Fallopian Tube Cancer
CancerIndex Home - Guide to Internet Resources for Cancer Home > Cancer Types > Gynecological Cancers > Fallopian Tube Cancer

Primary fallopian tube cancer (tubal cancer) is rare and accounts for just 1 to 2 percent of all gynecologic cancers. It is more common for cancer to spread (metastasize) from other parts of the body than for cancer to originate in the fallopian tubes.

Found this page useful?

Menu: Fallopian Tube Cancer

Information for Patients and the Public
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers
Latest Research Publications

Information Patients and the Public (4 links)


Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (3 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Rabban JT, Garg K, Crawford B, et al.
Early detection of high-grade tubal serous carcinoma in women at low risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome by systematic examination of fallopian tubes incidentally removed during benign surgery.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(6):729-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early detection of sporadic pelvic serous carcinoma remains an elusive goal. In women at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome who undergo prophylactic salpingectomy, systematic pathologic examination of the fallopian tubes will detect occult tubal cancer, mostly in the fimbriae, of a minority of women. Such tubal cancers are the putative precursor to advanced-stage pelvic cancer. We hypothesized that early tubal cancer detection can also be accomplished in women at low risk using a similar approach. In this study, we performed complete and systematic examination of the fallopian tubes removed during surgery performed for benign indications. Among 522 women, 4 cases of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) were identified. Three of these cases would have gone undetected using the current standard of care of sampling only a single random section of the tube. The fourth case was accompanied by occult ovarian carcinoma. The fimbriae contained STIC in 3 of the 4 cases and atypical mucosa in 1 case in which the STIC was in the nonfimbriated portion of the tube. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features (aberrant p53 and MIB-1) of these STICs were similar to those expected in high-risk women. All 4 patients with STIC underwent BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing; no germline mutations were identified in any patient. An additional 11 specimens contained atypical mucosal proliferations that fell short of morphologic and immunohistochemical criteria for STIC. Two of these 11 fulfilled criteria for a serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, and the remaining atypical proliferations exhibited normal p53 and MIB-1. For most specimens, the fimbriae could be completely submitted in 1 or 2 cassettes per tube. These results demonstrate that systematic examination of the tubal fimbriae can serve as a form of early detection of sporadic tubal cancer without incurring significant labor or cost. We propose that the tubal fimbriae should be completely examined in all patients undergoing benign surgery even if there are no clinical features to suggest risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection MKI67 TP53


Coleman RL, Moon J, Sood AK, et al.
Randomised phase II study of docetaxel plus vandetanib versus docetaxel followed by vandetanib in patients with persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: SWOG S0904.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(9):1638-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vandetanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR-2/3, EGFR and RET, which has demonstrated clinical activity as a single agent and in combination with taxanes. We explored the efficacy, safety and toxicity of docetaxel and vandetanib in women with recurrent ovarian cancer (OC).
METHODS: Women with refractory or progressive OC were randomised 1:1 to docetaxel (75 mg/m(2), IV)+vandetanib (100mg daily, PO, D+V) or docetaxel (75 mg/m(2), D). Up to three additional cytotoxic regimens for recurrence and prior anti-angiogenic agents (as primary therapy) were allowed. The primary end-point was progression free survival (PFS). The study had 84% power to detect a PFS hazard ratio of 0.65, using a one-sided P of 0.1. This corresponds to an increase in median PFS from 3.6 months to 5.6 months. Patients progressing on D were allowed to receive single agent vandetanib (D → V).
RESULTS: 131 Patients were enrolled; two were excluded. 16% had received prior anti-angiogenic therapy. The median PFS estimates were 3.0 mos (D+V) versus 3.5 (D); HR: 0.99 (80% CI: 0.79-1.26). 61 Patients on D+V were assessable for toxicity; 20(33%) had treatment-related Grade (G) 4 events, primarily haematologic. Similarly, 17 (27%) of 64 patients receiving D had G4 events, primarily haematologic. 27 Evaluable patients crossed-over to V. 1/27(4%) experienced a G4 event. G3 diarrhoea was observed in 4% D → V patients. Median OS was 14 mos (D+V) versus 18 mos (D → V); HR(OS): 1.25 (80% CI: 0.93-1.68). Crossover vandetanib response was 4% (1/27 evaluable patients). High plasma IL-8 levels were associated with response to D+V.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination docetaxel+vandetanib did not prolong PFS relative to docetaxel alone in OC patients. No unexpected safety issues were identified.

Related: Ovarian Cancer Docetaxel


Reade CJ, McVey RM, Tone AA, et al.
The fallopian tube as the origin of high grade serous ovarian cancer: review of a paradigm shift.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014; 36(2):133-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Research published over the past 10 years has suggested that most "ovarian cancer," and specifically the high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) subtype of ovarian cancer, actually originates in the fallopian tube. In this review, we examine the evidence supporting the tubal origin hypothesis for HGSC, and discuss the clinical implications of our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We searched Medline R and Medline in-process and non-indexed citations from inception to December 15, 2012, to identify all English or French language articles discussing the origins of HGSC. Articles and findings were summarized descriptively. A step-wise transformation from normal epithelium to a lesion with the ability to invade and metastasize has been demonstrated within the fallopian tube. Intraepithelial or early invasive carcinoma of the fallopian tube is frequently identified in BRCA mutation carriers who undergo prophylactic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. In both BRCA mutation carriers and women from the general population, pre-invasive changes within the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube appear in association with early HGSC. Molecular and genetic studies, as well as in vitro and animal models, have also supported a tubal origin for HGSC. Whether the removal of fallopian tubes (salpingectomy) at the time of pelvic surgery for other reasons will lead to reductions in mortality from ovarian cancer is currently unknown, but it is an important area for future clinical research.

