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Everolimus (Afinitor)

Web Resources: Everolimus
Latest Research Publications: Everolimus

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Latest Research Publications: Everolimus

Ballatore Z, Pistelli M, Battelli N, et al.
Everolimus and exemestane in long survival hormone receptor positive male breast cancer: case report.
BMC Res Notes. 2016; 9(1):497 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer is a rare event, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast carcinomas. Although men with breast cancer had poorer survival when compared with women, data on prognosis principally derive from retrospective studies and from extrapolation of female breast cancer series. We reported the case of a very long survival patient.
CASE PRESENTATION: A caucasian 42-year-old man underwent radical mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer in 1993. Pathologic stage was pT4pN0M0 infiltrating ductal carcinoma of right breast without lymph nodes metastases. Biological characterization was not available. He received adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, six cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil, then endocrine therapy with tamoxifen for 5 years and complementary radiotherapy. Then he began clinical-instrumental follow up. In May 1996, a computed tomography scan showed multiple lung metastases. Hereafter he received several oncologic treatment including seven chemotherapy and five endocrine therapy lines with two re-challenge of endocrine therapy. In October 2007 further lung progression was showed and a biopsy was performed to characterize the disease. Histological examination confirmed breast cancer metastases, immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for estrogen receptor, negative for progesterone receptor and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2, proliferative index was 21%. In April 2013, bone disease progression was evident and he received radiant treatment to sacral spine. In May 2014 an off-label treatment with exemestane and everolimus combination was approved by Ethics Committee of the Marche Region. The patient received treatment for 3 months with evident clinical benefit to subcutaneous lesions of the chest wall that were not visible nor palpable on physical examination after 1 month of treatment.
CONCLUSION: That is the case of long survival male breast cancer patient with luminal B subtype and no BRCA mutations. He achieved higher progression free survival with endocrine therapy creating the rationale for last line treatment with everolimus and exemestane combination. Attending conclusive results from ongoing studies, everolimus and exemestane should not be used routinely in male metastatic breast cancer patients, but taking into account for selected cases. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of male beast cancer treated with exemestane and everolimus combination.

Garcia CA, Wu S
Attributable Risk of Infection to mTOR Inhibitors Everolimus and Temsirolimus in the Treatment of Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2016; 34(10):521-530 [PubMed] Related Publications
The risk of infection attributable to mTOR inhibitors has not been determined. Databases from PubMed and abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, in which everolimus or temsirolimus was compared with placebo. A total of 12 trials were included. The attributable incidences of all-grade and high-grade infections to mTOR inhibitors were 9.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8-14.6%) and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.2-4.4%) respectively. The risk varied widely with tumor types (p <.001). There was substantial risk of infection attributable to mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus.

Hirayama Y, Gi M, Yamano S, et al.
Anti-PD-L1 treatment enhances antitumor effect of everolimus in a mouse model of renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(12):1736-1744 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapy based on blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis has shown promising clinical activity for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients; however, the most effective use of these agents in combination with conventional targeted therapy remains to be resolved. Here we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (EVE) and anti-PD-L1 using an immunocompetent mouse model of RCC. We first assessed the in vitro effect of EVE on PD-L1 expression in the human 786-O and mouse RENCA RCC cell lines and found that EVE upregulated PD-L1 expression in these RCC cell lines. We then treated RENCA tumor-bearing mice with EVE and found that PD-L1 expression was also increased in tumor cells after EVE treatment. To determine the antitumor effects of EVE alone, anti-PD-L1 alone, and EVE in combination with anti-PD-L1, we evaluated their antitumor effects on RENCA tumor-bearing mice. A significant decrease in the tumor burden was observed in the EVE alone but not in the anti-PD-L1 alone treatment group compared with the control group. Importantly, the combination of EVE with anti-PD-L1 significantly reduced tumor burden compared with the EVE alone treatment, increasing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the ratio of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells to TILs. The results of the present study demonstrated that anti-PD-L1 treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of EVE in a mouse model, supporting a direct translation of this combination strategy to the clinic for the treatment of RCC.

Czarnecka AM, Sobczuk P, Korniluk J, et al.
Long-term response to sunitinib: everolimus treatment in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(1):31-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The study aim was to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma on sunitinib (SU) and SU-everolimus treatment.
PATIENTS & METHODS: After 7 years of enrollment and 9 years of follow-up, 193 consecutively presenting patients (151 men and 42 women) were treated.
RESULTS: A total of 157 patients (81.3%) died and 36 patients (18.7%) survived. Median PFS in 193 SU-treated patients was 14.7 months and OS was 28.8 months. Median PFS was 13.98 months and median OS was 26.67 months in 175 patients treated with SU only or on SU-everolimus.
CONCLUSION: The development of SU-induced hypothyroidism, hypertension, neutropenia and edema was a significant predictive and prognostic factor.

