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    MeSH term: Neoplasms
    International US National Library of Medicine
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Yanagita T, Kusanagi H
Safety and Effectiveness of Enoxaparin as Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Gastric Cancer Surgery in Japanese Patients.
Am Surg. 2016; 82(12):1232-1237 [PubMed] Related Publications
Routine prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been recommended after surgery not only in the West but also in Asia recently. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of enoxaparin as a prophylaxis in patients undergoing distal, proximal, or total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancers. A total of 565 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were reviewed retrospectively. About 256 patients received postoperative prophylaxis with enoxaparin (2000 international unit twice daily for at least six days) and compression stockings; these patients were assigned to the enoxaparin group. About 257 patients comprised a historical control group, who used only compression stockings as a thromboprophylaxis. All patients underwent the same rehabilitation programs during the perioperative period. None of the patients developed symptomatic venous thromboembolism in either the enoxaparin group or the control group. The complication rate of bleeding was not significantly different between the two groups. Only one patient who used three antiplatelet agents concomitantly with enoxaparin required reoperation for anastomotic site bleeding. The usage of enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis is safe for Japanese patients after gastrectomy. But, cautious application is still needed especially when used concomitantly with other antiplatelet agents.

Serrano PE, Kim D, Kim PT, et al.
Effect of Pancreatic Fistula on Recurrence and Long-Term Prognosis of Periampullary Adenocarcinomas after Pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Am Surg. 2016; 82(12):1187-1195 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic fistula (PF) is common after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Its effect on recurrence and survival is not known. Retrospective study of patients undergoing PD for periampullary adenocarcinomas (2000-2012). Standard statistical analyses were performed to determine the impact of PF on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). There were 634 PDs (pancreatic adenocarcinoma: 347, other periampullary adenocarcinomas: 287). Any-grade PF developed in 81/634 (13%). Perioperative mortality rate was 1.7 per cent (11/634), higher in patients with PF (10 vs 0.5%, P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, PF significantly reduced DFS in pancreatic [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.6, 95% confidence-interval (CI): 1.1-2.6, P = 0.043] but not in other periampullary adenocarcinomas [HR = 1.3 (95% CI: 0.8-2.2), P = 0.45]. Positive lymph nodes, margins, and high-grade histology were associated with decreased DFS and OS. Adjuvant therapy was associated with improved OS in pancreatic [HR = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5-0.9), P = 0.02] but not in other periampullary adenocarcinomas [HR = 1.14 (95% CI: 0.8-1.7), P = 0.49]. PF did not alter OS in either group. After PD, PF is associated with decreased DFS in pancreatic but not in other periampullary adenocarcinomas. This decrease DFS did not alter OS. Tumor grade, lymph nodes, and resection margin status are associated with DFS and OS.

Uhr A, Singh AP, Munoz J, et al.
Colonic Schwannoma: A Case Study and Literature Review of a Rare Entity and Diagnostic Dilemma.
Am Surg. 2016; 82(12):1183-1186 [PubMed] Related Publications
An asymptomatic 73-year-old woman was found to have a submucosal mass in the descending colon on routine colonoscopy. A CT scan revealed a 31 × 28 × 31 mm lesion in the same location. Previous biopsy proved to be nondiagnostic, and the patient underwent a laparoscopic descending colon resection. Histologic evaluation of the tumor revealed a low grade spindle cell neoplasm with strong, diffuse positivity for S-100 protein by immunohistochemistry, leading to the diagnosis of schwannoma. A review of the literature revealed intestinal schwannoma to be a rare disease entity, with only about 50 cases previously reported.

Duregon E, Senetta R, Bertero L, et al.
Caveolin 1 expression favors tumor growth and is associated with poor survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317694311 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the consolidated clinico-pathological correlates of Caveolin 1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer, the available data on the role of Caveolin 1 in relation to proliferation, migration, and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma cells is still scant. Here, we aimed to confirm whether Caveolin 1 may act as a promoter of cell growth in human lung adenocarcinoma using in vitro and in vivo models, supported by a survival analysis of Caveolin 1 expression in a series of 116 primary lung adenocarcinomas. The silencing of endogenous Caveolin 1 expression in H522 lung adenocarcinoma cells through stable shRNA transfection significantly inhibited cellular proliferation in vitro and in vivo, in a lung adenocarcinoma xenograft mouse model. The bioluminescence imaging analysis revealed that tumors derived from Caveolin 1 shRNA-transfected cells grew slower than control xenografts. However, this difference progressively diminished over time and was definitively lost after 21 days. This was consistent with a progressive Caveolin 1 re-expression, which started at day 7. The association between the restored expression of Caveolin 1 and the restart of tumor growth in vivo supports the booster role of Caveolin 1 in lung adenocarcinoma progression. To further confirm this role, Caveolin 1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of 116 human lung adenocarcinomas. Positive Caveolin 1 tumors accounted for 20% of cases and were associated with a significantly worse overall survival compared to Caveolin 1-negative cancers. Taken together, these data highlight that Caveolin 1 expression confers a proliferative advantage in lung adenocarcinoma cells, thus fostering increased tumor aggressiveness.

