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Fallopian Tube Cancer

Primary fallopian tube cancer (tubal cancer) is rare and accounts for just 1 to 2 percent of all gynecologic cancers. It is more common for cancer to spread (metastasize) from other parts of the body than for cancer to originate in the fallopian tubes.

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    MeSH term: Fallopian Tube Neoplasms
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Li M, Yang K, Wang P
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of fallopian tube: A case report and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(11):e14534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) of the fallopian tubes is a rare malignant tumor in the female reproductive system.
PATIENT CONCERNS: An 81-year-old Chinese woman presented with an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level.
DIAGNOSIS: Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan revealed a mass of approximately 47 × 27 mm located in the right adnexa. The tumor was diagnosed as a HAC arising from fallopian tube by immunohistochemical and histochemical technique.
INTERVENTIONS: This patient underwent surgical treatment including a bilateral adnexectomy and appendectomy. In addition, the patient underwent 5 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy.
OUTCOMES: The disease has recurred approximately six months after surgery and therefore, this patient will continue to be observed.
LESSONS: Up to this point, only 4 known cases of HAC originating in fallopian tube have been published in the English literature. Further studies are needed to better understand the clinical characteristics, the prognosis, and the pathological mechanism of HAC development in the fallopian tubes.

Lin C, Ying Z, Sijing C
Spontaneous resolution of dermatomyositis associated with fallopian-tube carcinoma following staging surgery: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(10):e14530 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM) is an inflammatory disease of the connective tissue caused by immunologic events in the presence of malignant tumors, which are typically related to ovarian, pancreatic, stomach, and colon cancer. Traditional treatment of paraneoplastic DM includes combination therapy for the underlying malignancy with systemic steroids.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 41-year-old woman presented with facial erythema and myalgia of the extremities.
DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with DM associated with a fallopian-tube carcinoma.
INTERVENTIONS: The cancer staging surgery was performed via muilt-port laparoscope and administered 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (210 mg) and carboplatin (600 mg) right ovary and the left fallopian tube were removed laparoscopically.
OUTCOMES: The DM healed spontaneously without the use of general glucocorticoids after the cancer staging surgery. During the 9-month follow-up, no recurrence of DM or neoplasm was observed.
LESSONS: This case highlights the fact that paraneoplastic DM can heal spontaneously after therapy for the underlying neoplasm, thereby avoiding the use of systemic steroids and their side effects. Moreover, DM can be an initial symptom for gynecological cancer such as fallopian-tube cancer. Thus, if DM is refractory to standard treatment, gynecological neoplasms should be considered.

Matulonis UA, Sill MW, Makker V, et al.
A randomized phase II study of cabozantinib versus weekly paclitaxel in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(3):548-553 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Cabozantinib is a receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitor that targets MET (c-MET), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), RET, AXL, KIT, FLT-3, and TIE-2 and previously showed promising single agent activity in recurrent ovarian cancer.
METHODS: This was an open label, 1:1 randomized study of cabozantinib 60 mg orally (PO) daily versus weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m
RESULTS: Median PFS was similar for both treatment groups and was 5.3 months for cabozantinib and 5.5 months for weekly paclitaxel (HR 1.11 (90% CI 0.77-1.61, p = 0.64)). Secondary analyses of overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) showed that cabozantinib did not perform as well as weekly paclitaxel. Median OS for cabozantinib was 19.4 months and was not reached for weekly paclitaxel (HR 2.27 (90% CI 1.17-4.41, p = 0.04). EFS was also worse in the cabozantinib arm, 3.5 months, compared to weekly paclitaxel at 5.0 months (HR 1.81 (90% CI 1.24-2.63, p = 0.01). Overall response rate (ORR) was less for cabozantinib compared to weekly paclitaxel (7% versus 24.1%). Gastrointestinal toxicities, specifically nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain were worse in the cabozantinib arm.
CONCLUSIONS: Median PFS was similar for cabozantinib and weekly paclitaxel. However, OS, EFS, and ORR were worse for cabozantinib compared to weekly paclitaxel. Cabozantinib given at this dose and schedule cannot be recommended as a treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer.

Laokulrath N, Warnnissorn M, Chuangsuwanich T, Hanamornroongruang S
Sectioning and extensively examining the fimbriated end (SEE-FIM) of the fallopian tube in routine practices, is it worth the effort?
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2019; 45(3):665-670 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To determine the prevalence of fallopian tube high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and to analyze the benefit of the sectioning and extensively examining the fimbriated end (SEE-FIM) protocol.
METHODS: Fallopian tubes from 450 patients with risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, or tumor of the ovary, endometrium, fallopian tube or peritoneum were examined using the SEE-FIM protocol. Microscopic tubal pathology and the number of paraffin blocks used were evaluated. Immunostaining for p53 was performed to confirm TP53 mutation. Cost effectiveness was determined by equation of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.
RESULTS: Tubal HGSC were detected in 25 out of 70 cases of pelvic extrauterine HGSC, in 1 case of endometrioid carcinoma, and 4 cases of uterine serous carcinoma out of 250 cases of endometrial neoplasm. The mean number of tissue blocks per case was 6. The incremental cost for detecting one case of coexisting fallopian tube HGSC in the study population was 94 Thai baht/3 USD per case.
CONCLUSION: The SEE-FIM protocol facilitates identification of lesions that are not distinguishable by classical sampling protocol, and this results in more accurate tumor staging and a better understanding of the carcinogenesis. The benefit of the SEE-FIM protocol was demonstrated, especially in cases at high risk for coexisting fallopian tube carcinoma.

