Cancer of the ovaries are the second most common group of gynaecologic cancers, and account for about 5% of all women's cancers. There are two main types; (i) epithelial tumours (carcinomas) which account for 90% of ovarian cancers, and (ii) non-epithelial tumours (eg. Stroma cell and germ cell tumours of the ovary). The epithelial ovarian cancers are usually found in women aged over 40, while the non-epithelial tumours are more common in girls and young women. Epithelial ovarian cancer has few early symptoms, a risk factor is having a family history of the disease. Taking the contraceptive pill is known to be protective against ovarian cancer.
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MeSH term: Ovarian Neoplasms
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Is there a current change of maintenance treatment in ovarian cancer? An updated review of the literature.
J BUON. 2016 Mar-Apr; 21(2):290-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
EVOLUTION OF SYNCHRONOUS BILATERAL BREAST CARCINOMA IN A YOUNG PATIENT.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2016 Jan-Mar; 120(1):192-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of biomarkers and pathway-related modules involved in ovarian cancer based on topological centralities.
J BUON. 2016 Jan-Feb; 21(1):208-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The gene expression data E-GEOD-50831 were downloaded from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened. Subsequently, differential coexpression network was constructed. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and pathway-related modules mining were conducted. Topological centralities (degree, betweenness, closeness and stress) analyses for coexpression network and pathway-related modules were performed to explore hub genes and the most significant pathways. Then, we verified our findings in an independent sample set via RT-PCR and Western blotting.
RESULTS: Centralities results of ESCO1, CDC27and MCM4 ranked the top five. Moreover, among the top 10% hub genes, CDC27, MCM4 and SOS1 were pathway-enriched genes in two networks. A total of 5 and 6 pathway-related modules were obtained under two drugs treatment. Based analyses of degree, betweenness and other centralities, DNA replication pathway-related module was the most significant under paclitaxel treatment, while cell cycle pathway-related module was the most significant under eribulin treatment. RT-PCR and Western blotting results were consistent with the bioinformatics results. The expression level of MCM4 was remarkably decreased under eribulin treatment relative to paclitaxel.
CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of ovarian cancer growth by paclitaxel and eribulin might be connected with downregulation of cell cycle and DNA replication pathway. Moreover, MCM4 signature might be a potential biomarker to predict the effect of eribulin in ovarian cancer.
Changes of HMGB1 expression on angiogenesis of ovarian cancer and its mechanism.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jan-Mar; 30(1):233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solitary fibrous mass of the omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor: case report.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):144-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Enormous ovarian fibroma with elevated Ca-125 associated with Meigs' syndrome. Presentation of a rare case.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):142-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krukenberg tumor in a 18-year-old-female: a rare case.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):139-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE: A 18-year-old female presented with colon cancer which was accompanied by Krukenberg tumor. The present case was a very rare case of metastatic ovarian tumor in very young age. The present patient presented with abdominal pain. On examination, colon tumor was detected and bilateral ovary were almost normal with only slight swelling. During the operation for colon tumor, biopsy of bilateral ovary was performed for histopathological evaluation. Although there were no specific findings in bilateral ovary, microscopic examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, diffusely invading the ovarian parenchyma. Diagnosis of colon cancer was made postoperatively and ovarian Krukenberg tumor was confirmed.
CONCLUSION: In case of suspecting colon cancer even in very young patient with normal ovary, biopsy of ovary should be considered for the diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor.
Role of TWIST2, E-cadherin and Vimentin in epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis and prognosis and their interaction in cancer progression.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):100-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study elucidated the clinico-pathological significance of TWIST2 and the relationship of TWIST2, E-cadherin, and Vimentin expression in the progression and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used to quantify the expression and relevance of TWIST2, E-cadherin, and Vimentin in 103 ovarian specimens, including 30 cases of benign ovarian tumors, 30 cases of borderline ovarian tumors, and 43 cases of EOC.