Fogarasi A, De Waele L, Bartalini G, et al.
EFFECTS: an expanded access program of everolimus for patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.
BMC Neurol. 2016; 16:126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The Everolimus For Fast Expanded aCcess in TSC SEGA (EFFECTS) study was designed to provide everolimus access to patients with SEGA associated with TSC and to mainly assess the safety and also efficacy of everolimus in a real-world setting.
METHODS: EFFECTS was a phase 3b, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, expanded access study. Eligible patients were ≥ 3 years of age, with a definite diagnosis of TSC, and with at least one SEGA lesion identified by MRI or CT scan. Patients received once daily everolimus (dose adjusted to attain a trough level of 5-15 ng/mL). Safety evaluation was the primary objective and included collection of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs, with their severity and relationship to everolimus. Efficacy evaluation, which was the secondary objective, was based on the best overall response as per medical judgment.
RESULTS: Of the 120 patients enrolled, 100 (83.3%) completed the study. Median age of patients was 11 years (range, 1-47). Median daily dose of everolimus was 5.82 mg (range, 2.0-11.8). Median duration of exposure was 56.5 weeks (range, 0.3-130). The overall incidence of AEs was 74.2%. Aphthous stomatitis (18 [15.0%]), pyrexia (18 [15.0%]), bronchitis (11 [9.2%]), and stomatitis (10 [8.3%]) were the most common AEs reported. Overall, 25 patients had grade 3 AEs; most frequent was stomatitis (4 [3.3%]). Grade 4 AEs were reported in three (2.5%) patients. A total of 62 (51.7%) patients had suspected drug-related AEs, of which 15 (12.5%) were of grade 3 or 4. In eight (6.7%) patients, AEs led to drug discontinuation. With regard to efficacy, 81 (67.5%) patients had a partial response, 35 (29.2%) had a stable disease, and one (0.8%) had progressive disease. The response was unknown in three (2.5%) patients.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the acceptable safety profile of everolimus in patients with SEGA associated with TSC in a real-world setting. The results further support the efficacy of everolimus in the treatment of SEGA associated with TSC. (EudraCT: 2010-022583-13).

Flaum N, Valle JW, Mansoor W, McNamara MG
Everolimus in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the respiratory and gastroenteropancreatic systems.
Future Oncol. 2016; 12(22):2561-2578 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare diverse group of malignancies occurring most commonly in the gastroenteropancreatic system and the lungs. The incidence of NETs is increasing worldwide; median survival for patients with metastatic NETs is 5-65 months. A growing body of evidence shows survival benefit in patients with advanced NETs (gastroenteropancreatic and lung) treated with mTOR inhibitor everolimus, with improvement in survival being demonstrated in the clinical trial and real-world setting. Everolimus has been shown to have a manageable safety profile, with the most common adverse events being stomatitis, rash, diarrhea, fatigue and infections. Due to the rarity of the condition, there are challenges in conducting clinical trials in these patients. Further research is required to clarify the role of adjuvant therapy, treatment sequencing and the use of multimodality treatments.

Sasongko TH, Ismail NF, Zabidi-Hussin Z
Rapamycin and rapalogs for tuberous sclerosis complex.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 7:CD011272 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown potential benefits of rapamycin or rapalogs for treating people with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although everolimus (a rapalog) is currently approved by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and the EMA (European Medicines Agency) for tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal angiomyolipoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, applications for other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex have not yet been established. A systematic review is necessary to establish the clinical value of rapamycin or rapalogs for various manifestations in tuberous sclerosis complex.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex for decreasing tumour size and other manifestations and to assess the safety of rapamycin or rapalogs in relation to their adverse effects.
SEARCH METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by authors from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, and clinicaltrials.gov. Relevant resources were also searched by the authors, such as conference proceedings and abstract books of conferences, from e.g. the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex International Research Conferences, other tuberous sclerosis complex-related conferences and the Human Genome Meeting. We did not restrict the searches by language as long as English translations were available for non-English reports.Date of the last searches: 14 March 2016.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized studies of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were independently extracted by two authors using standard acquisition forms. The data collection was verified by one author. The risk of bias of each study was independently assessed by two authors and verified by one author.
MAIN RESULTS: Three placebo-controlled studies with a total of 263 participants (age range 0.8 to 61 years old, 122 males and 141 females, with variable lengths of study duration) were included in the review. We found high-quality evidence except for response to skin lesions which was judged to be low quality due to the risk of attrition bias. Overall, there are 175 participants in the treatment arm (rapamycin or everolimus) and 88 in the placebo arm. Participants all had tuberous sclerosis complex as proven by consensus diagnostic criteria as a minimum. The quality in the description of the study methods was mixed, although we assessed most domains as having a low risk of bias. Blinding of treatment arms was successfully carried out in all of the studies. However, two studies did not report allocation concealment. Two of the included studies were funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals.Two studies (235 participants) used oral (systemic) administration of everolimus (rapalog). These studies reported response to tumour size in terms of the number of individuals with a reduction in the total volume of tumours to 50% or more relative to baseline. Significantly more participants in the treatment arm (two studies, 162 participants, high quality evidence) achieved a 50% reduction in renal angiomyolipoma size, risk ratio 24.69 (95% confidence interval 3.51 to 173.41) (P = 0.001). For the sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma, our analysis of one study (117 participants, high quality evidence) showed significantly more participants in the treatment arm achieved a 50% reduction in tumour size, risk ratio 27.85 (95% confidence interval 1.74 to 444.82) (P = 0.02). The proportion of participants who showed a skin response from the two included studies analysed was significantly increased in the treatment arms, risk ratio 5.78 (95% confidence interval 2.30 to 14.52) (P = 0.0002) (two studies, 224 participants, high quality evidence). In one study (117 participants), the median change of seizure frequency was -2.9 in 24 hours (95% confidence interval -4.0 to -1.0) in the treatment group versus -4.1 in 24 hour (95% confidence interval -10.9 to 5.8) in the placebo group. In one study, one out of 79 participants in the treatment group versus three of 39 in placebo group had increased blood creatinine levels, while the median percentage change of forced expiratory volume at one second in the treatment arm was -1% compared to -4% in the placebo arm. In one study (117 participants, high quality evidence), we found that those participants who received treatment had a similar risk of experiencing adverse events compared to those who did not, risk ratio 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.96 - 1.20) (P = 0.24). However, as seen from two studies (235 participants, high quality evidence), the treatment itself led to significantly more adverse events resulting in withdrawal, interruption of treatment, or reduction in dose level, risk ratio 3.14 (95% confidence interval 1.82 to 5.42) (P < 0.0001).One study (28 participants) used topical (skin) administration of rapamycin. This study reported response to skin lesions in terms of participants' perception towards their skin appearance following the treatment. There was a tendency of an improvement in the participants' perception of their skin appearance, although not significant, risk ratio 1.81 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 4.06, low quality evidence) (P = 0.15). This study reported that there were no serious adverse events related to the study product and there was no detectable systemic absorption of the rapamycin during the study period.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that oral everolimus significantly increased the proportion of people who achieved a 50% reduction in the size of sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. Although we were unable to ascertain the relationship between the reported adverse events and the treatment, participants who received treatment had a similar risk of experiencing adverse events as compared to those who did not receive treatment. Nevertheless, the treatment itself significantly increased the risk of having dose reduction, interruption or withdrawal. This supports ongoing clinical applications of oral everolimus for renal angiomyolipoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Although oral everolimus showed beneficial effect on skin lesions, topical rapamycin only showed a non-significant tendency of improvement. Efficacy on skin lesions should be further established in future research. The beneficial effects of rapamycin or rapalogs on tuberous sclerosis complex should be further studied on other manifestations of the condition.

