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"Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer." (MeSH 2013)

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Web Resources: Cyclophosphamide
Latest Research Publications

Web Resources: Cyclophosphamide (6 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Hung CM, Hsu YC, Chen TY, et al.
Cyclophosphamide promotes breast cancer cell migration through CXCR4 and matrix metalloproteinases.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(3):345-352 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclophosphamide is indicated for the treatment of cancerous diseases such as breast cancer and cervical cancer. Recent studies have shown that cyclophosphamide may induce cancer metastasis, but the cause of this unexpected adverse effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effect of cyclophosphamide on cancer cell migration and its correlation to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), a biomarker for cancer metastasis. Two human cancer cell lines with significant difference in endogenous CXCR4 expression, the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and the melanoma cell line, MDA-MB-435S, were treated with various concentrations of cyclophosphamide, followed by the assessment of CXCR4 expression and cell migration. We found that the migration ability of MDA-MB-231 cells was enhanced with increasing concentrations of cyclophosphamide, which induced the cell-surface expression of CXCR4, but had no effect on the overall amount of CXCR4. In MDA-MB-435S cells, in which CXCR4 was barely detectable, cyclophosphamide was unable to activate cell-surface CXCR4, and did not promote cell migration. Studies on the mRNA expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in MDA-MB-231 cells further indicate that MMP9 and MMP13 may be involved in the action of cyclophosphamide. The protein expression of both MMP9 and MMP13 was increased in the presence of cyclophosphamide. Results from this study provide the molecular basis for the possible pathway of cyclophosphamide to induce cancer metastasis.

Benyamini N, Avivi I, Dann EJ, et al.
Comparison of engraftment following different stem cell mobilization modalities in patients with multiple myeloma treated with a uniform induction regimen containing bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(3):461-467 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bortezomib-based induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation is a common treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Stem cell (SC) mobilization with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone has become an alternative to G-CSF combined with chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the two mobilization modalities following induction with a uniform regimen containing bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD). We retrospectively evaluated results of SC mobilization using either G-CSF alone or combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide (HD-CY) in MM patients after VCD induction. The primary endpoints of the study were engraftment and mobilization-associated toxicity. Parameters of stem cell collection, transplantation and engraftment were assessed. Data of 92 patients were analyzed [56 (61%) mobilized with HD-CY + G-CSF and 36 (39%) with G-CSF only]. HD-CY + G-CSF provided a higher number of CD34 + cells (15.9 vs 8.1 × 10(6)/kg, p = 0.001) with fewer apheresis sessions. However, while no adverse events were observed in patients receiving G-CSF alone, nine patients (16%) receiving HD-CY + G-CSF developed neutropenic fever requiring hospitalization. Although a greater number of cells was transplanted following mobilization with HD-CY + G-CSF, neutrophil and platelet engraftment and duration of transplant-related hospitalization were similar in both cohorts. G-CSF alone provided a sufficient SC amount, without exposing patients to additional toxicity. While HD-CY + G-CSF resulted in a superior SC yield in MM patients induced with VCD, this advantage should be balanced against adverse effects of this mobilization regimen.

Kusaba H, Kumagai H, Inadomi K, et al.
Efficacy analysis of the aprepitant-combined antiemetic prophylaxis for non-round cell soft-tissue sarcoma patients received adriamycin and ifosfamide therapy.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(49):e5460 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Appropriate antiemetic prophylaxis for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in patients with non-round cell soft-tissue sarcomas (NRC-STS) remains unclear. We retrospectively investigated efficacy and safety of aprepitant-combined antiemetic prophylaxis in patients with NRC-STS receiving adriamycin plus ifosfamide (AI) therapy. Forty NRC-STS patients were enrolled, their median age was 50 years (range 18-74), and 13 (32.5%) were female. Median cycle number of AI therapy was 4. Twenty patients received the doublet antiemetic prophylaxis (5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone), and 20 received triplet (5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and aprepitant). In the overall period, complete response rate for nausea and emesis in the triplet group was significantly higher than that in the doublet group (70% vs 35%; P = 0.027). Patients with no-emesis in the overall period were more frequently observed in the triplet group than in the doublet group (90% vs 65%; P = 0.058). All toxicities other than emesis were almost equivalent in both the groups. These results suggest that a triplet antiemetic prophylaxis may be optimal in the treatment with AI therapy for NRC-STS.