Soong TR, Howitt BE, Horowitz N, et al.
The fallopian tube, "precursor escape" and narrowing the knowledge gap to the origins of high-grade serous carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(2):426-433 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most ovarian carcinomas are high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) that contain TP53 mutations, present at advanced stage, and eventually become resistant to chemotherapy. The rapid evolution of this disease has been attributed to an origin in the distal fallopian tube, in the form of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs). This has led to a disease model where malignancy develops first in the tube and spreads to the peritoneum or regional lymph nodes. However, although most early or incidentally discovered HGSCs manifest in the tube with STICs, many advanced HGSCs are not accompanied by a malignancy in the fimbria. To resolve this paradox, the focus has shifted to earlier, premalignant serous proliferations (ESPs) in the tubes, which lack the cytomorphologic features of malignancy but contain TP53 mutations. These have been termed p53 signatures or serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs). Although they have not been presumed to have cancer-causing potential by themselves, some ESPs have recently been shown to share identical TP53 mutations with concurrent HGSCs, indicating a shared lineage between these early mucosal changes and metastatic malignancy. This discovery supports a paradigm by which HGSCs can emerge not only from STICs but also from exfoliated precursor cells (precursor escape) that eventually undergo malignant transformation within the peritoneal cavity. This paradigm unifies both localized and widespread HGSCs to a visible pre-existing cellular alteration in the tubal epithelium, and highlights a consistent and necessary biologic event (TP53 mutation) rarely encountered in the ovary or secondary Mullerian system. This dual pathway to HGSCs underscores the subtle nature of many serous cancer origins in the tube, explains contrasting clinico-pathologic presentations, and explains why, until recently, the fallopian tube was unappreciated as the principal origin of HGSCs. Moreover, it highlights additional challenges faced in preventing or intercepting HGSCs at a curable stage.

Monk BJ, Kauderer JT, Moxley KM, et al.
A phase II evaluation of elesclomol sodium and weekly paclitaxel in the treatment of recurrent or persistent platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer: An NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 151(3):422-427 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical data suggest elesclomol increases oxidative stress and enhances sensitivity to cytotoxic agents. The objective of this prospective multicenter phase 2 trial was to estimate the activity of IV elesclomol plus weekly paclitaxel in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer through the frequency of objective tumor responses (ORR).
METHODS: Patients with measurable disease, acceptable organ function, performance status ≤ 2, and one prior platinum containing regimen were eligible. A two-stage design was utilized with a target sample size of 22 and 30 subjects, respectively. Prior Gynecologic Oncology Group studies within the same population involving single agent taxanes showed an ORR of approximately (20%) and served as a historical control for direct comparison. The present study was designed to determine if the regimen had an ORR of ≥40% with 90% power.
RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled, of whom 2 received no study treatment and were inevaluable. The median number of cycles was 3 (268 total cycles, range 1-18). The number of patients responding was 11 (19.6%; 90% CI 11.4% to 30.4%) with one complete response. The median progression-free survival and overall survival was 3.6 months and 13.3 months, respectively. The median ORR duration was 9.2 months. Percentages of subjects with grade 3 toxicity included: Neutropenia 9%; anemia 5%; metabolic 5%; nausea 4%; infection 4%; neurologic (mostly neuropathy) 4%; and vascular (mostly thromboembolism) 4%. There were no grade 4 toxicities reported.
CONCLUSIONS: This combination was well tolerated but is unworthy of further investigation based on the proportion responding [ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00888615].

Berek JS, Kehoe ST, Kumar L, Friedlander M
Cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2018; 143 Suppl 2:59-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Gynecologic Oncology Committee of FIGO in 2014 revised the staging of ovarian cancer, incorporating ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer into the same system. Most of these malignancies are high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Stage IC is now divided into three categories: IC1 (surgical spill); IC2 (capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface); and IC3 (malignant cells in the ascites or peritoneal washings). The updated staging includes a revision of Stage IIIC based on spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes alone without intraperitoneal dissemination. This category is now subdivided into IIIA1(i) (metastasis ≤10 mm in greatest dimension), and IIIA1(ii) (metastasis >10 mm in greatest dimension). Stage IIIA2 is now "microscopic extrapelvic peritoneal involvement with or without positive retroperitoneal lymph node" metastasis. This review summarizes the genetics, surgical management, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies for epithelial cancers, and the treatment of ovarian germ cell and stromal malignancies.