Liu CT, Chen MH, Chen JS, et al.
The efficacy and safety of everolimus for the treatment of progressive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: A multi-institution observational study in Taiwan.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016; 12(4):396-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Everolimus is an inhibitor of mTOR, approved for treatment of advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of everolimus in treatment of progressive, advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) in Taiwan.
METHODS: Fifty-three patients with progressive, advanced GEP-NETs who received everolimus treatment between January 2008 and August 2014 were selected. Patient characteristics, tumor features, safety profiles and treatment efficacy were retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 23.7 (1.2-70) months and 37 of 53 patients (69.8%) remained alive at the end of study. The one- and two-year overall survival rates were 90.5% and 75.4%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 18.9 (95% confidence interval; 10.9-26.8) months. Partial response was observed in 15 (28.3%) patients, 29 (54.7%) patients had stable disease and nine (17%) patients had progressive disease. Patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade I NETs, nonfunctional tumors and liver metastasis burden <10% had significantly better PFS with everolimus treatment. Adverse events observed were stomatitis (35.8%), hyperglycemia (22.6%) and rash (18.8%). Seven (15.4%) patients experienced severe adverse events (grade 3 or more), including hyperglycemia (4.4%), anemia (4.4%), fatigue (2.2%) and elevated liver function (2.2%). One (2.2%) patient died from grade 5 interstitial pneumonitis.
CONCLUSION: Everolimus was an effective treatment for Taiwanese patients with progressive advanced GEP-NETs. Patients with nonfunctional NETs had a trend toward longer PFS, whereas patients with liver metastases burden <10% had a trend toward longer overall survival time receiving everolimus treatment.

Wang YJ, Chi NH, Chou NK, et al.
Malignancy After Heart Transplantation Under Everolimus Versus Mycophenolate Mofetil Immunosuppression.
Transplant Proc. 2016; 48(3):969-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With advances in immunosuppressive therapy, heart transplantation is currently recommended as the only established surgical treatment for refractory heart failure. However, chronic immunosuppression increases the risk for malignancy. Everolimus (EVR) is a potent mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that is used after transplantation and to treat advanced malignancies, as we have done in Taiwan after heart transplantation since 2004. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and EVR are frequently used as cell-cycle inhibitors to optimize post-transplantation outcomes.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of 454 patients who received either MMF (n = 232) or EVR (n = 222) after heart transplantation at the National Taiwan University Hospital from March 1, 1990, to March 1, 2015. Patient characteristics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared between groups.
RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 69.2 months, malignancy was diagnosed in 27 patients receiving MMF (n = 23) or EVR (n = 4). There was a significant difference in malignancy risk between groups (9.91% vs 1.80%, P = .001). The most common malignancies were non-Hodgkin lymphoma, skin cancers, and lung squamous cell carcinoma. The 2-year overall survival after malignancy was 50% in the EVR group and 47% in the MMF group (P = .745).
CONCLUSIONS: EVR treatment after heart transplant is associated with a lower risk of malignancy than is MMF treatment. The 2-year survival rate after malignancy was similar between EVR and MMF groups.

