Cancer of the ovaries are the second most common group of gynaecologic cancers, and account for about 5% of all women's cancers. There are two main types; (i) epithelial tumours (carcinomas) which account for 90% of ovarian cancers, and (ii) non-epithelial tumours (eg. Stroma cell and germ cell tumours of the ovary). The epithelial ovarian cancers are usually found in women aged over 40, while the non-epithelial tumours are more common in girls and young women. Epithelial ovarian cancer has few early symptoms, a risk factor is having a family history of the disease. Taking the contraceptive pill is known to be protective against ovarian cancer.
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MeSH term: Ovarian Neoplasms
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Sclerosing Stromal Ovarian Tumor Combined with Early Onset Severe Preeclampsia. A Case Report.
J Reprod Med. 2015 May-Jun; 60(5-6):249-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE: We report a case of SST of the ovary combined with early onset severe preeclampsia.
CONCLUSION: We document the clinical and pathological characteristics of the patient's disease, including the effects on the pregnancy and fetus.
The role of cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC in epithelial ovarian cancer.
J BUON. 2015; 20 Suppl 1:S12-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whole-genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer.
Nature. 2015; 521(7553):489-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Does neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus cytoreductive surgery improve survival rates in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer compared with cytoreductive surgery alone?
J BUON. 2015 Mar-Apr; 20(2):580-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 292 patients with stages IIIC and IV disease who were treated with either NAC/IDS or PDS between 1995 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was divided into two groups: the NAC/IDS group (N=84) and the PDS group (N=208). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and optimal cytoreduction were compared.
RESULTS: The mean age was significantly higher in the NAC/IDS group (61.5±11.5 vs 57.8±11.1 years, p=0.01). Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 34.5% (29/84) of the patients in the NAC/IDS group and in 32.2% (69/208) in the PDS group (p=0.825). The survival rates were comparable. The mean survival rate of patients who achieved optimal cytoreductive surgery in either the PDS or the NAC/IDS arm was significantly higher than that of patients who achieved suboptimal cytoreductive surgery (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis confirmed the treatment method, amount of ascitic fluid, and optimal cytoreduction as independent factors for OS.
CONCLUSIONS: No definitive evidence was noticed regarding whether NAC/IDS increases survival compared with PDS. NAC should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate PDS or when optimal cytoreduction is not feasible.
Primary chemotherapy versus primary surgery for newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer (CHORUS): an open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial.
Lancet. 2015; 386(9990):249-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this phase 3, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled trial (CHORUS) undertaken in 87 hospitals in the UK and New Zealand, we enrolled women with suspected stage III or IV ovarian cancer. We randomly assigned women (1:1) either to undergo primary surgery followed by six cycles of chemotherapy, or to three cycles of primary chemotherapy, then surgery, followed by three more cycles of completion chemotherapy. Each 3-week cycle consisted of carboplatin AUC5 or AUC6 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2), or an alternative carboplatin combination regimen, or carboplatin monotherapy. We did the random assignment by use of a minimisation method with a random element, and stratified participants according to the randomising centre, largest radiological tumour size, clinical stage, and prespecified chemotherapy regimen. Patients and investigators were not masked to group assignment. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Primary analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. To establish non-inferiority, the upper bound of a one-sided 90% CI for the hazard ratio (HR) had to be less than 1.18. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN74802813, and is closed to new participants.
FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2004, and Aug 30, 2010, we randomly assigned 552 women to treatment. Of the 550 women who were eligible, 276 were assigned to primary surgery and 274 to primary chemotherapy. All were included in the intention-to-treat analysis; 251 assigned to primary surgery and 253 to primary chemotherapy were included in the per-protocol analysis. As of May 31, 2014, 451 deaths had occurred: 231 in the primary-surgery group versus 220 in the primary-chemotherapy group. Median overall survival was 22.6 months in the primary-surgery group versus 24.1 months in primary chemotherapy. The HR for death was 0.87 in favour of primary chemotherapy, with the upper bound of the one-sided 90% CI 0.98 (95% CI 0.72-1.05). Grade 3 or 4 postoperative adverse events and deaths within 28 days after surgery were more common in the primary-surgery group than in the primary-chemotherapy group (60 [24%] of 252 women vs 30 [14%] of 209, p=0.0007, and 14 women [6%] vs 1 woman [<1%], p=0.001). The most common grade 3 or 4 postoperative adverse event was haemorrhage in both groups (8 women [3%] in the primary-surgery group vs 14 [6%] in the primary-chemotherapy group). 110 (49%) of 225 women receiving primary surgery and 102 (40%) of 253 receiving primary chemotherapy had a grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy related toxic effect (p=0.0654), mostly uncomplicated neutropenia (20% and 16%, respectively). One fatal toxic effect, neutropenic sepsis, occurred in the primary-chemotherapy group.