Roze JF, Hoogendam JP, van de Wetering FT, et al.
Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing tumour resectability in advanced epithelial ovarian/fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018; 10:CD012567 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Surgery and chemotherapy are considered its mainstay of treatment and the completeness of surgery is a major prognostic factor for survival in these women. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to preoperatively assess tumour resectability. If considered feasible, women will be scheduled for primary debulking surgery (i.e. surgical efforts to remove the bulk of tumour with the aim of leaving no visible (macroscopic) tumour). If primary debulking is not considered feasible (i.e. the tumour load is too extensive), women will receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy to reduce tumour load and subsequently undergo (interval) surgery. However, CT is imperfect in assessing tumour resectability, so additional imaging modalities can be considered to optimise treatment selection.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of fluorodeoxyglucose-18 (FDG) PET/CT, conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI as replacement or add-on to abdominal CT, for assessing tumour resectability at primary debulking surgery in women with stage III to IV epithelial ovarian/fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancer.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase (OVID) for potential eligible studies (1946 to 23 February 2017). Additionally, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO-ICTRP and the reference list of all relevant studies were searched.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Diagnostic accuracy studies addressing the accuracy of preoperative FDG-PET/CT, conventional or DW-MRI on assessing tumour resectability in women with advanced stage (III to IV) epithelial ovarian/fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancer who are scheduled to undergo primary debulking surgery.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance and inclusion, extracted data and performed methodological quality assessment using QUADAS-2. The limited number of studies did not permit meta-analyses.
MAIN RESULTS: Five studies (544 participants) were included in the analysis. All studies performed the index test as replacement of abdominal CT. Two studies (366 participants) addressed the accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for assessing incomplete debulking with residual disease of any size (> 0 cm) with sensitivities of 1.0 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.0) and 0.66 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.73) and specificities of 1.0 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.0) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.93), respectively (low- and moderate-certainty evidence). Three studies (178 participants) investigated MRI for different target conditions, of which two investigated DW-MRI and one conventional MRI. The first study showed that DW-MRI determines incomplete debulking with residual disease of any size with a sensitivity of 0.94 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.99) and a specificity of 0.98 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.00) (low- and moderate-certainty evidence). For abdominal CT, the sensitivity for assessing incomplete debulking was 0.66 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.78) and the specificity 0.77 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.87) (low- and low-certainty evidence). The second study reported a sensitivity of DW-MRI of 0.75 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.97) and a specificity of 0.96 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00) (very low-certainty evidence) for assessing incomplete debulking with residual disease > 1 cm. In the last study, the sensitivity for assessing incomplete debulking with residual disease of > 2 cm on conventional MRI was 0.91 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.00) and the specificity 0.97 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.00) (very low-certainty evidence). Overall, the certainty of evidence was very low to moderate (according to GRADE), mainly due to small sample sizes and imprecision.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Studies suggested a high specificity and moderate sensitivity for FDG-PET/CT and MRI to assess macroscopic incomplete debulking. However, the certainty of the evidence was insufficient to advise routine addition of FDG-PET/CT or MRI to clinical practice..In a research setting, adding an alternative imaging method could be considered for women identified as suitable for primary debulking by abdominal CT, in an attempt to filter out false-negatives (i.e. debulking, feasible based on abdominal CT, unfeasible at actual surgery).

Tew WP, Sill MW, Walker JL, et al.
Randomized phase II trial of bevacizumab plus everolimus versus bevacizumab alone for recurrent or persistent ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal carcinoma: An NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 151(2):257-263 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab (BV) monotherapy leads to compensatory upregulation of multiple signaling pathways, resulting in mTOR activation. We evaluated combining BV and everolimus (EV), an mTOR kinase inhibitor, to circumvent BV-resistance in women with recurrent or persistent ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer (OC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible OC patients had measurable (RECIST1.1) or detectable disease, 1-3 prior regimens, performance status (PS) 0-2, and no prior m-TOR inhibitor. All patients received BV 10 mg/kg IV every 2wks. Patients were randomized (1:1) to oral EV (10 mg daily) or placebo stratified by platinum-free interval (PFI), measurable disease and prior BV. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary endpoints included safety and response.
RESULTS: 150 patients were randomized to BV with (n = 75) and without (n = 75) EV. Arms were well-balanced for age (median 63: range 28-92), PS (0: 73%, 1-2: 27%), prior regimens (1: 37%, 2: 47%, 3: 16%), prior BV (11%), PFI (<6mos: 65%) and measurable disease (81%). The BV + EV vs BV median PFS was 5.9 vs 4.5 months (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66-1.37, p = 0.39)). Median OS was 16.6 vs 17.3 months (HR 1.16 (95% CI, 0.72-1.87, p = 0.55). Objective measurable responses were higher with BV + EV (22% vs 12%). Study removal due to toxicity was higher with BV + EV (29% vs 12%). Toxicity (≥grade 3) from BV + EV were "other GI (mucositis)" (23 vs 1%) and "metabolic/nutrition" (19 vs. 7%); common ≥ grade 2 toxicities with BV + EV were cytopenia, nausea, fatigue and rash.
CONCLUSION: The combination regimen (BV + EV) did not significantly reduce the hazard of progression or death relative to BV and was associated with higher rates of adverse events and study discontinuation when compared to BV alone.