Related: BRCA1 BRCA2 Ovarian Cancer


Herzog TJ, Monk BJ, Rose PG, et al.
A phase II trial of oxaliplatin, docetaxel, and bevacizumab as first-line therapy of advanced cancer of the ovary, peritoneum, and fallopian tube.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(3):517-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of the novel combination of docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab as first-line treatment of advanced cancer of the ovary, peritoneum or fallopian tube after initial debulking surgery.
METHODS: Eligible patients (stage IB-IV) were treated with 6 cycles of oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)), docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) every 3 weeks, followed by single-agent bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks to complete one year of therapy. The primary endpoint was 12-month progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: A total of 132 patients (80 with measurable disease at baseline; 52 with non-measurable, evaluable disease at baseline) enrolled and received study treatment. At diagnosis, 76.5% of patients had stage III disease and 20% had stage IV. 62.9% were optimally cytoreduced. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (42.4%), leukopenia (13.6%), hypertension (8.3%), fatigue (6.1%), and nausea (6.1%). One patient (0.8%) had a fatal gastrointestinal perforation. The best overall confirmed response rate (complete response+partial response [measurable disease subgroup]) was 58.6% (95% CI 49%, 67%). CA-125 response rates for the measurable and non-measurable disease subgroups were 83.0% and 81.5%, respectively. The 12-month PFS rate for the measurable disease subgroup was 65.7% (95% CI 53.4%, 76.7%); median PFS was 16.3 (95% CI 12.6, 19.6) months. Median overall survival was 47.3 (95% CI 34.1, upper limit not applicable) months.
CONCLUSIONS: This novel treatment regimen may provide a promising therapeutic approach for women with ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. No unanticipated safety concerns were identified.

Related: Ovarian Cancer Docetaxel Bevacizumab (Avastin) Oxaliplatin


Nasser S, Arsenic R, Lohneis P, et al.
A case of primary peritoneal carcinoma: evidence for a precursor in the fallopian tube.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(1):407-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma (PPSC) is a rare malignancy with an ambiguous pathogenesis.
CASE REPORT: We report on a 51-year-old woman presenting with a routine smear test cytology suspicious of adenocarcinoma. She underwent hysteroscopy, laparsocopy with multiple biopsies and bilateral salpingoophorectomy. She was diagnosed with a serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in situ (STIC) in the right fallopian tube. Subsequently, she underwent radical surgery and was diagnosed with peritoneal high-grade serous carcinoma. Interestingly, both ovaries remained histologically tumour-free.
DISCUSSION: High-grade serous carcinomas that arise on the peritoneum with tumour-free ovaries are rare. The findings in this case, coupled with current evidence, strongly suggest a precursor lesion in the fallopian tube (STIC lesions). The clinical implications of this theory reside in the potential for improving early detection strategies. Nonetheless, more data on precursor lesions in the fallopian tubes and their transformation to serous carcinoma are required to plan for future screening methods.


Velişcu A, Marinescu B, Costoiu L, et al.
Bilateral primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a case report.
Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2013; 54(4):1183-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary cancer of the fallopian tube is a very rare tumor nowadays, accounting for approximately 0.14-0.3% of all tumors of the female genital tract. From these, bilateral primary cancer is found in less than 25% of all cases. We report here a case of bilateral primary cancer of the fallopian tube in a 48-year-old woman, associating uterine fibromatosis.

Related: TP53


Karst AM, Jones PM, Vena N, et al.
Cyclin E1 deregulation occurs early in secretory cell transformation to promote formation of fallopian tube-derived high-grade serous ovarian cancers.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(4):1141-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fallopian tube is now generally considered the dominant site of origin for high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. However, the molecular pathogenesis of fallopian tube-derived serous carcinomas is poorly understood and there are few experimental studies examining the transformation of human fallopian tube cells. Prompted by recent genomic analyses that identified cyclin E1 (CCNE1) gene amplification as a candidate oncogenic driver in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, we evaluated the functional role of cyclin E1 in serous carcinogenesis. Cyclin E1 was expressed in early- and late-stage human tumor samples. In primary human fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells, cyclin E1 expression imparted malignant characteristics to untransformed cells if p53 was compromised, promoting an accumulation of DNA damage and altered transcription of DNA damage response genes related to DNA replication stress. Together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that cyclin E1 dysregulation acts to drive malignant transformation in fallopian tube secretory cells that are the site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.


