and the control group (P = 0.286). Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), we determined the utility of OPN and CA125 to differentiate between BOT and serous ovarian carcinoma. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for OPN was 0.793 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.669-0.917, P < 0.001) and for CA125 0.766 (95% CI 0.626-0.907, P = 0.002). Based on our data, we suggest that OPN can be used as a possible differential diagnostic biomarker to distinguish between malignant serous ovarian carcinoma and BOT.

Chudecka-Głaz A, Cymbaluk-Płoska A, Strojna A, Menkiszak J
HE4 Serum Levels in Patients with BRCA1 Gene Mutation Undergoing Prophylactic Surgery as well as in Other Benign and Malignant Gynecological Diseases.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:9792756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective. We assess the behavior of serum concentrations of HE4 marker in female carriers of BRCA1 and assess the diagnostic usefulness of HE4 in ovarian and endometrial cancer. Methods. A total of 619 women with BRCA1 gene mutation, ovarian, endometrial, metastatic, other gynecological cancers, or benign gynecological diseases were included. Intergroup comparative analyses were carried out, the BRCA1 gene carriers subgroup was subjected to detailed analysis, and ROC curves were determined for the assessment of diagnostic usefulness of HE4 in ovarian and endometrial cancer. Results. Statistically lower serum HE4 and CA 125 levels were observed in BRCA1 gene mutation premenopausal carriers. Occult ovarian/fallopian tube cancer was found 3.6%. Each of those patients was characterized by slightly elevated levels of either CA 125 (63.9 and 39.4 U/mL) or HE4 (79 pmol/L). The ROC-AUC curves were 0.892 and 0.894 for diagnostic usefulness of ovarian cancer and 0.865 for differentiation of endometrial cancer from endometrial polyps. Conclusions. Patients with BRCA1 gene mutations have relatively low serum HE4 levels. Even the slightest elevation in HE4 or CA 125 levels in female BRCA1 carriers undergoing prophylactic surgery should significantly increase oncological alertness. The HE4 marker is valuable in ovarian and uterine cancer diagnosis.

El-Balat A, Sänger N, Karn T, et al.
IMP3 Expression in Borderline Tumors of the Ovary.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):583-588 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) have a less aggressive behavior than invasive epithelial ovarian tumors. Still some patients relapse or succumb to disease. Molecular markers that reliably predict prognosis are lacking. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP3) has been suggested as a prognostic marker in colorectal, hepatocellular, and ovarian clear-cell carcinomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of IMP3 by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 140 BOT and its association with histopathological features.
RESULTS: We found no association of IMP3 expression with patients' age, FIGO stage, microinvasion, and presence of implants. In contrast, IMP3 expression correlated to mucinous subtype of BOTs (42.2% vs. 9.5% among other subtypes) (p<0.001). IMP3 expression was found to be associated with the presence of in situ carcinoma in MBOT, but not in other subtypes (p=0.021).
CONCLUSION: Expression of IMP3 in BOT is associated with the mucinous subtype and may serve as an early indicator for the development of malignant features.

Tsubamoto H, Inoue K, Sakata K, et al.
Itraconazole Inhibits AKT/mTOR Signaling and Proliferation in Endometrial Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):515-519 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Itraconazole is a common antifungal agent that has demonstrated anticancer activity in preclinical and clinical studies. This study investigated whether itraconazole exerts this effect in endometrial cancer (EC) cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and gene and protein expression were assessed by microarray analysis and immunoblotting, respectively, in five EC cell lines.
RESULTS: Itraconazole-suppressed proliferation of AN3-CA, HEC-1A and Ishikawa cells (p<0.05) but not of HEC-50B or SNG-II cells. Itraconazole did not suppress GLI1 or GLI2 transcription but did inhibit the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling components in AN3-CA and HEC-1A cells, while inducing that of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-II, a marker of autophagy. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene was down-regulated in Ishikawa, HEC-50B and SNG-II cells.
CONCLUSION: Itraconazole treatment suppresses the growth of EC cells by inhibiting AKT/mTOR signalling.