Winkelmann N, Desole M, Hilgendorf I, et al.
Comparison of two dose levels of cyclophosphamide for successful stem cell mobilization in myeloma patients.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(12):2603-2610 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Even in the era of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, the autologous stem cell transplantation after high-dose melphalan continues to represent a standard approach for myeloma patients in first-line therapy. Different mobilization chemotherapies before stem cell apheresis have been published while cyclophosphamide at a dose level of up to 4 g/m(2) has been evaluated and is commonly applied. In contrast, lower dose levels of cyclophosphamide (e.g., 1.5 g/m(2)) did not result in a sufficient collection of stem cells.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the impact of "intermediate-dose" (ID-CY, 2.5 g/m(2)) versus "high-dose" (HD-CY, 4 g/m(2)) cyclophosphamide in 101 (48 vs. 53) consecutively evaluable myeloma patients (median age 59 years, range 32-72 years) who underwent stem cell mobilization after induction chemotherapy. Successful stem cell harvest was defined as a stem cell yield of at least 5 million CD34 cells per kg bodyweight. Evaluation of toxicity especially considered infectious complications and hematological toxicity in both subgroups.
RESULTS: Successful stem cell mobilization was achieved in 40 of 48 (83 %) and 44 of 53 (83 %) patients, respectively. The median time to apheresis (11 vs. 12 days) and the median CD34 content of stem cell harvest (8.3 vs. 7.6 million CD34 cells per kg bodyweight) did not differ significantly between both groups. There was a significant difference of WBC nadir in favor of the cyclophosphamide regimen with 2.5 g/m(2) (0.8 vs. 0.3 Gpt/L, p = 0.021), and neutropenic fever was more often observed in patients who received 4 g/m(2) cyclophosphamide (34 vs. 15 %, p = 0.078). Importantly, after induction chemotherapy using the VCD regimen (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone), successful stem cell mobilization was achieved in 26 of 29 (90 %) patients treated with 2.5 g/m(2) and 21 of 25 (84 %) patients receiving 4 g/m(2) cyclophosphamide, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: ID-CY is safe and highly effective for stem cell mobilization in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma and associated with a reduced toxicity compared to HD-CY.

Saleem Z, Ahmad M, Hashmi FK, et al.
Impairment of liver synthetic function and the production of plasma proteins in primary breast cancer patients on doxorubicincyclophosphamide (AC) protocol.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016; 29(5):1555-1563 [PubMed] Related Publications
Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (AC protocol) combination is usually considered as a first line therapy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Thus, a retrospective observational study was conducted to monitor the effect of AC protocol on liver synthetic functions and production of plasma proteins in breast cancer patients, reporting to specialized cancer care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 75 patients (n=75) on AC protocol with breast cancer were observed in this study. The patient data including age, gender, body surface area, dosage, disease status and laboratory biochemical values were recorded by reviewing historical treatment records. Pre-treatment values were taken as baseline values for albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio and total proteins. The baseline values were compared after each cycle of by applying ANOVA using statistical tool SPSS® version 21. The plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein and globulin dropped significantly (p<0.05) in patients of all age groups. However, the albumin levels were not significantly changed (p>0.05). The A/G ratio level increased (p<0.05) as a result of reduction in globulin levels. Significant changes in plasma protein levels were observed in the elderly patients (50 to 65 years) than patients between 20 to 50 years of age. AC protocol impairs liver synthetic functions as observed by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma protein levels.

Shu C, Zeng T, Gao S, et al.
LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin in serum of multiple myeloma patients.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016; 1028:111-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant neoplastic serum-cell disorder, has been a serious threat to human health. The determination of 6 commonly used drug concentrations, including thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin, in MM patients was of great clinical interest. Herein, we reported a method for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of the above therapeutics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method with solid phase extraction. Analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge(®) BEH C18 column (2.5μm, 2.1 mm×50mm), with formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at flow rate 0.3mL/min. All analytes showed good correlation coefficients (r>0.996), and LLOQ of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin were 4, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 2ng/mL, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions and stability were expressed as variation coefficients within 15% and relative error less than 15%. Dilution effect, carryover and incurred sample reanalysis were investigated according to the 2015 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia guidelines, as US FDA (2013, revision 1) required. The LC-MS/MS based assay described in this article may improve future clinical studies evaluating common therapeutics for MM treatment.

Chhibar P, Zhu Z, Cheedella NK, et al.
Hepatitis B Reactivation After Ifosfamide Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma.
Am J Case Rep. 2016; 17:371-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving cancer treatment are at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent and is considered to be one of the important drugs for the treatment of metastatic sarcoma. No association of ifosfamide and HBV reactivation has been reported so far.
CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 61-year-old Asian man with metastatic retroperitoneal liposarcoma who was HBcAb positive and was treated with ifosfamide and dacarbazine, developed HBV reactivation secondary to ifosfamide requiring treatment with tenofovir. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing HBV reactivation in a patient with positive HBcAb who was treated with ifosfamide.
CONCLUSIONS: We recommend close surveillance of possible HBV reactivation while employing ifosfamide chemotherapy.

Abu Eid R, Razavi GS, Mkrtichyan M, et al.
Old-School Chemotherapy in Immunotherapeutic Combination in Cancer, A Low-cost Drug Repurposed.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2016; 4(5):377-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer immunotherapy has proven to be a potent treatment modality. Although often successful in generating antitumor immune responses, cancer immunotherapy is frequently hindered by tumor immune-escape mechanisms. Among immunosuppressive strategies within the tumor microenvironment, suppressive immune regulatory cells play a key role in promoting tumor progression through inhibiting the effector arm of the immune response. Targeting these suppressive cells can greatly enhance antitumor immune therapies, hence augmenting a highly effective therapeutic antitumor response. Several approaches are being tested to enhance the effector arm of the immune system while simultaneously inhibiting the suppressor arm. Some of these approaches are none other than traditional drugs repurposed as immune modulators. Cyclophosphamide, an old-school chemotherapeutic agent used across a wide range of malignancies, was found to be a potent immune modulator that targets suppressive regulatory immune cells within the tumor microenvironment while enhancing effector cells. Preclinical and clinical findings have confirmed the ability of low doses of cyclophosphamide to selectively deplete regulatory T cells while enhancing effector and memory cytotoxic T cells within the tumor microenvironment. These immune effects translate to suppressed tumor growth and enhanced survival, evidence of antitumor therapeutic efficacy. This article discusses the reincarnation of cyclophosphamide as an immune modulator that augments novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(5); 377-82. ©2016 AACR.