Martin LP, Sill M, Shahin MS, et al.
A phase II evaluation of AMG 102 (rilotumumab) in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(3):526-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This open-label, multi-institutional phase II trial evaluated activity and safety of rilotumumab (AMG 102), a monoclonal antibody that targets HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), the ligand for the MET receptor, in women with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women were eligible for treatment with rilotumumab if they had measurable disease, a performance status of 0, 1 or 2, previously received platinum-based therapy with a progression-free interval of <12 months or a second recurrence, and adequate bone marrow and organ function. Patients received rilotumumab 20mg/kg IV every 14 days until evidence of unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. The study utilized co-dual primary endpoints of tumor response and six-month PFS to assess the efficacy of rilotumumab. Secondary endpoints included the frequency and severity of adverse events and the duration of progression-free and overall survival.
RESULTS: Thirty-one women enrolled and received rilotumumab. All were eligible for analysis. One patient achieved a complete response (3.2%; 90% CI 0.2-14%), and two women had 6-month PFS (6.5%; 90% CI 1.1-19%). Most adverse events were grade 1 or 2, with no grade 4 adverse events. Grade 3 adverse events were gastrointestinal (4), metabolic (3) anemia (3), a thromboembolic event (1), ventricular tachycardia (1), hypotension during infusion (1) and fatigue (1). The study was stopped after the first stage of accrual.
CONCLUSION: Rilotumumab was well-tolerated, but had limited activity. The level of activity does not warrant further evaluation of rilotumumab as a single agent in patients with ovarian cancer.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Ovarian Cancer


Bahar-Shany K, Brand H, Sapoznik S, et al.
Exposure of fallopian tube epithelium to follicular fluid mimics carcinogenic changes in precursor lesions of serous papillary carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(2):322-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Ovulation-related inflammation is suspected to have a causal role in ovarian carcinogenesis, but there are no human models to study the molecular pathways. Our aim is to develop such an ex-vivo model based on human fallopian tube (FT) epithelium exposed to human follicular fluid (FF).
METHODS: FT epithelium was dissociated from normal surgical specimens. FF was obtained from donors undergoing in-vitro fertilization. The cells were cultured on collagen-coated Transwells and incubated with FF for various periods of time. The transcriptomic changes resulting from FF treatment were profiled using Affymetrix expression arrays. Specific characteristics of the FT pre-cancerous lesions were studied using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and XTT assay.
RESULTS: We show that FF exposure causes up-regulation of inflammatory and DNA repair pathways. Double stranded DNA breaks are induced. There is a minor increase in cell proliferation. TP53, which is the hallmark of the precursor lesion in-vivo, is accumulated. Levels of expression and secretion of Interleukin-8 are significantly increased.
CONCLUSIONS: Our model addresses the main non-genetic risk factor for ovarian cancer, namely the impact of ovulation. This study demonstrates the biological implications of in-vitro exposure of human FT epithelial cells to FF. The model replicates elements characterizing the precursor lesions of ovarian cancer, and warrants further investigation of the linkage between repeated exposure to ovulation-related damage and accumulation of neoplastic changes.

Related: Ovarian Cancer


Sehouli J, Olschewski J, Schotters V, et al.
Prognostic role of early versus late onset of bone metastasis in patients with carcinoma of the ovary, peritoneum and fallopian tube.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(12):3024-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases are a rare manifestation in the management of ovarian cancer and thought to be associated with a poor prognosis as sign of distant spread. Only few data exist on this rare condition. The present study aimed to more information on this very distinct patient collective.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was carried out including all patients who had been treated from 1994 to 2009 for histologically confirmed ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer. Overall, 1717 cases were detected and screened. Patients with bone metastasis were identified and analyzed regarding survival as well as various clinical variables.
RESULTS: A total of 26 women who had been diagnosed with bone metastases ante mortem could be identified, resulting in an incidence of 1.50%. The majority of patients presented multiple bone lesions (80.8%) and bone spread was symptomatic in 62.5% of the cases. Mean overall survival from primary diagnosis of EOC was 50.5 months (range: 2.5-142.5 months). Median overall survival after diagnosis of bone metastases was 7.2 months. When divided into two subsets depending on timepoint diagnosis of bone metastases, there was a significant difference in overall survival. The mean overall survival from primary diagnosis of EOC in the early-onset group (n = 8), defined as occurence of bone manifestation within 12 months, was 11.2 months. The mean overall survival in the late-onset group (n = 15) was 78.4 months (P = 0.000001).
CONCLUSIONS: The time interval from diagnosis to appearance of bone metastases is a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. While early onset bone spread has a strong negative prognostic impact, late-onset bone diagnosis of bone metastases hardly influences the prognosis at all. This finding should be considered in the management of patients with bone metastases from ovarian cancer.

Related: Ovarian Cancer


Hagemann AR, Novetsky AP, Zighelboim I, et al.
Phase II study of bevacizumab and pemetrexed for recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(3):535-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2014 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination bevacizumab/pemetrexed for the treatment of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
METHODS: Platinum-sensitive or -resistant patients with recurrent or persistent EOC were eligible if they had received up to 2 prior chemotherapy regimens, including a platinum/taxane regimen without prior bevacizumab. Pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) IV and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg IV were administered every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS); other endpoints included toxicities, PFS and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Thirty-four patients received a median of 7 treatment cycles (range, 2-26). Median follow-up was 25.7 months (range, 3.0-47.2). Six month progression-free survival (PFS) was 56% (95% CI: 38-71). The following response rates were documented (%; 95% CI): 0 complete response, 14 partial responses (41%; 25-59), 18 stable disease (53%; 35-70) and 2 progressive disease (6%; 1-20). Median PFS was 7.9 months (95% CI, 4.6-10.9), with a median OS of 25.7 months (95% CI, 15.4-29.8). Twenty-two patients (64.7%) had a platinum-free interval (PFI) of >6 months prior to enrollment. Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (26%), thrombocytopenia (12%) and anemia (9%). Non-hematologic grade 3-4 toxicities included metabolic (29%), constitutional (18%), pain (18%) and gastrointestinal (15%). Two patients developed hematologic malignancies within one year of treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination bevacizumab/pemetrexed is an active option for both platinum-sensitive and -resistant recurrent EOC. Further investigation of cost and novel toxicities associated with this regimen may be warranted.