Saglam O, Xiong Y, Marchion DC, et al.
ERBB4 Expression in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma Resistant to Platinum-Based Therapy.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):89-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Few data exist on the prognostic and predictive impact of erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) in ovarian cancer. Thus, we evaluated ERBB4 expression by immunohistochemistry in a tumor microarray consisting of 100 ovarian serous carcinoma specimens (50 complete responses [CRs] and 50 incomplete responses [IRs] to platinum-based therapy), 51 normal tissue controls, and 16 ovarian cancer cell lines. H scores were used to evaluate expression and were semiquantitatively classified into low, intermediate, and high categories. Category frequencies were compared between tumor specimens vs controls using an unpaired t test. Among tumors, category frequencies were compared between CR and IR to chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) was stratified by category. In total, 74 ovarian serous carcinoma samples (32 CRs and 42 IRs), 28 normal controls, and 16 ovarian cancer cell lines were evaluable. High-level ERBB4 expression was observed at a significantly higher frequency in ovarian serous carcinoma compared with normal control tissue. Among tumor specimens, ERBB4 expression was significantly higher for those with an IR to chemotherapy compared with CR (P = .033). OS was inversely correlated with ERBB4 expression levels. Median rates of OS were 18, 22, and 58 months among high-, intermediate-, and low-expression tumors, respectively. Our results indicate that ERBB4 expression by immunohistochemistry may correlate with chemotherapy-resistant ovarian serous carcinoma and shortened OS.

Zhang LQ, Yang SQ, Wang Y, et al.
Long Noncoding RNA MIR4697HG Promotes Cell Growth and Metastasis in Human Ovarian Cancer.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2017; 2017:8267863 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the three most common gynecological malignant tumors worldwide. The prognosis of patients suffering from this malignancy remains poor because of limited therapeutic strategies. Herein, we investigated the role of a long noncoding RNA named MIR4697 host gene (MIR4697HG) in the cell growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Results showed that the transcriptional level of MIR4697HG in cancerous tissues increased twofold compared with that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. MIR4697HG was differentially expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, with the highest levels in OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. MIR4697HG knockdown by specific shRNA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in both OVCAR3 and SKOC3 cells. Consistently, in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer, MIR4697HG depletion also significantly restricted tumor volumes and weights. Furthermore, MIR4697HG knockdown inhibited cell migration and invasion capacities. Invasion ability was inhibited by 58% in SKOV3 cells and 40% in OVCAR3 cells, and migration ability was inhibited by 73% in SKOV3 cells and 62% in OVCAR3 cells after MIR4697HG knockdown. MIR4697HG knockdown also caused a decrease in matrix metalloprotease-9, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated AKT. These data suggested that MIR4697HG promoted ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. The aggressive role of MIR4697HG in ovarian cancer may be related to the ERK and AKT signaling pathways.

Makris GM, Pouliakis A, Siristatidis C, et al.
Image analysis and multi-layer perceptron artificial neural networks for the discrimination between benign and malignant endometrial lesions.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(3):202-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the efficacy of an Artificial Neural Network based on Multi-Layer Perceptron (ANN-MPL) to discriminate between benign and malignant endometrial nuclei and lesions in cytological specimens.
METHODS: We collected 416 histologically confirmed liquid-based cytological smears from 168 healthy patients, 152 patients with malignancy, 52 with hyperplasia without atypia, 20 with hyperplasia with atypia, and 24 patients with endometrial polyps. The morphometric characteristics of 90 nuclei per case were analyzed using a custom image analysis system; half of them were used to train the MPL-ANN model, which classified each nucleus as benign or malignant. Data from the remaining 50% of cases were used to evaluate the performance and stability of the ANN. The MLP-ANN for the nuclei classification (numeric and percentage classifiers) and the algorithms for the determination of the optimum threshold values were estimated with in-house developed software for the MATLAB v2011b programming environment; the diagnostic accuracy measures were also calculated.
RESULTS: The accuracy of the MPL-ANN model for the classification of endometrial nuclei was 81.33%, while specificity was 88.84% and sensitivity 69.38%. For the case classification based on numeric classifier the overall accuracy was 90.87%, the specificity 93.03% and the sensitivity 87.79%; the indices for the percentage classifier were 95.91%, 93.44%, and 99.42%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Computerized systems based on ANNs can aid the cytological classification of endometrial nuclei and lesions with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:202-211. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Adepoju EG, Ilori T, Olowookere SA, Idowu A
Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges and lessons learnt from Osun state, southwest Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:319 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women.
METHODS: Awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme. Consenting women had their socio-demographic characteristics, awareness and uptake of HPV vaccine documented and papanicolaou smear procedure done with adequate referral for treatment given where necessary.
RESULTS: A total of 287 women had cervical cancer screening. Mean (SD) age was 51.6 (14.3) years. Most participants were urban based (87.1%), married (63.1%), had secondary education (39%) and were traders (79.1%). None of the women were aware of the preventive HPV vaccine or had been vaccinated against HPV. About 6% were pre-invasive while 0.7% had invasive cervical cancer. The highest proportions of respondents affected were young, married and had lower education. Challenges identified included poor attendance, low risk perception and logistic issues.
CONCLUSION: Most participants were urban based. There is need to decentralize cancer of cervix screening through mobile clinics and establishment of screening centres in the rural areas. Neighbour to neighbour sensitization is essential. Also, HPV vaccine should be available and affordable to all girls before sexual maturity.