RESULTS: The expression of TWIST2 in the cytoplasm may help to maintain characteristics of epithelial cancer cells with E-cadherin normal membranous expression, while nuclear TWIST2 induces tumor translation front with membranous expression of Vimentin, which eventually promotes cancer metastasis. Moreover, the upregulation of TWIST2 was also related to the aberrant expression of E-cadherin and the increased expression of Vimentin, which were reported as important indicators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
DISCUSSION: The data suggested that co-expression of TWIST2/Vimentin was an independent prognostic indicator for both overall survival and disease-free survival by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. TWIST2 regulates EMT by depriving the epithelial cell phenotype of E-cadherin and endowing the mesenchymal cell phenotype with Vimentin, which may be involved in the progression and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and TWIST2/Vimentin co-expression might be a novel indicator with prognostic potential in EOC patients.
Possible relevance of tumor-related genes mutation to malignant transformation of endometriosis.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):89-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each paraffin block was sliced into serial ten-µm-thick sections. Extracted DNA was amplified by nested PCR. Mutations of PTEN and p53 were examined by bidirectional DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: It was acknowledged by experiments that the PTEN and p53 mutation frequency in EAOCs were significantly higher than that in aEMs and EMs. There was significant difference to compare EAOCs with EMs (p < 0.01, p < 0.05), and converse to compare with aEMs (p > 0.05), respectively. No definite involvement between the frequency of PTEN and p53 mutations in EAOCs and age difference, histological type, clinical stage, pathological grade, and whether accompanied by metastasis (p > 0.05); however, a decreasing trend of PTEN mutation with the increased age, decreased clinical stage and pathological grade, and when accompanied by metastasis was detected. Adversely, an increasing trend of p53 mutation was represented. In EAOCs group, the authors detected eight PTEN and four p53 mutation events, respectively. Moreover, one case occurred PTEN and p53 mutation simultaneously. With 23 EAOCs, two cases which fulfilled the histological criteria in malignant transformation of endometriosis, which may be a specific entity distinct from non-endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer, the authors named them the OCEMs, occurred PTEN or p53 mutation, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The present study suggested that the mutation and functional incapacitation of certain tumor-related genes may be involved in malignant transformation of endometriosis. PTEN mutation is the pristine event, but p53 mutation is the late.
Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: a single institution experience and review of the literature.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):75-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all patients treated for CS of the ovary between 1994 and 2011. The medical records, operative reports and pathology records were abstracted for baseline characteristics, surgical staging, degree of cytoreduction and chemotherapy regimens used. Standard statistical methods for analysis of the data were used.
RESULTS: A total of 33 patients with ovarian CS were identified. Of these, 28 records were available for analysis. One patient was Stage I (3.5%), two were Stage II (11.1%), 20 were Stage III (71.4%), and five (17.9%) were Stage IV. The early stage (Stage I and II) patients were excluded from analysis. Of the 25 advanced stage (III and IV) patients, 21 (84.0%) were optimally cytoreduced to a residual disease of < one cm and four (16.0%) were suboptimally cytoreduced. The median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were ten and 21 months, respectively, for advanced stages. Twenty-one (75%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 62% (13 of 21) of treated patients received paclitaxel/carboplatin (T/C) as first-line chemotherapy. The median PFS and OS were 15.6 and 31.7 months, respectively, for those treated with T/C. There was no.difference in PFS (p = 0.42) and OS (p = 0.91) between the patients who received T/C vs. other chemotherapy regimens as a first-line adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with optimal cytoreduction had an improved PFS compared to those with suboptimal cytoreduction (ten vs. four monthsp = 0.015); however, there was no difference in OS (21 vs. 13 p = 0.117). The two-year OS was 48.0%. In the preset study, PFS was improved in patients who were optimally cytoreduced at the time of diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: T/C is an active regimen in the treatment of ovarian CS and has the potential to be the backbone for addition of biologic targeted therapies in the future. For advanced ovarian CS the authors recommend optimal cytoreductive surgery followed by T/C chemotherapy.
