Cancer Screening and Early Detection
Screening may help detect cancer at an early stage before symptoms develop, or even at a per-cancerous stage, which makes it more likely to be curable. However, in practice screening for certain cancers has proven complex and even counter-intuitive. Also, there is increasing awareness of risks with screening, such as exposure to invasive examinations, and "overdiagnosis" of tumours that may not necessarily have caused a problem within a person's lifetime. For some types of cancer, cervical cancer for example, there is general consensus amongst experts about its value in early detection/prevention and many countries have established national screening programmes. For other types of cancer, the value of screening is more controversial and practice may vary. Also, the optimum age at which to begin screening and the specific tests used can vary and have been refined as further research is undertaken. Screening may be population based ("mass screening") e.g. all women over 40, or it may be targeted at "high risk" groups e.g. people with a known family history or genetic predisposition to cancer.Information for Patients and the Public
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers
Latest Research Publications
Breast Cancer Screening
Cervical Cancer Screening
Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Screening
Prostate Cancer Screening
Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Information Patients and the Public (6 links)
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (6 links)
- PubMed search for publications about Cancer Screening - Limit search to: [Reviews]
PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Cancer Screening
MeSH term: Early Detection of Cancer
US National Library of Medicine
PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Could Patients Older than 75 Years Benefit from a Systematic Breast Cancer Screening Program?
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):903-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Amiens, France, regional oncologic referral center between 2005 and 2015. Two groups were formed depending on whether the patients followed clinical manifestations (CM) or a prescribed systematic mammography (SM).
RESULTS: Three hundred and ninenty-three patients were selected. CM and SM represented 72% and 14.5% of BC diagnosis circumstances, respectively. In the SM group statistically significant differences included: earlier stage cancer diagnosis (tumor stages 0 and 1 accounted for 6.3% and 61.4% of cases, respectively), less lymph node invasions (35.7% and 8.8%) and metastases (19.1% and 0%), more frequent possibility of conservative surgery (25.6% and 74.5%), improved global and disease-free survival rates (by 14.2 and 18.4 months).
CONCLUSION: Screening seems to improve prognosis of older BC patients; this constitutes a strong argument for reconsidering age limits of national BC screening programs.
Desmin detection by facile prepared carbon quantum dots for early screening of colorectal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e5521 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A simple scoring model for advanced colorectal neoplasm in asymptomatic subjects aged 40-49 years.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Clinical data were collected on 2781 asymptomatic subjects aged 40-49 years who underwent colonoscopy for routine health examination. Subjects were randomly allocated to a development or validation set. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasm.
RESULTS: The prevalence of overall and advanced colorectal neoplasm was 20.2 and 2.5% respectively. Older age (45-49 years), male sex, positive serology of Helicobacter pylori, and high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were independently associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasm. BMI (body mass index) was not significant in multivariable analysis. We developed a simple scoring model for advanced colorectal neoplasm (range 0-9). A cutoff of ≥4 defined 43% of subjects as high risk for advanced colorectal neoplasm (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 58%; area under the receiver operating curve = 0.72) in the validation datasets.
CONCLUSION: Older age (45-49 years), male sex, positive serology of H. pylori, high triglyceride level, and low HDL level were identified as independent risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm.
Spatial and temporal variations of screening for breast and colorectal cancer in the United States, 2008 to 2012.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(51):e5656 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Scarce information about breast cancer screening: An Italian websites analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(50):e5615 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Surveillance for neoplasia in the pancreas.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016; 30(6):971-986 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paradigm Shifts in Breast Care Delivery: Impact of Imaging in a Multidisciplinary Environment.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017; 208(2):248-255 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: The multidisciplinary delivery of breast care for women that incorporates screening, diagnosis of borderline and high-risk lesions, and management of the breast cancer patient adds considerable value to outcomes in health care.
Sentinel lymph node biopsy for early oral cancers: Westmead Hospital experience.
ANZ J Surg. 2017; 87(1-2):65-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study consisting of 30 consecutive patients with cT1-2 N0 OCSCC referred to the Head and Neck Cancer Service, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, between 2011 and 2014. All patients underwent SLNB followed by immediate selective neck dissection (levels I-III).
RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were diagnosed with an early clinically node-negative OCSCC (seven cT1 and 23 cT2), with the majority located on the oral tongue. A median of three (range: 1-14) sentinel nodes were identified on lymphoscintigraphy, and all sentinel nodes were successfully retrieved, with 50% having a pathologically positive sentinel node. No false-negative sentinel nodes were identified using selective neck dissection as the gold standard. The negative predictive value (NPV) of SLNB was 100%, with 40% having a sentinel node identified outside the field of planned neck dissection on lymphoscintigraphy. Of these, one patient had a positive sentinel node outside of the ipsilateral supraomohyoid neck dissection template.
CONCLUSION: SLNB for early OCSCC is technically feasible in an Australian setting. It has a high NPV and can potentially identify at-risk lymphatic basins outside the traditional selective neck dissection levels even in well-lateralized lesions.
Additional surgical resection after endoscopic mucosal dissection for early gastric cancer: A medium-sized hospital's experience.
Int J Surg. 2016; 36(Pt A):335-341 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The ESD data for 114 absolute indication lesions and 26 lesions of expanded indication lesions were analyzed. The indications and the curability were evaluated according to the JGES/JGCA guidelines.
RESULTS: The rates of non-curative resection and ASR were significantly higher in the expanded indication group compared to the absolute indication group (26.9% and 19.2% vs. 7.9% and 0.9%, respectively). ASR was performed for six patients. Three of their ARS specimens contained neither residual cancer nor lymph node metastasis, and the pathological findings of the preceding ESD specimens deviated slightly from the curative criteria defined by the guidelines. The conditions of the lesions that did not meet the curative criteria were as follows: (1) sm1 invasion of undifferentiated-type lesion <10 mm dia., (2) 21-25 mm dia. mucosal undifferentiated-type lesion, or (3) peacemeal resection with a horizontal margin positive for the mucosal differentiated-type.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a close follow-up without ASR might be appropriate for patients in the above-mentioned three categories after non-curative ESD for EGC.
Endoscopic Evaluation in the Workup of Pancreatic Cancer.
Surg Clin North Am. 2016; 96(6):1257-1270 [PubMed] Related Publications
Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.
Surg Clin North Am. 2016; 96(6):1223-1233 [PubMed] Related Publications
Application of the downgrade criteria to supplemental screening ultrasound for women with negative mammography but dense breasts.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(44):e5279 [PubMed] Related Publications
Using Volumetric Breast Density to Quantify the Potential Masking Risk of Mammographic Density.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017; 208(1):222-227 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included screen-detected cancers (n = 652) and interval cancers (n = 119) identified between January 2009 and December 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which patient factors are predictive of a diagnosis of interval cancer. Sensitivity (screen-detected cancer / [screen-detected cancer + interval cancer]) was determined with the BI-RADS 4th edition density categories and an automated equivalent density grade obtained with a proprietary tool. Sensitivity changes within automated density grade categories were investigated by use of quantitative thresholds at the midpoints of each category.
RESULTS: In univariate analysis, age, menopausal status, and breast density were associated with a diagnosis of interval cancer. Of these risk factors, breast density was the only independent factor whether it was assessed by visual BI-RADS category (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.55-8.10), automated density grade (odds ratio, 4.68; 95% CI, 2.26-9.67), or VBD (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.92-10.61). Sensitivity decreased consistently across increasing automated density grade categories from fatty to extremely dense (95%, 89%, 83%, 65%) and less so for visual BI-RADS (82%, 90%, 84%, 66%). Further dichotomization with VBD cutoffs showed a striking linear relation between VBD and sensitivity (R(2) = 0.959).
CONCLUSION: In this study, breast density was the only risk factor significantly associated with a diagnosis of interval cancer versus screen-detected cancer. Quantitative VBD captures the potential masking risk of breast density more precisely than does the widely used visual BI-RADS density classification system.
Public appreciation of lifestyle risk factors for colorectal cancer and awareness of bowel cancer screening: A cross-sectional study.
Int J Surg. 2016; 36(Pt A):312-318 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A representative population sample (n = 1969) was surveyed using a study specific postal questionnaire to determine demographics, experience of bowel problems, awareness of lifestyle risk factors, knowledge about the incidence of CRC and potential benefits of screening, as well as personal experience of screening.
RESULTS: The majority of respondents were aged over 50 (74%). 77% had either personal experience or a relative/friend with experience of a bowel problem. Knowledge of dietary advice was better than risks relating to weight and physical activity. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors was significantly worse in those less than 50 years old (p = 0.0004) and with a lower level of education (p = 0.0021). Awareness of bowel cancer diagnosis was significantly lower in those less than 50 years old (p=<0.0001). The most frequent reason for non-completion of a screening kit was that the process was dirty and unpleasant.