Damião PA, Oliveira-Silva M, Moreira MÂ, et al.
Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with cervical preneoplastic, lesions and cancer in Luanda, Angola.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:268 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported.
AIM: To determine the frequency of HPV among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions from women in Luanda, Angola.
METHODS: Study participants included women diagnosed with cytological abnormalities that voluntarily provided Pap smears (n = 64). Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples for use as templates in the PCR amplification of HPV sequences. PCR products were sequenced to determine HPV type.
RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 71.9% (46/64) in the samples. A higher diversity of HPV types was found in the cytological lesions, such as ASCUS and LSIL (HPV16, 6, 18, 31, 58, 66, 70 and 82, in order of frequency) than that detected for HSIL and SSC (HPV16, 18, 6 and 33). The most prevalent HPV type were: HPV16, HPV6 and HPV18.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report on HPV type diversity and frequency in woman of Angola. The results suggest that large-scale studies across Africa would improve our understanding of interrelationship between HPV infections and cervical cancer. More directly, the identification of the HPV types most prevalent suggests that women in Angola would benefit from currently available HPV vaccines.

Zhang M, Zhuang G, Sun X, et al.
TP53 mutation-mediated genomic instability induces the evolution of chemoresistance and recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomic instability caused by mutation of the checkpoint molecule TP53 may endow cancer cells with the ability to undergo genomic evolution to survive stress and treatment. We attempted to gain insight into the potential contribution of ovarian cancer genomic instability resulted from TP53 mutation to the aberrant expression of multidrug resistance gene MDR1.
METHODS: TP53 mutation status was assessed by performing nucleotide sequencing and immunohistochemistry. Ovarian cancer cell DNA ploidy was determined using Feulgen-stained smears or flow cytometry. DNA copy number was analyzed by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
RESULTS: In addition to performing nucleotide sequencing for 5 cases of ovarian cancer, TP53 mutations were analyzed via immunohistochemical staining for P53. Both intensive P53 immunohistochemical staining and complete absence of signal were associated with the occurrence of TP53 mutations. HE staining and the quantification of DNA content indicated a significantly higher proportion of polyploidy and aneuploidy cells in the TP53 mutant group than in the wild-type group (p < 0.05). Moreover, in 161 epithelial ovarian cancer patients, multivariate logistic analysis identified late FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage, serous histotype, G3 grade and TP53 mutation as independent risk factors for ovarian cancer recurrence. In relapse patients, the proportion of chemoresistant cases in the TP53 wild-type group was significantly lower than in the mutant group (63.6% vs. 91.8%, p < 0.05). FISH results revealed a higher percentage of cells with >6 MDR1 copies and chromosome 7 amplication in the TP53 mutant group than in the wild-type group [11.7 ± 2.3% vs. 3.0 ± 0.7% and 2.1 ± 0.7% vs. 0.3 ± 0.05%, (p < 0.05), respectively]. And we observed a specific increase of MDR1 and chromosome 7 copy numbers in the TP53 mutant group upon disease regression (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: TP53 mutation-associated genomic instability may promote chromosome 7 accumulation and MDR1 amplification during ovarian cancer chemoresistance and recurrence. Our findings lay the foundation for the development of promising chemotherapeutic approaches to treat aggressive and recurrent ovarian cancer.

