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Fallopian Tube Cancer

Primary fallopian tube cancer (tubal cancer) is rare and accounts for just 1 to 2 percent of all gynecologic cancers. It is more common for cancer to spread (metastasize) from other parts of the body than for cancer to originate in the fallopian tubes.

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    MeSH term: Fallopian Tube Neoplasms
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Rhymes JM, Gorman T, Sasso RA
Mature cystic teratoma of both the fallopian tube and contralateral ovary: a case report.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 42(6):812-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Intratubal teratoma is a very rare condition. The authors believe to present the first case of a completely intratubal mature cystic teratoma with a contralateral intraovarian teratoma. Preoperative ultrasound examination allowed the intraoperative diagnosis of this rare condition, hence allowing appropriate surgical management.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 19-year-old woman presented with a history of pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. Ultrasound examination initially suggested bilateral ovarian dermoids. Upon laparoscopy, the distal left fallopian tube was obstructed and contained an inflammatory mass adhered to the rectosigmoid. The left ovary was entirely normal. A contralateral intraovarian dermoid was also identified.
CONCLUSION: Although rare, when an intratubal mass is identified, consideration of intratubal dermoid should be given. Preoperative ultrasound can be of critical importance to the intraoperative diagnosis.

Landrum LM, Brady WE, Armstrong DK, et al.
A phase I trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), carboplatin, bevacizumab and veliparib in recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(2):204-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of veliparib combined with PLD and carboplatin (CD) in patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer. To determine the tolerability at the MTD combined with bevacizumab.
METHODS: Patients received PLD (30mg/m(2), IV) and carboplatin (AUC 5, IV) on day 1 with veliparib on days 1-7 (intermittent) or days 1-28 (continuous). Standard 3+3 design was used in the dose escalation phase with DLTs based on the first cycle. Once the MTDs were determined, cohorts of 6 patients were enrolled to each regimen with bevacizumab (10mg/kg on days 1 and 15) to assess feasibility. DLTs were based on the first 4cycles of treatment in the bevacizumab cohorts.
RESULTS: In the dose-escalation phase, 27 patients were treated at 3 dose levels with DLTs noted in 6 patients including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n=4), and prolonged neutropenia >7days (n=3). At the MTD of veliparib (80mg p.o. b.i.d. for both dosing arms), myelosuppression was the DLT. At MTD, 12 additional patients were treated with bevacizumab with 9 patients experiencing DLTs including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n=4), prolonged neutropenia >7days (n=1), grade 3 hypertension (n=5), and grade 5 sepsis (n=1).
CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of veliparib combined with CD is 80mg p.o. b.i.d. in women with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. With bevacizumab, DLTs were noted in 9 out of 12 patients. Lower doses of veliparib will need to be considered when given in combination with platinum-based therapies.

Takemoto Y, Ota T, Aoki Y, et al.
Carcinosarcoma of the fallopian tube with disappearance of carcinoma cells by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: case study.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(5):618-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The authors report a case of carcinosarcoma (CS) of the fimbria of the fallopian tube in which carcinoma cells disappeared with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). A 74-year-old woman visited the present hospital with a large pelvic mass and pleural effusion. A magnetic resonance image of the tumor was highly suggestive of ovarian carcinoma. Due to the presence of both serous.adenocarcinoma cells in pleural effusion and pulmonary thrombosis, the patient was given NAC consisting of carboplatin plus paclitaxel (TC) and anticoagulant therapy with warfarin potassium. With six courses of NAC, the pleural effusion and pulmonary thrombosis disappeared, and the tumor decreased 36.2% in greatest diameter. Maximum debulking surgery was then performed. The tumor was found to be located in the fimbria of the right fallopian tube. Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed, and histologic examination revealed chondrosarcoma with the presence of necrotic epithelial cells. The necrotic areas were interspersed with papillary structures, and immunohistochemical study showed positivity for CK7 and negativity for CK20, p53, and estrogen receptor (ER), indicating serous adenocarcinoma. Thus, heterologous CS with disappearance of viable carcinoma cells by NAC was diagnosed. The patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of three courses of TC, and there has been no evidence of disease for 20 months. The authors' experience in this case of gynecologic CS indicates that a serous adenocarcinomatous component of tubal CS can be well cured by TC-based NAC.

Hess LM, Huang HQ, Hanlon AL, et al.
Cognitive function during and six months following chemotherapy for front-line treatment of ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer: An NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(3):541-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Changes in cognitive function have been identified in and reported by many cancer survivors. These changes have the potential to impact patient quality of life and functional ability. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to quantify the incidence of change in cognitive function in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients throughout and following primary chemotherapy.
METHODS: Eligible patients had newly diagnosed, untreated ovarian cancer and had planned to receive chemotherapy. Web-based and patient reported cognitive assessments and quality of life questionnaires were conducted prior to chemotherapy, prior to cycle four, after cycle six, and six months after completion of primary therapy.
RESULTS: Two-hundred-thirty-one evaluable patients entered this study between May 2010 and October 2011. At the cycle 4 time point, 25.2% (55/218) of patients exhibited cognitive impairment in at least one domain. At the post-cycle 6 and 6-month follow up time points, 21.1% (44/208) and 17.8% (30/169) of patients, respectively, demonstrated impairment in at least one domain of cognitive function. There were statistically significant, but clinically small, improvements in processing speed (p<0.001) and attention (p<0.001) but not in motor response time (p=0.066), from baseline through the six-month follow up time period.
CONCLUSIONS: This was a large, prospective study designed to measure cognitive function in ovarian cancer. A subset of patients had evidence of cognitive decline from baseline during chemotherapy treatment in this study as measured by the web-based assessment; however, changes were generally limited to no more than one domain.