Related: Ovarian Cancer Pemetrexed Bevacizumab (Avastin)


Patrao L, Sa J, Fonseca-Moutinho JA, et al.
Left fallopian tube primitive serous adenocarcinoma presenting as a cardiac tamponade - a case report and review of literature.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2013; 34(3):261-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 61-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining of anterior left thoracic pain and shortness of breath even after minor efforts. Her previous medical history was unremarkable. Pulmonary angiographic tomography showed a moderate bilateral pleural effusion that had collapsed inferior lung lobes, a large pericardial effusion, and several enlarged lymph nodes in the anterior mediastinum. Echocardiogram (ECG) showed a considerable pericardial effusion with some degree of heart function impairment. Pericardiocentesis and thoracocentesis revealed neoplastic cells in both pericardial and pleural fluids. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound showed a complex cystic mass with a 13-cm diameter located at left adnexal region and another complex cystic tumor with five-cm diameter at right adnexal region, with small amount of peritoneal effusion. Surgical staging was performed. Pathologic diagnosis was primitive left fallopian tube serous adenocarcinoma with peritubal involvement and multiple peritoneal and lymphatic metastases (FIGO Stage IV; TNM pT3c M1). Chemotherapy was initiated. Death occurred 25 months after diagnosis, with secondary dissemination (breast and lung). No recurrence of pericardial effusion was registered after chemotherapy, suggesting a high susceptibility of pericardial metastasis.


Katsumata N, Yasuda M, Isonishi S, et al.
Long-term results of dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin versus conventional paclitaxel and carboplatin for treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer (JGOG 3016): a randomised, controlled, open-label trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14(10):1020-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The primary analysis of the JGOG 3016 trial showed that a dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin regimen significantly improves progression-free and overall survival compared with the conventional regimen as first-line chemotherapy for patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. We report the long-term follow-up results for survival.
METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was done at 85 centres in Japan. Patients with stage II-IV ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment (carboplatin area under the curve [AUC] 6 mg/mL per min and paclitaxel 180 mg/m(2) on day 1) or dose-dense treatment (carboplatin AUC 6 mg/mL per min on day 1 and paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15). The treatments were repeated every 3 weeks for six cycles; responding patients had three additional cycles. The randomisation was done centrally by telephone or fax, stratified by residual disease, stage, and histological type. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival; overall survival was a secondary endpoint. Long-term information on adverse events was not collected. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00226915.
FINDINGS: 637 patients were enrolled, of whom 631 were analysed (312 assigned to the dose-dense regimen, 319 to the conventional regimen). Median follow-up was 76·8 months (IQR 68·9-85·6). Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the dose-dense treatment group than in the conventional treatment group (28·2 months [95% CI 22·3-33·8] vs 17·5 months [15·7-21·7]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·62-0·91; p=0·0037). Median overall survival was 100·5 months (95% CI 65·2-∞) in the dose-dense treatment group and 62·2 months (52·1-82·6) in the conventional treatment group (HR 0·79, 95% CI 0·63-0·99; p=0·039).
INTERPRETATION: Dose-dense treatment offers better survival than conventional treatment and is a potential new standard of care for first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

Related: Carboplatin Ovarian Cancer Paclitaxel


Jain M, Puri V
Synchronous carcinosarcoma uterus and primary serous carcinoma of bilateral fallopian tubes: a case report.
J Reprod Med. 2013 Jul-Aug; 58(7-8):361-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The coexistence of multiple primary tumors in the female genital tract is very rare. Carcinosarcoma of the uterus is very rarely encountered among multiple genital malignancies.
CASE: A 63-year-old woman presented with synchronous carcinosarcoma of the uterus and primary serous carcinoma of bilateral fallopian tubes. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically and immunohistochemically.
CONCLUSION: This case is presented for its rarity and unique presentation. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first reported case of this unique combination of synchronous genital malignancies.