Foster JM, Sleightholm R, Watley D, et al.
The Efficacy of Dextran-40 as a Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Strategy in Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.
Am Surg. 2017; 83(2):134-140 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in peritoneal malignancies can approach 30 to 50 per cent without prophylaxis. Prophylaxis in cytoreductive surgeries (CRS) presents a challenge to preoperative heparin-based therapy because of an increased risk of coagulopathy and potential for bleeding. Herein, we report the large series of CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy receiving dextran-40 prophylaxis. Retrospective chart review of peritoneal malignancies patients undergoing CRS at University of Nebraska Medical Center identified 69 individuals who received dextran-40 between 2010 and 2013. The incidences of VTEs, perioperative bleeding, complications, morbidity, and mortality were determined in-hospital and at 90 days. Of the 69 patients treated, the 30-day VTE rate was 8.7 per cent, and no pulmonary embolisms, bleeding, anaphylactoid reaction, or mortality were observed with dextran usage. The specific VTE events included three upper extremity and three lower extremity VTEs. No additional VTE events were identified between 30 and 90 days. In conclusion, dextran-40 prophylaxis was not associated with any perioperative bleeding events, and the observed incidence of VTE was comparable to reported heparin-based prophylaxis in CRS/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy patients. This data supports further exploration of dextran-40 as a VTE prophylactic agent in complex surgical oncology cases.

Hong KD, Um JW, Min BW, et al.
Lymph Node Micrometastasis Cannot Be Considered as Positive Lymph Node in Nonmetastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Am Surg. 2017; 83(2):127-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognostic value of micrometastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. The study investigated whether lymph node (LN) micrometastasis can have prognostic value in CRC as compared with macrometastasis. The study included 488 patients with curatively resected stage I, II, or III CRC treated between 2004 and 2011. Immuohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody CAM 5.2 was performed on negative LNs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The prognostic value of LN micrometastasis was investigated in multivariate analysis. Regression analysis was performed to identify a causal relationship between micro- and macrometastasis. Survival differences were compared between conventional N staging and hypothetic N staging taking micrometastasis in the positive node. A total of 93 patients (19.1%) showed LN micrometastasis. Patients with micrometastasis had more advanced tumor characteristics in terms of tumor size, grade, T stage, N stage, lymphatic invasion, and vascular invasion. In multivariate analysis, micrometastasis was not related with recurrence. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level, neural invasion, and macrometastasis were independent risk factors in the analysis. Regression analysis showed that there was not a causal relationship between micro- and macrometastasis (R2 = 0.004, P = 0.153). When the cumulative numbers of micro- and macrometastatic LNs were calculated together, the discriminative power of survival difference between each node stage became less prominent, compared with conventional N staging. LN micrometastasis is related with advanced tumor characteristics, but does not reflect poor prognosis in nonmetastatic CRC. Micrometastasis cannot be considered as positive LN to predict poor prognosis.

Ács B, Zámbó V, Vízkeleti L, et al.
Ki-67 as a controversial predictive and prognostic marker in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Studies have partly demonstrated the clinical validity of Ki-67 as a predictive marker in the neoadjuvant setting, but the question of the best cut-off points as well as the importance of this marker as a prognostic factor in partial responder/non-responder groups remains uncertain.
METHODS: One hundred twenty patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) between 2002 and 2013 were retrospectively recruited to this study. The optimal cut-off value for Ki-67 labeling index (LI) to discriminate response to treatment was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve estimation, log-rank test and cox regression analysis were carried out to reveal the association between Ki-67 categories and survival (DMFS = Distant metastases-free survival, OS = Overall survival).
RESULTS: Twenty three out of 120 patients (19.2%) achieved pathologic complete remission (pCR), whereas partial remission (pPR) and no response (pNR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) was detected in 60.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The distribution of subtypes showed a significant difference in pathological response groups (p < 0.001). Most of the TNBC cases were represented in pCR group. The most relevant cut-off value for the Ki-67 distinguishing pCR from pNR cases was 20% (p = 0.002). No significant threshold for Ki-67 was found regarding DMFS (p = 0.208). Considering OS, the optimal cut-off point occurred at 15% Ki-67 (p = 0.006). The pPR group represented a significant Ki-67 threshold at 30% regarding OS (p = 0.001). Ki-67 and pPR subgroups were not significantly associated (p = 0.653). For prognosis prediction, Ki-67 at 30% cut-off value (p = 0.040) furthermore subtype (p = 0.037) as well as pathological response (p = 0.044) were suitable to separate patients into good and unfavorable prognosis cohorts regarding OS. However, in multivariate analyses, only Ki-67 at 30% threshold (p = 0.029), and subtype (p = 0.008) were independently linked to OS.
CONCLUSIONS: NAC is more efficient in tumors with at least 20% Ki-67 LI. Both Ki-67 LI and subtype showed a significant association with pathological response. Ki-67 LI represented independent prognostic potential to OS in our neoadjuvant patient cohort, while pathological response did not. Additionally, our data also suggest that if a tumor is non-responder to NAC, increased Ki-67 is a poor prognostic marker.