INTERPRETATION: In women with stage III or IV ovarian cancer, survival with primary chemotherapy is non-inferior to primary surgery. In this study population, giving primary chemotherapy before surgery is an acceptable standard of care for women with advanced ovarian cancer.
FUNDING: Cancer Research UK and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
MR Spectroscopy for Differentiating Benign From Malignant Solid Adnexal Tumors.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 204(6):W724-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with surgically and histologically proven solid adnexal tumors (27 benign and 42 malignant) underwent conventional MRI and (1)H-MRS. Single-voxel spectroscopy was performed using the point-resolved spectroscopy localization technique with a voxel size of 2 × 2 × 2 cm(3). Resonance peak integrals of choline, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, lactate, and lipid were analyzed, and the choline-tocreatine, NAA-to-creatine, lactate-to-creatine, and lipid-to-creatine ratios were recorded and compared between benign and malignant tumors.
RESULTS: A choline peak was detected in all 69 cases (100%), NAA peak in 67 cases (97%, 25 benign and 42 malignant), lipid peak in 47 cases (17 benign and 30 malignant), and lactate peak in eight cases (four benign and four malignant). The mean (± SD) choline-tocreatine ratio was 5.13 ± 0.6 in benign tumors versus 8.90 ± 0.5 in malignant solid adnexal tumors, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.000). There were no statistically significant differences between benign and malignant tumors in the NAA-to-creatine and lipid-to-creatine ratios (p = 0.263 and 0.120, respectively). When the choline-to-creatine threshold was 7.46 for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 94.1%, 97.1%, and 91.2%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our preliminary study shows that the (1)H-MRS patterns of benign and malignant solid adnexal tumors differ. The choline-to-creatine ratio can help clinicians differentiate benign from malignant tumors.
Incidence and effects on mortality of venous thromboembolism in elderly women with endometrial cancer.
Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125(6):1362-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked to Medicare claim files to identify patients with epithelial endometrial cancer diagnosed between 1992 and 2009. To identify venous thromboembolism events 3 months before diagnosis and up to 24 months after diagnosis, we used International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes.
RESULTS: A total of 23,122 patients were included; of them 1,873 (8.1%) developed a venous thromboembolism. Patients with low-grade (grades 1 and 2) endometrioid adenocarcinoma had a significantly lower rate of venous thromboembolism 3 months before and 6 months after the diagnosis of cancer (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3-3.9%) compared with carcinosarcoma (9.2%; 95% CI 7.8-10.8%), clear cell (6.9%; 95% CI 4.8-9.7%), uterine serous cancer (8.1%; 95% CI 7.01-9.3%), and grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma (6.1%; 95% CI 5.4-6.9%) (P<.001). On multivariate analysis during the same time period, most recent time periods of diagnosis, carcinosarcoma histology compared with lower grade endometrial cancer, higher stage, African American race, marital status, chemotherapy delivery, and lymph node dissection were associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The median overall survival for women who experienced a venous thromboembolism 3 months before the diagnosis of endometrial cancer was 31 months (95% CI 20-48 months); in women diagnosed with venous thromboembolism 6 months after the cancer diagnosis was 37 months (95% CI 31-44), and in women who did not experienced a venous thromboembolism was 111 months (95% CI 109-114). After adjusting for prognostic factors, there was an association between venous thromboembolism diagnosed 3 months before endometrial cancer (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.34-2.13) or 6 months after the diagnosis (hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.44-1.71) and lower survival.