Nomogram for 30-day morbidity after primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):63-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in The Netherlands who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage EOC between January 2004 and December 2007. All peri- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery were registered and classified. To investigate predictors of 30-day morbidity, a Cox proportional hazard model with backward stepwise elimination was utilized. The identified predictors were entered into a nomogram. The main outcome was to identify parameters that predict operative risk.
RESULTS: 293 patients entered the study protocol. Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 136 (46%) patients. Thirty-day morbidity was seen in 99 (34%) patients. Morbidity could be predicted by age (p = 0.033; OR 1.024), preoperative hemoglobin (p = 0.194; OR 0.843), and WHO performance status (p = 0.015; OR 1.821) with a optimism-corrected c-statistic of 0.62. Determinants co-morbidity status, serum CA125 level, platelet count, and presence of ascites were comparable in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-day morbidity after primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage EOC could be predicted by age, hemoglobin, and WHO performance status. The generated nomogram could be valuable for predicting operative risk in the individual patient.
Cancer antigens 19.9 and 125 as tumor markers in patients with mucinous ovarian tumors.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):26-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were collected preoperatively from patients with mucinous ovarian tumor. The following variables were analysed: CEA, CA 15.3, CA 19.9, and CA 125. After surgery, histology and stage were determined according to FIGO-classification. Patients were classified into two groups according to the diagnosis of ovarian biopsy: NOT MOC and MOC.
RESULTS: The authors studied 94 patients with ages between 15 and 80 years (median = 43). Eighty-two patients were NOT MOC (68 mucinous ovarian cystadenomas and 14 mucinous borderline ovarian tumors) and 12 were MOC. All MOC patients were in FIGO Stages I or II. No statistically significant differences were found between MOC and NOT MOC patients according to CEA and CA 15.3 (p > 0.05). All MOC patients had abnormal serum CA 19.9 and/or CA 125 levels. Using CA 19.9 and CA 125, we performed a linear regression formula CA 19.9+125 = 0.00102 x CA 19.9 + 0.00057 x CA 125. AUCs values were 0.862 (p = 0.0002), 0.829 (p = 0.0021), and 0.911 (p = 0.0001) for CA 19.9, CA 125, and CA 19.9 + 125, respectively. CA 19.9 + 125 exhibited 95.1% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity, increased by 16.7% sensitivity compared with using only CA 19.9 or CA 125.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative CA 19.9 and CA 125 levels showed high diagnosis efficacy to predict whether a mucinous ovarian tumour is benign or malignant. Using both markers simultaneously increases the sensitivity for diagnosis of MOC.
HDLive ultrasound images of ovarian dermoid cysts: diagnostic accuracy.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 43(1):16-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D/HDLive ultrasound (US) was used in 31 cases of suspected ovarian cystic teratoma using vaginal 2D US. The following pathognomonic images of mature cystic teratomas were considered for diagnosis: 1) a cystic, unilocular lesion with a densely echogenic tubercle (Rokitansky nodule); 2) a diffuse or partially echogenic mass usually demonstrating sound attenuation; 3) fluid-fluid/fat-fluid levels; 4) dermoid mesh with hyperechogenic calcifications indicating the presence of bone, teeth, or other ectodermally-derived structure; 5) multiple mobile spherical structures (fat globules).
RESULTS: Dermoids present a wide spectrum of images depending on the predominant tissue type. In the vast majority of cases there are dense echogenic structures that correspond to complex masses of fatty tissue, sebum, hair, epithelial remnants, along with cartilage or bone. If we catalogue all the images together, the pathognomonic of dermoid are: 1) cystic or solid cystic lesions with a Rokitansky nodule, with bone, teeth or cartilage (six cases, 22.2%); 2) a solid mass with or without attenuation that corresponds with pure sebum (five cases, 18.5%); 3) a diffuse mass with fine bands that correspond with hair inside sebum (four cases, 12.9%) and that may form meshes or plugs corresponding with a mixture of fat, sebum, and hair (three cases, 11.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: HDLive U.S. provides some images of exceptional quality that enhance the definition of the structures of these tumors (fat, hair, cartilage, bone, etc.) compared to 2D/3D/4D.
Identifying Women at Risk for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome Utilizing Breast Care Nurse Navigation at Mammography and Imaging Centers.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc. 2015; 26(2):17-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cediranib in patients with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (ICON6): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2016; 387(10023):1066-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this randomised, three-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients aged 18 years or older with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer at 63 centres in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Spain, and the UK. Participants received up to six cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy (once every 3 weeks) then entered a maintenance phase. Participants were randomly allocated (2:3:3), with five stratification factors and in alternating blocks, to receive placebo alongside chemotherapy and then placebo only maintenance (arm A; reference), cediranib 20 mg once-daily alongside chemotherapy then placebo only maintenance (arm B; concurrent), or cediranib 20 mg once-daily alongside chemotherapy then cediranib 20 mg once-daily maintenance (arm C; maintenance). Patients continued treatment to progression or excessive toxic effects. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival between arms A and C. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. Safety was assessed in all patients who received the allocated study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00532194; the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN68510403; and ANZ Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN1261000016003.
FINDINGS: We randomly assigned 486 [corrected] women between Nov 13, 2007, and Dec 23, 2011; results presented are for 456 patients randomly assigned subsequent to the 30mg safety phase. During a median of 19·5 months (IQR 14-26) follow-up, 113 (96%) of 118 women assigned to arm A and 141 (86%) of 164 assigned to arm C had disease progression. Median progression-free survival was 11·0 months (95% CI 10·4-11·7) in arm C and 8·7 months (7·7-9·4) in arm A (hazard ratio 0·56, 0·44-0·72, p<0·0001). 156 (90%) of 174 patients in arm B had disease progression, and median progression-free survival was 9·9 months (95% CI 9·4-10·5). Diarrhoea, neutropenia, hypertension, and voice changes were significantly more common, during chemotherapy with cediranib, and diarrhoea, hypothyroidism and voice changes were more common during maintenance. Poor compliance with cediranib was noted during maintenance treatment with toxic effects being the most common cause for discontinuation.
INTERPRETATION: Cediranib, when given orally with chemotherapy and continued as maintenance, yielded a meaningful improvement [corrected] in progression-free survival in women with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, albeit with added toxic effects. The positive results in ICON6 could provide women with a new therapeutic option for recurrent ovarian cancer. Assessment of the secondary endpoint of overall survival will need longer follow-up.
FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, Cancer Australia, National Gynecological Cancer Centre, and AstraZeneca.
Actualities in Ovarian Cancer in the Perspective of 2015 (ASCO and ECCO).
Chirurgia (Bucur). 2016 Jan-Feb; 111(1):9-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: ovarian cancer.
Prescrire Int. 2016; 25(167):16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Drugs Today (Barc). 2016; 52(1):17-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Weekly vs. Every-3-Week Paclitaxel and Carboplatin for Ovarian Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 374(8):738-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We prospectively stratified patients according to whether they elected to receive bevacizumab and then randomly assigned them to receive either paclitaxel, administered intravenously at a dose of 175 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks, plus carboplatin (dose equivalent to an area under the curve [AUC] of 6) for six cycles or paclitaxel, administered weekly at a dose of 80 mg per square meter, plus carboplatin (AUC, 6) for six cycles. The primary end point was progression-free survival.