Burger RA, Brady MF, Rhee J, et al.
Independent radiologic review of the Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 0218, a phase III trial of bevacizumab in the primary treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 131(1):21-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2014 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 0218 (GOG-0218), a phase III, placebo-controlled trial in newly diagnosed stage III/IV ovarian cancer (OC), demonstrated a benefit in investigator (INV)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) with bevacizumab (BEV) administered with and following carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP) for up to 15 months vs. CP alone. To determine the reliability of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) in assessing disease progression (PD) in GOG-0218, an independent review of radiologic and clinical data (IRC) was conducted.
METHODS: Blinded reviews followed RECIST 1.0 in accordance with the study protocol; PFS was analyzed in the intent-to-treat population.
RESULTS: CP+BEV→BEV achieved a significant PFS improvement in both assessments. Hazard ratios for PFS (IRC: 0.623; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.503-0.772; p<0.0001 vs. INV: 0.624; 95% CI: 0.520-0.749; p<0.0001) and the improvement in median PFS (IRC: 19.1 and 13.1 months vs. INV: 18.2 and 12 months) were similar between IRC and INV assessments. There was high concordance between IRC- and INV-determined PD status (77%) and date (73%). Subgroup analyses were consistent with the primary IRC findings. Early and late discontinuation discordance measures showed no evidence of INV bias.
CONCLUSION: IRC analysis confirmed a significant PFS improvement with CP+BEV→BEV vs. CP alone. Concordance was not influenced by extent of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery or initial stage. The IRC size, high participation rate, and strong concordance between IRC and INV assessments suggest that RECIST can be applied objectively in OC studies.

Related: Carboplatin Ovarian Cancer Paclitaxel Bevacizumab (Avastin)


Lau HY, Chen YJ, Yen MS, et al.
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis and literature review.
J Chin Med Assoc. 2013; 76(10):583-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare tumor, and it is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) and to review the current available literature on PFTC.
METHODS: The medical records of 16 patients who were diagnosed with PFTC at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 2001 and December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years (range, 41-86 years), and the mean follow-up period was 39.8 months (range, 4.0-102.8 months). Fourteen (87.5%) patients were menopausal women. The most common clinical presentation was nonspecific pelvic pain (37.5%), followed by abnormal vaginal bleeding (31.2%), pelvic mass (18.8%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (12.5%). One patient was diagnosed with PFTC preoperatively; 11 (68.6%) patients were diagnosed as having adnexal mass of unknown origin, but primarily in the ovary. Other diagnoses included endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, and rectum cancer in one patient each. Three (18.8%) patients were in Stage I, two (12.5%) in Stage II, nine (56.2%) in Stage III, and two (12.5%) in Stage IV. The serous type was histologically predominant (75%), and six patients were of a high grade (37.5%). The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 73.3%.
CONCLUSION: PFTC is infrequently diagnosed preoperatively or intraoperatively due to its rarity, and has a varied and nonspecific presentation. Only 6.3% of the patients had typical symptoms suggestive of tubal carcinoma. This report may benefit surgeons by providing additional information about the clinicopathologic behavior of PFTC so that patients can be appropriately counseled.


Otsuka I, Kameda S, Hoshi K
Early detection of ovarian and fallopian tube cancer by examination of cytological samples from the endometrial cavity.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(3):603-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2014 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that many ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) originate in the fallopian tube. Malignant cells shed by tubal lesions can be detected by examination of cytological samples from the endometrial cavity (endometrial cytological testing). To evaluate the use of this method for detecting HGSC, we examined epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer patients.
METHODS: Endometrial cytological testing was performed for endometrial cancer screening in asymptomatic women and for pre-treatment evaluation in symptomatic suspected ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancer patients.
RESULTS: Of the 122 ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancer patients, malignant cells were identified in 5 patients who did not show detectable abnormalities on imaging studies. Cervicovaginal cytology was positive in only one of these five patients. Four patients were asymptomatic and one was symptomatic. Three asymptomatic patients had early-stage HGSCs, and the other asymptomatic patient had positive peritoneal cytology findings but no detectable tumour. HGSC patients were significantly more likely to have positive findings on endometrial cytology than patients with other histological types (23% vs 6%, P=0.02).
CONCLUSION: Endometrial cytological testing can detect early-stage ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal HGSCs without detectable pelvic masses and may be useful for ovarian cancer screening.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection Ovarian Cancer


Novetsky AP, Smith K, Babb SA, et al.
Timing of referral for genetic counseling and genetic testing in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013; 23(6):1016-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2014 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess patients' preferences of the timing of referral for genetic counseling and testing in relation to the diagnosis, treatment, and recurrence of ovarian, tubal, or primary peritoneal cancers.
METHODS: Ninety-two patients who underwent counseling and testing by 1 certified genetic counselor were identified. An introductory letter, consent form, and questionnaire were mailed to gather information regarding factors influencing the decision to undergo genetic counseling and testing and opinions regarding optimal timing. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data.
RESULTS: Of 47 consenting women, 45 underwent testing. Eight (18%) were found to have a genetic mutation. Women lacked consensus about the optimal time for referral for and to undergo genetic testing, although women with stage I disease preferred testing after completion of chemotherapy. Most women were comfortable receiving the results by phone, but one third preferred an office visit.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients' views regarding the best time to be referred for and undergo counseling and testing varied greatly. Because of the high mortality of this disease, clinicians should discuss referral early and personalize the timing to each patient. The subset of patients who prefer results disclosure during an office visit should be identified at the time of their initial counseling.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer Ovarian Cancer