CONCLUSION: Patients with uterine serous cancer, carcinosarcoma, clear cell carcinoma, and grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma had a higher rate of venous thromboembolism than patients with low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma. A diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was associated with decreased survival in elderly patients with endometrial cancer.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
Trends in relative survival for ovarian cancer from 1975 to 2011.
Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125(6):1345-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Women diagnosed with ovarian cancer from 1975 to 2011 and recorded in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were examined. Relative survival, estimated as the ratio of the observed survival of cancer patients (all-cause mortality) to the expected survival of a comparable group from the general population, was matched to the patients with the main factors that are considered to affect patient survival such as age, calendar time, and race. Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, race, year of diagnosis, time since diagnosis, and the interaction of age and years since diagnosis (except for stage II).
RESULTS: A total of 49,932 women were identified. For stage I ovarian cancer, the adjusted excess hazard ratio for death in 2006 was 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.63) compared with those diagnosed in 1975. The reduction in excess mortality remained significant when compared with 1980 and 1985. For women with stage III-IV tumors, the excess hazard of mortality was lower in 2006 compared with all other years of study ranging from 0.49 (95% CI 0.44-0.55) compared with 1975 to 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-0.99) relative to 2000. For women aged 50-59 years, 10-year relative survival was 0.85 (99% CI 0.61-0.95) for stage I disease and 0.18 (99% CI 0.10-0.27) for stage III-IV tumors. For women aged 60-69 years, the corresponding 10-year relative survival estimates were 0.89 (99% CI 0.58-0.98) and 0.15 (99% CI 0.09-0.21).
CONCLUSION: Relative survival has improved for all stages of ovarian cancer from 1975 to 2011.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
Augmentation of response to chemotherapy by microRNA-506 through regulation of RAD51 in serous ovarian cancers.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(7) [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We used Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods to analyze the relationship between miR-506 and progression-free and overall survival in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n = 468) and Bagnoli (n = 130) datasets, in vitro experiments to study whether miR-506 is associated with homologous recombination, and response to chemotherapy agents. We used an orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse model (n = 10 per group) to test the effect of miR-506 on cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: MiR-506 was associated with better response to therapy and longer progression-free and overall survival in two independent epithelial ovarian cancer patient cohorts (PFS: high vs low miR-506 expression; Bagnoli: hazard ratio [HR] = 3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.90 to 4.70, P < .0001; TCGA: HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.00 to 2.25, P = 0.04). MiR-506 sensitized cells to DNA damage through directly targeting the double-strand DNA damage repair gene RAD51. Systemic delivery of miR-506 in 8-12 week old female athymic nude mice statistically significantly augmented the cisplatin and olaparib response (mean tumor weight ± SD, control miRNA plus cisplatin vs miR-506 plus cisplatin: 0.36±0.05g vs 0.07±0.02g, P < .001; control miRNA plus olaparib vs miR-506 plus olaparib: 0.32±0.13g vs 0.05±0.02g, P = .045, respectively), thus recapitulating the clinical observation.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-506 is a robust clinical marker for chemotherapy response and survival in serous ovarian cancers and has important therapeutic value in sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapy.
Primary ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma: magnetic resonance imaging findings including a preliminary observation on diffusion-weighted imaging.
J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2015 May-Jun; 39(3):401-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with OEC proven by surgery and pathology underwent MRI. The MRI features of the tumors evaluated included laterality, shape, size, configuration, mural nodules, signal intensity, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, enhancement, peritoneal implants, ascites, and synchronous primary cancer (SPC) of the ovary and endometrium.
RESULTS: Unilateral ovarian masses were observed in 18 (90%) of the 20 patients with 22 OEC lesions, whereas the remaining 2 (10%) patients had bilateral masses. Oval, lobulated, and irregular shapes were observed in 13 (59%), 6 (27%), and 3 (14%) tumors, respectively. The maximum diameter of the tumors ranged from 3.7 to 22.5 cm, with a mean of 11.2 ± 5.1 cm. Fifteen (68%) masses were mainly cystic with mural nodules, 5 (23%) were mixed cystic-solid, and 2 (9%) were solid. The solid components of tumors showed isointensity (100%) on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) (86%), and hyperintensity on DWI (82%), with a mean ADC value of (0.96 ± 0.20) × 10 mm/s. The cystic components showed isointensity or hyperintensity (85%) on T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI (100%), and hypointensity on DWI (63%), with a mean ADC value of (2.27 ± 0.27) × 10 mm/s. Ten (50%) of the patients were SPC. The mean ADC values of the solid components were (0.85 ± 0.19) × 10 mm/s and (1.08 ± 0.15) × 10 mm/s in only-OEC and SPC, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.012).
CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma usually appears as a large, oval, or lobulated cystic mass with mural nodules. Cystic components show isointensity or hyperintensity on T1WI, solid components and hyperintensity on T2WI and DWI. Synchronous primary cancer of the ovary endometrium is another characteristic feature of OEC.
p16/CDKN2A FISH in Differentiation of Diffuse Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma From Mesothelial Hyperplasia and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143(6):830-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: p16 FISH was performed in 28 DMPMs (successful in 19), 30 RMHs, and 40 EOC cases. The cutoff values of p16 FISH were more than 10% for homozygous deletion and more than 40% for heterozygous deletion.
RESULTS: According to the above criteria, nine (47.4%) of 19 successful DMPM cases were homozygous deletion positive, and three (15.8%) of 19 were heterozygous deletion positive, whereas all RMH cases were negative for the p16 deletion. In all four major histologic subtypes of EOC, neither p16 homozygous nor heterozygous deletions were detected. To differentiate DMPM from RMH or EOC, the sensitivity of the p16 homozygous deletion was 32% (9/28), and the specificity was 100%.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that p16 FISH analysis is useful in differentiating DMPM from RMH and EOC when homozygous deletion is detected.
Hypercalcemic type of small cell carcinoma of the ovary.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2015; 72(3):295-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old woman, Caucasian, came to the doctor because of discomfort in the lower abdomen and pain of greater intensity in last few days. Ultrasound examination and CT scan of the abdomen confirmed the presence of large adnexal masses of cystic-solid appearance with the largest diameter of 13 cm, regular structure of the other gynecological organs, without verifying the existence of metastatic deposits. All the results of laboratory analysis gave normal values, except for calcium, which was elevated. Explorative laparotomy with complete hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, dissection of lymph nodes and omentectomy were conducted. Based on pathohistological analysis of the operative material, SCOC at FIGO Ia stage was diag- nosed. No complications were observed in a postsurgery period and after 10 days the patient was discharged in a good condition and with normal calcemia. The treatment was continued with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, in spite of overall treatment, the disease progressed, and the patient died of disseminated metastatic disease, 26 months after the diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: Small cell carcinoma localized in the ovary is generally a tumor category with bad prognosis depending on the stage of the disease.
PPARγ inhibits ovarian cancer cells proliferation through upregulation of miR-125b.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 462(2):85-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation exposure of ovarian cancer patients: contribution of CT examinations performed on different MDCT (16 and 64 slices) scanners and image quality evaluation: an observational study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(17):e765 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer HO-8910 cell apoptosis induced by crocin in vitro.
Nat Prod Commun. 2015; 10(2):249-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer liver metastases--should we apply the principle of optimal cytoreduction to the liver? A review.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):355-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for cellular transformation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(18):5708-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/11/2015 Related Publications
Comparable outcome between endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors in patients with early-stage high-grade endometrial cancer.
J Surg Oncol. 2015; 111(6):790-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 123 patients diagnosed with early-stage high-grade endometrial cancer at the Dutch Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS) between January 2005 and December 2011 were included. All patients underwent abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Patient and tumor characteristics, primary and adjuvant treatment, and outcome were analyzed.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 27.9 months, 27.6% (n = 34) of patients had recurrent disease. Distant recurrence rate was equal among endometrioid (14.5%), papillary serous (14.8%), and clear cell (15.4%) types. The total DRM was 15.4% (n = 19). The 5 year recurrence-free survival was not significantly different between early-stage high-grade endometrioid versus non-endometrioid endometrial cancer (P = 0.72).
CONCLUSION: Distant recurrence and DRM was high in patients with endometrial cancer regardless of histological type, suggesting the need for different therapies in early-stage high-grade non-endometrioid and endometrioid tumors.