Hayari L, Shir On E, Fedorenko A, et al.
Complications of dysgerminoma: meeting the health needs of patients in conflict zones.
BMJ Case Rep. 2017; 2017 [PubMed] Related Publications
A symptom of prolonged conflict is the destruction of infrastructure and healthcare systems. While the need for acute trauma services is obvious in conflict zones, patients with chronic diseases also require care. This report describes the clinical course of a young teenage girl with a large mid pelvic tumour originating from the left ovary and reaching the umbilicus. She presented with acute abdominal pain and underwent surgery in a healthcare facility within a conflict zone. She was then transferred to a neighbouring country for continuing care. The tumour is malignant. After further surgery, she required chemotherapy and will need ongoing surveillance. She has since returned to her home country. It is doubtful that she will be able to access all the care she needs. We describe her healthcare needs and discuss the disastrous effects of conflict on meeting the health needs of civilian populations in war zones.

Scheck SM, Bethwaite P, Johnson C, Mogensen O
Metastatic endometrial endometrioid carcinoma mimicking pilomatrixoma of the distal vagina.
BMJ Case Rep. 2017; 2017 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrioid carcinoma with a prominent squamous component has the ability to mimic pilomatrixoma. One previous case is documented of cutaneous metastasis in the upper limb derived from ovarian endometrioid carcinoma mimicking pilomatrixoma. Here, we describe a case of metastasis of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma in the distal vagina, treated with radiotherapy and later resected. The histology of the lesion was thought initially to represent pilomatrixoma; this has not previously been described in the vagina, where no hair matrix cells are normally present. We hypothesise that radiotherapy may have effectively 'sterilised' the glandular component, blinding the malignant features. Further management was significantly altered by the reinterpretation of this result as metastatic disease. We emphasise that in the context of known endometrioid carcinoma, the diagnosis of pilomatrixoma should be made with caution, particularly where radiotherapy has been used.

Clemente N, Alessandrini L, Vaccher E, et al.
Multiple preinvasive and invasive HPV-related lesions of the anogenital tract in a female patient with HIV infection: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to be at increased risk for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection of the anogenital tract. Furthermore, in the last decades, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the longevity of these patients who now live long enough to develop HPV-related cancers; hence, the impact of HPV infection on HIV-positive patients is of increasing concern.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of an HIV-positive female patient on HAART with a good virological and immunological response and with a long history of HPV-related intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the anogenital tract.
DIAGNOSES: From 1996 to 2016, this patient was diagnosed with a high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; a HR-HPV positive inguinal lymph node metastasis from clinically undetectable primary squamous cell carcinoma; a HPV-related vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
INTERVENTIONS: All the intraepithelial and invasive lesions detected were properly treated, and subsequent follow up visits with gynecologic examination, anoscopy, pap smear and anal cytology were performed.
OUTCOMES: After a recurrence of the anal cancer and a subsequent salvage surgery with abdominoperineal resection, at the last available follow up visit no sign of disease recurrence was found.
LESSONS: This case stresses the importance of an accurate multidisciplinary follow-up in HIV-positive patients, including not only the routine medical, immunological, and virological evaluation, but also a periodical complete examination of the anogenital tract with cervicovaginal and anal cytology, colposcopy, high resolution anoscopy, and vulvar examination.

Momeni M, Korotkaya Y, Carrasco G, Prasad-Hayes M
Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Bartholin's Gland: Case Report.
Acta Med Iran. 2016; 54(12):820-822 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of Bartholin's gland is a rare gynecologic malignancy. We report a case of locally advanced ACC of Bartholin's gland. A 62-year-old presented with left Bartholin's gland carcinoma and underwent left radical vulvectomy, left-sided inguinal-femoral lymph node dissection, posterior pelvic exenteration, and pedicle abdominal muscle flap. On her 3 months follow-up exam she was disease free.Pelvic exenteration for thetreatment of this rare disease in the vulva is a potential curative option.