Dhillon S
Bevacizumab combination therapy: a review of its use in patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer.
BioDrugs. 2013; 27(4):375-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is a recombinant, humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of VEGF and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In the EU, in adult patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, bevacizumab (in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel) is approved for the first-line treatment of advanced disease and (in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine) is approved for the treatment of patients with first recurrence of platinum-sensitive disease who have not received prior therapy with bevacizumab or other VEGF inhibitors or VEGF receptor-targeted agents. This article summarizes the pharmacology of bevacizumab and reviews the efficacy and tolerability of bevacizumab combination therapy in well-designed clinical studies in these indications. The addition of bevacizumab to first-line carboplatin plus paclitaxel, followed by bevacizumab maintenance therapy significantly prolonged progression-free survival in women with newly-diagnosed advanced disease (GOG-0218 and ICON7 studies). Progression-free survival was also significantly prolonged after second-line treatment with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine, followed by maintenance treatment with bevacizumab alone in women with recurrence (≥ 6 months after front-line platinum-based therapy) of platinum-sensitive disease (OCEANS study). Bevacizumab combination therapy had a generally acceptable tolerability profile in these studies, with the nature of adverse events generally similar to that observed in previous clinical trials in patients with other solid tumors. Although several unanswered questions remain, such as the optimal dosage and duration of treatment, current evidence suggests that bevacizumab combination therapy extends the treatment options available for patients with ovarian cancer.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Carboplatin Ovarian Cancer Paclitaxel VEGFA Bevacizumab (Avastin)


Brockbank EC, Harry V, Kolomainen D, et al.
Laparoscopic staging for apparent early stage ovarian or fallopian tube cancer. First case series from a UK cancer centre and systematic literature review.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2013; 39(8):912-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of laparoscopic staging of apparent early stage adnexal cancers.
METHODS: Prospectively collected data on women who had laparoscopic staging for apparent early stage adnexal cancers from May 2008 to September 2012 was reviewed. All women had had a prior surgical procedure at which the diagnosis was made, without comprehensive staging. A systematic MEDLINE search from 1980 to 2012 for publications on laparoscopic staging was performed.
RESULTS: Thirty-five women had laparoscopic staging. Median age was 45 years (range 21-73). Median operative time was 210 min (range 90-210). Four intra-operative and one post-operative complication occurred; overall complication rate 5/35 (14%). One vena cava and one transverse colon injury underwent laparotomies for repair. Laparotomy conversion rate 2/35 (6%). Following laparoscopic staging, the cancer was upstaged for eight (23%) women; microscopic omental involvement (four women), pelvic lymph node involvement (two women), para-aortic lymph node involvement (one woman) and contra-lateral ovarian involvement (one woman). After follow up for a median of 18 months (range 3-59) the disease free survival was 94% and overall survival was 100%. Nine studies were identified on laparoscopic staging of adnexal cancer, of which this is the largest single institution series.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the evidence that laparoscopic staging is at least as safe as staging by laparotomy with appropriate and similar oncological outcomes, but with the advantages of minimal access surgery. We therefore advocate the use of laparoscopy to achieve surgical staging for women with presumed early stage adnexal cancer.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection Ovarian Cancer


Abaid LN, Micha JP, Rettenmaier MA, et al.
A phase II study of modified dose-dense paclitaxel and every 4-week carboplatin for the treatment of advanced-stage primary epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal carcinoma.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013; 72(1):101-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Traditional dose-dense chemotherapy regimens for advanced stage ovarian cancer incorporate weekly paclitaxel on a 21-day cycle and are associated with favorable efficacy but high rates of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. The purpose of this phase II study was to assess the response rate and toxicity of modified dose-dense paclitaxel and every 4-week carboplatin for the treatment of advanced-stage ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma.
METHODS: All eligible patients were treated with 6 cycles of intravenous dose-dense paclitaxel (80 mg/m²) days 1, 8, and 15 and carboplatin (AUC 5 or 6) Day 1 during a 28-day cycle in accordance with an IRB-approved protocol. Patients who had clinically defined stable disease or better with a CA-125 ≤ 35 U/ml following the completion of primary induction therapy were subsequently administered a planned 12 cycles of paclitaxel (135 mg/m²; every 21 days) consolidation therapy.
RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients received at least 3 cycles of induction dose-dense chemotherapy, of whom 76 completed 6 cycles of chemotherapy; the overall response rate was 84.2 % (56.6 % complete response). Fifty-three patients received an aggregate 473 cycles (median = 9; range 1-12) of consolidation chemotherapy. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicity included neutropenia (22.7 %), thrombocytopenia (7.9 %), and anemia (1.1 %). Further, grade 3 neuropathy developed in one (1.1 %) patient. The patients' median disease-free survival and overall survival were 22.5 and 31.5 months, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This phase II study suggests that first-line treatment comprising modified dose-dense paclitaxel and monthly carboplatin chemotherapy with paclitaxel consolidation therapy preserves the efficacy of traditional dose-dense chemotherapy, while minimizing hematologic toxicity.