Cisplatin resistance in human cervical, ovarian and lung cancer cells.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(6):1217-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS analysis were performed by flow cytometry, P-JNK and P-p38 by western blotting and mRNA by RT-PCR. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH1) and thioredoxin knockdowns were prepared by standard techniques.
RESULTS: Cisplatin treatment of a cervical cancer cell line resulted in ROS production with mitochondrial membrane depolarization and phosphorylation of JNK and p38. N-acetyl-cysteine, a free radical scavenger, ameliorated these effects. Treatment of the sensitive cells with H2O2 produced similar effects but at shorter incubation times. Similar results were observed with an ovarian cell line. Downregulation of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase in the cisplatin-resistant cervical and lung cancer cell lines resulted in increased drug sensitivity with detectable production of ROS and activation of the JNK/p38 pathways; however, downregulation of thioredoxin in the cervical cells had minimal effect.
CONCLUSION: Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase appears to play a role in cisplatin resistance in cervical, ovarian and lung cancer cells which includes mitochondrial membrane depolarization, ROS production and activation of the JNK pathway. However, its mode of action cannot be mimicked by an ROS scavenger so its mechanism of action is more complex (a not unexpected finding considering its role in xenobiotic activation/countering oxidative stress).
New insights into the molecular and epigenetic effects of antitumor Pt(IV)-valproic acid conjugates in human ovarian cancer cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2015; 95(3):133-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pazopanib plus weekly paclitaxel versus weekly paclitaxel alone for platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory advanced ovarian cancer (MITO 11): a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(5):561-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We did this open-label, randomised phase 2 trial at 11 hospitals in Italy. We included patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer previously treated with a maximum of two lines of chemotherapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, and no residual peripheral neurotoxicity. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) with or without pazopanib 800 mg daily, and stratified by centre, number of previous lines of chemotherapy, and platinum-free interval status. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01644825. This report is the final analysis; the trial is completed.
FINDINGS: Between Dec 15, 2010, and Feb 8, 2013, we enrolled 74 patients: 37 were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel and pazopanib and 37 were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel only. One patient, in the paclitaxel only group, withdrew from the study and was excluded from analyses. Median follow-up was 16·1 months (IQR 12·5-20·8). Progression-free survival was significantly longer in the pazopanib plus paclitaxel group than in the paclitaxel only group (median 6·35 months [95% CI 5·36-11·02] vs 3·49 months [2·01-5·66]; hazard ratio 0·42 [95% CI 0·25-0·69]; p=0·0002). We recorded no unexpected toxic effects or deaths from toxic effects. Adverse events were more common in the pazopanib and paclitaxel group than in the paclitaxel only group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (11 [30%] in the pazopanib group vs one [3%] in the paclitaxel group), fatigue (four [11%] vs two [6%]), leucopenia (four [11%] vs one [3%]), hypertension (three [8%] vs none [0%]), raised aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase (three [8%] vs none), and anaemia (two [5%] vs five [14%]). One patient in the pazopanib group had ileal perforation.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that a phase 3 study of the combination of weekly paclitaxel plus pazopanib for patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory advanced ovarian cancer is warranted.
FUNDING: National Cancer Institute of Napoli and GlaxoSmithKline.
Endometrial cancer in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):91-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE: The patient, a 60-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, presented with a complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Histopathology revealed endometrial cancer. The final diagnosis was Stage Ib endometrial cancer endometrioid type. She underwent postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. She remains without evidence of disease, 16 months after initial surgery.
CONCLUSION: Although the present patient was diagnosed at early-stage disease and remains well 16 months after initial surgery, she needs a multidisciplinary treatment approach in order to achieve prolonged survival.
Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT)--case report.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):88-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiology of ovarian cancer in North Sardinia, Italy, during the period 1992-2010.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):69-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the tumor registry of Sassari province which makes part of a wider registry web, coordinated today by the Italian Association for Tumor Registries.
RESULTS: The overall number of ovarian cancer cases registered in the period under investigation was 600. The mean age of the patients was 62 years. The standardized incidence and mortality rates were 11.2/100,000 and 5.1/100,000 respectively. A substantially stable trend in incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer was evidenced. Relative survival at five years from diagnosis was 44.2%.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and mortality trends of ovarian cancer in North Sardinia remained relatively stable in the last decades, while prognosis remains relatively poor.