Sakamoto I, Hirotsu Y, Nakagomi H, et al.
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Japanese patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer.
Cancer. 2016; 122(1):84-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to ovarian cancer in Japanese patients is still unclear. This study investigated the frequency of germline mutations in BRCA1/2 in Japanese patients with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer, regardless of their family histories, which were suggestive of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Ninety-five unselected women with ovarian cancer who were seen from 2013 to 2015 at Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital were enrolled. Analyses of BRCA1/2 gene mutations were performed with next-generation sequencing.
RESULTS: Twelve of the 95 patients (12.6%), including 5 in the BRCA1 (5.3%) and 7 in the BRCA2 (7.4%), had deleterious mutations. Among the 36 cases with a family history, 6 (16.7%) were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Notably, 6 of the 59 cases (10.2%) without a family history also had BRCA1/2 germline mutations. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (P = .36). The presence of mutations and their clinical relevance were studied. Mutation carriers were diagnosed at advanced stages (100% of positive cases among stage III or IV cases) and had poor prognostic histological subtypes (100% of positive cases had high-grade serous adenocarcinomas).
CONCLUSIONS: In this unselected Japanese population, approximately 13% of the cases with ovarian cancer appeared to be associated with an inherited risk, regardless of a family history. This finding indicates that BRCA1/2 genetic testing should be performed for all patients with ovarian cancers.

Fukui S, Fujiwara S, Kobayashi S, et al.
Fallopian Tube Cancer with Palmar Fibromatosis or Fasciitis without Polyarthritis.
Intern Med. 2015; 54(18):2409-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 64-year-old Japanese woman had rapidly progressing bilateral palmar contracture associated with severe pain on both palms over the previous 8 weeks, without a history of arthritis in any joints. We suspected palmar fibromatosis or fasciitis without polyarthritis. Because palmar fibromatosis is known to be associated with cancer, we performed cancer screening and the patient was subsequently diagnosed with fallopian tube cancer. This is the first case report of palmar fibromatosis or fasciitis without polyarthritis associated with fallopian tube cancer. The characteristic rapid progression of palmar contracture is a key finding that suggests the potential existence of a malignancy.

Duska LR, Java JJ, Cohn DE, Burger RA
Risk factors for readmission in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma who are receiving front-line chemotherapy on a clinical trial (GOG 218): an NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study (ADS-1236).
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(2):221-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Readmission within 30days is a measure of care quality. Ovarian cancer patients are at high risk for readmission, but specific risk factors are not defined. This study was designed to determine risk factors in patients with ovarian cancer receiving upfront surgery and chemotherapy.
METHODS: The study population was enrolled to GOG 0218. Factors predictive of admission within 30days of a previous admission or 40days of cytoreductive surgery were investigated. Categorical variables were compared by Pearson chi-square test, continuous variables by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors and to estimate covariate-adjusted odds. All tests were two-tailed, α=0.05.
RESULTS: Of 1873 patients, 197 (10.5%) were readmitted, with 59 experiencing >1 readmission. One-hundred-forty-four (73%) readmissions were post-operative (readmission rate 7.7%). Significant risk factors include: disease stage (stage 3 vs 4, p=0.008), suboptimal cytoreduction (36% vs 64%, p=0.001), ascites, (p=0.018), BMI (25.4 vs 27.6, p<0.001), poor PS (p<0.001), and higher baseline CA 125 (p=0.017). Patients readmitted within 40days of surgery had a significantly shorter interval from surgery to chemotherapy initiation (22 versus 32days, p<0.0001). Patients treated with bevacizumab had higher readmission rates in the case of patients with >1 readmission. On multivariate analysis, the odds of re-hospitalization increased with doubling of BMI (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.07-3.07) and PS of 2 (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.21-3.48).
CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for readmission in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary surgery and chemotherapy include stage, residual disease, ascites, high BMI and poor PS. Readmissions are most likely after the initial surgical procedure, a discrete period to target with a prospective intervention.

Kwon GH, Rha SE, Ki EY, et al.
Imaging findings of fallopian tube leiomyoma with myxoid degeneration: a case report.
Clin Imaging. 2015 Nov-Dec; 39(6):1119-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leiomyomas from the fallopian tube are very rare and usually asymptomatic but may cause symptoms by torsion or obstruction. Herein, we describe the detailed imaging findings of tubal leiomyoma with myxoid degeneration. Tubal leiomyoma appeared as a well-defined juxtauterine tumor marginated by low-signal rims with intervening bridging vessels between the tumor and uterus. A tubal mass showing heterogeneous speckled high signals with intermediate signal background on T2-weighted image without diffusion restriction could suggest the probability of tubal leiomyoma with mxoid degeneration.