Chou ST, Hsiang CY, Lo HY, et al.
Exploration of anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of Zuo-Jin-Wan and its alkaloid components in vitro and in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft immunocompetent mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Zuo-Jin-Wan (ZJW), a two-herb formula consisting of Coptis chinensis (CC) and Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancers. However, the efficacies and mechanisms of ZJW and its alkaloid components on cancers are still unclear.
METHODS: Here we investigated the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine in cells and in intrahepatic xenograft mice.
RESULTS: Treatment of HepG2 cells with ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine significantly displayed cytotoxic effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hierarchical cluster analysis of gene expression profiles showed that CC and ZJW shared a similar mechanism for the cytotoxic effects, suggesting that CC was the active ingredient of ZJW for anti-cancer activity. Network analysis further showed that c-myc was the likely key molecule involved in the regulation of ZJW-affected gene expression. A human hepatoma xenograft model was established by intrahepatic injection of HepG2 cells containing nuclear factor-κB-driven luciferase genes in immunocompetent mice. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that cells had been successfully transplanted in mouse liver. Oral administration of ZJW for 28 consecutive days led to a significant decrease in the accumulation of ascites, the ratio of tumor-to-liver, and the number of transplanted cells in livers.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings suggested for the first time that ZJW significantly suppressed human cancer cell growth in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft-bearing immunocompetent mice. Moreover, c-myc might play a potent role in the cytotoxic mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine.

Ting CT, Kuo CJ, Hu HY, et al.
Prescription frequency and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine for liver cancer patients in Taiwan: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):118 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is frequently provided to HCC patients. The aim of this study was to understand the prescription frequency and patterns of CHM for HCC patients by analyzing the claims data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan.
METHODS: We identified 73918 newly diagnosed HCC subjects from the database of Registry for Catastrophic Illness during 2002 to 2009 and to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions for HCC patients.
RESULTS: There were a total of 685,079 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 553,952 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions used for 17,373 HCC subjects before 2 years of HCC diagnosis. Among the 13,093 HCC subjects who used CHMs after HCC diagnosis, there were 462,786 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 300,153 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions were counted. By adjusting with person-year and ratio of standardized incidence rate, the top ten prescribed single herbal drugs and Chinese herbal formulas for HCC patients were described in our study. Among them, we concluded that, Oldenlandia diffusa (Chinese herbal name: Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao), Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang) and the herbal preparation of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Gan-Lu-Yin, were the most obviously increased and important CHMs been used for HCC patients.
CONCLUSION: We established an accurate and validated method for the actual frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating HCC in Taiwan. We propose that these breakthrough findings may have important implications for HCC therapy, clinical trials and modernization of CHM.

Liu Y, Zuo T, Zhu X, et al.
Differential expression of hENT1 and hENT2 in colon cancer cell lines.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENT) 1 and 2, encoded by SLC29A1 and SLC29A2, permit the bidirectional passage of nucleoside analogues into cells and may correlate with clinical responses to chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression profiles of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in human cancer cell lines. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we comprehensively profiled the transcription levels of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in 16 colon cancer cell lines. We validated the ubiquitous and heterogeneous distribution of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in human colon cancer cell lines and demonstrated that SLC29A1 was highly expressed in 25% of metastatic cell lines (Colo201 and Colo205) and 62.5% of primary cell lines (Caco2, Colo320, HCT116, RKO, and SW48). For the first time, we showed that both SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 were expressed at lower levels in colon cancer cell lines originating from metastatic sites than from primary sites. These findings indicate that most patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) may have low hENT1 expression, and treatment with nucleoside analogues may be inefficient. However, some patients still show high hENT1 expression and have a high probability of benefiting from these drugs. Therefore, evaluating transporter expression profiles and different drug responses between primary and metastatic tumors in patients with mCRC is important. Further assessment of the association between hENTs and drug-based treatment of mCRC is required to elucidate the mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance.

Klinger PH, Andrade AF, Delsin LE, et al.
Inhibition of SHH pathway mechanisms by arsenic trioxide in pediatric medulloblastomas: a comprehensive literature review.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent innovations in the genomic understanding of medulloblastomas have provided new ways to explore this highly invasive malignant brain cancer arising from the cerebellum. Among the four different medulloblastoma subgroups described to date, the sonic hedgehog (SHH) genetic pathway is the pathway activated in the tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. SHH-related medulloblastomas are usually of nodular/desmoplastic histology and frequently occur in children under the age of three, an age group highly susceptible to the acute and long-term effects of treatment. Several new drugs aimed at SHH modulation are currently under development. This review focuses on the role of arsenic trioxide, a drug well established in clinical practice and probably an under-explored agent in medulloblastoma management, in the SHH pathway.

Zekri J, Al-Shehri A, Mahrous M, et al.
Mutations in codons 12 and 13 of K-ras exon 2 in colorectal tumors of Saudi Arabian patients: frequency, clincopathological associations, and clinical outcomes.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in codons 12/13 of K-ras exon 2 are associated with reduced benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we evaluated the frequency of K-ras mutations and their relationship with clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes in Saudi Arabian patients with CRC. The genetic status of K-ras was determined in 300 patients diagnosed with CRC. Clinical information was collected retrospectively. K-ras was wild-type in 58% and mutated in 42% of the tumors. Most mutations were at codon 12 (89%) and were associated with metastasis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38 (95%CI = 1.14-1.67] and occurrence of >40 µg/L carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) [OR = 1.33 (1.1-1.74)] during diagnosis. Patients in stages I-III of the disease with wild-type K-ras tumors had a median relapse free survival (RFS) of 29 months in contrast to 22 months for those with the mutated K-ras tumor (P = 0.0357). In multivariate analysis, only the stage of the disease significantly predicted RFS (P = 0.001). Patients in stage IV of CRC with the wild-type K-ras tumor did not reach the median overall survival (OS), whereas patients with the mutated K-ras tumor survived for 23.5 months (P = 0.044). CEA level >40 µg/L (P = 0.004) and status of K-ras (P = 0.044) were independent predictors of OS. This is the largest study investigating K-ras mutations in patients with CRC in the Middle East. Mutations were associated with advanced stage of CRC, higher serum CEA, shorter RFS and OS.

Xiu DH, Chen Y, Liu L, et al.
Tumor-suppressive role of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF-4) in colorectal cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) are a group of transcriptional regulators that have recently been identified to exhibit tumor-suppressive function against various gastrointestinal cancers. The present study aims to investigate the expression patterns and prognostic value of KLF-4 in colorectal cancers (CRCs). KLF-4 levels in CRC tissues were examined via immunohistochemistry analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting. The chi-square test was performed to evaluate the correlation between KLF-4 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of KLF-4 in CRC patients. In addition, we evaluated the effect of KLF-4 knockdown on the proliferation of CRC HT-29 cells. Our results showed significant downregulation of KLF-4 in 31 CRC samples, collected from CRC patients showing more malignant characteristics such as lymphatic metastasis, low tumor cell differentiation, and tumor recurrence. CRC patients in the low KLF-4 group were found to have reduced overall survival and decreased disease-free survival time. Moreover, HT-29 cells transfected with siRNA-KLF-4 showed increased proliferation compared to those transfected with control siRNA. In summary, lower KLF-4 expression was correlated with malignant CRC status and poor prognosis in CRC patients. Moreover, KLF-4 suppression promoted the proliferation of CRC cells in vitro. These results provide novel insights into the tumor suppressive role of KLF-4 in CRC.

Fiala O, Pesek M, Skrickova J, et al.
Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression is associated with outcome of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pemetrexed is an antifolate cytostatic agent targeting several folate-dependent enzymatic pathways, widely used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic stage non-small cell lung cancer. Aside from the non-squamous histology, there is still no available molecular biomarker predicting treatment efficacy of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the association of thyroid transcription factor 1 expression with outcome of a large cohort of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed. We retrospectively analysed clinical data of 463 patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (IIIB or IV) treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was assessed using indirect immunohistochemical detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue at the time of diagnosis. Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was detected in the tumour tissue from 76.0% of patients, and tumours from 24.0% of patients were thyroid transcription factor 1 negative. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for patients with thyroid transcription factor 1 positive tumours were 4.8 and 11.8 months compared to 2.8 and 8.3 months for those with thyroid transcription factor 1 negative tumours (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model revealed that thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was significantly associated with progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.57, p < 0.001) and also with overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.73, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of the conducted retrospective study suggest that the thyroid transcription factor 1 expression was independently associated with progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced-stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy.