Aurer I, Nemet D, Mitrović Z, et al.
High-dose ifosfamide and mitoxantrone (HDIM) in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(7):1129-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is treated with salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Optimal chemotherapy is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 58 patients treated with 2 cycles of high-dose ifosfamide and mitoxantrone (HDIM). HDIM consisted of ifosfamide 5 g/m(2)/day and MESNA 5 g/m(2)/day in continuous 24-h infusion (days 1 and 2), MESNA 2.5 g/m(2) over 12 h (day 3), and mitoxantrone 20 mg/m(2) (day 1) administered every 2 weeks. Stem cells were collected after the first cycle. Responding patients proceeded to ASCT. Toxicity was acceptable. Stem cell mobilization was successful in 96 % of patients. Overall response rate was 74 % (89 % in relapsing and 45 % in refractory patients) with 31 % complete remissions. After a median follow-up of 54 months, 5-year event-free survival was 56 % (69 % for relapsing and 35 % for refractory patients), and 5-year overall survival was 67 % (73 % for relapsing and 55 % for refractory patients). Significant adverse prognostic factors were refractoriness to previous therapy and HDIM failure. No differences in outcomes were noted between patients with early and late relapses or between complete and partial responders. HDIM is a well-tolerated and effective regimen for relapsed and refractory HL with excellent stem cell mobilizing properties. Patients failing HDIM may still benefit from other salvage options.

Peng G, Yang W, Zhang L, et al.
Moderate-dose cyclophosphamide in the treatment of relapsed/refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia-associated pure red cell aplasia.
Hematology. 2016; 21(3):138-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGLL) is a rare disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of large granular lymphocytes (commonly CD3+/CD8+/CD57+). However, the available data regarding the optimal treatment for relapsed/refractory T-LGLL patients are limited.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated with immunosuppressive therapy consisting of intravenous moderate-dose cyclophosphamide (MD-CTX) together with oral cyclosporine A for relapsed/refractory T-LGLL in our hospital between July 2006 and March 2013.
RESULTS: The overall response rate to MD-CTX was 60% (6/10; hematologic complete remission rate, 50%; hematologic partial remission rate, 10%). The median time to response was 28.5 days (range, 20-118 days). The relapse rate of MD-CTX was 50% (3/6); two of these three patients achieved hematologic complete remission after receiving a second course of MD-CTX. Neutropenia was the major adverse event of the MD-CTX regimen. The median time to neutropenia was 5.5 days (range, 1-10 days) and the median neutropenia duration was 5 days (range, 3-15 days). None of the patients developed severe infection.
CONCLUSIONS: The MD-CTX regimen appears efficacious and safe in the treatment of relapsed/refractory T-LGLL patients.

Yao CA, Chen CC, Wang NP, Chien CT
Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide.
Nutrients. 2016; 8(4):192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids' oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis.

Loskog A, Maleka A, Mangsbo S, et al.
Immunostimulatory AdCD40L gene therapy combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide in metastatic melanoma patients.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(8):872-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current approaches for treating metastatic malignant melanoma (MM) are not effective enough and are associated with serious adverse events. Due to its immunogenicity, melanoma is an attractive target for immunostimulating therapy. In this phase I/IIa study, local AdCD40L immunostimulatory gene therapy was evaluated in patients with MM.
METHODS: AdCD40L is an adenovirus carrying the gene for CD40 ligand. Patients that failed standard treatments were enrolled. Six patients received four weekly intratumoral AdCD40L injections. Next, nine patients received low-dose cyclophosphamide conditioning before the first and fourth AdCD40L injection. The blood samples were collected at multiple time points for chemistry, haematology and immunology evaluations. Radiology was performed at enrolment and repeated twice after the treatment.
RESULTS: AdCD40L was safe with mild transient reactions. No objective responses were recorded by MRI, however, local and distant responses were seen on FDG-PET. The overall survival at 6 months was significantly better when cyclophosphamide was added to AdCD40L. The patients with the best survival developed the highest levels of activated T cells and experienced a pronounced decrease of intratumoral IL8.
CONCLUSIONS: AdCD40L therapy for MM was well tolerated. Local and distant responses along with better survival in the low-dose cyclophosphamide group are encouraging.

Robinson TM, O'Donnell PV, Fuchs EJ, Luznik L
Haploidentical bone marrow and stem cell transplantation: experience with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide.
Semin Hematol. 2016; 53(2):90-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Allogeneic blood or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for high-risk hematologic malignancies not curable by standard chemotherapy, but the procedure is limited by the availability of human leukocyte antigen-matched donors for many patients, as well as toxicities including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Our group has developed the use of high-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) to selectively remove alloreactive T cells without compromising engraftment. This protocol has allowed for successful transplantation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical (haplo) grafts, thus expanding the donor pool for the many patients who would not otherwise be a candidate for this life-saving procedure. In this review we will summarize the data that led to the development of PTCy, then focus on the outcomes of haploBMT trials with PTCy across different transplant platforms for patients with malignant hematologic diseases, and finally we will discuss emerging evidence that suggests equivalency of haploBMT with PTCy compared with more traditional transplants.