Ferriss JS, Java JJ, Bookman MA, et al.
Ascites predicts treatment benefit of bevacizumab in front-line therapy of advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancers: an NRG Oncology/GOG study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(1):17-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Predictive factors for efficacy of bevacizumab in advanced ovarian cancer have remained elusive. We investigated ascites both as a prognostic factor and as a predictor of efficacy for bevacizumab.
METHODS: Using data from GOG 0218, patients receiving cytotoxic therapy plus concurrent and maintenance bevacizumab were compared to those receiving cytotoxic therapy plus placebo. The presence of ascites was determined prospectively. Chi-square and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests compared baseline variables between subgroups. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate independent prognostic factors and estimate their covariate-adjusted effects on survival.
RESULTS: Treatment arms were balanced with respect to ascites and other prognostic factors. Overall, 886 (80%) women had ascites, 221 (20%) did not. Those with ascites were more likely to have: poorer performance status (p<0.001); serous histology (p=0.012); higher baseline CA125 (p<0.001); and suboptimal cytoreduction (p=0.004). In multivariate survival analysis, ascites was prognostic of poor OS (Adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.48, p=0.045), but not PFS. In predictive analysis, patients without ascites treated with bevacizumab had no significant improvement in either PFS (AHR 0.81, 95% CI 0.59-1.10, p=0.18) or OS (AHR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36, p=0.76). Patients with ascites treated with bevacizumab had significantly improved PFS (AHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.62-0.81, p<0.001) and OS (AHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.96, p=0.014).
CONCLUSIONS: Ascites in women with advanced ovarian cancer is prognostic of poor overall survival. Ascites may predict the population of women more likely to derive long-term benefit from bevacizumab.

van der Noll R, Marchetti S, Steeghs N, et al.
Long-term safety and anti-tumour activity of olaparib monotherapy after combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced breast, ovarian or fallopian tube cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 113(3):396-402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/07/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Olaparib (AZD2281), a PARP-1/2 inhibitor, has been extensively investigated in clinical trials. However, limited clinical data are available about its long-term safety and anti-tumour activity.
METHODS: Patients had first participated in a phase I study of olaparib combined with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel. They continued with olaparib monotherapy in their best interest if they failed to tolerate the combination due to the treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). Safety data were collected by physical examination and regular laboratory evaluations. Disease evaluations were performed by CT scan.
RESULTS: At data cutoff, 21 patients were included; 10 with breast, 9 with ovarian and 2 with fallopian tube cancer of whom 16 patients had a BRCA mutation (13 BRCA1; 3 BRCA2). TRAEs were mostly haematological and most prominent shortly after switching from combination to monotherapy, probably due to carry-over effects of chemotherapy. Over time, both severity and frequency of TRAEs decreased. Responses to olaparib were durable with a median treatment duration of 52 (range 7-183) weeks. In total, nine (43%) patients were still on study at data cutoff.
CONCLUSION: Continued long-term daily olaparib was found to be safe and tolerable. Encouragingly, patients who showed a favourable response on earlier combination therapy maintained this response on olaparib monotherapy.

Matulonis U, Berlin S, Lee H, et al.
Phase I study of combination of vorinostat, carboplatin, and gemcitabine in women with recurrent, platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 76(2):417-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Combining histone deacetylase inhibitors and chemotherapy is synergistic. This phase I study combined escalating vorinostat doses with constant doses of carboplatin and gemcitabine for the treatment of recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximally tolerated dose of this combination; secondary objectives included preliminary response rate of this regimen and toxicity profile.
METHODS: Fifteen patients with relapsed ovarian cancer were enrolled into this phase I study. Doses of carboplatin and gemcitabine were AUC 4 on day 1 and 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, respectively; cycles were administered every 21 days. Vorinostat was tested using four different schedules. The first dose level (DL A) tested vorinostat as daily oral dosing from days 1 to 14. DL B tested twice daily (BID) vorinostat dosing on days 1-3 and 8-10. DL C tested BID vorinostat dosing on days 1, 2, 8, and 9, starting vorinostat 1 day prior to initiation of carboplatin and gemcitabine, and DL D tested vorinostat on days 1 and 2 with chemotherapy starting on day 2.
RESULTS: All four DLs tested resulted in dose-limiting toxicities, and no MTD was determined. Toxicities were mostly hematologic. Seven patients were evaluable for RECIST assessment, and six of them had partial responses (PR) via RECIST.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination of carboplatin, gemcitabine, and vorinostat has activity in relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, but was difficult to combine because of hematologic toxicities in this phase I study. No maximally tolerated dose was found, and the study was terminated early.