Johnson MD, Stone B, Thibodeau BJ, et al.
The significance of Trk receptors in pancreatic cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692256 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated the Trk receptor family as a therapeutic target in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and assessed their prognostic significance. Global gene expression analysis was investigated in prospectively collected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas that had either undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiation or were treated by surgery. PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa-2 cell lines were investigated to establish whether fractionated radiation altered expression of four neuroendocrine genes and whether this resulted in subsequent changes in radiosensitivity. A specific inhibitor of TrkA, B, and C, AstraZeneca 1332, was investigated in vitro and in vivo in combination with radiation. A tissue microarray was constructed from 77 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients who had undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiation and the Trk receptor, and neurogenic differentiation 1 expression was assessed and correlated with overall survival. A total of 99 genes were identified that were differentially expressed in the chemoradiation patients with neuroendocrine genes and pathways, in particular the neurogenic differentiation 1 and Trk receptor family, being prominent. Fractionated radiation upregulated the expression of neuroendocrine genes, and AstraZeneca 1332 treatment in vitro enhanced radiosensitivity. No added effect of AstraZeneca 1332 was observed in vivo. Trk receptor expression varied between isoforms but did not correlate significantly with clinical outcome. Radiation treatment upregulated neuroendocrine gene expression but the Trk receptor family does not appear to be a promising treatment target.

Razmkhah F, Soleimani M, Mehrabani D, et al.
Leukemia microvesicles affect healthy hematopoietic stem cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692234 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microvesicles are released by different cell types and shuttle mRNAs and microRNAs which have the possibility to transfer genetic information to a target cell and alter its function. Acute myeloid leukemia is a malignant disorder, and leukemic cells occupy all the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we investigate the effect of leukemia microvesicles on healthy umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells to find evidence of cell information transferring. Leukemia microvesicles were isolated from acute myeloid leukemia patients and were co-incubated with healthy hematopoietic stem cells. After 7 days, cell count, hematopoietic stem cell-specific cluster of differentiation (CD) markers, colony-forming unit assay, and some microRNA gene expressions were assessed. Data showed a higher number of hematopoietic stem cells after being treated with leukemia microvesicles compared with control (treated with no microvesicles) and normal (treated with normal microvesicles) groups. Also, increased levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-29a genes were observed in this group, while colony-forming ability was still maintained and high ranges of CD34(+), CD34(+)CD38(-), CD90(+), and CD117(+) phenotypes were observed as stemness signs. Our results suggest that leukemia microvesicles are able to induce some effects on healthy hematopoietic stem cells such as promoting cell survival and some microRNAs deregulation, while stemness is maintained.

Sidhu H, Capalash N
UHRF1: The key regulator of epigenetics and molecular target for cancer therapeutics.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692205 [PubMed] Related Publications
UHRF1 is a master regulator of epigenome as it coordinates DNA methylation and histone modifications. Compelling evidence suggests a strong link between UHRF1 overexpression and tumorigenesis, substantiating its ability to act as a potential biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. UHRF1 also mediates repair of damaged DNA that makes cancer cells resistant toward cytocidal drugs. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanism of UHRF1 regulation would help in developing cancer therapeutics. Natural compounds have shown applicability to downregulate UHRF1 leading to growth arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

Kim SH, Kang JG, Kim CS, et al.
Doxorubicin has a synergistic cytotoxicity with cucurbitacin B in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692252 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, the combined effect of doxorubicin with cucurbitacin B on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells was evaluated. For experiments, 8505C and CAL62 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells were used. Cell viability, the percentage of viable cells, and cytotoxic activity were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, multiplexed cytotoxicity assay, and cytotoxicity assay, respectively. Reactive oxygen species production was measured. In experiments, doxorubicin and cucurbitacin B reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cotreatment of doxorubicin and cucurbitacin B, compared with treatment of doxorubicin alone, decreased the percentage of viable cells and increased cytotoxic activity. All of the combination index values were lower than 1.0, suggesting the synergism between doxorubicin and cucurbitacin B in induction of cytotoxicity. In cells treated with both doxorubicin and cucurbitacin B, compared with doxorubicin alone, the protein levels of cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase and cyclooxygenase 2 and reactive oxygen species production were enhanced. In contrast, the protein levels of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 and survivin and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2/B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2-associated x protein ratio were diminished. The protein levels of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were reduced, while phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein levels were elevated without change in total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein levels. These results suggest that doxorubicin synergizes with cucurbitacin B in induction of cytotoxicity in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Moreover, synergistic cytotoxicity of doxorubicin with cucurbitacin B is mediated by B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 family proteins, survivin, and reactive oxygen species and modulated by Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

Shi J, Yuan M, Wang ZD, et al.
Comprehensive profiling and quantitation of oncogenic mutations in non-small cell lung carcinoma using single-molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691413 [PubMed] Related Publications
The carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung carcinoma has been found to associate with activating and resistant mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of specific oncogenes. Here, we assessed the type, frequency, and abundance of epithelial growth factor receptor, KRAS, BRAF, and ALK mutations in 154 non-small cell lung carcinoma specimens using single-molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology. We found that epithelial growth factor receptor mutations were the most prevalent (44.2%), followed by KRAS (18.8%), ALK (7.8%), and BRAF (5.8%) mutations. The type and abundance of the mutations in tumor specimens appeared to be heterogeneous. Thus, we conclude that identification of clinically significant oncogenic mutations may improve the classification of patients and provide valuable information for determination of the therapeutic strategies.