Related: Carboplatin Ovarian Cancer Paclitaxel


Bijron JG, Seldenrijk CA, Zweemer RP, et al.
Fallopian tube intraluminal tumor spread from noninvasive precursor lesions: a novel metastatic route in early pelvic carcinogenesis.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(8):1123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pelvic serous carcinoma is usually advanced stage at diagnosis, indicating that abdominal spread occurs early in carcinogenesis. Recent discovery of a precursor sequence in the fallopian tube, culminating in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), provides an opportunity to study early disease events. This study aims to explore novel metastatic routes in STICs. A BRCA1 mutation carrier (patient A) who presented with a STIC and tubal intraluminal shedding of tumor cells upon prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) instigated scrutiny of an additional 23 women who underwent a PBSO and 40 patients with pelvic serous carcinoma involving the tubes. Complete serial sectioning of tubes and ovaries of patient A did not reveal invasive carcinoma, but subsequent staging surgery showed disseminated abdominal disease. STIC, intraluminal tumor cells, and abdominal metastases displayed an identical immunohistochemical profile (p53/WT1/PAX8/PAX2) and TP53 mutation. In 16 serous carcinoma patients (40%) tubal intraluminal tumor cells were found, compared with none in the PBSO group. This is the first description of a STIC, which plausibly metastasized without the presence of invasion through intraluminal shedding of malignant surface epithelial cells in the tube and subsequently spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. These findings warrant a reconsideration of the malignant potential of STICs and indicate that intraluminal shedding could be a risk factor for early intraperitoneal metastasis. Although rare in the absence of invasive cancer, we show that intraluminal shedding of tumor cells in the fallopian tubes from serous carcinoma cases are common and a likely route of abdominal spread.

Related: TP53 WT1 PAX8 gene


Liu F, Wei J, Shen D, Liu J
Mucinous borderline tumor involving fallopian tube: case report and review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(5):962-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2014 Related Publications
We report the case of a 74-year-old woman with a primary mucinous borderline tumor of the fallopian tube coexisting with an ovarian mucinous borderline tumor. Data were obtained through histopathologic study of the excised surgical specimen. p53, estrogen receptor (ER) and PAX8 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on the available right fallopian tube and ovary. Both the ovarian and fallopian tube borderline ovarian tumors were negative for p53, ER and PAX8. However, the staining pattern highlighted the transition from a normal ciliated cell to neoplastic epithelia in the fallopian tube fimbria. This is the first report to indicate that mucinous borderline tumors may arise from the ciliated cells at the fallopian tube fimbrial epithelia. ER and PAX8 are useful markers in identifying the transition and origination of these tumors.

Related: Ovarian Cancer


Yokoyama Y, Futagami M, Fujimoto T, et al.
Investigation of the clinicopathological features of fallopian tube malignancy.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(1):79-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study investigated the clinico-pathological features of fallopian tube malignancy (FTM) and elucidated the biological behavior of this disorder. Data were compiled concerning FTM from 68 patients from 7 institutes. The patients included 60 cases with fallopian tube carcinoma and 8 cases with fallopian tube carcinosarcoma. The clinical stage was stage III or higher in 72% of the cases. A complete response or partial response was achieved in 56 and 10 of the 68 patients with FTM, respectively, indicating a response rate of 97.1%. The median observation period for FTM was 41 months (3 to 126 months). Three of the 19 patients with stage I/II disease (16%) and 31 of the 49 patients with stage III/IV disease (63%) experienced recurrence, with a median progression-free survival of 17.5 months, and a 3-year overall survival of 77.2%. Regarding the site of recurrence, local intraperitoneal recurrence (26.2%) and solitary recurrences in lymph nodes (19.0%) and in the liver (16.7%) were relatively frequent. Secondary debulking surgery (SDS) was performed in 15 patients (44%) out of the 34 recurrent FTMs. Conversely, recurrence was associated with ascites (carcinomatous peritonitis) in 4 of the 34 recurrent patients, but all 4 patients died. The median survival period after recurrence was 28 months: 7.5 and 30 months with and without ascites, respectively (P<0.001). A univariate analysis showed that prognosis was significantly correlated only with whether SDS could be performed. These results suggest that since FTM frequently results in solitary recurrence, aggressive recurrence treatment including SDS could improve prognosis.


Dao MD, Alwan LM, Gray HJ, et al.
Recurrence patterns after extended treatment with bevacizumab for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 130(2):295-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patterns of recurrence for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer patients undergoing extended treatment with bevacizumab (BEV).
METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with primary ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer treated with BEV alone or in combination with other chemotherapy from 2001 to 2011 was performed. Qualified patients were identified by chemotherapy records. Electronic medical records, labs, and imaging reports were reviewed and abstracted.
RESULTS: Of 108 patients identified, 89 patients met study criteria by having disease progression either during treatment with BEV or after discontinuing BEV without initiating any other treatment. Patients on extended BEV therapy (>12 cycles) were more likely to recur in extra-visceral sites (p=0.04), especially in lymph nodes (p=0.0002), and presented with fewer symptoms at time of recurrence (p=0.02), compared to patients who had received ≤ 12 cycles. CA-125 becomes less reliable for the detection of recurrent disease with extended BEV therapy (p=0.03 for ≤12 cycles vs. p=0.08 for >12 cycles). Radiology was superior to CA-125, symptom, and physical exam, in detecting recurrence with extended BEV therapy (all p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Extended treatment with BEV in ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers results in alterations in the patterns of recurrence. Radiologic imaging is more reliable than CA-125, symptoms, or physical exam, in identifying recurrent disease in patients undergoing BEV treatment. As novel targeted therapies continue to be employed, guidelines for gynecologic cancer surveillance must continue to be reexamined.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Ovarian Cancer Bevacizumab (Avastin)


Kalampokas E, Kalampokas T, Tourountous I
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013; 169(2):155-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare gynaecological tumour that accounts for 0.14-1.8% of genital malignancies. The most common age of occurrence is between 40 and 65 years, and the mean age is 55 years. The factors that contribute to its appearance are not well known. Population studies show that the mean incidence of PFTC is 3.6 per million women per annum. Overall survival percentages for patients with PFTC are generally low, in the range of 22-57%. Pre-operative diagnosis is rare and PFTC is usually confirmed by a pathologist, but earlier diagnosis with early clinical manifestation and prompt investigation improves the prognosis. Both PFTC and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are treated with similar surgical and chemotherapy methods. Studies have shown that the prognosis for PFTC is worse than that for EOC or other primary gynaecological tumours. This article reviews and presents the current updates of this rare gynaecological malignancy.