Taylor SE, Li R, Petschauer JS, et al.
Phase I study of intravenous (IV) docetaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) oxaliplatin in recurrent ovarian and fallopian tube cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 138(3):548-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of IV docetaxel and IP oxaliplatin in women with recurrent ovarian (OV), fallopian tube (FT) or peritoneal (PP) cancer. Secondary objectives included response rate, time to progression, pharmacokinetics (PK) and quality of life (QoL).
METHODS: Patients received docetaxel 75mg/m(2) IV day (d) 1 and oxaliplatin escalating from 50mg/m(2) IP d2 every 3weeks using a 3+3 design. Treatment continued until disease progression, remission, or intolerable toxicity. Plasma and IP samples were taken to determine drug concentrations. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and symptom interference scale were completed weekly.
RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included. Median number of cycles was 6 (range 1-10). Ten patients had measureable disease. Best response was partial response (PR-2), stable disease (SD-7), and progressive disease (PD-1). Twenty-one Grades 3-4 toxicities were noted, commonly hematologic. Two patients had DLTs: prolonged neutropenia (1) and abdominal pain (1). MTD was d1 docetaxel 75mg/m(2) IV and d2 oxaliplatin 50mg/m(2) IP. Symptom burden peaked week one and returned to baseline by week two of each cycle on dose level 1. Dose level 2 had persistently high symptom burden and interference. At IP oxaliplatin doses of 50mg/m(2), total unbound drug exposure (AUC) averaged 8 times larger and Cmax reached concentrations 50-fold greater in IP fluid compared to plasma.
CONCLUSIONS: Docetaxel 75mg/m(2) IV d1 and oxaliplatin 50mg/m(2) IP d2 is the MTD. Most patients had PR or SD. Patient-reported outcomes demonstrate temporary but tolerable decrements in QoL. IP oxaliplatin provides PK advantages over IV administration.

Prat J,
Abridged republication of FIGO's staging classification for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum.
Cancer. 2015; 121(19):3452-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers have a similar clinical presentation and are treated similarly, and current evidence supports staging all 3 cancers in a single system. The primary site (i.e. ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum) should be designated where possible. The histologic type should be recorded. Intraoperative rupture ("surgical spill") is IC1; capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface is IC2; and positive peritoneal cytology with or without rupture is IC3. The new staging includes a revision of stage III patients; assignment to stage IIIA1 is based on spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes without intraperitoneal dissemination. Extension of tumor from omentum to spleen or liver (stage IIIC) should be differentiated from isolated parenchymal metastases (stage IVB).

McCluggage WG, Judge MJ, Clarke BA, et al.
Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR).
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(8):1101-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
A comprehensive pathological report is essential for optimal patient management, cancer staging and prognostication. In many countries, proforma reports are used but these vary in their content. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is an alliance formed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the European Society of Pathology, with the aim of developing an evidence-based reporting data set for each cancer site. This will reduce the global burden of cancer data set development and reduplication of effort by different international institutions that commission, publish and maintain standardised cancer reporting data sets. The resultant standardisation of cancer reporting will benefit not only those countries directly involved in the collaboration but also others not in a position to develop their own data sets. We describe the development of a cancer data set by the ICCR expert panel for the reporting of primary ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma and present the 'required' and 'recommended' elements to be included in the report with an explanatory commentary. This data set encompasses the recent International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists staging system for these neoplasms and the updated World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs. The data set also addresses issues about site assignment of the primary tumour in high-grade serous carcinomas and proposes a scoring system for the assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The widespread implementation of this data set will facilitate consistent and accurate data collection, comparison of epidemiological and pathological parameters between different populations, facilitate research and hopefully will result in improved patient management.

Liu L, Xu X, Jia L, et al.
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma--a retrospective analysis of 66 cases.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(2):161-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare malignant gynecologic oncology. There was no consensus on the outcome related clinicopathological characteristics. Present study aims to determine the prognosis associate factors in PFTC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the authors identified 50 PFTC patients in Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research and 16 cases in the Affiliated People's Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College between 1988 and 2013. Disease surveillance was conducted based on the follow-up protocol of MD Anderson Cancer Center. Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test were used to assess the associations between potential clinicpathologic characteristics and the survival durations.
RESULTS: The median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of PFTC were 36.9 and 62.7 months, respectively. FIGO Stage (p < 0.01, 0.01), grade (p = 0.02, 0.03), tumor residual after initial debulking surgery (p = 0.05, 0.01), nadir CA-125 (p = 0.01, 0.01) were independently related with PFS and OS. The PFS and OS of patients with Stage II PFTC were similar as those with Stage III-IV (30.7 vs 28.3 and 61.9 vs 49.2 months, respectively) but poorer than those of Stage I cases (N/A). The PFS of patients with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy was longer than those with other regime (51.3 vs 33.1 months), but not OS (62.7 vs 42.6 months). The outcome of patients underwent optimal initial cytoreduction surgery was better than those of suboptimal ones (PFS 56.4 vs 21.2 months and OS 65.3 vs 47.9 months, respectively). CONCLUSIOn: PFTC patients with FIGO Stage II disease should be regarded as advanced disease. Paclitaxel based chemotherapy was associated with longer PFS but not OS in PFTC.