Llombart-Cussac A, Ramos M, Dalmau E, et al.
Incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide in early breast cancer patients and aprepitant efficacy as salvage therapy. Results from the Spanish Breast Cancer Group/2009-02 study.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 58:122-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel-cyclophosphamide (TC) has become a common regimen in moderate-high-risk early breast cancer (EBC), but the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with this regimen is not well established. This trial investigates the effect of guideline-consistent prophylaxis on CINV related to TC regimen and explores the efficacy of aprepitant among resistant patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective multicentre study enrolled 212 chemotherapy-naïve EBC patients receiving T-75 mg/m(2) and C-600 mg/m(2). Antiemetic therapy on the first cycle consisted of dexamethasone for 3 d plus 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) antagonists on day 1, according to Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer guidelines. The primary end-point was complete response (CR) (no emesis and no need of rescue treatment within the initial 120 h). Patients failing CR on cycle 1 entered in a single-arm study exploring the efficacy of aprepitant on the second cycle. Patients' diaries and Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) questionnaires were collected in cycles 1 and 2.
RESULTS: Among the 185 evaluable patients on cycle 1, 161 (87%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.2-91.8) achieved a CR. Twenty-three patients received aprepitant on cycle 2, and 12 reached a CR (52.2%, 95% CI: 31.8-72.6). The absence of CR had a very substantial impact on quality of life on cycles 1 (FLIE before and after: 23.8-38.1, p = 0.0124) and 2 (18.3-42.9, p = 0.0059).
CONCLUSIONS: Guideline-consistent antiemetic prophylaxis for the TC regimen is associated with a low incidence of CINV. Aprepitant is effective as secondary prevention of CINV and should be considered as rescue therapy in patients treated with moderate emetogenic chemotherapy.

Fridrik MA, Jaeger U, Petzer A, et al.
Cardiotoxicity with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone compared to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in frontline treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A randomised phase-III study from the Austrian Cancer Drug Therapy Working Group [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie AGMT](NHL-14).
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 58:112-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemoimmunotherapy containing rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Doxorubicin may induce early and late cardiotoxicity. Non-pegylated liposomal (NPL) doxorubicin may reduce cardiotoxicity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with untreated CD20+ DLBCL were randomised to conventional R-CHOP chemoimmunotherapy or rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-COMP) with doxorubicin substituted by NPL-doxorubicin. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured before each treatment cycle and after the end of treatment.
RESULTS: The mean LVEF of 178 and 158 measurements in the R-COMP and R-CHOP arms was 63.31% and 62.25%, respectively (P = 0.167). During treatment the LVEF measurements were below 50% in 10/218 (4.6%) in the R-COMP arm and 31/196 (15.8%) in the R-CHOP arm (P<0.001). Thirty-six of 40 (90%) patients in the R-COMP arm, but only 24/36 (66.7%) in the R-CHOP arm had all NT-proBNP levels below 400 pg/ml during and at the end of treatment (P = 0.013). There were more serious adverse events in the R-CHOP arm (26 versus 40, P = 0.029). Infections were more common (15 versus 28) in the R-CHOP arm.
INTERPRETATION: In patients with normal cardiac function, six cycles of R-CHOP resulted in a low rate of early cardiotoxicity. NPL-doxorubicin did not reduce cardiotoxicity, although cardiac safety signals were elevated in R-CHOP compared to R-COMP.
FUNDING: Cephalon provided the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie with NPL-doxorubicin and an unrestricted grant, but was not involved in the study protocol, data acquisition, data analysis or the writing of the paper.

Gagliato Dde M, Linck RD, Bezerra RO, et al.
An uncommon response to metronomic therapy in a heavily pretreated patient with metastatic carcinosarcoma: a case report.
J Med Case Rep. 2016; 10:60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uterine carcinosarcoma is well known for its aggressive behavior. There is little evidence regarding the gold standard combination chemotherapy in metastatic or locally advanced carcinosarcoma, due to poor survival outcomes obtained with conventional scheduled chemotherapy. This case report represents the first-ever reported objective response to a metronomic chemotherapy regimen and adds to the current literature.
CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a Caucasian woman diagnosed with metastatic carcinosarcoma that had already been treated with multiple lines of conventional chemotherapy, with progressive disease. This patient had a surprising clinical and imaging response when treated with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide.
CONCLUSIONS: We reviewed the mechanism of action implicated in metronomic chemotherapy, and correlated it with the biology of disease in carcinosarcoma. This information may add to the current literature, providing important insights to future clinical trials in this patient population.