Gao W, Zhang Q, Wang Y, et al.
EphB3 protein is associated with histological grade and FIGO stage in ovarian serous carcinomas.
APMIS. 2017; 125(2):122-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eph (Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell) is the largest subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are involved in embryonic development and physiological processes. Aberrant expression of Eph/ephrin may contribute to a variety of diseases including cancer. EphB3 is a member of Eph receptors and has been found to play roles in carcinogenesis of some types of human cancer. But, its expression and clinical significance in ovarian serous carcinoma have not been well investigated and are unknown. In this study, a set of ovarian tissues including normal fallopian tube, serous borderline tumor, and serous carcinoma were subjected to immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody for EphB3. The relationship between EphB3 expression and clinicopathological parameters was statistically analyzed. EphB3 was strongly expressed in all fallopian tube specimens (19/19, 100%). EphB3 was negatively or weekly expressed in 1 of 17 (5.8%) in borderline tumors and 26 of 50 (52.0%) in serous carcinomas, moderately expressed in 7 of 17 (41.2%) in borderline tumors and 14 of 50 (28%) in serous carcinomas, and strongly expressed in 9 17 (52.9%) in borderline tumors and 10 of 50 (20%) in serous carcinomas. EphB3 expression is significantly reduced in serous carcinomas compared with normal fallopian tubes and borderline tumors (p < 0.001). EphB3 expression is negatively associated with histological grade (p < 0.001, rs = -0.613) and FIGO stage (p = 0.001, rs = -0.464) of serous carcinomas. Our results show EphB3 protein lost in ovarian serous carcinoma and is associated with tumor grade and FIGO stage, which indicate EphB3 protein may play a role in carcinogenesis of ovarian serous carcinoma and may be used as a molecular marker for prognosis.

Sander Effron S, Makvandi M, Lin L, et al.
PARP-1 Expression Quantified by [(18)F]FluorThanatrace: A Biomarker of Response to PARP Inhibition Adjuvant to Radiation Therapy.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2017; 32(1):9-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is the major target of clinical PARP inhibitors and is a potential predictive biomarker for response to therapy. Due to the limited success of PARP inhibitors as monotherapy, investigators have shifted the clinical role of PARP inhibitors to the adjuvant setting. In this study, we evaluate the radiotracer [(18)F]FluorThanatrace ([(18)F]FTT) as a marker of PARP expression in vitro and the associated biological implications of PARP-1 expression in PARP inhibitor treatment adjuvant to radiation therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SNU-251 (BRCA1-mutant) and SKOV3 (BRCA1-WT) cell lines were evaluated in vitro by using the radiotracer [(18)F]FTT. Pharmacological binding assays were performed at baseline and were correlated with PARP-1 protein expression measured by Western blot protein analysis. Cell viability and clonogenic assays were used to characterize in vitro cytotoxicity for treatments, including: PARP inhibitors alone, radiation alone, and PARP inhibitor adjuvant to radiation. Western blot protein analysis was used to assess response to treatment by using γH2AX to measure DNA damage and PAR to measure the catalytic inhibition of PARP.
RESULTS: [(18)F]FTT was capable of measuring PARP-1 protein expression in vitro and corresponded to Western blot protein analysis at baseline. The addition of a PARP inhibitor enhanced radiation effects in both cell lines; however, a greater synergy was observed in the SNU-251 cell line that expresses a BRCA1 mutation and homologous recombination deficiency. Western blot protein analysis showed that the addition of a PARP inhibitor adjuvant to radiation increases DNA damage in both cell lines and reduces PARP enzymatic activity as measured by PAR.
CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we found that PARP-1 expression positively corresponds in vitro to the response of PARP inhibitors in combination with radiation therapy in ovarian cancer.

Panich T, Tragoolpua K, Pata S, et al.
Downregulation of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer by scFv-M6-1B9 Intrabody Suppresses Cervical Cancer Invasion Through Inhibition of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2017; 32(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) accelerates tumor invasion and metastasis via activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression. The authors were interested in whether the scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody against EMMPRIN that retains EMMPRIN in endoplasmic reticulum could be a potential tool to suppress cervical cancer invasion through inhibition of uPA. The chimeric adenoviral vector Ad5/F35-scFv-M6-1B9 was transferred into human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells to produce the scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody against EMMPRIN. Cell surface expression of EMMPRIN, the membrane-bound uPA, the enzymatic activity of secreted uPA, and the invasion ability were analyzed. The scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody successfully diminished the cell surface expression of EMMPRIN and the membrane-bound uPA on HeLa cells. uPA activity from tissue culture media of EMMPRIN-downregulated HeLa cells was decreased. The invasion ability of HeLa cells harboring scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody was also suppressed. These results suggested that the scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody might represent a potential approach for invasive cervical cancer treatment. The application of scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody in animal experiments and preclinical studies would be investigated further.

Chen Y, Wang H, Lin W, Shuai P
ADAR1 overexpression is associated with cervical cancer progression and angiogenesis.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the role of RNA-dependent adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) in cervical squamous cell carcinoma occurrence and progression.
METHODS: ADAR1 expression levels in stage IA and stage IIA cervical squamous cell carcinoma (group A), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) specimens (group B), as well as normal and inflamed cervical tissue samples (group C) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Clinical and pathological data of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Chi-square test, comparative analysis of survival curve, disease-free survival and COX risk assessment method were used to understand the association of ADAR1 with the occurrence and progression and prognostic significance of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
RESULTS: ADAR1 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei. The expression level was high in squamous cell carcinoma tissues (81.18%), while relatively low in the CIN group (21.56%). And there was no expression in non-cancerous tissues. The differences between them were statistically significant using P < 0.05 as criterion. One-factor analysis revealed that ADAR1 was significantly correlated with tumor diameter, horizontal diffusion diameter, vascular invasion, parametrial invasion, vaginal involvement, and pathologically diagnostic criteria for perineural invasion (PNI). Meanwhile, the overall survival rate of ADAR1 positive patients was significantly lower compared with that of patients with no ADAR1 expression (P < 0.05). Analysis also showed that disease-free survival time of ADAR1 positive patients was shorter than that of ADAR1 negative patients, and the difference was significant (P < 0.01). Finally, COX risk assessment showed that parametrical invasion had independent prognostic factors for overall survival of squamous cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that ADAR1 might play an important role in the occurrence, progression and prognosis of cervical squamous cancer.

Lu J, Xu Y, Wei X, et al.
Emodin Inhibits the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug Signaling Pathway.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6253280 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Despite the anticancer capabilities of emodin observed in many cancers, including EOC, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. A crucial link has been discovered between the acquisition of metastatic traits and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present study aimed to determine whether emodin could inhibit the EMT of EOC cells and explore the underlying mechanism. The CCK-8 assay and transwell assay showed that emodin effectively repressed the abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration in A2780 and SK-OV-3 cells. The Western blot showed that emodin upregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Claudin) while it downregulated mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and Vimentin) and transcription factor (Slug) in a dose-dependent fashion. After transfection of siRNA-Slug, both Slug and N-cadherin were downregulated in EOC cells while E-cadherin was upregulated, which was intensified by emodin. Besides, emodin decreased the expression of ILK, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin, and Slug. Transfection of siRNA-ILK also achieved the same effects, which was further strengthened by following emodin treatment. Nevertheless, SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3β, could reverse the effects of emodin except for ILK expression. These findings suggest that emodin inhibited the EMT of EOC cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug signaling pathway.

Kim TS, Lim MS, Hong YJ, et al.
Significance of "Not Detected but Amplified" Results by Real-Time PCR Method for HPV DNA Detection.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:5170419 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important etiologic factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Various HPV DNA detection methods have been evaluated for clinicopathological level. For the specimens with normal cytological finding, discrepancies among the detection methods were frequently found and adequate interpretation can be difficult. 6,322 clinical specimens were submitted and evaluated for real-time PCR and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). 573 positive or "Not Detected but Amplified" (NDBA) specimens by real-time PCR were additionally tested using genetic analyzer. For the reliability of real-time PCR, 325 retests were performed. Optimal cut-off cycle threshold (CT ) value was evaluated also. 78.7% of submitted specimens showed normal or nonspecific cytological finding. The distributions of HPV types by real-time PCR were not different between positive and NDBA cases. For positive cases by fragment analysis, concordance rates with real-time PCR and HC2 were 94.2% and 84.2%. In NDBA cases, fragment analysis and real-time PCR showed identical results in 77.0% and HC2 revealed 27.6% of concordance with fragment analysis. Optimal cut-off CT value was different for HPV types. NDBA results in real-time PCR should be regarded as equivocal, not negative. The adjustment of cut-off CT value for HPV types will be helpful for the appropriate result interpretation.

Dean E, Khoja L, Clamp A, et al.
Malignant bowel obstruction in advanced ovarian cancer.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(6):513-521 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) in ovarian cancer is poorly understood.
METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 129 patients with ovarian cancer and MBO.
RESULTS: At presentation, 69 (53%) had platinum-resistant, 37 (29%) platinum-sensitive and 23 (18%) chemotherapy-naive disease. In patients receiving chemotherapy following the MBO episode, median overall survival (OS) was 107 days for chemotherapy-naive patients compared with 83 and 86 for platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant patients (p = 0.98). OS was inferior for best supportive care (45 days) compared with chemotherapy (152 days) or surgery (124 days; p < 0.001). The Manchester Bowel Obstruction Score using Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and obstruction level discriminated patients by median OS of 181 days (neither) versus 98 days (one) versus 42 days (both; p < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The Manchester Bowel Obstruction Score may aide treatment stratification.