Smaletz O, Diz MD, do Carmo CC, et al.
A phase II trial with anti-Lewis-Y monoclonal antibody (hu3S193) for the treatment of platinum resistant/refractory ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 138(2):272-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hu3S193, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the Lewis-Y antigen, in patients with platinum resistant/refractory ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma. Secondary objectives were safety and pharmacokinetics. In addition, we sought to determine the potential interaction of clinical benefit and patient characteristics.
METHODS: This two-stage, multicenter, single arm, phase II trial enrolled eligible patients to receive hu3S193 weekly at a dose of 20mg/m(2) intravenously for 8 weeks (1 cycle) to a maximum of 3 cycles. Efficacy was measured as clinical benefit rate (objective response or stable disease for at least 24 weeks).
RESULTS: 26 of 31 patients were eligible for efficacy analysis. No complete/partial responses were observed. Six patients had stable disease for 24+weeks [clinical benefit rate 23% (95% CI=9.77%-46.71%)]. Median PFS was 8.4 weeks (95% CI=6.0 to 16.1). Median PFS differed between patients with no ascites and no visceral disease and patients with ascites and/or visceral disease [16.1 vs. 8.1 weeks (p=0.0058)]. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (19.3%) and nausea (16.2%). Allergic reactions occurred in 6 patients (5 with Grade 1/2; 1 with Grade 3).
CONCLUSIONS: Hu3S193 lacked sufficient activity in the first stage of the study to open enrollment to the second stage. However, based on the longer PFS in patients with no ascites and no visceral disease, consolidation strategies in platinum sensitive disease are currently being tested.

Hirte H, Lheureux S, Fleming GF, et al.
A phase 2 study of cediranib in recurrent or persistent ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer: a trial of the Princess Margaret, Chicago and California Phase II Consortia.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 138(1):55-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cediranib is a potent multitargeted inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1, 2 and 3. The study was initiated to evaluate the activity of cediranib in patients (pts) with recurrent ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer (OC).
METHODS: Eligible pts had persistent/recurrent OC following one prior platinum-based chemotherapy with measurable disease or progression based on Gynecologic Cancer Inter Group CA-125 criteria. Because of toxicities observed in the first 23 pts, the initial starting dose of oral daily (od) cediranib was reduced from 45mg to 30mg. The primary endpoint was objective response rate at 16weeks. This study was stratified into two arms: platinum-sensitive (PL-S) and platinum-resistant (PL-R).
RESULTS: 74 pts were enrolled; 39 were PL-S and 35 PL-R, with a median age of 58years [31-87]. In PL-S group, 10 (26%) partial responses (PR) and 20 (51%) stable disease (SD) were confirmed while in the PL-R arm there were no confirmed PR and 23 pts (66%) had SD. The main grade 3/4 toxicities observed at the 30 mg starting dose were hypertension (27%), fatigue (20%) and diarrhea (14%). The median progression-free survival for all patients was 4.9months [3.9-7.0], 7.2months [4.3-9] for PL-S and 3.7months [2.6-4.5] for PL-R groups. The median overall survival was 18.9months (95% CI: 13.5-31.5); 27.7months [17.8-43.3] for PL-S and 11.9months [8.1-18.9] for PL-R groups.
CONCLUSION: Cediranib shows significant activity in recurrent platinum sensitive OC. The toxicities were expected and manageable at the dose of 30mg od.

Prat J
Ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer staging: Rationale and explanation of new FIGO staging 2013.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2015; 29(6):858-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers have a similar clinical presentation and are treated similarly, and current evidence supports staging all three cancers in a single system. The primary site (i.e., ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum) should be designated where possible. The histologic type should be recorded. Intraoperative rupture ("surgical spill") is IC1; capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface is IC2; and positive peritoneal cytology with or without rupture is IC3. The new staging includes a revision of stage III patients; assignment to stage IIIA1 is based on spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes without intraperitoneal dissemination. Extension of the tumor from the omentum to the spleen or liver (stage IIIC) should be differentiated from isolated parenchymal metastases (stage IVB).

Koskela-Niska V, Pukkala E, Lyytinen H, et al.
Postmenopausal hormone therapy-also use of estradiol plus levonorgestrel-intrauterine system is associated with an increased risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(8):1947-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Data on the possible impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on the incidence of rare primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide case-control study analyzing the association between the use of different HTs and PFTC. All women aged 50 years or older with an incident PFTC (n = 360) during 1995-2007 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. For each case of PFTC, ten age- and place of residence-matched controls were selected from the Finnish National Population Register, which also provided information on parity. Data on HT purchases were received from the Prescription Register, and data on hysterectomies and sterilizations from the National Care Register. Controls with a salpingectomy before the PFTC diagnosis of the respective case were excluded. The PFTC risk in relation to different HTs was estimated with a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for parity, age at last delivery, hysterectomy and sterilization. The use for five years or more of estradiol combined with levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine system (odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.10-7.38) and sequential estradiol-progestin therapy (EPT; 3.37; 2.23-5.08) were both linked with increases in the risk of PFTC, while the risk with use of estradiol-only therapy or continuous EPT was not statistically significantly increased. The OR for the use of tibolone for one year or more was 1.56 (0.55-4.41). The use of HT is related to an increased risk of PFTC, particularly when a progestin component is intrauterine or systemic progestin is given in sequential manner.

Ural UM, Balik G, Tekin YB, et al.
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma diagnosed preoperatively by cervical smear.
Ann Saudi Med. 2014 Sep-Oct; 34(5):444-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is a rare clinical entity that constitutes a diagnostic challenge in gynecological practice. Patients generally suffer from the three symptoms: vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and vaginal discharge; however, this is usually not sufficient for confirming the diagnosis preoperatively in most circumstances. In this case report, we present a 49-year-old woman whose cervical smear raised a suspicion for fallopian tube carcinoma. All preoperative examination measures such as ultrasonography, hysteroscopy, and endometrial aspiration were normal. Repeated cervical smears were consistent with adenocarcinoma presumably ensourcing from the fallopian tube. The patient underwent laparatomy,total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The primary serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the right fallopian tube was detected at the histopathological analysis, and the patient was referred for adjuvant chemotherapy. Cervical smear findings can be the only clue for the diagnosis of fallopian tube carcinoma.

Coleman RL, Sill MW, Bell-McGuinn K, et al.
A phase II evaluation of the potent, highly selective PARP inhibitor veliparib in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer in patients who carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation - An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 137(3):386-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/07/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Veliparib is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PARP-1/2, which is cytotoxic in tumor cells with deficiencies in BRCA1 or BRCA2. We studied the clinical activity and toxicity of veliparib in ovarian cancer patients carrying a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (gBRCA).
METHODS: Eligibility included three or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens, measurable disease and no prior use of a PARP inhibitor. Veliparib was administered at 400mg orally BID with one cycle being 28days. The two-stage Simon design was capable of detecting a 25% response probability with 90% power while controlling alpha=10% (at a 10% assumed null response probability).
RESULTS: The median age of the 50 eligible patients was 57years (range 37-94) and 14, 18, and 18 patients had 1, 2, and 3 prior therapies respectively. Thirty patients (60%) were platinum-resistant. The median number of cycles administered was 6 (1-27). There was one grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Grade 3 adverse events were: fatigue (n=3), nausea (2), leukopenia (1), neutropenia (1), dehydration (1), and ALT (1). Grade 2 events >10% were: nausea (46%), fatigue (26%), vomiting (18%), and anemia (14%). The proportion responding was 26% (90% CI: 16%-38%, CR: 2, PR: 11); for platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patients the proportion responding was 20% and 35%, respectively. The most common reason for treatment discontinuation was progression (62%). Twenty-nine patients are alive; two with SD remain on veliparib. The median PFS is 8.18months.
CONCLUSIONS: The single agent efficacy and tolerability of veliparib for BRCA mutation-associated recurrent ovarian cancer warrants further investigation.

Roque DM, Ratner ES, Silasi DA, et al.
Weekly ixabepilone with or without biweekly bevacizumab in the treatment of recurrent or persistent uterine and ovarian/primary peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers: A retrospective review.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 137(3):392-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcome and tolerability of weekly ixabepilone (16-20mg/m(2) days 1, 8, 15 of a 28-day cycle)±biweekly bevacizumab (10mg/kg days 1 and 15) in patients with recurrent/persistent uterine or ovarian/primary peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers.
METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review was performed inclusive of all patients who received ≥2cycles from 01/2010 to 06/2014. Progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicities were graded according to CTCAEv4.0. Best response was categorized using RECIST or by CA-125 criteria.
RESULTS: A total of 60 patients (24 uterine and 36 ovarian cancers) were identified. Patients had received a median of 3.5 (range:1-10) prior lines of chemotherapy. Patients completed a mean of 4.7±2.9cycles of ixabepilone; 66.7% (16/24) and 91.7% (33/36) of patients with uterine and ovarian cancers received concurrent bevacizumab. For uterine cancers, objective response rate (ORR) was 41.7% (12.5% complete, 29.2% partial); median duration of response or stabilization was 7months (range:2-30). Median PFS and OS were 5.2 and 9.6months, respectively. PFS and OS were improved in the setting of concurrent bevacizumab (6.5 versus 3.0months, p=0.01, HR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05-0.77; 9.6 versus 4.2months, p=0.02, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.04-0.74). Similar ORR was observed among ovarian cancers; median PFS/OS were not yet reached. Most toxicities were grade 1/2.
CONCLUSIONS: Weekly ixabepilone with or without biweekly bevacizumab has promising activity and acceptable toxicity in patients with platinum-/taxane-resistant endometrial and ovarian cancers. This combination warrants further prospective study in these populations.

Nakanishi T, Aoki D, Watanabe Y, et al.
A Phase II clinical trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin in Japanese patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2015; 45(5):422-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This single-arm Phase II trial was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin combination chemotherapy in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Patients with a histological diagnosis of epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma, who were relapse-free at least 6 months after completion of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, and who had measurable disease and gave consent to participate in this study received infusions of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (30 mg/m(2)) at 1 mg/min, followed by carboplatin (AUC 5 mg min/ml) over 30 min every 28 days.
RESULTS: Thirty-three of 35 enrolled patients were eligible for efficacy analysis. One patient (3.0%) achieved a complete response, while 16 (48.5%) achieved a partial response, with an overall objective response rate of 51.5% (95% confidence interval, 34.5-68.6%). Among the 22 patients who had evaluable CA125 levels at entry, responses were observed in 18 patients, with a response rate of 81.8% (95% confidence interval, 65.3-98.3%). The median progression-free survival and overall survival rates for all 35 patients were 10.7 months (95% confidence interval, 8.1-13.2 months) and 38.8 months (95% confidence interval, 31.0-46.7 months), respectively. The most frequent Grade 3-4 toxicities, regardless of cause, were neutropenia (82.9%), thrombocytopenia (51.4%), leukopenia (45.7%) and anemia (17.1%).
CONCLUSIONS: The safety and efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin combination chemotherapy in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer were confirmed. Although there were concerns of severe hematological toxicity with this therapy, this potential complication was safely managed through adequate monitoring of bone marrow function.