Abdelhamed ZA, Ryan TA, Fuller M, et al.
Characterization of Primary Cilia in Normal Fallopian Tube Epithelium and Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2018; 28(8):1535-1544 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of primary cilia on secretory cells in normal fallopian tube (FT) and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC).
METHODS: Fallopian tube tissue samples were obtained from 4 females undergoing prophylactic hysterectomies and 6 patients diagnosed with STIC. A mogp-TAg transgenic mouse STIC sample was also compared with a wild-type mouse FT sample. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma was identified by hematoxylin and eosin staining and confirmed by positive Ki-67 and p53 immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections. We assessed the relative distribution of primary cilia on secretory cells and motile cilia on multiple ciliated cells by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. Ciliary function was assessed by immunofluorescence staining of specific ciliary marker proteins and responsiveness to Sonic Hedgehog signaling.
RESULTS: Primary cilia are widespread on secretory cells in the ampulla, isthmus, and in particular, the fimbriae of human FT where they may appear to mediate ciliary-mediated Sonic Hedgehog signaling. A statistically significant reduction in the number of primary cilia on secretory cells was observed in human STIC samples compared with normal controls (P < 0.0002, Student t test), supported by similar findings in a mouse STIC sample. Immunohistochemical staining for dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 discriminated multiple motile cilia from primary cilia in human FT.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary cilia are widespread on secretory cells in the ampulla, isthmus, and in particular, the fimbriae of the human FT but are significantly reduced in both human and mouse STIC samples. Immunohistochemical staining for ciliary proteins may have clinical utility for early detection of STIC.

Lim MC, Won YJ, Lim J, et al.
Second primary cancer after primary peritoneal, epithelial ovarian, and fallopian tubal cancer: a retrospective study.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):800 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this retrospective study, data from patients listed in the Korea Central Cancer Registry during 1993-2014 were analysed, to investigate the incidence and survival of second primary cancers (SPCs) after a diagnosis of primary peritoneal, epithelial ovarian, and fallopian tubal (POFT) cancer.
METHODS: The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and survival outcomes of patients with SPCs among POFT cancer survivors were analysed.
RESULTS: Among 20,738 POFT cancer survivors, 798 (3.84%) developed SPCs, at an average interval of 5.50 years. SPC risk in POFT survivors (SIR, 1.29) was higher compared to the general population. The most high-risk type of SPC was leukaemia (3.07) followed by the lung and bronchus (1.80), colon (1.58), rectum and rectosigmoid junction (1.42), thyroid (1.34), and breast (1.26). In women aged < 60 years, cancer of the breast (1.30), ascending colon (2.26), and transverse colon (4.07) as SPCs increased. Up to 10 years after POFT cancer treatment, leukaemia risk increased, especially in those < 60 years, with serous histology, and with distant stage, which required aggressive chemotherapy. The median overall survival time was 12.8 years and 14.3 years in women with POFT cancer and SPCs, respectively. Thyroid and breast cancers were favourable prognostic markers among SPCs.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall SPC risk increases in POFT cancer survivors, especially in those < 60 years. The cancer risk of breast and the proximal colon increase based on hereditary predisposition, while leukaemia likely develops from aggressive treatment. The median overall survival is favourable in POFT cancer survivors with SPCs.

Shoji T, Komiyama S, Kigawa J, et al.
An open-label, randomized, phase II trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of standard of care with or without bevacizumab in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer patients previously treated with bevacizumab for front-line or platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: rationale, design, and methods of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study JGOG3023.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):771 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We present the study rationale and design of the JGOG3023 study, an open-label, parallel-arm, randomized, phase II trial that aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who were previously treated with bevacizumab for front-line or platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. We hypothesize that patients treated with a combination of single-agent chemotherapy and bevacizumab will show improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with those treated with single-agent chemotherapy alone, in the setting beyond disease progression following prior bevacizumab treatment.
METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 106 patients who have recurrence or progression of ovarian cancer, while receiving chemotherapy or within 6 months after the final dose of platinum, after completing at least three cycles of bevacizumab plus platinum chemotherapy will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with single-agent chemotherapy or single-agent chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab. For chemotherapy, one of the following four drugs will be chosen by an investigator: pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, topotecan, paclitaxel, or gemcitabine. The primary endpoint is investigator-assessed PFS. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, objective response rate, number of paracentesis, and response rate by CA125. Safety will be evaluated by the incidence of adverse events.
DISCUSSION: This study will assess the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with single-agent chemotherapy, which could be used continuously after disease progression following standard platinum-based chemotherapy with bevacizumab.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000017247 (registered April 22, 2015).

Ma X, Huang X, Chen C, Ding Y
A Preliminary Report Requiring Continuation of Research to Confirm Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma: A Non-Experimental, Non-Randomized, Cross-Sectional Study.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:5301-5308 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Transvaginal ultrasound has fair characteristics, and pathology is an invasive technique for fallopian tube tumor diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images have better intra- and inter-observer reliabilities for detection of primary fallopian tube malignant tumor(s) than the other diagnostic modalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate parameters of different types of magnetic resonance images for women with fallopian tube adenocarcinoma and to compare these parameters with the FIGO grading system to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 121 women who had clinically-proven fallopian tube adenocarcinoma were included in this cross-sectional study. A 3.0 T magnetic resonance images system was used for spin-lattice relaxation-weighted (T1WI), spin-spin relaxation-weighted (T2WI), diffusion-weighted, (DWI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. ANOVA following Tukey post hoc tests and Spearman rank correlation were performed at 99% confidence level. RESULTS Axial T1WI, axial T2WI, and axial DWI, were provided low, intermediate, and high fluid signal intensity, respectively, for a tumor. Sagittal T1WI showed contrast uptake by the mass with necrosis. Sagittal T2WI showed a solid mass with well-defined walls. Sagittal DWI showed restriction to diffusion. ADC values were significantly higher for FIGO grade 1 women than for FIGO grade 3 women (p<0.0001, q=16.591). The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.1012 between mean ADC and FIGO grading. CONCLUSIONS We recommend that magnetic resonance images be included in the FIGO guideline for grading of malignancies in the female genital tract.