CONCLUSION: Initiatives are required to improve awareness of younger people with regard to lifestyle risk factors for CRC, especially since this group stand to benefit most from risk reduction. Those with a lower educational level also had poor awareness but felt that the NHS should not prescribe exercise and lifestyle change; targeting this group would need to take this into account.
Abbreviated MRI Protocols: Wave of the Future for Breast Cancer Screening.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017; 208(2):284-289 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: Breast MRI is not a cost-effective modality for screening women at intermediate risk, including those with dense breast tissue as the only risk. Abbreviated breast MRI protocols have been proposed as a way of achieving efficiency and rapid throughput. Use of these abbreviated protocols may increase availability and provide women with greater access to breast MRI.
Endometrial sampling devices for early diagnosis of endometrial lesions.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(12):2515-2522 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We have reviewed and evaluated the literature relating to the endometrial sampling devices in clinical use or clinical trials, with the goal of comparing devices and identifying the most appropriate ones for screening for endometrial lesions. Eligible literature was identified from systematic PubMed searches, and the relevant data were extracted. Comments, letters, unpublished data, conference proceedings, and case reports were excluded from our search. Seventy-four articles on endometrial sampling devices were obtained for this review.
RESULTS: The main screening devices for endometrial carcinoma are aspiration devices (such as the Vabra aspirator), Pipelle, Tao Brush, and SAP-1 device. Among these devices, the Tao Brush is the most promising endometrial sampler for screening for endometrial lesions. However, its sampling insufficiency, cost, and unsuccessful insertion rate (20 % in nulliparous and 8 % in parous women) are problematic.
CONCLUSIONS: A more accurate and low-cost endometrial sampler, with improved specimen sufficiency and higher sensitivity for endometrial lesions, needs tobe developed and clinically verified.
Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for FIGO stage I ovarian cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 10:CD005344 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of laparoscopy in the surgical treatment of FIGO stage I ovarian cancer (stages Ia, Ib and Ic) when compared with laparotomy.
SEARCH METHODS: For the original review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials (CGCRG) Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Biological Abstracts and CancerLit from 1 January 1990 to 30 November 2007. We also handsearched relevant journals, reference lists of identified studies and conference abstracts. For the first updated review, the search was extended to the CGCRG Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS to 6 December 2011. For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase from November 2011 to September 2016.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and prospective cohort studies comparing laparoscopic staging with open surgery (laparotomy) in women with stage I ovarian cancer according to FIGO.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: There were no studies to include, therefore we tabulated data from non-randomised studies (NRS) for discussion as well as important data from other meta-analyses.
MAIN RESULTS: We performed no meta-analyses.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review has found no good-quality evidence to help quantify the risks and benefits of laparoscopy for the management of early-stage ovarian cancer as routine clinical practice.
Relationships of Fear of Breast Cancer and Fatalism with Screening Behavior in Women Referred to Health Centers of Tabriz in Iran.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(9):4427-4432 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross- sectional study, 370 women referred to 12 health centers in Tabriz were selected with two-stage cluster sampling and data regarding breast cancer screening, fatalism and fear of breast cancer were collected respectively with a checklist for screening performance, Champions Fear and Pow Fatalism Questionnaires. Data were analyzed by logistic regression with SPSS software version 16.
RESULTS: Only 43% and 23% of participants had undergone breast self- examination and clinical breast examination. Among women older than 40 years, 38.2% had mammography history and only 2.7% of them had done it annually. Although fatalism and fear had a stimulating effects on breast cancer screening performance th relationships were not signi cant (P>0.05). There was a negative significant correlation between fear and fatalism (r= -0.24, p=0.000). On logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.037, p<0.01) and income status (OR= 0.411, p<0.05) significantly explained BSE and age (OR=1.051, p<0.01) and body mass index (OR= 0.879, p<0.01) explained CBE. Also BMI (OR= 0.074, p<0.05) and income status (OR=0.155, p<0.01) was significantly effective for mammography following.
CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer screening behavior is inappropriate and affected by family livelihood status and lifestyle leads to weight gain, so that for promoting of screening behavior, economic support to families, lifestyle modification and public education are suggested.
Application of glycoscience to the early detection of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(10):1357-1362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Role of Cytology in the 21st Century: The Integration of Cells and Molecules.