Perroud HA, Alasino CM, Rico MJ, et al.
Quality of life in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with metronomic chemotherapy.
Future Oncol. 2016; 12(10):1233-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
AIM: The objective of the study was to detect changes in quality of life (QoL) in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with metronomic chemotherapy with daily low doses of cyclophosphamide and celecoxib.
MATERIAL & METHODS: Patients included in a Phase II trial, treated with metronomic cyclophosphamide and celecoxib were included in the QoL study. Assessment of QoL was carried out every 2 months by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory and Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group scale. Data were analyzed at three time points: baseline (BL); middle of treatment (MT); and end of treatment (ET).
RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were included. All patients were heavily pretreated. Treatment showed a good and safe therapeutic profile. With FACT-B questionnaire, no significant differences were observed during the response period (BL-MT). However, a significant increase was observed in the Emotional well-being and Additional concerns axes, when the last time point was included in the analysis (BL-MT-ET). A significant decrease in the proportion of patients with pain was found when comparing BL with ET (p = 0.046). The assessment with Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group scale showed that 26.7% (4/15) of the patients improved their functional status and 40% (6/15) showed no changes, while 33.3% (5/10) worsened it.
CONCLUSION: Patients treated metronomically for several months did not worsen their QoL. A high proportion of patients showed improvement or no changes and there were less patients with pain at the end of the treatment.

Berger M, Lanino E, Cesaro S, et al.
Feasibility and Outcome of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplant High-Dose Cyclophosphamide for Children and Adolescents with Hematologic Malignancies: An AIEOP-GITMO Retrospective Multicenter Study.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016; 22(5):902-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is a novel approach to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and rejection in patients given haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Thirty-three patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies and lacking a match-related or -unrelated donor were treated with PTCy haploidentical HSCT in 5 Italian AIEOP centers. Nineteen patients had a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen (57%), and 14 patients received a full myeloablative conditioning regimen (43%). No patients received serotherapy; GVHD prophylaxis was based on PTCy (50 mg/kg on days +3 and +4) combined with mycophenolate plus tacrolimus or cyclosporine A. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment was achieved on days +17 (range, 14 to 37) and +27 (range, 16 to 71). One patient had autologous reconstitution for anti-HLA antibodies. Acute GVHD grades II to IV and III to IV and chronic GVHD developed in 22% (95% CI, 11 to 42), 3% (95% CI, 0 to 21), and 4% (95% CI, 0 to 27) of cases, respectively. The 1-year overall survival rate was 72% (95% CI, 56 to 88), progression-free survival rate was 61% (95% CI, 43 to 80), cumulative incidence of relapse was 24% (95% CI, 13 to 44), and transplant-related mortality was 9% (95% CI, 3 to 26). The univariate analysis for risk of relapse incidence showed how 3 significant variables, mother as donor (P = .02), donor gender as female (P = .04), and patient gender as female (P = .02), were significantly associated with a lower risk of relapse. Disease progression was the main cause of death. PTCy is a safe procedure also for children and adolescents who have already received several lines of chemotherapy. Among the different diseases, a trend for better 1-year rates of overall survival was obtained for nonacute leukemia patients.

Di Lorenzo G, Pagliuca M, Perillo T, et al.
Complete Response and Fatigue Improvement With the Combined Use of Cyclophosphamide and Quercetin in a Patient With Metastatic Bladder Cancer: A Case Report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(5):e2598 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Bladder cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality, with an estimated 74,000 new cases and 16,000 deaths in the United States in 2015. In patients with metastatic disease, vinflunine and taxanes are the most widely used chemotherapy agents in the second-line setting after failure of platinum-based treatment. Cyclophosphamide has been used in combination with paclitaxel in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, but there are no data about the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide administered as a single agent.We here describe the first case of an advanced bladder cancer patient suffering from grade 2 fatigue.He benefited from administration of third-line single-agent metronomic oral cyclophosphamide plus oral doses of quercetin. A complete, prolonged radiologic response according to the RECIST criteria 1.1 was achieved with minimal toxicity and an improvement in fatigue.Further studies are required to assess the potential benefits associated with the combined use of cyclophosphamide plus quercetin in advanced bladder cancer patients.

Al Malki MM, Horowitz M, Handgretinger R, et al.
Proceedings from the Second Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation Symposium-Haplo2014, San Francisco, California, December 4, 2014.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016; 22(4):594-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
Significant progress has been made over the past decade in haploidentical transplantation, with the development of novel methods to control intense alloreactive reactions generated in the major HLA-mismatched setting. Application of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide has gained worldwide acceptance as an effective and low-cost way to perform this type of transplantation, with outcomes now similar to those from HLA-matched unrelated donors. These advances have resulted in improved treatment-related mortality, whereas disease relapse has emerged as the most common cause of treatment failure. In addition, improvements in immunologic reconstitution after transplantation are much needed, not only in haploidentical transplantation but in all forms of stem cell transplantation. This symposium has focused on some of the most promising methods to control alloreactivity in this form of transplantation and application of cellular therapy to prevent disease relapse after transplantation, as well as understanding immunologic reconstitution and foreseeable approaches to improve immune recovery after transplantation.