Fu ZZ, Li K, Peng Y, et al.
Efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer: A network meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5853 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer (CC) by adopting a network meta-analysis.
METHODS: We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library from the inception of these databases to September 2016, and all cohort studies (CSs) related to different CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC were included. A network analysis was adopted to compare the combination of direct and indirect evidence, to analyze the odds ratio (OR), and to draw a surface under the cumulative ranking curve of the efficacy and toxicity of different CCRT regimens for CC. Cluster analyses were used to group each category based on similar treatment regimens.
RESULTS: Nineteen CSs were enrolled in this network meta-analysis, including 12 CCRT regimens (radiotherapy [RT], CCRT [cisplatin], CCRT [vinorelbine], CCRT [paclitaxel], CCRT [hydroxyurea], CCRT [cisplatin + FU], CCRT [cisplatin + gemcitabine], CCRT [cisplatin + docetaxel], CCRT [cisplatin + paclitaxel], CCRT [cisplatin + amifostine], CCRT [cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea], and CCRT [cisplatin + vincristine + bleomycin]). The results of the network meta-analysis showed that regarding efficacy, the overall response rate of CCRT (cisplatin + docetaxel) was higher than RT, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of CCRT (cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea) was relatively higher than CCRT (hydroxyurea). As for toxicity, CCRT (cisplatin) had a lower incidence of leukopenia than CCRT (hydroxyurea), CCRT (cisplatin + FU) and CCRT (cisplatin + paclitaxel), and the incidences of diarrhea and vomiting in CCRT (cisplatin) were lower than those in CCRT (cisplatin + gemcitabine). Additionally, the cluster analysis showed that CCRT (cisplatin) had relatively lower incidences of both hematotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity, and CCRT (paclitaxel) had lower gastrointestinal toxicity than other regimens.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that CCRT (cisplatin + docetaxel) might be the best choice of CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC, and the 5-year OS rate of CCRT (cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea) might be the highest among these different regimens. CCRT (cisplatin) might have the lowest toxicity among all the CCRT regimens.

Qu CP, Sun GX, Yang SQ, et al.
Toxicities of different first-line chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer: A network meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5797 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, and several chemotherapy regimens have been applied in the treatment of OC. We aim to compare toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) using network meta-analysis.
METHODS: Literature research in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed up to November 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different chemotherapy regimens were included. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence to assess pooled odds ratios (ORs) and draw the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves.
RESULTS: Thirteen eligible RCTs were included in this network meta-analysis, including 8 chemotherapy regimens (paclitaxel + carboplatin [PC], pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD] + carboplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine + carboplatin, paclitaxel, PC + epirubicin, PC + topotecan, docetaxel + carboplatin). Gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen exerted higher incidence of anemia when compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel regimens. The incidence of febrile neutropenia of gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen was higher than that of PC, PLD + carboplatin, carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. Topotecan PC + epirubicin regimen had a higher toxicity, comparing with PC, PLD + carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. As for thrombocytopenia, gemcitabine + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen produced an obviously higher toxicity than PC and carboplatin. As for nausea, PLD + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen had a significantly higher toxicity than that of carboplatin chemotherapy regimen. Moreover, when compared with PC and carboplatin chemotherapy regimens, the toxicity of PC + epirubicin was greatly higher to patients with AOC.
CONCLUSION: The nonhematologic toxicity of PLD + carboplatin regimen was higher than other regimens, which was clinically significant for the treatment of AOC.

Cacan E
Epigenetic-mediated immune suppression of positive co-stimulatory molecules in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(3):328-339 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immunological response against cancer is a critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms. Ovarian cancer creates a suppressive microenvironment to escape immune elimination; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether chemotherapeutic drugs exert an immunoreactive or immunosuppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment. 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/CD157) and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity. This study demonstrates that expression of positive co-stimulatory molecules, OX-40L and 4-1BBL, is suppressed while expression of immunosuppressive molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1/CD274) is enhanced in chemoresistant cells compared to parental chemosensitive ovarian cancer cells. Here, the molecular mechanisms of silencing of OX-40L and 4-1BBL expression were investigated in chemoresistant A2780-AD ovarian cancer cells. The suppression of OX-40L and 4-1BBL are due to DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, two important mechanisms that contribute to gene silencing during cancer progression. We identify important epigenetic regulators, histone deacetylase 1/3 (HDAC1/HDAC3) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), that exhibit aberrant association with OX-40L and 4-1BBL promoters in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC1 or DNMT1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of DNMT or HDAC enzymatic activity, significantly increase OX-40L and 4-1BBL expression in chemoresistant cells. This study suggests that loss of histone acetylation and accumulation of DNA methylation correlates with suppressed expression of OX-40L and 4-1BBL in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. This study marks the first report of the regulation of these two molecules by histone deacetylation and DNA methylation in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells.