Flores-González JC, Estalella-Mendoza A, Lechuga-Sancho AM, et al.
Severe pneumonia by Mycoplasma as an adverse event of everolimus therapy in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2016; 20(5):758-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common symptoms in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), appearing mainly in the first year of life and often resistant to therapy. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of everolimus but its safety in children has not yet been well reported. We present two cases of severe pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma in two children receiving everolimus for epilepsy secondary to TSC.
STUDY CASES: Both patients were admitted to the PICU for severe pneumonia with pleural effusion. One of them needed support with high concentration of oxygen and broad spectrum antibiotics and the other developed a septic shock with acute respiratory distress needing mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs, pleural drainage and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Everolimus was discontinued and in both patients Mycoplasma pneumoniae was identified by PCR. Both patients were discharged without sequelae.
CONCLUSION: Everolimus therapy for epilepsy in the context of TCS could be associated, as in these two cases, with severe bacterial infection by Mycoplasma.

Yu F, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al.
The combination of NVP-BKM120 with trastuzumab or RAD001 synergistically inhibits the growth of breast cancer stem cells in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):356-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is common in breast cancer and is frequently associated with resistance to both traditional chemotherapy and targeted drugs. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that a small subpopulation of self-renewing cells, the so called cancer stem cells (CSC), are responsible for the growth of drug resistant secondary tumors. As many CSCs have upregulated the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, preclinical and clinical studies are addressing the inhibition of this axis to target drug resistance. We evaluated the susceptibility of breast CSCs to NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), a new generation of PI3K-specific inhibitor, when used individually or in combination with trastuzumab or RAD001 both in vitro and in vivo. For this, a stem-like cell population (SC) was enriched from breast cancer cell lines after mammosphere cultures. We demonstrated that BKM120 inhibits growth, generation of drug-resistant derivatives and SC formation in a panel of four breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3 and CAL51. Importantly, BKM120 inhibits the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in SCs from these cell lines. When BKM120 was used in combination with trastuzumab, a targeted therapy to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, we found synergistic cell growth inhibition, generation of drug resistant cells as well as SC formation from SK-BR-3 cells. Importantly, SK-BR-3 xenograft-derived tumors showed marginal growth when the drug combination was used. We also found a similar synergistic anticancer effect of BKM120 in combination with RAD001, an mTOR inhibitor, when treating triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in both MDA-MB-231 and CAL51- mouse xenografts. Moreover, mouse data indicate that these drug combinations are well tolerated and provide the proof-of-concept and rationale to initiate clinical trials in both HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer.

Ozkan E, Soydal C, Ucak Semirgin S, et al.
Early Response to Everolimus Therapy Detected on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in a Patient With Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor.
Clin Nucl Med. 2016; 41(7):561-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that has been recently approved for the treatment of patients with advanced progressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Here, we present a case in which an early therapy response to everolimus was effectively demonstrated by Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT.

Ouerdani A, Goutagny S, Kalamarides M, et al.
Mechanism-based modeling of the clinical effects of bevacizumab and everolimus on vestibular schwannomas of patients with neurofibromatosis type 2.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(6):1263-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To describe the natural growth of vestibular schwannoma in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and to predict tumor volume evolution in patients treated with bevacizumab and everolimus.
METHODS: Clinical data, including longitudinal tumor volumes in patients treated by bevacizumab (n = 13), everolimus (n = 7) or both (n = 2), were analyzed by means of mathematical modeling techniques. Together with clinical data, data from the literature were also integrated to account for drugs mechanisms of action.
RESULTS: We developed a model of vestibular schwannoma growth that takes into account the effect of vascular endothelial growth factors and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 on tumor growth. Behaviors, such as tumor growth rebound following everolimus treatment stops, was correctly described with the model. Preliminary results indicate that the model can be used to predict, based on early tumor volume dynamic, tumor response to variation in treatment dose and regimen.
CONCLUSION: The developed model successfully describes tumor volume growth before and during bevacizumab and/or everolimus treatment. It might constitute a rational tool to predict patients' response to these drugs, thus potentially improving management of this disease.

Lin JF, Lin YC, Yang SC, et al.
Autophagy inhibition enhances RAD001-induced cytotoxicity in human bladder cancer cells.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016; 10:1501-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, is known to play a central role in regulating the growth of cancer cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway enhances tumor survival and proliferation through suppressing autophagy, which sustains energy homeostasis by collecting and recycling cellular components under stress conditions. Conversely, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway such as RAD001 induce autophagy, leading to promotion of tumor survival and limited antitumor efficacy. We thus hypothesized that the use of autophagy inhibitor in combination with mTOR inhibition improves the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of RT4, 5637, HT1376, and T24 human bladder cancer cells treated with RAD001 alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), chloroquine, or hydroxychloroquine) was assessed using the WST-8 cell viability kit. The autophagy status in cells was analyzed by the detection of microtubule-associated light chain 3 form II (LC3-II), using immunofluorescent staining and Western blot. Acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation in treated cells was determined by acridine orange vital staining. Inhibition of mTOR pathway by RAD001 was monitored by using a homemade quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene array, while phospho-mTOR was detected using Western blot. Induced apoptosis was determined by measurement of caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation in cells after treatment.
RESULTS: Advanced bladder cancer cells (5637, HT1376, and T24) were more resistant to RAD001 than RT4. Autophagy flux detected by the expression of LC3-II showed RAD001-induced autophagy. AVO formation was detected in cells treated with RAD001 and was inhibited by the addition of 3-MA or Baf A1. Cotreatment of RAD001 with autophagy inhibitors further reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of the mTOR and autophagy pathway significantly enhances apoptosis, and it is suggested to be a new therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of bladder cancer.