Głowala-Kosińska M, Chwieduk A, Smagur A, et al.
Thymic Activity and T Cell Repertoire Recovery after Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Preceded by Myeloablative Radiotherapy or Chemotherapy.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016; 22(5):834-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
It was previously postulated that pretransplant myeloablative treatment may impair thymopoiesis, contributing in this way to delayed reconstitution of T cells after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). On the other hand, de novo generation of T cells after HSCT requires a competent thymus. Various myeloablative conditioning regimens (total body irradiation [TBI] or high-dose chemotherapy) routinely used in clinical practice may have potentially different impacts on the thymus. However, no comparative study on thymic output and T cell repertoire in autologous (auto)HSCT model has been presented so far. Here we evaluated thymic output and TCR diversity in 45 lymphoma patients submitted to autoHSCT differing in respect to conditioning regimen: high-dose chemotherapy as monotherapy (BEAM, n = 22) or combination of total body irradiation with cyclophosphamide chemotherapy: Cy/TBI (n = 23). Thymic output was assessed before and on days +100, +180, and +365 after autoHSCT by flow cytometric counts of recent thymic emigrant (RTE) cells (CD31(+) CD62L(+) CD45RA(+) CD4(+)) and quantification of signal joint TCR receptor excision circles (sjTRECs) by quantitative PCR. T cell repertoire diversity was analyzed on day +365 after autoHSCT by spectra-typing of the CDR3 region in the TCRVβ chain. The BEAM group, in contrast to the Cy/TBI group, manifested significantly higher proportions of RTE cells and sjTREC copy numbers on days +100 and +180. Analysis of TCRVβ spectra-types on day +365 revealed more restricted (monoclonal or oligoclonal) T cell repertoires in the Cy/TBI versus BEAM group (48.8% versus 18.2%, P = .0002). In conclusion, the conditioning scheme based on BEAM chemotherapy may be performed with lower risk of thymic destruction and T cell repertoire distortion than Cy/TBI scheme. This finding may help to potentially improve conditioning schemes to efficiently perform myeloablation and maintain active thymopoiesis.

Yonemoto T, Takahashi M, Maru M, et al.
Marriage and fertility in long-term survivors of childhood, adolescent and young adult (AYA) high-grade sarcoma.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2016; 21(4):801-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We investigated the marital status and the presence or absence of children in survivors of childhood, adolescent and young adult (AYA) high-grade sarcoma and examined the influence of these factors on the quality of life (QOL) of these survivors.
METHODS: Thirty-eight survivors of childhood and AYA high-grade sarcoma (18 males, 20 females) participated in a questionnaire survey on marital status and presence or absence of children, as well as on the health-related QOL (HR-QOL), using the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Diagnoses among these survivors were osteosarcoma (28 participants), Ewing's sarcoma (4 participants), synovial sarcoma (4 participants) and others (2 participants).
RESULTS: Of the 18 males who participated in the survey, eight (44.4 %) were married, of whom five (62.5 %) had children. Fifteen (75.0 %) of the 20 females were married, of whom 14 (93.3 %) had children. The proportions of surviving male patients who were married and who had children, respectively, were lower than those of surviving female patients. The proportion of ifosfamide-treated men with children was significantly lower than that of non-ifosfamide-treated men (p = 0.018). With respect to the relationship between marital status and HR-QOL, the scores for the vitality and mental health domains of the SF-36 of survivors who were married were significantly higher than those of unmarried survivors.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our questionnaire survey reveal that among the male survivors of high-grade sarcoma, the proportions of those who were married and of those with children were lower than those of female survivors, suggesting that strategies providing support for marriage and child-rearing may be necessary for the male survivor group. In the married group, mental QOL was high.

Veal GJ, Cole M, Chinnaswamy G, et al.
Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in children with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 55:56-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Variation in cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and metabolism has been highlighted as a factor that may impact on clinical outcome in various tumour types. The current study in children with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was designed to corroborate previous findings in a large prospective study incorporating genotype for common polymorphisms known to influence cyclophosphamide pharmacology.
METHODS: A total of 644 plasma samples collected over a 5 year period, from 49 B-cell NHL patients ≤ 18 years receiving cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m(2)), were used to characterise a population pharmacokinetic model. Polymorphisms in genes including CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 were analysed.
RESULTS: A two-compartment model provided the best fit of the population analysis. The mean cyclophosphamide clearance value following dose 1 was significantly lower than following dose 5 (1.83 ± 1.07 versus 3.68 ± 1.43 L/h/m(2), respectively; mean ± standard deviation from empirical Bayes estimates; P < 0.001). The presence of at least one CYP2B6*6 variant allele was associated with a lower cyclophosphamide clearance following both dose 1 (1.54 ± 0.11 L/h/m(2) versus 2.20 ± 0.31 L/h/m(2), P = 0.033) and dose 5 (3.12 ± 0.17 L/h/m(2) versus 4.35 ± 0.37 L/h/m(2), P = 0.0028), as compared to homozygous wild-type patients. No pharmacokinetic parameters investigated were shown to have a significant influence on progression free survival.
CONCLUSION: The results do not support previous findings of a link between cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics or metabolism and disease recurrence in childhood B-cell NHL. While CYP2B6 genotype was shown to influence pharmacokinetics, there was no clear impact on clinical outcome.