Zhang Q, Liu A, Wu JJ, et al.
Primary malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the fallopian tube with cervix metastasis: A rare case report and literature review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(28):e11311 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the fallopian tube is very rare and has only 1 case in the current literature with cervix metastasis.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a 49-year-old woman sufferring from primary malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the fallopian tube with cervix metastasis, and the imaging examination found a strip of solid mass in the right fallopian tube and a nodular mass in cervical canal, which were both hyperintense on T2 weighted image (T2WI) and diffusion weighted image (DWI) and continuous moderate enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).
DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis was confirmed according to the specific anatomical location and pathological examination which was proved as primary malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the fallopian tube with cervix metastasis.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent radical hysterctomy, bilateral adnexectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, omentum majus excision and intravenous chemotherapy.
OUTCOMES: Her posttreatment condition was good.
LESSONS: Primary malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the fallopian tube can be located by magnetic resonance image examination, which may also offer several diagnostic tips according to changes in signal and enhancement. When combined with pathological findings, qualitative diagnosis can be determined. Surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy are considered as effective methods. Our paper discussed its epidemiology, clinical symptoms, pathologic characters, therapeutic method as well as magnetic resonance imaging findings suggesting the diagnosis and differential diagnosis, including precontrast scan, contrast scan and diffusion weighted image and provided magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of primary malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the fallopian tube described in other literatures.

Sakurada S, Watanabe Y, Tokunaga H, et al.
Clinicopathologic features and BRCA mutations in primary fallopian tube cancer in Japanese women.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2018; 48(9):794-798 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: The present study aimed to clarify the clinicopathological features, including the level of p53 protein expression and BRCA mutations, of primary fallopian tube cancer (PFTC) in Japanese women.
Methods: A multicenter clinical survey was conducted at three Japanese institutions. Clinical data in patients with PFTC between 1998 and 2016 were collected. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 and BRCA mutation analysis by exome sequence using paraffin-embedded surgical resected specimens were performed.
Results: A total of 40 patients with PFTC were enrolled in the study. The median age was 58 years (range: 38-78 years); 31 patients were menopausal. Thirty-four (85.0%) patients were diagnosed with serous adenocarcinoma (high grade, 33; low grade, 1). PFTC was classified into ampulla type, fimbriae type and undeterminable type by tumor-occupying lesion; ampulla type and fimbriae type occurred with the same frequency. Among 30 patients with high-grade serous adenocarcinoma, 6 patients showed germline mutations of BRCA1 (stop-gain 4 and frameshift deletion 2) and 2 patients showed germline mutation of BRCA2 (stop-gain 1 and frameshift deletion 1). However, only 1 patient had familial history of breast or ovarian cancer. Patients with BRCA mutations in the germline were frequently observed in ampulla type and FIGO stage I/II cancers, but no significant difference in the frequency of p53 overexpression and overall survival was observed.
Conclusions: Among Japanese patients with PFTC, 26.7% presented with BRCA mutations in the germline. Additionally, p53 was important for the carcinogenesis in fallopian tubes, independent of the specific BRCA mutation.

Chen Y, Ling C, Bian C
Port-site metastasis as a primary complication following diagnostic laparoscopy of fallopian tube carcinoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(26):e11166 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Fallopian tube carcinoma is a rare female genital cancer with no specific clinical and surgical features. It is hardly diagnosed on imaging due to non-specific presentation. Laparoscopy has been recommended as the diagnostic procedure for the assessment of suspicious ovarian and adnexal masses. However, it has brought new complications like tumor recurrences at the trocar insertion sites, called port-site metastasis (PSM).
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old, postmenopausal woman presented to hospital with loss of appetite, Ultrasound showed ill-defined pelvic mass. The patient was diagnosed with fallopian tube carcinoma by a diagnostic laparoscopy.
DIAGNOSES: The PSM as a primary complication following diagnostic laparoscopy of fallopian tube carcinoma, which is presumed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography and confirmed by Nodule resection and further pathological assessment.
INTERVENTIONS: As port-site metastasis was suspected, the patient was advised to undergo umbilical mass resection.
OUTCOMES: the patient has no signs of recurrence was detected 20 months after the last surgery during follow-up.
LESSIONS: Laparoscopy plays a significant role in the diagnose and treatment of fallopian tubal and ovarian malignancies but has a risk of PSM occurrence. When isolated PSM occurs the management should be local resection.