Primary peritoneal cancer: study of 14 cases and comparison with epithelial ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):49-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed data from 14 patients with PPC and 219 patients with EOC treated at the present hospital from January 2005 to December 2012, including demographic data, pathologic findings, treatments, and outcomes.
RESULTS: Patients with PPC were significantly older (62.6 ± 8.4 years) than those with EOC (56.3 ± 11.3 years) (p = 0.045). There was no significant difference in serum CA-125 levels. The five-year survival rates did not differ significantly between patients with PPC (61.1%) and those with EOC (60.3%; p = 0.78); nor between patients with PPC and those with Stage III serous EOC (43.8%; p = 0.40).
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment strategies for EOC applied to PPC apparently led to similar survival patterns among the two patient groups. Cytoreductive surgery combined with pre/postoperative platinum-containing chemotherapy may be effective for PPC patients.
Prevalence of endometriosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Analysis of the associated clinical features and study on molecular mechanisms involved in the possible causality.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):21-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical charts of 496 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at the Hospital Virgin de la Arrixaca (Murcia, Spain) between 1971 and 2010 were reviewed.
RESULTS: Endometriosis was present in 27 (5.4%) of the 496 cases (p < 0001), and was associated with the endometrioid histotype in 13/45 cases (29%) and with the clear cell histotype in 7/22 (32%). The prevalence of an association with endometriosis according to histologic type was 28.8% (13/45) for endometrioid carcinoma and 31.8% (7/22) for clear-cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Both endometrioid and clear-cell ovarians tumours are associated with pelvic endometriosis. Patients with endometiosis associated ovarian cancer differ from non-endometiosis associated ovarian cancer in their clinical characteristics.
MicroRNA signatures of platinum-resistance in ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):16-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The differential expression of microRNA between COC1 (DDP-sensitive) and platinum-resistant COC1/DDP (DDP-resistant) tumor cell lines was determined using microarray. Expression levels were further validated by real-time quantitive polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: The authors identified that several miRNAs are altered in collected 86 samples of human ovarian cancer cell-lines, with four significantly deregulated miRNAs and 13 upregulated miRNAs. Of which, miR-141-3p was the most differentially expressed miRNA between COC1 group (1.7833 ± 0.7213) and COC1/DDP group (14.0433 ± 4.4895) (p < 0.05). Additionally, the product curve of PCR amplification indicated that miR-141-3p had a significant higher expression level in chemotherapy resistant group (n = 20) rather than in chemotherapy sensitive group (n = 20) (9.56 ± 1.04 vs. 1.59 ± 0.91, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that miR-141-3p might be used as a therapeutic target to modulate platinum-based chemotherapy and as a biomarker to predict chemotherapy response.
Transforming growth factor-α induces human ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin in a Snail-independent manner.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 461(1):128-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic variants in matrix metalloproteinase genes as disposition factors for ovarian cancer risk, survival, and clinical outcome.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(6):430-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
IFN-γ from lymphocytes induces PD-L1 expression and promotes progression of ovarian cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(9):1501-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/04/2016 Related Publications
METHODS: The number of CD8-positive lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in tumour cells was assessed in ovarian cancer clinical samples. PD-L1 expression and tumour progression in mouse models under conditions of altering IFN-γ signals was assessed.
RESULTS: The number of CD8-positive cells in cancer stroma was very high in peritoneally disseminated tumours, and was strongly correlated to PD-L1 expression on the tumour cells (P<0.001). In mouse models, depleting IFNGR1 (interferon-γ receptor 1) resulted in lower level of PD-L1 expression in tumour cells, increased the number of tumour-infiltrating CD8-positive lymphocytes, inhibition of peritoneal disseminated tumour growth and longer survival (P=0.02). The injection of IFN-γ into subcutaneous tumours induced PD-L1 expression and promoted tumour growth, and PD-L1 depletion completely abrogated tumour growth caused by IFN-γ injection (P=0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Interferon-γ secreted by CD8-positive lymphocytes upregulates PD-L1 on ovarian cancer cells and promotes tumour growth. The lymphocyte infiltration and the IFN-γ status may be the key to effective anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapy in ovarian cancer.