Moghaddaskho F, Eyvani H, Ghadami M, et al.
Demethylation and alterations in the expression level of the cell cycle-related genes as possible mechanisms in arsenic trioxide-induced cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692255 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used clinically as an anti-tumor agent. Its mechanisms are mostly considered to be the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of its anti-cancer action through cell cycle arrest are poorly known. Furthermore, As2O3 has been shown to be a potential DNA methylation inhibitor, inducing DNA hypomethylation. We hypothesize that As2O3 may affect the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes by interfering with DNA methylation patterns. To explore this, we examined promoter methylation status of 24 cell cycle genes in breast cancer cell lines and in a normal breast tissue sample by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and/or restriction enzyme-based methods. Gene expression level and cell cycle distribution were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. Our methylation analysis indicates that only promoters of RBL1 (p107), RASSF1A, and cyclin D2 were aberrantly methylated in studied breast cancer cell lines. As2O3 induced CpG island demethylation in promoter regions of these genes and restores their expression correlated with DNA methyltransferase inhibition. As2O3 also induced alterations in messenger RNA expression of several cell cycle-related genes independent of demethylation. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell cycle arrest induced by As2O3 varied depending on cell lines, MCF-7 at G1 phase and both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells at G2/M phase. These changes at transcriptional level of the cell cycle genes by the molecular mechanisms dependent and independent of demethylation are likely to represent the mechanisms of cell cycle redistribution in breast cancer cells, in response to As2O3 treatment.

Vallius T, Hynninen J, Auranen A, et al.
Postoperative human epididymis protein 4 predicts primary therapy outcome in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691189 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary chemotherapy treatment response monitoring in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is currently based on CT-imaging and serum CA125 values. Serum HE4 profile during first line chemotherapy has not been previously studied. We evaluated the HE4 profile during first line chemotherapy after primary (PDS) and interval debulking surgery (IDS). In total, 49 FIGO stage III/IV EOC patients were included in the study. 22 patients underwent PDS and 27 patients neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by IDS. Serial HE4 and CA125 serum samples were taken during first line chemotherapy. The association of postoperative tumor markers to surgery outcome, primary therapy outcome and progression free survival (PFS) were determined. The lowest HE4 and CA125 values during chemotherapy were compared to primary therapy outcome and PFS. The postoperative HE4 was associated to residual tumor after surgery (p = 0.0001), primary therapy outcome (p = 0.004) and PFS (p = 0.03) in all patients (n = 40). The postoperative CA125 was associated to PFS after IDS (n = 26, p = 0.006), but not after PDS. In multivariate analysis with FIGO stage (III/IV), residual tumor (0/>0) and postoperative CA125, the postoperative HE4 was the only statistically significant prognostic variable predicting PFS. Both HE4 and CA125 nadir corresponded to primary therapy outcome (HE4 p < 0.0001, CA125 p < 0.0001) and PFS (HE4 p = 0.009, CA125 p < 0.0001). HE4 is a promising candidate for EOC response monitoring. In our study, the performance of HE4 in response monitoring of first line chemotherapy was comparable to that of CA125. Of the postoperative values, only HE4 was statistically significantly associated to primary therapy outcome.

Allahyari H, Heidari S, Ghamgosha M, et al.
Immunotoxin: A new tool for cancer therapy.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692226 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is one of the main reasons of death in the most countries and in Iran. Immunotherapy quickly became one of the best methods of cancer treatment, along with chemotherapy and radiation. "Immunotoxin Therapy" is a promising way of cancer therapy that is mentioned in this field. Immunotoxins are made from a toxin attaching to an antibody target proteins present on cancer cells. The first-generation immunotoxins were made of a full-length toxin attached to whole monoclonal antibodies. But, these immunotoxins could bind to normal cells. DAB389IL2 was the first immunotoxin approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Current trends and researches are ongoing on finding proteins that in combination with immunotoxins have minimal immunogenicity and the most potency for target cell killing.