Akhenblit PJ, Hanke NT, Gill A, et al.
Assessing Metabolic Changes in Response to mTOR Inhibition in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma Xenograft Model Using AcidoCEST MRI.
Mol Imaging. 2016; 15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AcidoCEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been shown to measure tumor extracellular pH (pHe) with excellent accuracy and precision. This study investigated the ability of acidoCEST MRI to monitor changes in tumor pHe in response to therapy. To perform this study, we used the Granta 519 human mantle cell lymphoma cell line, which is an aggressive B-cell malignancy that demonstrates activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies using the Granta 519 cell line to investigate the efficacy and associated changes induced by the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus (RAD001). AcidoCEST MRI studies showed a statistically significant increase in tumor pHe of 0.10 pH unit within 1 day of initiating treatment, which foreshadowed a decrease in tumor growth of the Granta 519 xenograft model. AcidoCEST MRI then measured a decrease in tumor pHe 7 days after initiating treatment, which foreshadowed a return to normal tumor growth rate. Therefore, this study is a strong example that acidoCEST MRI can be used to measure tumor pHe that may serve as a marker for therapeutic efficacy of anticancer therapies.

Rao B, Segovia MC, Kazimi M, et al.
Use of Everolimus After Multivisceral Transplantation: A Report of Two Cases.
Transplant Proc. 2016; 48(2):485-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitors of mechanistic target of rapamycin are used in solid organ transplant procedures to avoid calcineurin inhibitor complications, including nephrotoxicity and malignancy. We present 2 cases of multivisceral transplantation for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) for which everolimus was implemented for its potential to prevent NET recurrence as well as preserve renal function. The first case was complicated by NET recurrence in the liver before initiation of everolimus. After initiation of everolimus, the patient developed a ventral hernia and elevated aminotransferase levels with nonspecific biopsy findings. The second case was complicated by cytomegalovirus infection with elevated everolimus trough levels as well as acute cellular rejection. Everolimus was reinitiated in both cases in addition to decreasing the dosage of tacrolimus, and there were no further complications. Everolimus was beneficial in stabilizing renal function in both patients and has the theoretical potential to prevent recurrence of NET.

Chung V, Frankel P, Lim D, et al.
Phase Ib Trial of mFOLFOX6 and Everolimus (NSC-733504) in Patients with Metastatic Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma.
Oncology. 2016; 90(6):307-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Based upon preclinical data showing synergy with mTOR inhibition and platinum chemotherapy, this study explores the safety and tolerability of combining everolimus with mFOLFOX6 for patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: Eligible patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma received standard-dose mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy in combination with escalating doses of everolimus.
RESULTS: Six patients were accrued to the first dose level of 2.5 mg everolimus daily with mFOLFOX6. Overall, the toxicity profile was manageable with expected grade 3 toxicities of mucositis and neutropenia. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) included a week delay in therapy greater than 7 days as a result of the first 2 courses of mFOLFOX6. Two patients experienced DLTs at the first dose level due to delays in their treatment caused by prolonged grade 2 neutropenia and fever with fatigue. They were allowed to continue with a dose reduction of their chemotherapy. The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 20.3 and 14.5 months, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mFOLFOX6 and everolimus is an active regimen with 83% of the patients experiencing a partial response. p53 mutations were found in the 5 samples analyzed.

Colaneri M, Quarti A, Pozzi M
Everolimus-induced near-resolution of giant cardiac rhabdomyomas and large renal angiomyolipoma in a newborn with tuberous sclerosis complex.
Cardiol Young. 2016; 26(5):1025-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of a newborn, affected by tuberous sclerosis complex, with a prenatally diagnosed giant cardiac rhabdomyoma associated with a large renal angiomyolipoma presenting as a duct-depending lesion not treatable by surgery. After receiving everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, we observed a rapid, significant, and durable reduction of both lesions without remarkable side effects.

Guérin A, Hao Y, Tang D, et al.
Treatment patterns and factors associated with the use of everolimus among post-menopausal women with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer: a retrospective US claims study.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016; 17(9):1189-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the real-world use of everolimus in the treatment of hormone-receptor-positive/human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic-breast-cancer (mBC).
METHODS: Postmenopausal women with HR+/HER2- mBC who initiated a new therapy for mBC between 20 July 2012 and 31 March 2014 after a non-steroidal-aromatase-inhibitor were identified from two commercial claims databases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with everolimus use versus endocrine-monotherapy or chemotherapy. Dosing patterns and adherence to everolimus were summarized.
RESULTS: A total of 940 everolimus, 6,134 endocrine-monotherapy, and 3,410 chemotherapy regimens were included across patients' first four lines of therapy. Patients with bone and visceral metastases were more likely to use everolimus versus endocrine-monotherapy. Patients with more comorbidities, visceral or central-nervous-system metastases, and prior chemotherapy use for mBC were less likely to use everolimus versus chemotherapy. Approximately 80% of patients initiated everolimus at label-recommended-dose of 10 mg daily; 60-70% of patients had a medical possession ratio >0.8 to everolimus, and consistently high adherence was observed across lines of therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: For HR+/HER2- mBC, patients treated with everolimus had more severe disease than patients treated with endocrine-monotherapy but less severe disease than patients treated with chemotherapy. Most patients used everolimus according to label-recommended dose and adherence was high across lines of therapy.