Sørensen RD, Schnack TH, Karlsen MA, Høgdall CK
Serous ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers: a common disease or separate entities - a systematic review.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 136(3):571-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze data on risk factors, epidemiology, clinicopathology and molecular biology from studies comparing primary peritoneal cancer, fallopian tube cancer and ovarian cancer of serous histology, in order to achieve a greater understanding of whether or not these disorders should be considered as separate entities.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and MEDLINE. Case-control studies comparing primary serous peritoneal or fallopian tube carcinomas with primary serous ovarian carcinomas or a control group were included.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were found eligible. Primary peritoneal cancer patients were older, had higher parity, were more often obese and had poorer survival compared to ovarian cancer patients. Differences in protein expression patterns of Her2/neu, estrogen and progestin receptors and frequency of loss of heterozygosity differed between primary peritoneal cancer and primary ovarian cancer patients. No major differences were found between primary fallopian tube cancer and primary ovarian cancer. The proportion of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) was lower in primary peritoneal cancer and primary ovarian cancer compared to primary fallopian tube cancer.
CONCLUSION: Except from differences in the proportion of STIC only few differences between primary fallopian tube cancer and primary ovarian cancer have been found. In contrast, observed differences in risk factor profile, clinicopathologic and prognostic factors, as well as in the molecular patterns, indicate that peritoneal cancer and ovarian cancer may be linked to different carcinogenic pathways.

Kummar S, Oza AM, Fleming GF, et al.
Randomized Trial of Oral Cyclophosphamide and Veliparib in High-Grade Serous Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancers, or BRCA-Mutant Ovarian Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(7):1574-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/07/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Veliparib, a PARP inhibitor, demonstrated clinical activity in combination with oral cyclophosphamide in patients with BRCA-mutant solid tumors in a phase I trial. To define the relative contribution of PARP inhibition to the observed clinical activity, we conducted a randomized phase II trial to determine the response rate of veliparib in combination with cyclophosphamide compared with cyclophosphamide alone in patients with pretreated BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer or in patients with pretreated primary peritoneal, fallopian tube, or high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Adult patients were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide alone (50 mg orally once daily) or with veliparib (60 mg orally once daily) in 21-day cycles. Crossover to the combination was allowed at disease progression.
RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled and 72 were evaluable for response; 38 received cyclophosphamide alone and 37 the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Treatment was well tolerated. One complete response was observed in each arm, with three partial responses (PR) in the combination arm and six PRs in the cyclophosphamide alone arm. Genetic sequence and expression analyses were performed for 211 genes involved in DNA repair; none of the detected genetic alterations were significantly associated with treatment benefit.
CONCLUSION: This is the first trial that evaluated single-agent, low-dose cyclophosphamide in HGSOC, peritoneal, fallopian tube, and BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers. It was well tolerated and clinical activity was observed; the addition of veliparib at 60 mg daily did not improve either the response rate or the median progression-free survival.

Gilks CB, Irving J, Köbel M, et al.
Incidental nonuterine high-grade serous carcinomas arise in the fallopian tube in most cases: further evidence for the tubal origin of high-grade serous carcinomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(3):357-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most nonuterine high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) in women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, due to germline BRCA1/2 mutation, arise in the fimbria of the fallopian tube. However, the site of origin of sporadic HGSC, which is usually widely disseminated at presentation, is not well established. We sought to characterize cases of HGSC discovered incidentally in patients not known to be at high risk, in order to determine the site distribution and possible origin of sporadic HGSC. Incidental microscopic, non-mass-forming cases of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or HGSC in salpingo-oophorectomy specimens in which the tubes and ovaries had been extensively examined were identified. No patients were known or suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Twenty-one cases were identified (mean age: 57 y). Surgery was for benign disease (n=15), uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma or atypical hyperplasia (n=3), bladder carcinoma (n=1), or ovarian serous borderline tumor (n=2). In 16 of 21 cases, the lesion was confined to the fallopian tube (unilateral in 14 cases, bilateral in 2). There was serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in all cases and invasive HGSC into the underlying lamina propria in 8 of these 16 cases; the invasive focus measured 1.3 cm or less in every case. In the remaining 5 cases, there was fallopian tube mucosal and ovarian involvement; in 2 of these cases, there was also microscopic peritoneal involvement. Sporadic cases of nonuterine HGSC arise in the fallopian tube fimbria in a large majority of cases, providing further evidence for the tubal origin of these neoplasms.

Rauh-Hain JA, Foley OW, Winograd D, et al.
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer compared with fallopian tube cancer.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 212(5):600.e1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and survival between patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer.
STUDY DESIGN: We identified women with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer who underwent treatment from 2000-2010. Correlation between categoric variables was assessed with χ2 test. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to generate overall survival data. Factors predictive of outcome were compared with the use of the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: The study group consisted of 385 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 43 women with fallopian tube cancer. Patients with fallopian tube cancer had a higher rate of stage IA disease (65% vs 48%; P=.02) and grade 3 tumors (60.4% vs 30.9%; P<.001). Patients with fallopian tube cancer had a significantly higher rate of breast cancer (25.6% vs 5.7%; P<.001) and BRCA 1 mutations (45.8% vs 9.1%; P<.001). There was no difference in the rates of platinum-based and paclitaxel chemotherapy between the groups. Women with fallopian tube cancer were more likely to have received ≥6 cycles of chemotherapy (58.1% vs 44.1%; P=.02). The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 100% in women with fallopian tube cancer and 93% in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (P=.04). The 5-year overall survival rates were 100% and 95% for fallopian tube cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer, respectively (P=.7).
CONCLUSION: We found a higher rate of stage IA, grade 3, and serous carcinoma in fallopian tube cancer. Women with fallopian tube cancer had a higher rate of breast cancer. There was no difference in overall survival between the groups.

Horng HC, Lai CR, Chang WH, et al.
Comparison of early-stage primary serous fallopian tube carcinomas and equivalent stage serous epithelial ovarian carcinomas.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 53(4):547-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of patients with early-stage primary fallopian tube carcinomas (PFTC) and those of patients with equivalent-stage serous epithelial ovarian carcinomas (SEOC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A balanced and matched, case-control comparison was conducted in a university-based tertiary hospital database between 1978 and 2007. All PFTC and SEOC patients were treated with complete staging surgery followed by multiagent chemotherapy. One SEOC control was matched for each PFTC patient in a very uniform manner (characteristics and treatment). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were then compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS: Twenty-six paired patients were analyzed. Patients with PFTC were significantly older than the SEOC patients (58 years vs. 51 years, p = 0.001). In terms of recurrence, PFTC patients frequently had an extra-abdominal metastasis (3/4, 75%), in contrast to the SEOC patients, who did not (1/5, 20%). The 5-year DFS rate was similar in both groups (85% vs. 81%, p = 0.05), contributing to a similar OS rate (89% vs. 85%, p = 0.50). The median DFS and OS of patients with PFTC and SEOC were also similar without a statistically significant difference (125 months vs. 109 months, and 125 months vs. 122 months, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the survival outcome of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) I/II PFTC patients was similar to that of FIGO I/II SEOC patients, and both groups had a >80% 5-year DFS rate after complete staging surgery, followed by multiagent chemotherapy. This finding is worthy of being investigated.

Wang Y, Herrstedt J, Havsteen H, et al.
A multicenter, non-randomized, phase II study of docetaxel and carboplatin administered every 3 weeks as second line chemotherapy in patients with first relapse of platinum sensitive epithelial ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:937 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/07/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In patients with ovarian cancer relapsing at least 6 months after end of primary treatment, the addition of paclitaxel to platinum treatment has been shown to improve survival but at the cost of significant neuropathy. In the first line setting, the carboplatin-docetaxel combination was as effective as the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel but with less neurotoxicity. This study was initiated to evaluate the feasibility of carboplatin with docetaxel as second line treatment in patients with ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer.
METHODS: Patients with stage IC-IV epithelial ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer were enrolled at the first relapse after at least 6 months since completion of the first line treatment. Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 was given as an one hour IV infusion followed immediately by carboplatin (AUC=5) given as a 30-60 min. IV infusion on day 1 and repeated every 3 weeks for 6-9 courses. Primary endpoint was toxicity; secondary endpoints were response rate and the time to progression.
RESULTS: A total of 74 patients were included. Of these, 50 patients received 6 or more cycles, 13 received 3-5 courses and 11 received less than 3 courses. A total of 398 cycles were given. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was seen in 80% (59 of 74) patients with an incidence of febrile neutropenia of 16%. Grade 2/3 sensory peripheral neuropathy occurred in 7% of patients, but no grade 4 sensory peripheral neuropathy was observed. Sixty patients were evaluable for response. The overall response rate was 70% with 28% complete responses in the response evaluable patient population. Median progression-free survival was 12.4 months (95% CI 10.4-14.4).
CONCLUSIONS: The three-weekly regimen of docetaxel in combination with carboplatin was feasible and active as second-line treatment of platinum-sensitive ovarian, peritoneal and Fallopian tube cancer. The major toxicity was neutropenia, while the frequency of peripheral neuropathy was low.

Boufettal H, Samouh N
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a case report.
Pan Afr Med J. 2014; 18:263 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/07/2016 Related Publications
Primary cancer of the fallopian tube is very rare and their preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific symptoms. We report a case in a patient aged 42 years, discovered after abdominopelvic mass. Total surgery was performed, followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. The authors report a review of the literature regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this cancer.

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