Liu Z, Wang J, Li Y, et al.
MicroRNA-153 regulates glutamine metabolism in glioblastoma through targeting glutaminase.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691429 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive manifestation of malignant gliomas and considered to be among the deadliest forms of human cancers. MicroRNAs are found to tightly regulate diverse biological processes and considered to play important roles in cancer etiology. In this study, we found that microRNA-153 was significantly downregulated in glioblastoma tissues compared to matched non-tumor tissues and in glioblastoma cell lines. To investigate the potential function of microRNA-153 in glioblastoma, we transfected glioblastoma cell line U87MG as well as U373MG with synthetic microRNA-153 oligos and observed decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. We further found that microRNA-153 restrained glutamine utilization and glutamate generation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that glutaminase, which catalyzed the formation of glutamate from glutamine, is the potential target of microRNA-153. Indeed, microRNA-153 cannot further reduce glutamine utilization when glutaminase was knocked down. Overexpression of glutaminase abrogates the effect of microRNA-153 on glutamine utilization. Furthermore, the relative expression of microRNA-153 and glutaminase in glioblastoma versus matched non-tumor tissues showed a reverse correlation, further indicating that microRNA-153 may negatively regulate glutaminase in vivo. These results demonstrate an unexpected role of microRNA-153 in regulating glutamine metabolism and strengthen the role of microRNA-153 as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma.

Tong D, Liang YN, Stepanova AA, et al.
Increased Eps15 homology domain 1 and RAB11FIP3 expression regulate breast cancer progression via promoting epithelial growth factor receptor recycling.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691010 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent research indicates that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain 1 is associated with epithelial growth factor receptor-mediated endocytosis recycling in non-small-cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Eps15 homology domain 1 gene expression in relation to phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression in patients with breast cancer. Primary breast cancer samples from 306 patients were analyzed for Eps15 homology domain 1, RAB11FIP3, and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression via immunohistochemistry. The clinical significance was assessed via a multivariate Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank test. Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor were upregulated in 60.46% (185/306) and 53.92% (165/306) of tumor tissues, respectively, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. The statistical correlation analysis indicated that Eps15 homology domain 1 overexpression was positively correlated with the increases in phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor ( r = 0.242, p < 0.001) and RAB11FIP3 ( r = 0.165, p = 0.005) expression. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis demonstrated that the expression of Eps15 homology domain 1 alone is a significant prognostic marker of breast cancer for the overall survival in the total, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-) groups. However, the use of combined expression of Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor markers is more effective for the disease-free survival in the overall population, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-) groups. Moreover, the combined markers are also significant prognostic markers of breast cancer in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (+), estrogen receptor (+), and estrogen receptor (-) groups. Eps15 homology domain 1 has a tumor suppressor function, and the combined marker of Eps15 homology domain 1/phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression was identified as a better prognostic marker in breast cancer diagnosis. Furthermore, RAB11FIP3 combines with Eps15 homology domain 1 to promote the endocytosis recycling of phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor.

Lee H, Lee H, Cho YK
Cytokeratin7 and cytokeratin19 expression in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and squamous cell carcinoma and their possible association in cervical carcinogenesis.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) infects cells at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) of the cervix, causing cancer. Cytokeratin (CK)7 is an SCJ marker, and stains cervical neoplasia. CK19 is a binding partner of CK7 and expressed in cervical cancer. Despite this possible association between CK7/CK19 and cervical cancer, not much is known about the mechanism of CK7/CK19 involvement in HR HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis.
METHODS: We analyzed the expression pattern of CK7, CK19, and p16 by using immunohistochemistry and HPV infection by in situ hybridization in 25 cases of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) and in 30 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
RESULTS: CK19, p16, and HPV expression was positive in all CIN3 and SCC cases. CK7 expression was positive in all CIN3 cases and in 20/30 (66%) SCCs. Each protein showed diffuse or patchy staining with topographic distinction. Patchy staining of CK7 and episomal HPV DNA overlapped in the upper layer of CIN3 and central portion of an invasive nest in the SCC, whereas patchy CK19 staining and integrated HPV DNA were usually noted in the lower layer of CIN3 and the periphery of the SCC nest. The p16 staining pattern coincided with that of CK19 in a subset of SCC.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CK7 may be more related with viral episomal replication and CK19 with viral integration, contributing to viral replication and malignant transformation in HR HPV infected cells. In addition, coordinate CK7/CK19 staining may be used as a valuable marker for predicting physical status of HR HPV and E7 oncoprotein level in cervical tumor.