Gockley AA, Elias KM
Fallopian tube tumorigenesis and clinical implications for ovarian cancer risk-reduction.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2018; 69:66-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death among American women. Prevention is the only proven approach to reduce the incidence of the disease. Oral contraception, tubal ligation, and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (rrBSO) for high-risk groups are all established risk reduction strategies. This paradigm is changing as recent biologic studies suggest that many ovarian cancers, especially high-grade serous ovarian cancers, originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube rather than the ovarian surface epithelium. A putative precursor lesion has been identified called the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC). Theoretically, removal of the fallopian tubes alone may prevent these lesions and prevent overt disease. Opportunistic salpingectomy during benign gynecologic surgery appears to be safe and may offer some protection from ovarian cancer without compromising ovarian endocrine function. Despite a lack of evidence for efficacy, several professional societies now recommend this approach for average-risk women. Whether salpingectomy can also serve as a temporizing measure to delay risk-reducing oophorectomy in women with a genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer remains to be seen. Several ongoing non-randomized clinical trials will test the feasibility of this approach. Therefore, the societal impact of increasing salpingectomy rates on ovarian cancer incidence will be an area of intense focus for the next 10-20 years.

Song L, Li Q, Yang K, et al.
Three primary synchronous malignancies of the uterus, cervix, and fallopian tube: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(24):e11107 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Multiple primary malignancies can occur in the same organ or in multiple organs or systems. Likewise, they can occur simultaneously or successively. Based on the timing of the diagnosis, they are classified as multiple synchronous (i.e., concurrent) or metachronous (i.e., successive) primary malignancies. The vast majority of patients have multiple metachronous malignant tumors; multiple synchronous tumors are rare.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of vaginal fluid discharge for 3 months and abdominal pain for 1 month.
DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with multiple synchronous primary malignancies: 1) endometrial poorly differentiated serous adenocarcinoma, stage IV; 2) poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, stage IB1; and 3) left-sided fallopian tube carcinoma in situ.
INTERVENTIONS: After total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and comprehensive staging and debulking, the patient was administered eight courses of adjuvant chemotherapy (taxane carboplatin/taxane cisplatin).
OUTCOMES: After chemotherapy completion, the patient has been undergoing regular follow-up examinations; no recurrence has been noted at 18 months.
LESSONS: It is important to distinguish between multiple synchronous primary malignancies and metastasis of a primary tumor to select the appropriate treatment regimen and to adequately assess the patient's prognosis. When a cancer patient shows clinical manifestations of another tumor, not only metastasis but also the possibility of multiple synchronous primary malignant tumors should be considered. The duration of follow-up in patients with malignant tumors should be extended as much as possible, as the timely detection and treatment of other primary malignant tumors can prolong survival and improve the quality of life.

Toptas T, Pestereli E, Simsek T, et al.
The clinical impact of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma on outcomes of patients with high-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018 Apr-Jun; 14(3):587-592 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aims: To investigate whether the presence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is associated with clinical outcomes in a nonselected (unknown BRCA status) cohort of patients with a high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum.
Settings and Design: A prospective case-series with planned data collection.
Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in a total of 131 patients, who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery between 2007 and 2012. Histological examination of the fallopian tubes included the "sectioning and extensively examining the fimbriated end" protocol. The diagnosis of STIC was based on the combination of morphology and immunohistochemistry. The patients were divided into two groups according to the absence or presence of STIC and compared clinicopathologically.
Statistical Analysis Used: Analyses were performed using PASW 18 (SPSS/IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) software. The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary outcome was overall survival (OS).
Results: STIC was identified in 20.6% of patients. Median follow-up time was 49.5 months for the STIC-positive group and 38.0 months for the STIC-negative group. Study groups were comparable in terms of clinicopathological characteristics with the exception that patients with STIC had less lymph node involvement (55.0% vs. 65.4%, P = 0.001), and more diagnosis of primary tubal carcinoma (29.6% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.001) compared to those without STIC. No statistically significant differences in terms of PFS (P = 0.462) and OS (P = 0.501) were observed between the groups.
Conclusions: The absolute identification of the origin of tumor cell does not seem to significantly affect the clinical course of the patients with HGSC.

Xia LF, Ye S, Shen XX, et al.
Primary leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube: Three case reports and review of the literature.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 57(3):456-461 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube is a rare malignant gynecologic neoplasm with poor prognosis. It is important to share experience and to collect more cases to improve the understanding of the disease.
CASE REPORT: We reported three patients with leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube who were treated in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (Shanghai, China) from 2012 to 2016. Although the three cases shared the same diagnosis, they varied in the presentations, treatments, and outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube seems to have some particularities in imaging manifestations and immunohistochemical results. It has a progressive course with limited therapeutic options such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Konstantinopoulos PA, Brady WE, Farley J, et al.
Phase II study of single-agent cabozantinib in patients with recurrent clear cell ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer (NRG-GY001).
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 150(1):9-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of cabozantinib in recurrent clear cell ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer.
METHODS: Patients with recurrent ovarian, fallopian or primary peritoneal tumors with at least 50% clear cell histomorphology, measurable disease, one or two prior regimens and ECOG performance status 0-2 received cabozantinib 60 mg orally once daily continuously, in 4-week cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) at six months and complete or partial tumor response (as assessed by RECIST 1.1). Secondary endpoints included toxicity, PFS, and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Over 19 months, 13 patients were accrued. Fifty-four percent of patients were ≥60 years of age. Performance statuses of 0 and 1 comprised 8 and 5 patients. No objective tumor responses were seen. Three (23% [95% CI: 5%, 54%]) of 13 patients had PFS ≥6 months, including one patient who received cabozantinib for 23 cycles and was still on treatment as of the data cut-off date. Median PFS and OS were 3.6 and 8.1 months, respectively. There was one patient with a grade 5 event: a thromboembolic event considered possibly related to study therapy; patient's cause of death was determined to be due to disease and protocol treatment. Four other patients had thromboembolic events (two grade 3 and one each grade 1 and grade 2). Other grade 3 or higher events reported in two or more patients were nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dyspnea, and dehydration.
CONCLUSIONS: Cabozantinib demonstrated minimal activity in the second- and third-line treatments of clear cell ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma.

You D, Wang Q, Jiang W, et al.
Primary leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube: A case report and literature review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(17):e0536 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the fallopian tube is extremely uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, so far only 21 cases of primary fallopian tube LMS have been reported in English-language literature. No new case has been reported in the past 7 years.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 44-year-old premenopausal patient presented with a 5-day history of lower abdominal pain.
DIAGNOSES: Pelvic ultrasonography detected an 8.8 × 7.8 × 6.5 cm solid and cystic mass in the left side of the pelvic cavity. The tumor was diagnosed as a primary fallopian tube LMS on paraffin section.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient treated surgically followed by 4 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy with dacarbazine and DDP.
OUTCOMES: The patient succumbed to the disease 27 months after the initial therapy.
LESSONS: Tube LMS is a rare malignant tumor with unknown etiology, difficult early diagnosis, highly invasiveness, high local recurrence and distant metastasis rate, rapid progress, and poor prognosis. It is extremely rare so we can only summarize limited experience from limited data. Every case of tubal LMS is worth being reported.

Andikyan V, Kim A, Gretz HF, et al.
Laparoscopic Assessment to Determine the Likelihood of Achieving Optimal Cytoreduction in Patients Undergoing Primary Debulking Surgery for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer.
Am J Clin Oncol. 2018; 41(10):938-942 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic assessment to determine the likelihood of achieving optimal cytoreduction (OC) in patients undergoing primary debulking surgery (PDS) for ovarian cancer.
METHODS: All patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and PDS at our institution from January 2008 to December 2013 were identified. We determined the likelihood of achieving optimal cytoreduction by laparoscopic assessment based on tumor site, pattern of spread, and disease burden. Sensitivity was defined as the number of patients who achieved optimal cytoreduction after laparoscopic assessment divided by the number of patients with disease deemed resectable by laparoscopy.
RESULTS: We identified 55 patients during study period. Twenty-one of the 55 patients (38%) were early stage disease. Six (10.9%) patients had disease deemed unresectable and 49 (89.1%) had disease deemed resectable at the time of laparoscopy. OC was achieved in 48 of 49 (97.9%) patients. The sensitivity of laparoscopy in predicting OC was 98% (95% confidence interval, 89.3%-99.9%). The operation was completed laparoscopically in 23 of 49 patients (47%); in 26 of 49 (53%), PDS was performed by laparotomy. There were no port site metastases reported. The rate of postoperative complications was 16%. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the median overall survival was not reached and the 75th percentile for overall survival was 37 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy was shown to have a high sensitivity in predicting OC and is a feasible tool in triaging patients with ovarian cancer. Laparoscopy is not associated with adverse surgical outcomes.

Crafton SM, Senter-Jamieson L, Chen JL, et al.
Radiation-associated Angiosarcoma Mimicking Fallopian Tube High-grade Serous Carcinoma in a Woman With De Novo Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2019; 38(3):258-262 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a case study of a woman with history of rectal adenocarcinoma, and a new diagnosis of radiation-associated angiosarcoma mimicking fallopian tube high-grade serous carcinoma who was subsequently found to have de novo Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Our objective is to highlight angiosarcoma as a potential pitfall in the diagnosis of high-grade serous carcinoma.

Liao CI, Chow S, Chen LM, et al.
Trends in the incidence of serous fallopian tube, ovarian, and peritoneal cancer in the US.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 149(2):318-323 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify the trends in incidence of serous fallopian tube, ovarian, and peritoneal epithelial cancers in the United States.
METHODS: Data was obtained from United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) from 2001 to 2014. All incidences are per 100,000 women. Analyses were performed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint regression programs.
RESULTS: Of the 146,470 patients with serous cancers, 9381 (6.4%) were fallopian tube, 121,418 (82.9%) were ovarian, and 15,671 (10.7%) were primary peritoneal. The study period was divided from 2001 to 2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2014, and there was an increase in fallopian tube incidence from 0.19 to 0.35 to 0.63, with a corresponding decrease in ovarian incidence from 5.31 to 5.08 to 4.86. There was no significant change in peritoneal cancers from 0.64 to 0.69 to 0.62. The age-specific peak incidence of fallopian tube cancer was younger at age 70-74, compared to ovarian and peritoneal cancer at age 75-79. Further, the incidence of serous fallopian tube cancer was highest in Whites at 0.42, compared to Blacks at 0.24, Hispanics at 0.27, and Asians at 0.28.
CONCLUSION: From 2001 to 2014, the diagnosis of serous fallopian tube cancer increased fourfold with a corresponding decrease in ovarian cancer. The peak incidence of tubal cancer was 70-74years with an increased incidence in Whites.

Lee M, Lee Y, Kim K, et al.
Development and Validation of Ovarian Symptom Index-18 and Neurotoxicity-4 for Korean Patients with Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer.
Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 51(1):112-118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop Korean versions of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network/Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (NCCN-FACT) Ovarian Symptom Index-18 (NFOSI-18) and FACT/Gynecologic Oncology Group (FACT-GOG) Neurotoxicity 4-item (NTX-4), evaluating their reliability and reproducibility.
Materials and Methods: In converting NFOSI-18 and NTX-4, the following steps were performed: forward translation, backward translation, expert review, pretest of preliminary format, and finalization of Korean versions (K-NFOSI-18 and K-NTX-4). Patients were enrolled from six institutions where each had completed chemotherapy for ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer at least 1 month earlier. In addition to demographics obtained by questionnaire, all subjects were assessed via K-NFOSI-18, K-NTX-4, and a Korean version of the EuroQoL-5 Dimension. Internal structural validity and reliability were evaluated using item internal consistency, item discriminant validity, and Cronbach's α. To evaluate test-retest reliability, K-NFOSI-18 and K-NTX-4 were readministered after 7-21 days, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated.
RESULTS: Of the 250 women enrolled during the 3-month recruitment period, 13 withdrew or did not respond, leaving 237 (94.8%) for the analyses. Mean patient age was 54.3±10.8 years. Re-testing was performed in 190 patients (80.2%). The total K-NFOSI-18 and K-NTX-4 scores were 49 (range, 20 to 72) and 9 (range, 0 to 16), respectively, with high reliability (Cronbach's α=0.84 and 0.89, respectively) and reproducibility (ICC=0.77 and 0.84, respectively) achieved in retesting.
CONCLUSION: Both NFOSI-18 and NTX-4 were successfully developed in Korean with minimal modification. Each Korean version showed high internal consistency and reproducibility.

Rajendran S, Hussein Y, Park KJ, McCluggage WG
Fallopian Tube Mucosal Involvement in Cervical Gastric-type Adenocarcinomas: Report of a Series With Discussion of the Distinction From Synchronous In Situ Tubal Lesions.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(6):813-820 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Cervical gastric-type adenocarcinomas are aggressive non-human papillomavirus-related carcinomas with a propensity for extracervical spread, including unusual sites such as the omentum, peritoneum, and ovary. We report 7 cases of cervical gastric-type adenocarcinoma with fallopian tube involvement predominantly in the form of mucosal colonization without underlying invasion. As far as we are aware, this has not been previously described and this report adds to the literature regarding metastatic neoplasms, which may exhibit tubal mucosal involvement and mimic an in situ lesion at this site. In all cases, there was associated ovarian involvement and in 6 of 7 cases, there was endometrial colonization. We speculate that the fallopian tube (and ovarian) involvement is secondary to transuterine spread. Given the occasional occurrence of multifocal gastric-type glandular lesions (benign or malignant) involving different sites in the female genital tract, we discuss the distinction between synchronous independent and metastatic lesions.

Balaya V, Metzger U, Denet C, et al.
Isolated fallopian tube metastasis from colorectal cancer: ultrasonographic features.
J Ultrasound. 2018; 21(1):69-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
We present here the first-reported case of tubal metastasis from colorectal cancer diagnosed by a preoperative pelvic ultrasound. A 53-year-old woman suffering from vaginal discharge was referred to us 2 years after she underwent a partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma. The pelvic ultrasound examination revealed a right pelvic mass of 52 × 24 × 38 mm, independent of the right ovary, which was apparently unaffected. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the definitive histopathology examination showed a recurrence of the initial adenocarcinoma with a right tubal metastasis. The eventuality of such an unusual site of metastasis should be remembered.

Saini U, Suarez AA, Naidu S, et al.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(7):1739-1750 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The initial molecular events that lead to malignant transformation of the fimbria of the fallopian tube (FT) through high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that increased expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (

Toyoda T, Suzuki H, Nakajima T, et al.
Successful diagnosis of an occult fallopian tube carcinoma detected from the diaphragm metastasis.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018; 66(8):484-487 [PubMed] Related Publications
We herein reported a rare case of an occult fallopian tube carcinoma first detected from the diaphragm metastasis. An 83-year-old woman who had a 30-mm tumor on the right diaphragm underwent radical resection. Pathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a high-grade serous adenocarcinoma, suggesting metastasis from the pelvic visceral carcinoma. Although the primary site could not be detected by imaging examinations, laparoscopy revealed multiple peritoneal disseminations; therefore, total hysterectomy was performed. Finally, microscopic tumor invasion into the right fimbriae of the fallopian tube was found. A precise and detailed pathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the resected metastatic diaphragm tumor helped us obtain a proper diagnosis of the primary lesion and treat the patient appropriately. Since it is difficult to diagnose diaphragm tumors before surgery based on the anatomy, surgical options have played an important role in their treatment and diagnosis clinically.

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