Dang YZ, Zhang Y, Li JP, et al.
High VEGFR1/2 expression levels are predictors of poor survival in patients with cervical cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5772 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the study to evaluate the prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (VEGFR1/2) expression levels and to correlate these levels with clinicopathological parameters in patients with cervical cancer.Forty-two patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIB-IVB cervical cancer were analyzed between January 2011 and December 2012. RNA expression levels of VEGFR1/2 were assessed by branched DNA-liquidchip technology and immunohistochemistry. Associations between RNA expression levels, important clinicopathological parameters, and patient survival were statistically evaluated.Higher VEGFR1/2 expression levels were predictive of poor overall survival (P = 0.009 and P = 0.024, respectively). Patients with higher VEGFR1 expression levels were associated with poorer progression-free survival than those with lower VEGFR1 expression levels (P = 0.043). In addition, patients with higher VEGFR1 expression levels were more likely to develop distant metastases than those with lower VEGFR1 expression levels (P = 0.049). Higher VEGFR2 expression levels were associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.037).VEGFR1/2 expression levels were prognostic factors for patients with cervical cancer. Higher VEGFR1/2 expression levels were also predictive of poor overall survival.

Vaidakis D, Moustaki I, Zervas I, et al.
Knowledge of Greek adolescents on human papilloma virus (HPV) and vaccination: A national epidemiologic study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to identify the sexual behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) focused on human papilloma virus (HPV) in the Greek adolescent population. The participants were 4547 adolescents, a representative sample for Greek territory with a mean age of 17 years. After written permission from Greek ministry of education each student completed a questionnaire with 36 questions. The fields covered were demographic characteristics, sexual life data, and basic knowledge on HPV. In the present study, 43% and 75% of the participants knew about HPV or cervical cancer, while more than 6 out of 10 did not know the association between the 2. More than 60% of the participants could not answer correctly neither about HPV infection and cervical cancer frequency in sexually active women, nor about protection methods against HPV and cervical cancer. This study shows that the low vaccination coverage of the Greek population may be due to lack of information and awareness of the adolescents and their parents. It is our duty to increase our efforts in order to better educate the population and vaccinate the population as early as possible in their reproductive years.

Li XS, Fang H, Song Y, et al.
The stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma using diffusion-weighted MRI.
Eur J Radiol. 2017; 87:105-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used for quantitatively evaluating severity of acute radiation proctopathy after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma underwent MR examination including DWI before and after radiotherapy. Acute radiation proctopathy was classified into three groups (grade 0, grade I-II and grade III-IV) according to Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The pretreatment ADC (ADCpre), ADC after treatment (ADCpost) and ADC change (ΔADC) were compared among three groups. In addition, acute radiation proctopathy was classified into good-prognosis group and poor-prognosis group. ADCpre, ADCpost and ΔADC were compared between two groups. For DWI parameter that had significant difference, discriminatory capability of the parameter was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.
RESULTS: ADCpost and ΔADC were higher in grade I-II group than in grade 0 group (p<0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 69.4% for ADCpost, and 85.1%, 72.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADCpost and ΔADC were higher in grade III-IV group than in grade I-II group (p<0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 80.3% and specificity of 72.5% for ADCpost, and 84.1%, 74.5% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups. ADCpost and ΔADC were higher in poor-prognosis group than in good-prognosis group (p<0.05), yielding a sensitivity of 79.5% and specificity of 73.4% for ADCpost, and 87.2%, 78.3% for ΔADC for discrimination between two groups.
CONCLUSION: Diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for quantitative stratification of severity of acute radiation proctopathy, which serves as an important basis for appropriate timely adjustment of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in order to maximally reduce the radiation injury of rectum.

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