Li N, Hao Y, Koo V, et al.
Comparison of medical costs and healthcare resource utilization of post-menopausal women with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer receiving everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy: a retrospective claims database analysis.
J Med Econ. 2016; 19(4):414-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyze medical costs and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) associated with everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy among post-menopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive, human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC).
METHODS: Patients with HR+/HER2- mBC who discontinued a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor and began a new line of treatment with everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy (index therapy/index date) between July 20, 2012 and April 30, 2014 were identified from two large claims databases. All-cause, BC-related, and adverse event (AE)-related medical costs (in 2014 USD) and all-cause HRU per patient per month (PPPM) were analyzed for both treatment groups across patients' first four lines of therapies for mBC. Adjusted differences in costs and HRU between the everolimus and chemotherapy treatment group were estimated pooling all lines and using multivariable generalized linear models, accounting for difference in patient characteristics.
RESULTS: A total of 3298 patients were included: 902 everolimus-treated patients and 2636 chemotherapy-treated patients. Compared to chemotherapy, everolimus was associated with significantly lower all-cause (adjusted mean difference = $3455, p < 0.01) and BC-related ($2510, p < 0.01) total medical costs, with inpatient ($1344, p < 0.01) and outpatient costs ($1048, p < 0.01) as the main drivers for cost differences. Everolimus was also associated with significantly lower AE-related medical costs ($1730, p < 0.01), as well as significantly lower HRU (emergency room incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.83; inpatient IRR = 0.74; inpatient days IRR = 0.65; outpatient IRR = 0.71; BC-related outpatient IRR = 0.57; all p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective claims database analysis of commercially-insured patients with HR+/HER2- mBC in the US showed that everolimus was associated with substantial all-cause, BC-related, and AE-related medical cost savings and less utilization of healthcare resources relative to chemotherapy.

Vandamme T, Beyens M, de Beeck KO, et al.
Long-term acquired everolimus resistance in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours can be overcome with novel PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(6):650-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mTOR-inhibitor everolimus improves progression-free survival in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs). However, adaptive resistance to mTOR inhibition is described.
METHODS: QGP-1 and BON-1, two human PNET cell lines, were cultured with increasing concentrations of everolimus up to 22 weeks to reach a dose of 1 μM everolimus, respectively, 1000-fold and 250-fold initial IC50. Using total DNA content as a measure of cell number, growth inhibitory dose-response curves of everolimus were determined at the end of resistance induction and over time after everolimus withdrawal. Response to ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors OSI-027 and AZD2014, and PI3K-mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 was studied. Gene expression of 10 PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway-related genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR).
RESULTS: Long-term everolimus-treated BON-1/R and QGP-1/R showed a significant reduction in everolimus sensitivity. During a drug holiday, gradual return of everolimus sensitivity in BON-1/R and QGP-1/R led to complete reversal of resistance after 10-12 weeks. Treatment with AZD2014, OSI-027 and NVP-BEZ235 had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in both sensitive and resistant cell lines. Gene expression in BON-1/R revealed downregulation of MTOR, RICTOR, RAPTOR, AKT and HIF1A, whereas 4EBP1 was upregulated. In QGP-1/R, a downregulation of HIF1A and an upregulation of ERK2 were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term everolimus resistance was induced in two human PNET cell lines. Novel PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway-targeting drugs can overcome everolimus resistance. Differential gene expression profiles suggest different mechanisms of everolimus resistance in BON-1 and QGP-1.

Li N, Hao Y, Xie J, et al.
Effectiveness of Everolimus Versus Endocrine Monotherapy or Chemotherapy Among HR+/HER2- mBC Patients With Multiple Metastatic Sites.
Clin Ther. 2016; 38(4):905-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This review compared the real-world effectiveness of everolimus-based therapy versus endocrine monotherapy or chemotherapy in postmenopausal hormone receptor positive (HR+)/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients with multiple metastatic sites.
METHODS: This retrospective chart review examined a nationwide sample of postmenopausal HR+/HER2- mBC women with ≥2 non-lymph-node metastatic sites. Patients must have initiated everolimus-based therapy (monotherapy or combination therapy including everolimus), endocrine monotherapy (any endocrine agent), or chemotherapy (monotherapy or combination with another chemotherapeutic or endocrine agent) for mBC between July 1, 2012 and August 15, 2013 after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor failure. Progression-free survival and time on treatment were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for line of therapy and baseline characteristics.
FINDINGS: One hundred patients received everolimus-based therapy, 79 received endocrine monotherapy, and 86 received chemotherapy. Everolimus-based therapy was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival and time on treatment than endocrine monotherapy and chemotherapy.
IMPLICATIONS: Among HR+/HER2- mBC patients with multiple metastatic sites, everolimus-based therapy was associated with better real-world effectiveness than endocrine monotherapy or chemotherapy.