Abu-Farsakh S, Wu T, Lalonde A, et al.
High expression of Claudin-2 in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions is significantly associated with the bile salt receptors VDR and TGR5.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Claudins are a family of integral membrane proteins and are components of tight junctions (TJs). Many TJ proteins are known to tighten the cell structure and maintain a barrier. Claudin-2 forms gated paracellular channels and allows sodium ions and other small positively charged ions to cross between adjacent cells. Recently, we found that vitamin D receptor (VDR) enhanced Claudin-2 expression in colon and that bile salt receptors VDR and Takeda G-protein coupled receptor5 (TGR5) were highly expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and precancerous lesions. Here, we examined the expression of Claudin-2 in EAC and precancerous lesions and its association with VDR and TGR5 expression.
METHODS: Claudin-2 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, containing EAC, high grade dysplasia (HGD), low grade dysplasia (LGD), Barrett's esophagus (BE), columnar cell metaplasia (CM), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and squamous epithelium (SE) cases. Intensity (0 to 3) and percentage were scored for each case. High expression was defined as 2-3 intensity in ≥ 10% of cells.
RESULTS: Claudin-2 was highly expressed in 77% EAC (86/111), 38% HGD (5/13), 61% LGD (17/28), 46% BE (18/39), 45% CM (29/65), 88% SCC (23/26), and 14% SE (11/76). It was significantly more highly-expressed in EAC, SCC and glandular lesions than in SE and more in EAC than in BE and CM. A significant association was found between Claudin-2 expression and VDR and TGR5 expression. No significant association was found between expression of Claudin-2 and age, gender, grade, stage, or patients' survival time in EAC and SCC.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that Claudin-2 expression is significantly associated with bile acid receptors VDR and TGR5 expression. Our studies identify a novel role of a tight junction protein in the development and progression of esophageal mucosal metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma.

Khan S, Mikhail S, Xiu J, Salem ME
Molecular biology of gastroesophageal cancers: opportunities and challenges.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2017; 15(1):75-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastroesophageal (GE) malignancies make up a significant and growing segment of newly diagnosed cancers. Approximately 80% of patients who have GE cancers die within 5 years of diagnosis, which means that effective treatments for these malignancies need to be found. Currently, targeted therapies have a minimal role in this disease group. Intensive study of the molecular biology of GE cancers is a relatively new and ongoing venture, but it has already led to a significant increase in our understanding of these malignancies. This understanding, although still limited, has the potential to enhance our ability to develop targeted therapies in conjunction with the ability to identify actionable gene mutations and perform genomic profiling to predict drug resistance. Several cell surface growth factor receptors have been found to play a prominent role in GE cancer cell signaling. This discovery has led to the approval of 2 agents within the last few years: trastuzumab, an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody used in the first-line treatment of HER2-positive GE cancers, and ramucirumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) monoclonal antibody that is currently used in later lines of therapy. This review discusses the current state of molecular testing in GE cancers, along with the known molecular biology and current and investigational treatments. The development of trastuzumab and ramucirumab represents a significant advance in our ability to make use of GE tumor molecular profiles. As our understanding of the impact of molecular aberrations on drug effectiveness and disease outcomes increases, we anticipate improved therapy for patients with GE cancers.

Chen JF, Lu YT, Cheng S, et al.
Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer: beyond enumeration.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2017; 15(1):63-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a population of rare cancer cells that have detached from the primary tumor and/or metastatic lesions and entered the peripheral circulation. Enumeration of CTCs has demonstrated value as a prognostic biomarker, and newer studies have pointed to information beyond enumeration that is of critical importance in prostate cancer. Technologic advances that permit examination of the morphology, function, and molecular content of CTCs have made it possible to measure these factors as part of liquid biopsy. These advances provide a way to study tumor evolution and the development of resistance to therapy. Recent breakthroughs have created new applications for CTCs that will affect the care of patients with prostate cancer.

Flower A, Cairo MS
The evolution of allogeneic stem cell transplant for children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2017; 15(1):52-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Survival rates in subsets of pediatric patients who have acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with favorable risk features are now greater than 90%. However, outcomes for patients with high-risk (HR) features remain unacceptably poor. As novel technologies for the identification of HR biomarkers and the detection of residual disease are developed, risk stratification and the application of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are evolving. HSCT has been shown to benefit subpopulations of pediatric patients with AML, including those with HR cytogenetic translocations, genetic mutations, and/or residual disease after induction. Targeted therapies have shown promise for improving outcomes, and their integration into standard therapy and HSCT regimens is a critical area of interest. Also, expansion of the donor pool has led to the successful use of alternative donor sources for those patients without a matched sibling. However, transplant-related morbidity and mortality and late effects are major limiting factors. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have resulted in outcomes equivalent to those achieved with myeloablative regimens among patients in complete remission. The limitation of transplant-related morbidity and mortality through reduced-intensity conditioning and supportive care, and improved survival through optimal alloreactivity in combination with targeted therapy, are steps toward advancing outcomes for pediatric patients who have AML with HR features.

Vachhani P, George S
VEGF inhibitors in renal cell carcinoma.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2016; 14(12):1016-1028 [PubMed] Related Publications
The arrival of targeted therapies-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors-and programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors has transformed the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Once considered fatal, with a median survival of approximately 1 year, these agents have nearly tripled overall survival and have raised hopes of a possible cure for advanced RCC. This review begins with a brief discussion of the seminal von Hippel-Lindau/hypoxia-inducible factor axis in RCC. It then discusses the pivotal trials that have investigated VEGF inhibitors in metastatic RCC, as well as in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Finally, it addresses some practical considerations and future directions in the use of VEGF inhibitors in RCC.

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