Mielcarek M, Furlong T, O'Donnell PV, et al.
Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide for prevention of graft-versus-host disease after HLA-matched mobilized blood cell transplantation.
Blood. 2016; 127(11):1502-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2017 Related Publications
The cumulative incidence of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-defined chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) requiring systemic treatment is ∼35% at 1 year after transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized blood cells from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors. We hypothesized that high-dose cyclophosphamide given after G-CSF-mobilized blood cell transplantation would reduce the cumulative 1-year incidence of chronic GVHD to 15% or less. Forty-three patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies (median age, 43 years) were enrolled between December 2011 and September 2013. Twelve (28%) received grafts from related donors, and 31 (72%) received grafts from unrelated donors. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of fludarabine and targeted busulfan (n = 25) or total body irradiation (≥12 Gy; n = 18). Cyclophosphamide was given at 50 mg/kg per day on days 3 and 4 after transplantation, followed by cyclosporine starting on day 5. The cumulative 1-year incidence of NIH-defined chronic GVHD was 16% (95% confidence interval, 5-28%). The cumulative incidence estimates of grades 2-4 and 3-4 acute GVHD were 77% and 0%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence estimates of nonrelapse mortality and recurrent malignancy were 14% and 17%, respectively, and overall survival was projected at 70%. Of the 42 patients followed for ≥1 year, 21 (50%) were relapse-free and alive without systemic immunosuppression at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, myeloablative pretransplant conditioning can be safely combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide after transplantation, and the risk of chronic GVHD associated with HLA-matched mobilized blood cell grafts can be substantially reduced. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01427881.

Lv JY, Hu TY, Wang RY, et al.
Deciphering the anti-angiogenic effect of endostatin/cyclophosphamide to normalize tumor micrangium through notch signaling pathway in colon cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2016; 14(1):10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The invasion of colon cancer is associated with the tumor angiogenesis. Endostatin is an important anti-angiogenic agent, and the additive effect of endostatin with a chemotherapeutic agent, cyclophosphamide, on micrangium has not been established.
METHODS: Male BALB/c strain nude mice were injected with human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116). The mice were divided into four groups (n=15, each group) and were treated with different concentrations of endostatin (15, 10, and 5 mg/kg/day), cyclophosphamide (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg/day), and combination of endostatin/cyclophosphamide (15+20, 15+10, and 15+5 mg/kg/day). The tumor inhibition rate was evaluated, followed by the quantification of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of notch signaling components NOTCH-1, NOTCH-3, NOTCH-4, JAG-1, DLL-4, Hes-1, and Hey-1 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression of NOTCH-3, JAG-1, and DLL-4 was confirmed using western blotting. Microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated to detect micrangium following the treatment.
RESULTS: The endostatin/cyclophosphamide-treated samples exhibited an additive effect on the tumor inhibition rate and the microvessel count. NOTCH-1, NOTCH-3, NOTCH-4, JAG-1, Hes-1, and Hey-1 expression levels were highly correlated and downregulated in the treated samples, whereas DLL-4 expression was upregulated that accounted for its anti-angiogenic property.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination treatment of colon cancer with endostatin and a chemotherapeutic agent, cyclophosphamide proves to be an efficient therapeutic strategy to inhibit the rapid vasculature formation confirmed by the differential expression of notch signaling components.

Cui H, Li T, Wang L, et al.
Dioscorea bulbifera polysaccharide and cyclophosphamide combination enhances anti-cervical cancer effect and attenuates immunosuppression and oxidative stress in mice.
Sci Rep. 2016; 5:19185 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2017 Related Publications
Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is commonly used in cancer chemotherapy, which causes immunosuppression and tissue oxidative stress at high doses. As potential protective agents, some polysaccharides were shown to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and/or anti-oxidant properties. This study explored potential effects of oral treatment of Dioscorea bulbifera polysaccharides (DBLP at 100 or 150 mg/kg) in U14 cervical tumor-bearing mice treated with CTX (25 mg/kg). While CTX suppressed tumor growth (65.4% inhibition) and DBLP alone also inhibited tumor (25.6% at 100 mg/kg or 37.6% at 150 mg/kg), CTX+DBLP combination produced tumor inhibition rates of 5.6 (for 100 mg/kg DBLP) or 9% (for 150 mg/kg) higher than CTX alone. While tumor itself and CTX treatment reduced thymus and/or spleen/body weight indices, DBLP alone or CTX + DBLP combination attenuated this reduction. DBLP lowered peripheral blood T-cell subpopulation CD(4+)/CD(8+) ratio, and DBLP+CTX combination attenuated CTX effect in lifting CD(4+)/CD(8+) ratio. Tumor itself and CTX treatment heightened oxidative stress (with decreased superoxide dismutase but increased lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde levels in serum and tissues), which was attenuated by DBLP treatment, and DBLP+CTX combination suppressed CTX-induced oxidative stress. Combination use of DBLP with CTX can potentially enhance CTX anti-tumor effect and can attenuate CTX-induced immunosuppression and oxidative stress in U14 cervical tumor-bearing mice.

Khattry N, Gupta A, Jain R, et al.
LACE versus BEAM conditioning in relapsed and refractory lymphoma transplant: retrospective multicenter analysis of toxicity and efficacy.
Int J Hematol. 2016; 103(3):292-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We compared the lomustine, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (LACE) and BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan (BEAM) conditioning regimens for toxicity, engraftment kinetics, and efficacy in 139 patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant for primary refractory or relapsed lymphoma. Ninety-two patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 47 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled. Seventy-five patients received LACE while 64 received BEAM. The incidence of grade 3-4 oral mucositis (9 vs 38%; P < 0.001) and parenteral nutrition requirement (32 vs 69%; P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the LACE cohort. The median days to myeloid (10 vs 11; P = 0.007) and platelet engraftment (13 vs 15; P = 0.026) were shorter for the LACE cohort. Transplant-related mortality in the LACE group was 9% compared to 13% in patients treated with BEAM (P = NS). The probability of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years for entire cohort was 46 and 41%, respectively. Probability of OS (LACE 46% vs BEAM 47%; P = NS) and PFS (LACE 37% vs BEAM 47%; P = NS) at 5 years was comparable between two groups. We conclude that LACE has better toxicity profile compared to BEAM and results in similar long-term survival in primary refractory or relapsed lymphoma transplant.