Erickson BK, Conner MG, Landen CN
The role of the fallopian tube in the origin of ovarian cancer.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209(5):409-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2014 Related Publications
Advanced cases of epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, and primary tubal malignancies have a relatively poor prognosis and collectively remain the most deadly of all gynecologic malignancies. Although traditionally thought of as one disease process, ongoing research suggests that there is not 1 single site or cell type from which these cancers arise. A majority of the serous tumors appear to originate from dysplastic lesions in the distal fallopian tube. Therefore, what we have traditionally considered "ovarian" cancer may in fact be tubal in origin. In this article, we will review epithelial ovarian cancer classification and genetics, theories regarding cells of origin with a focus on tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, and implications for prevention and screening.

Related: BRCA1 BRCA2 Ovarian Cancer


Aich RK, Dasgupta S, Chakraborty B, et al.
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma with metastasis in the contralateral ovary.
J Indian Med Assoc. 2012; 110(7):494-5, 498 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary malignant neoplasm of the fallopian tube is one of the rarest gynaecological malignancies and a pre-operative diagnosis is often missed due to its diagnostic confusion with the tubo-ovarian mass, hydrosalpinx, ectopic pregnancy and ovarian malignancy. Transcoelomic, lymphatic, transluminal and haematogenous spread may occur to the other abdominal and pelvic organs as well as to the distant sites. Though the body of the uterus, ovaries and the contralateral fallopian tube are frequently involved, in the present case the contralateral ovary was the only site of involvement which is very unusual.


Nezhat FR, Denoble SM, Cho JE, et al.
Safety and efficacy of video laparoscopic surgical debulking of recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers.
JSLS. 2012 Oct-Dec; 16(4):511-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2014 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies on the role of laparoscopy in secondary or tertiary cytoreduction for recurrent ovarian cancer are limited. Our objective is to describe our preliminary experience with laparoscopic secondary/tertiary cytoreduction in patients with recurrent ovarian, fallopian, and primary peritoneal cancers.
METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective case series. Women with recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancers deemed appropriate candidates for laparoscopic debulking by the primary surgeon(s) were recruited. The patients underwent exploratory video laparoscopy, biopsy, and laparoscopic secondary/tertiary cytoreduction between June 1999 and October 2009. Variables analyzed include stage, site of disease, extent of cytoreduction, operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, complications, and survival time.
RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were recruited. Only one surgery involved conversion to laparotomy. Seventeen (77.3%) of the patients had stage IIIC disease at the time of their initial diagnosis, and 20 (90.9%) had laparotomy for primary debulking. Median blood loss was 75 mL, median operative time 200 min, and median hospital stay 2 d. No intraoperative complications occurred. One patient (4.5%) had postoperative ileus. Eighteen (81.8%) of the patients with recurrent disease were optimally cytoreduced to 1cm. Overall, 12 patients have no evidence of disease (NED), 6 are alive with disease (AWD), and 4 have died of disease (DOD), over a median follow-up of 14 mo. Median disease-free survival was 71.9 mo.
CONCLUSIONS: In a well-selected population, laparoscopy is technically feasible and can be utilized to optimally cytoreduce patients with recurrent ovarian, fallopian, or primary peritoneal cancers.

Related: Ovarian Cancer USA


Khatib G, Guzel AB, Kucukgoz-Gulec U, et al.
Mature cystic teratoma of the fallopian tube.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013; 33(2):120-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Teratoma of the fallopian tube (cystic or solid) is a rarely encountered tumour and, to date, only 73 cases have been reported in the literature. A comprehensive review has not been done since 1972, when Mazzarella and colleagues reviewed 44 cases of tubal teratomas. This situation has prompted us to survey the literature to update the data on tubal teratoma cases. The majority of the tumours were benign. The tumour was cystic in nature in 50 cases. Patients' ages ranged between 17 and 67 years. None of them was diagnosed preoperatively. Half of the tumours were ≤ 5 cm, whereas the other half were > 5 cm in diameter. About two-thirds of the patients were associated with two or fewer gravidity. To the best of our knowledge, the present case included in our paper is the first tubal cystic teratoma reported from Turkey.


Monitor
this page
it's private
powered by
ChangeDetection

This page last updated: 12th July 2014
Displaying links verified within last 2 weeks at time of update.

CancerIndex Logo

Home
Site Map
Cancer Types
Treatments
Locations
Glossary
Search

Patients/Public
Health Professionals
Researchers

About

Disclaimer
© 1996-2013