Voss MH, Chen D, Marker M, et al.
Circulating biomarkers and outcome from a randomised phase II trial of sunitinib vs everolimus for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(6):642-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RECORD-3 assessed non-inferiority of progression-free survival (PFS) with everolimus vs sunitinib in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Baseline plasma sample collection and randomised design enabled correlation of circulating biomarkers with efficacy.
METHODS: Samples were analysed for 121 cancer-related biomarkers. Analyses of biomarkers categorised patients as high or low (vs median) to assess association with first-line PFS (PFS1L) for each treatment arm. A composite biomarker score (CBS) incorporated biomarkers potentially predictive of PFS1L with everolimus.
RESULTS: Plasma samples from 442 of the 471 randomised patients were analysed. Biomarkers were associated with PFS1L for everolimus alone (29), sunitinib alone (9) or both (12). Everolimus-specific biomarkers (CSF1, ICAM1, IL-18BP, KIM1, TNFRII) with hazard ratio ⩾ 1.8 were integrated into a CBS (range 0-5). For CBS low (0-3, n = 291) vs high (4-5, n = 151), PFS1L differed significantly for everolimus but not for sunitinib. There was no significant difference in PFS1L between everolimus and sunitinib in the high CBS patient cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Baseline levels of multiple soluble biomarkers correlated with benefit from everolimus and/or sunitinib, independent of clinical risk factors. A similar PFS1L was observed for both treatments among patients with high CBS score.

Tippeswamy R, Patil S, Sateesh CT, et al.
Everolimus plus octreotide long-acting repeatable in advanced neuroendocrine tumors in the routine tertiary cancer care setting: An Indian experience.
Indian J Cancer. 2015 Jul-Sep; 52(3):359-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, heterogeneous, indolent tumors that are relatively insensitive to systemic chemotherapy. Therapeutic strategies for NETs broadly include somatostatin analogs, antiangiogenic therapy, and most recently, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition. Combination therapy has shown promising antitumor activity and good tolerability in the randomized phase III trials.
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Everolimus plus Octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) in patients with advanced NETs in the routine tertiary cancer care setting in India in this postapproval, noninterventional trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients presenting to selected centers between 2011 and 2013 with histologically confirmed low-, intermediate- or high-grade advanced NETs who may have had prior exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy (≤2 lines) were treated with oral Everolimus (10 mg/day) plus intramuscular Octreotide LAR (30 mg once every 28 days) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was seen. Patients were evaluated every 3 months for a response to therapy as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors.
RESULTS: Everolimus plus Octreotide LAR was associated with a clinical benefit rate of 69% (best evaluable responses: Stable disease [SD] in 10 patients [63%], partial response in 1 patient [6%]). The average duration of therapy was 4.8 cycles, and 3 (17%) patients continued therapy for ≥12 cycles (all achieved SD). The therapy was found to be well-tolerated in all patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus plus Octreotide LAR appears to be safe and efficacious in patients with advanced NETs who may have had prior exposure to chemotherapy - a finding consistent with recently conducted major trials.

Pusceddu S, Buzzoni R, Vernieri C, et al.
Metformin with everolimus and octreotide in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients with diabetes.
Future Oncol. 2016; 12(10):1251-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
A bidirectional relationship seems to exist between diabetes mellitus and development of pancreatic tumors. Metformin, the most widely used drug in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, has recently emerged as a potentially active agent in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. In this article, we discuss the potential correlation between glycemic status, administration of antiglycemic treatments, such as metformin or insulin, and prognosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients treated with everolimus and octreotide, on the basis of existing evidence and our experience.

Kim SJ, Shin DY, Kim JS, et al.
A phase II study of everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR inhibitor plus CHOP for newly diagnosed peripheral T-cell lymphomas.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(4):712-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Everolimus, an oral mTOR inhibitor, has single-agent activity against relapsed lymphomas. Thus, we carried out a phase II study of everolimus in combination with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) as a first-line treatment for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) based on our phase I study results.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants (n = 30) received CHOP with 5 mg everolimus per day from day 1 to 14 every 21 days for a total of six cycles. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR), which included complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) to this regimen. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homology (PTEN) and phosphorylated S6 kinase (pS6K) as a response.
RESULTS: The objective response rate was 90% with CR (n = 17) and PR (n = 10). The CR rate was different among subtypes; angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, n = 3) had a CR whereas PTCL-not-otherwise specified and ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients showed 63% (12/19) and 29% (2/7) of CR rate, respectively. This difference in CR rate among subtypes was associated with PTEN loss because PTEN loss was not seen in AITL but 33% of ALCL patients. The most common toxicity was hematological, with 80% of patients experiencing at least one event of grade 3/4 neutropenia, and 60% of patients had grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia.
CONCLUSION: The everolimus plus CHOP was effective for PTCL patients, and its efficacy might be related with the preservation of PTEN.

Lim SM, Park HS, Kim S, et al.
Next-generation sequencing reveals somatic mutations that confer exceptional response to everolimus.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(9):10547-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Given the modest responses to everolimus, a mTOR inhibitor, in multiple tumor types, there is a pressing need to identify predictive biomarkers for this drug. Using targeted ultra-deep sequencing, we aimed to explore genomic alterations that confer extreme sensitivity to everolimus.
RESULTS: We collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor/normal pairs from 39 patients (22 with exceptional clinical benefit, 17 with no clinical benefit) who were treated with everolimus across various tumor types (13 gastric cancers, 15 renal cell carcinomas, 2 thyroid cancers, 2 head and neck cancer, and 7 sarcomas). Ion AmpliSeqTM Comprehensive Cancer Panel was used to identify alterations across all exons of 409 target genes. Tumors were sequenced to a median coverage of 552x. Cancer genomes are characterized by 219 somatic single-nucleotide variants (181 missense, 9 nonsense, 7 splice-site) and 22 frameshift insertions/deletions, with a median of 2.1 mutations per Mb (0 to 12.4 mutations per Mb). Overall, genomic alterations with activating effect on mTOR signaling were identified in 10 of 22 (45%) patients with clinical benefit and these include MTOR, TSC1, TSC2, NF1, PIK3CA and PIK3CG mutations. Recurrently mutated genes in chromatin remodeling genes (BAP1; n = 2, 12%) and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling (FGFR4; n = 2, 12%) were noted only in patients without clinical benefit.
CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of different cancer types, mTOR-pathway-activating mutations confer sensitivity to everolimus. Targeted sequencing of mTOR pathway genes facilitates identification of potential candidates for mTOR inhibitors.

Fazio N, Buzzoni R, Baudin E, et al.
A Phase II Study of BEZ235 in Patients with Everolimus-resistant, Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(2):713-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This was a two-stage, phase II trial of the dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor BEZ235 in patients with everolimus-resistant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) (NCT01658436).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In stage 1, 11 patients received 400 mg BEZ235 orally twice daily (bid). Due to tolerability concerns, a further 20 patients received BEZ235 300 mg bid. Stage 2 would be triggered by a 16-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate of ≥60% in stage 1.
RESULTS: As of 30 June, 2014, 29/31 patients had discontinued treatment. Treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events were reported in eight (72.7%) patients at 400 mg and eight (40.0%) patients at 300 mg, including hyperglycaemia, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. The estimated 16-week PFS rate was 51.6% (90% confidence interval=35.7-67.3%).
CONCLUSION: BEZ235 was poorly tolerated by patients with everolimus-resistant pNETs at 400 and 300 mg bid doses. Although evidence of disease stability was observed, the study did not proceed to stage 2.

Yates DH
mTOR treatment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: the role of everolimus.
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2016; 10(3):249-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The orphan lung disease lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has until recently been untreatable other than by lung transplantation. However, improved understanding of underlying disease mechanisms has revealed the central role of constitutive up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in this disease. Although other pathways exist and are under investigation for treatment, several mTOR inhibitors are currently available and emerging information suggests that these may have some efficacy in preventing loss of lung function in LAM. This paper summarizes current understanding of treatment with mTOR inhibitors in LAM, and everolimus in particular. It outlines pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relevant to the clinician, recent clinical studies, and issues with potential side effects. mTOR treatment is not yet available in most countries for LAM, but current data for treatment efficacy are impressive, and it is hoped that mTOR inhibition will soon be recognised as an important treatment of this disease.

Kiyohara Y, Yoshino K, Kubota S, et al.
Drug screening and grouping by sensitivity with a panel of primary cultured cancer spheroids derived from endometrial cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(4):452-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
Several molecular targeting drugs are being evaluated for endometrial cancer; selecting patients whose cancers are sensitive to these agents is of paramount importance. Previously, we developed the cancer tissue-originated spheroid method for primary cancer cells taken from patients' tumors as well as patient-derived xenografts. In this study, we successfully prepared and cultured cancer tissue-originated spheroids from endometrial cancers. Characteristics of the original tumors were well retained in cancer tissue-originated spheroids including morphology and expression of p53 or neuroendocrine markers. We screened 79 molecular targeting drugs using two cancer tissue-originated spheroid lines derived from endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade 3 and serous adenocarcinoma. Among several hits, we focused on everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor, and YM155, a survivin inhibitor. When sensitivity to everolimus or YM155 was assessed in 12 or 11 cancer tissue-originated spheroids, respectively, from different endometrial cancer patients, the sensitivity varied substantially. The cancer tissue-originated spheroids sensitive to everolimus showed remarkable suppression of proliferation. The phosphorylation status of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 downstream molecules before and after everolimus treatment did not predict the effect of the drug. In contrast, the cancer tissue-originated spheroids sensitive to YM155 showed remarkable cell death. The effect of YM155 was also confirmed in vivo. The histological type correlated with YM155 sensitivity; non-endometrioid adenocarcinomas were sensitive and endometrioid adenocarcinomas were resistant. Non-canonical autophagic cell death was the most likely cause of cell death in a sensitive cancer tissue-originated spheroid. Thus, sensitivity assays using cancer tissue-originated spheroids from endometrial cancers may be useful for screening drugs and finding biomarkers.

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