Noguchi M, Moriya F, Koga N, et al.
A randomized phase II clinical trial of personalized peptide vaccination with metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2016; 65(2):151-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated the effect of metronomic cyclophosphamide (CPA) in combination with personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) on regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and whether it could improve the antitumor effect of PPV. Seventy patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive PPV plus oral low-dose CPA (50 mg/day), or PPV alone. PPV treatment used a maximum of four peptides chosen from 31 pooled peptides according to human leukocyte antigen types and antigen-specific humoral immune responses before PPV, for 8 subcutaneous weekly injections. Peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and immunoglobulin G responses were measured before and after PPV. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 hematologic adverse events was higher in the PPV plus CPA arm than in the PPV alone arm. Decrease in Treg and increase in MDSC were more pronounced in PPV plus CPA treatment than in PPV alone (p = 0.036 and p = 0.048, respectively). There was no correlation between the changes in Treg or MDSC and CTL response. There was no difference in positive immune responses between the two arms, although overall survival in patients with positive immune responses was longer than in those with negative immune responses (p = 0.001). Significant differences in neither progression-free survival nor overall survival were observed between the two arms. Low-dose CPA showed no change in the antitumor effect of PPV, possibly due to the simultaneous decrease in Treg and increase in MDSC, in patients under PPV.

Afifi S, Adel NG, Devlin S, et al.
Upfront plerixafor plus G-CSF versus cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF for stem cell mobilization in multiple myeloma: efficacy and cost analysis study.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2016; 51(4):546-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF (C+G-CSF) is one of the most widely used stem cell (SC) mobilization regimens for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Plerixafor plus G-CSF (P+G-CSF) has demonstrated superior SC mobilization efficacy when compared with G-CSF alone and has been shown to rescue patients who fail mobilization with G-CSF or C+G-CSF. Despite the proven efficacy of P+G-CSF in upfront SC mobilization, its use has been limited, mostly due to concerns of high price of the drug. However, a comprehensive comparison of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of SC mobilization using C+G-CSF versus P+G-CSF is not available. In this study, we compared 111 patients receiving C+G-CSF to 112 patients receiving P+G-CSF. The use of P+G-CSF was associated with a higher success rate of SC collection defined as ⩾5 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (94 versus 83%, P=0.013) and less toxicities. Thirteen patients in the C+G-CSF arm were hospitalized owing to complications while none in the P+G-CSF group. C+G-CSF was associated with higher financial burden as assessed using institutional-specific costs and charges (P<0.001) as well as using Medicare reimbursement rates (P=0.27). Higher rate of hospitalization, increased need for salvage mobilization, and increased G-CSF use account for these differences.

Perroud HA, Alasino CM, Rico MJ, et al.
Metastatic breast cancer patients treated with low-dose metronomic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and celecoxib: clinical outcomes and biomarkers of response.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(2):365-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preclinical results showing therapeutic effect and low toxicity of metronomic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (Cy) + celecoxib (Cel) for mammary tumors encouraged its translation to the clinic for treating advanced breast cancer patients (ABCP).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-arm, mono-institutional, non-randomized, phase II, two-step clinical trial (approved by Bioethics Committee and Argentine Regulatory Authority) was designed. Patients received Cy (50 mg po.d) + Cel (200 mg p.o.bid). Patient eligibility criteria included: ABCP who progressed to anthracyclines, taxanes and capecitabine, ≤4 chemotherapy schemes, with good performance status. Several pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules and cells were determined as biomarkers. Informed consent was signed by all patients. Primary endpoint was clinical benefit (CB).
RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrolled. Main clinical outcomes were prolonged disease stabilization and partial remission in 10/20 and 1/20 patients, respectively. CB was 55 %, and time to progression (TTP) was 21.1 weeks. Median TTP in patients who achieved CB was 35.6 weeks, and mean overall survival was 44.20 weeks. There were no grade 3/4 toxicities associated with treatment. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) increased at the time of progression in patients who showed CB (P = 0.014). Baseline CECs and circulating endothelial progenitor cells showed marginal associations with TTP. Serum VEGF decreased (P = 0.050), sVEGFR-2 increased (P = 0.005) and VEGF/sVEGFR-2 ratio decreased during treatment (P = 0.041); baseline VEGF and VEGF/sVEGFR-2 were associated with TTP (P = 0.035 and P = 0.030, respectively), while sVEGFR-2 did not.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment was effective, showing low toxicity profile and excellent tolerability. The combination had anti-angiogenic effect. Increased levels of CEC could be useful for detecting progression. Baseline VEGF and VEGF/sVEGFR-2 values could be useful as early predictors of response.

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