RESULTS: A total of 692 patients were enrolled, 84% of whom opted to receive bevacizumab. In the intention-to-treat analysis, weekly paclitaxel was not associated with longer progression-free survival than paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks (14.7 months and 14.0 months, respectively; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.06; P=0.18). Among patients who did not receive bevacizumab, weekly paclitaxel was associated with progression-free survival that was 3.9 months longer than that observed with paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks (14.2 vs. 10.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P=0.03). However, among patients who received bevacizumab, weekly paclitaxel did not significantly prolong progression-free survival, as compared with paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks (14.9 months and 14.7 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.20; P=0.60). A test for interaction that assessed homogeneity of the treatment effect showed a significant difference between treatment with bevacizumab and without bevacizumab (P=0.047). Patients who received weekly paclitaxel had a higher rate of grade 3 or 4 anemia than did those who received paclitaxel every 3 weeks (36% vs. 16%), as well as a higher rate of grade 2 to 4 sensory neuropathy (26% vs. 18%); however, they had a lower rate of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (72% vs. 83%).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, weekly paclitaxel, as compared with paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks, did not prolong progression-free survival among patients with ovarian cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and Genentech; GOG-0262 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01167712.).
Intraoperative frozen section analysis for the diagnosis of early stage ovarian cancer in suspicious pelvic masses.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 3:CD010360 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic test accuracy of frozen section (index test) to diagnose histopathological ovarian cancer in women with suspicious pelvic masses as verified by paraffin section (reference standard).
SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015) and relevant Cochrane registers.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies that used frozen section for intraoperative diagnosis of ovarian masses suspicious of malignancy, provided there was sufficient data to construct 2 x 2 tables. We excluded articles without an available English translation.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool (QUADAS-2) domains: patient selection, index test, reference standard, flow and timing. Data extraction converted 3 x 3 tables of per patient results presented in articles into 2 x 2 tables, for two index test thresholds.
MAIN RESULTS: All studies were retrospective, and the majority reported consecutive sampling of cases. Sensitivity and specificity results were available from 38 studies involving 11,181 participants (3200 with invasive cancer, 1055 with borderline tumours and 6926 with benign tumours, determined by paraffin section as the reference standard). The median prevalence of malignancy was 29% (interquartile range (IQR) 23% to 36%, range 11% to 63%). We assessed test performance using two thresholds for the frozen section test. Firstly, we used a test threshold for frozen sections, defining positive test results as invasive cancer and negative test results as borderline and benign tumours. The average sensitivity was 90.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 87.6% to 92.0%; with most studies typically reporting range of 71% to 100%), and average specificity was 99.5% (95% CI 99.2% to 99.7%; range 96% to 100%).Similarly, we analysed sensitivity and specificity using a second threshold for frozen section, where both invasive cancer and borderline tumours were considered test positive and benign cases were classified as negative. Average sensitivity was 96.5% (95% CI 95.5% to 97.3%; typical range 83% to 100%), and average specificity was 89.5% (95% CI 86.6% to 91.9%; typical range 58% to 99%).Results were available from the same 38 studies, including the subset of 3953 participants with a frozen section result of either borderline or invasive cancer, based on final diagnosis of malignancy. Studies with small numbers of disease-negative cases (borderline cases) had more variation in estimates of specificity. Average sensitivity was 94.0% (95% CI 92.0% to 95.5%; range 73% to 100%), and average specificity was 95.8% (95% CI 92.4% to 97.8%; typical range 81% to 100%).Our additional analyses showed that, if the frozen section showed a benign or invasive cancer, the final diagnosis would remain the same in, on average, 94% and 99% of cases, respectively.In cases where the frozen section diagnosis was a borderline tumour, on average 21% of the final diagnoses would turn out to be invasive cancer.In three studies, the same pathologist interpreted the index and reference standard tests, potentially causing bias. No studies reported blinding pathologists to index test results when reporting paraffin sections.In heterogeneity analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between studies with pathologists of different levels of expertise.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In a hypothetical population of 1000 patients (290 with cancer and 80 with a borderline tumour), if a frozen section positive test result for invasive cancer alone was used to diagnose cancer, on average 261 women would have a correct diagnosis of a cancer, and 706 women would be correctly diagnosed without a cancer. However, 4 women would be incorrectly diagnosed with a cancer (false positive), and 29 with a cancer would be missed (false negative).If a frozen section result of either an invasive cancer or a borderline tumour was used as a positive test to diagnose cancer, on average 280 women would be correctly diagnosed with a cancer and 635 would be correctly diagnosed without. However, 75 women would be incorrectly diagnosed with a cancer and 10 women with a cancer would be missed.The largest discordance is within the reporting of frozen section borderline tumours. Investigation into factors leading to discordance within centres and standardisation of criteria for reporting borderline tumours may help improve accuracy. Some centres may choose to perform surgical staging in women with frozen section diagnosis of a borderline ovarian tumour to reduce the number of false positives. In their interpretation of this review, readers should evaluate results from studies most typical of their population of patients.