Acta Cytol. 2016; 60(6):540-542 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY DESIGN: The identification of p16INK4a as a specific marker for the neoplastic transformation of cervical squamous epithelial cells by HPVs allows the identification of HPV-transformed cells in cytopathology specimens.
RESULTS: When compared to molecular HPV tests for triaging minor cytologic atypia, such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, the immunochemical detection of dual p16INK4a/Ki-67-stained cells demonstrates a significantly improved specificity with good relative sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: HPV testing has shown earlier detection of persistent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) compared to cytology and is more effective in preventing invasive cervical cancer. The next challenge for the HPV primary screening program is to find the best method(s) for selecting, among HPV-positive women, those patients in need of immediate colposcopy because they are at a higher risk of developing a precancerous lesion. An HSIL cytology result and/or dual p16/Ki-67 staining could be the best candidates, but further randomized studies are required before these approaches can be used in routine practice.
Advances in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017; 208(2):256-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: Tomosynthesis improves interpretive performance and will likely replace conventional 2D mammography in clinical practice.
Oesophagectomy is a safe option for early adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's oesophagus.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(11):905-909 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Data were analysed from a prospective audit database for oesophagectomy performed at two public and four associated private hospitals in Adelaide, South Australia. Patients with HGD, T1a and T1b adenocarcinoma who underwent oesophagectomy from 20 February 1998 to 17 February 2012 were identified, and their perioperative, post-operative and survival outcomes were determined.
RESULTS: From 452 oesophagectomy procedures, 63 (13.9%) individuals who underwent surgery for HGD or T1 adenocarcinoma were identified; HGD - 19 (30.1%), T1a - 18 (28.5 %), T1b - 26 (41.3%). Major complications occurred in eight (12.7%) patients including one (1.6%) death following surgery. Five-year survival for HGD and T1a cancers using Kaplan-Meier analysis was not significantly different from a matched general population without cancer.
CONCLUSION: Oesophagectomy for HGD and T1 stage adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus is associated with favourable outcomes. Outcomes following endoscopic treatments should be benchmarked against these outcomes, not those following oesophagectomy for advanced cancer.
Detection Rate, Recall Rate, and Positive Predictive Value of Digital Compared to Screen-Film Mammography in the Quebec Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening Program.
Can Assoc Radiol J. 2016; 67(4):330-338 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: This analysis involved women 50-69 years of age who participated in the breast screening program of Quebec (Canada) and who had screening mammogram between January 1, 2007, and September 30, 2012. The detection rate, recall rate, and positive predictive value of CR (n = 672,125 mammograms) and DR (n = 60,023) were compared to SFM (n = 782,894) using mixed-effect logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. No institutional review board approval was required.
RESULTS: CR was not associated with change in cancer detection rate (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-1.03), but with a small increase in recall rate (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06) compared to SFM. The association of CR with recall rate varies with the CR plate reader manufacturer (P < .0001). DR was not associated with change in detection rate (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.89-1.25), but with an increase in the recall rate (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.19-1.30) compared to SFM.
CONCLUSIONS: In our screening program, digital mammograms gave detection rates equivalent to those of SFM, but with an increase of recall rate, particularly for DR. If this situation persists, the adoption of DR may increase the adverse effects of screening with little or no benefit for women.
Usefulness of Canadian Public Health Insurance Administrative Databases to Assess Breast and Ovarian Cancer Screening Imaging Technologies for BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.
Can Assoc Radiol J. 2016; 67(4):308-312 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Official public health insurance documents were considered potentially useful if they had specific procedure codes, and pertained to procedures performed in the public and private health care systems.
RESULTS: All 3 administrative databases have specific procedures codes for mammography and breast ultrasounds. Only Quebec and Ontario have a specific procedure code for breast magnetic resonance imaging. It is impossible to assess, on an individual basis, the frequency of others screening exams, with the exception of CA-125 testing in British Columbia. Screenings done in private practice are excluded from the administrative databases unless covered by special agreements for reimbursement, such as all breast imaging exams in Ontario and mammograms in British Columbia and Quebec. There are no specific procedure codes for risk-reduction surgeries for breast and ovarian cancer.
CONCLUSION: Population-based assessment of breast and ovarian cancer risk management strategies other than mammographic screening, using only administrative data, is currently challenging in the 3 Canadian provinces studied.
Frequency and Determinants of a Short-Interval Follow-up Recommendation After an Abnormal Screening Mammogram.
Can Assoc Radiol J. 2016; 67(4):322-329 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008, 1,839,396 screening mammograms were performed and a total of 114,781 abnormal screens were assessed by imaging only. Multivariate analysis was done with multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance and generalized linear mixed models.