Significance of serum c-erbB-2 oncoprotein, insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in ovarian cancer.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2016; 117(3):156-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that growth factors play an important role in carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Two groups were established. One of them was the malignant group which included 41 patients with ovarian carcinoma and the other was the control group that was made up of 28 healthy volunteers. Preoperative serum samples were obtained from the patients, and c-erbB-2, IGF-1 and VEGF levels were measured in these samples using ELISA. Serum CA-125 levels were also determined, by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay.
RESULTS: VEGF levels of the malignant group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01). CA-125 levels were also significantly higher than the in control group (p < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.982 for CA-125, 0.780 for VEGF, 0.603 for c-erbB-2, and 0.467 for IGF-1 in differentiating cancers from controls.
CONCLUSION: Serum VEGF levels might be a predictor for diagnosis in ovarian cancer patients, while serum c-erbB-2 and IGF-1 levels do not have a clinical significance in terms of ovarian cancer (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 46).
Expression of CD133 and CD117 in 64 Serous Ovarian Cancer Cases.
Coll Antropol. 2015; 39(3):745-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Features of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Oncology (Williston Park). 2016; 30(2):166-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growing Teratoma Syndrome Secondary to Ovarian Giant Immature Teratoma in an Adolescent Girl: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(7):e2647 [PubMed] Related Publications
Luteinized Thecomas ("Thecomatosis") with Sclerosing Peritonitis (LTSP): Report of 2 Cases and Review of an Enigmatic Syndrome Associated with a Peritoneal Proliferation of Specialized (vimentin+/keratin+/CD34+) Submesothelial Fibroblasts.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016; 38(1):41-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging data, operative findings, and pathology materials were reviewed and summarized. Samples of the SP were stained with keratin AE1/AE3, vimentin, CD34, calretinin, smooth muscle actin, ER/PR, CD10 and desmin. A literature search was performed to identify cases of LTSP for comparison.
RESULTS: A total of 43 cases of LTSP syndrome were identified. Frequent clinical features included ascites (74%), abdominal pain (35%), bowel obstruction (42%), and bilateral masses (84%). We isolated a distinct form of ovarian luteinized thecoma (thecomatosis) and peculiar sclerosing peritonitis (SP). IHC analysis shows a proliferation of specialized (vimentin+/keratin+/CD34+) submesothelial fibroblasts (SMF) with patchy expression of calretinin and hormone receptors.
CONCLUSION: LTSP syndrome is a rare entity presenting with abdominal pain, bowel obstruction, ascites, ovarian masses, and SP containing specialized (vimentin+/keratin+/CD34+) SMF. LTSP must be distinguished from abdominal cocoon, isolated SP, Meigs' syndrome, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. The importance of recognizing the diagnosis is stressed, as failure to manage this disease conservatively leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The SP and bowel obstruction may persist for months, even after resection of the tumours, resulting in extended medical therapy. Based on the immunophenotype of the peritoneal lesions, strategies to elucidate 'targeted' pharmacologic agents that could inhibit the proliferation of specialized (vimentin+/keratin+/CD34+) SMF may be of benefit.
Trends in Periodic Surveillance Testing for Early-Stage Uterine Cancer Survivors.
Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 127(3):449-58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2017 Related Publications
METHODS: We performed a population-based analysis using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, which was used to identify patients with stage I-II endometrioid endometrial cancer treated from 1992 to 2011. Three surveillance periods (7-18, 19-30, 31-42 months) after hysterectomy were examined. Use of vaginal cytology and imaging were quantified.
RESULTS: We identified 17,638 patients. From 1992 to 2011, the use of chest radiography decreased (46.3-34.2%) during the first surveillance period, whereas imaging with chest computed tomography (CT) (0.9-12.6%), abdominopelvic CT (11.7-24.8%), and positron emission tomography (0-2.9%) increased (P<.001 for all). The use of cytology increased from 68.5% in 1992 to 72.3% in 2007 and then decreased to 66.9% in 2011 (P=.02). The mean number of cytologic samples obtained per patient increased from 1.3 in 1992 to 1.6 in 2008 and then declined to 1.3 in 2011, whereas the mean per patient number of chest CTs (0.02-0.2), abdominopelvic CTs (0.2-0.4), and positron emission tomographies (0-0.03) rose from 1992 to 2011. In 2011, 49.3% underwent radiologic surveillance 7-18 months after diagnosis, whereas 11.9% underwent two or more radiologic assessments in combination with cytology. These findings were similar for surveillance periods 2 and 3.
CONCLUSION: The use of chest radiography has decreased and use of cytology has started to decline. However, the use of more costly imaging modalities is increasing despite a lack of evidence for the efficacy of these tests for early-stage endometrial cancer survivors.
Uterine cancer in the writings of Byzantine physicians.
J BUON. 2015 Nov-Dec; 20(6):1645-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitory Effects of the Four Main Theaflavin Derivatives Found in Black Tea on Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(2):643-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2017 Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay, Caspase-Glo Assay, western blot, human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation assay and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed.
RESULTS: All four theaflavin derivatives reduced viability of ovarian cancer cells at lower concentrations than with normal ovarian cells. TF1 mainly mediated apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway, while the others via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. TF1 inhibited tube formation via reducing VEGF secretion in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-independent manner, while the others in a HIF1α-dependent way.
CONCLUSION: All four theaflavin derivatives inhibited ovarian cancer cells. Some of the effects and mechanisms of TF1 are different from those of the other three theaflavin derivatives.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts attenuate Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by promoting STAT3 signaling.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 470(4):947-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comparing the Copenhagen Index (CPH-I) and Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA): Two equivalent ways to differentiate malignant from benign ovarian tumors before surgery?
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(3):481-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred eighty four women operated due to an ovarian mass were enrolled between January 2010 and June 2015. All patients had histopathological diagnosis, HE4 and CA125 measurement. CPH-I and ROMA were calculated and their performances compared in two distinct scenarios: 1) for the discrimination of benign ovarian disease from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), non-epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) and ovarian metastases, and 2) for the discrimination of benign disease from EOC. Receiver Operator Characteristics' Areas Under the Curves (AUC) were calculated for CPH-I and ROMA and compared.
RESULTS: Of the 384 women, 224 presented a benign ovarian tumor, 32 BOT, 87 EOC, 26 non-epithelial ovarian cancer, and 15 had ovarian metastases. The best AUCs were obtained for the discrimination of EOC from benign tumors. CPH-I performed slightly better than ROMA, and both approached 89% sensitivity and 85% specificity. When all malignant tumors (EOC, BOT, ovarian metastases and non-epithelial ovarian cancer - entire cohort) were included, the performance of CPH-I and ROMA declined to nearly 72%, although the specificity remained close to 85%.
CONCLUSION: CPH-I and ROMA performed similarly well for the discrimination of EOC from benign ovarian tumors. However, caution is necessary since, in practical situations, where all the histological possibilities for malignant ovarian tumors must be considered, the sensitivity of CPH-I and ROMA may not surpass 70%.