RESULTS: A short-interval follow-up was recommended in 26.7% of assessments with imaging only, representing 2.3% of all screens. Case-mix adjusted proportion of short-interval follow-up recommendations varied substantially across physicians (range: 4%-64%). Radiologists with high recall rates (≥15%) had a high proportion of short-interval follow-up recommendation (risk ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-2.45) compared to radiologists with low recall rates (<5%). The adjusted proportion of short-interval follow-up was high (22.8%) even when a previous mammogram was usually available.
CONCLUSIONS: Short-interval follow-up recommendation at assessment is frequent in this Canadian screening program, even when a previous mammogram is available. Characteristics related to radiologists appear to be key determinants of short-interval follow-up recommendation, rather than characteristics of lesions or patient mix. Given that it can cause anxiety to women and adds pressure on the health system, it appears important to record and report short-interval follow-up and to identify ways to reduce its frequency. Short-interval follow-up recommendations should be considered when assessing the burden of mammography screening.
Molecular Breast Imaging for Screening in Dense Breasts: State of the Art and Future Directions.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017; 208(2):275-283 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: MBI offers detection of mammographically occult cancers in women with dense breasts. Although MBI has been under investigation for nearly 15 years, it has yet to gain widespread adoption in breast screening.
Human papillomavirus test with cytology triage in organized screening for cervical cancer.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016; 95(11):1220-1227 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 2012, 35- to 60-year-old women living in the city of Tampere have been screened with the Abbott RealTime hrHPV test. HPV-negative women are referred to the next screening round in five years. HPV-positive women are triaged with conventional cytology, and women with at least low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL(+) ) are referred to colposcopy. The remaining HPV-positive women are referred for re-testing after 12 months, and then all HPV-positive women are referred to colposcopy. The data from the last cohort with cytological screening (screened in 2011) is presented for comparison.
RESULTS: A total 5637 (70%) women attended the first round of HPV screening, and 369 were HPV-positive. Of them, 54 women LSIL(+) were referred to colposcopy, resulting in 16 CIN2(+) lesions found. Of the remaining HPV-positive women, 66% were still positive one year later, and were referred to colposcopy, with 18 additional CIN2(+) lesions found. The attendance rate to the last round of cytological screening was 71% (5814 women). Sixty-four women with LSIL(+) cytology were referred to colposcopy, and 11 CIN2(+) lesions were found. Of the 777 women with borderline cytology and scheduled for reflex screening in the following year, 109 (19%) had ASC-US(+) , and 57 underwent colposcopy, resulting in six additional CIN2(+) lesions found. The total detection rate of CIN2(+) was significantly higher in the HPV-screened cohort (6.0/1000 vs. 2.9/1000, p = 0.015). However, the total colposcopy rate was 4% vs. 2%, respectively (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Human papillomavirus testing also seems to be more sensitive than cytology in detecting CIN2(+) lesions in the setting of a routine organized screening program, besides in the context of randomized trials. The problem of an increased colposcopy rate needs to be addressed in the future.
Clinical application of a rapid cervical cancer screening method: Folate receptor-mediated staining of cervical neoplastic epithelia.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2017; 13(1):44-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 14 344 women who were at least 21 years old and had been sexually active, participated in the study. In gynecological clinics, participants underwent cervical cancer screening with folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining followed by cytology sampling. The color change of methylene blue in the cervical neoplastic epithelium can then be detected by the cotton swabs placed inside the cervix. A change of color to blue, bluish black or black is positive, whereas a change of color to green or no color change indicates negative result. Three hundred and twenty-three women who were positive with either or both tests had histopathologic diagnosis.
RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse was 85.7%, 76.4%, 61.3% and 92.5%, respectively. Folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining had moderate agreement with cytology thresholded at atypical squamous cells, unable to exclude a high grade intra-epithelial lesion and was more sensitive that the later (85.7% vs 74.5% for intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse; 89.2% vs 75.4% for intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 3 and worse).
CONCLUSION: Folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining is capable of detecting cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions rapidly and cost-effectively.
Breast-Cancer Tumor Size, Overdiagnosis, and Mammography Screening Effectiveness.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(15):1438-1447 [PubMed] Related Publications
Feasibility of electronic nose technology for discriminating between head and neck, bladder, and colon carcinomas.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017; 274(2):1053-1060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications