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Web Resources: Gemcitabine
Recent Research Publications

Web Resources: Gemcitabine (6 links)


Recent Research Publications

Nanjappa S, Singh V, Uttamchandani S, Pabbathi S
Thrombotic Microangiopathy in a Patient Treated With Gemcitabine.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):54-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thrombotic microangiopathy syndromes consist of a collection of disorders with a varied etiology that share common clinical and pathological features. Although thrombotic microangiopathy is rare, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Without early recognition and intervention, the prognosis of the disease is poor. This report illustrates the case of a 56-year-old man with advanced-stage metastatic pancreatic cancer who presented with hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with gemcitabine use. His condition was managed with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody, although he was dependent on dialysis. This report reflects the importance of considering thrombotic microangiopathy syndromes in the differential diagnosis, because many malignancies and use of chemotherapeutic agents can trigger hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Jia Z, Zhang K, Huang R, et al.
Pancreatic carcinosarcoma with rare long-term survival: Case report and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5966 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a rare case of pancreatic carcinosarcoma involving a 44-year-old woman. The patient complained of discomfort associated with the upper abdomen and jaundice of skin and sclera for 1 week.
DIAGNOSES: After hospitalization, relevant examinations were completed. The disease was diagnosed as carcinoma of the pancreatic head.
INTERVENTIONS: Whipple procedure was conducted in May 2013. Intraoperative exploration indicated 2 components of the tumor: a fish-shaped gray matter and a hard structure similar to cancellous bone. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma. After surgery, the patient received 8 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and raltitrexed.
OUTCOMES: Previous studies indicated poor prognosis for pancreatic carcinosarcoma. However, our patient survived for 31 months with no recurrence till date.
LESSONS SUBSECTIONS: Coexistence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma is very rare. Our case was also an exception in manifesting longer survival than expected.

Fu ZZ, Li K, Peng Y, et al.
Efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer: A network meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5853 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer (CC) by adopting a network meta-analysis.
METHODS: We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library from the inception of these databases to September 2016, and all cohort studies (CSs) related to different CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC were included. A network analysis was adopted to compare the combination of direct and indirect evidence, to analyze the odds ratio (OR), and to draw a surface under the cumulative ranking curve of the efficacy and toxicity of different CCRT regimens for CC. Cluster analyses were used to group each category based on similar treatment regimens.
RESULTS: Nineteen CSs were enrolled in this network meta-analysis, including 12 CCRT regimens (radiotherapy [RT], CCRT [cisplatin], CCRT [vinorelbine], CCRT [paclitaxel], CCRT [hydroxyurea], CCRT [cisplatin + FU], CCRT [cisplatin + gemcitabine], CCRT [cisplatin + docetaxel], CCRT [cisplatin + paclitaxel], CCRT [cisplatin + amifostine], CCRT [cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea], and CCRT [cisplatin + vincristine + bleomycin]). The results of the network meta-analysis showed that regarding efficacy, the overall response rate of CCRT (cisplatin + docetaxel) was higher than RT, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of CCRT (cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea) was relatively higher than CCRT (hydroxyurea). As for toxicity, CCRT (cisplatin) had a lower incidence of leukopenia than CCRT (hydroxyurea), CCRT (cisplatin + FU) and CCRT (cisplatin + paclitaxel), and the incidences of diarrhea and vomiting in CCRT (cisplatin) were lower than those in CCRT (cisplatin + gemcitabine). Additionally, the cluster analysis showed that CCRT (cisplatin) had relatively lower incidences of both hematotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity, and CCRT (paclitaxel) had lower gastrointestinal toxicity than other regimens.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that CCRT (cisplatin + docetaxel) might be the best choice of CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC, and the 5-year OS rate of CCRT (cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea) might be the highest among these different regimens. CCRT (cisplatin) might have the lowest toxicity among all the CCRT regimens.

Qu CP, Sun GX, Yang SQ, et al.
Toxicities of different first-line chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer: A network meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5797 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, and several chemotherapy regimens have been applied in the treatment of OC. We aim to compare toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) using network meta-analysis.
METHODS: Literature research in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed up to November 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different chemotherapy regimens were included. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence to assess pooled odds ratios (ORs) and draw the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves.
RESULTS: Thirteen eligible RCTs were included in this network meta-analysis, including 8 chemotherapy regimens (paclitaxel + carboplatin [PC], pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD] + carboplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine + carboplatin, paclitaxel, PC + epirubicin, PC + topotecan, docetaxel + carboplatin). Gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen exerted higher incidence of anemia when compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel regimens. The incidence of febrile neutropenia of gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen was higher than that of PC, PLD + carboplatin, carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. Topotecan PC + epirubicin regimen had a higher toxicity, comparing with PC, PLD + carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. As for thrombocytopenia, gemcitabine + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen produced an obviously higher toxicity than PC and carboplatin. As for nausea, PLD + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen had a significantly higher toxicity than that of carboplatin chemotherapy regimen. Moreover, when compared with PC and carboplatin chemotherapy regimens, the toxicity of PC + epirubicin was greatly higher to patients with AOC.
CONCLUSION: The nonhematologic toxicity of PLD + carboplatin regimen was higher than other regimens, which was clinically significant for the treatment of AOC.

Lee HS, Chung MJ, Park JY, et al.
A randomized, multicenter, phase III study of gemcitabine combined with capecitabine versus gemcitabine alone as first-line chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer in South Korea.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This phase III trial compared the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine plus capecitabine (GemCap) versus single-agent gemcitabine (Gem) in advanced pancreatic cancer as first-line chemotherapy.
METHODS: A total of 214 advanced pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled from 16 hospitals in South Korea between 2007 and 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to receive GemCap (oral capecitabine 1660 mg/m plus Gem 1000 mg/m by 30-minute intravenous infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week break every 4 weeks) or Gem (by 30-minute intravenous infusion weekly for 3 weeks every 4 weeks).
RESULTS: Median overall survival (OS) time, the primary end point, was 10.3 and 7.5 months in the GemCap and Gem arms, respectively (P = 0.06). Progression-free survival was 6.2 and 5.3 months in the GemCap and Gem arms, respectively (P = 0.08). GemCap significantly improved overall response rate compared with Gem alone (43.7% vs 17.6%; P = 0.001). Overall frequency of grade 3 or 4 toxicities was similar in each group. Neutropenia was the most frequent grade 3 or 4 toxicity in both groups.
CONCLUSION: GemCap failed to improve OS at a statistically significant level compared to Gem treatment. This study showed a trend toward improved OS compared to Gem alone. GemCap and Gem both exhibited similar safety profiles.

Chisaki Y, Nakamura N, Yano Y
Time-Series Modeling and Simulation for Comparative Cost-Effective Analysis in Cancer Chemotherapy: An Application to Platinum-Based Regimens for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2017; 40(1):73-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to propose a time-series modeling and simulation (M&S) strategy for probabilistic cost-effective analysis in cancer chemotherapy using a Monte-Carlo method based on data available from the literature. The simulation included the cost for chemotherapy, for pharmaceutical care for adverse events (AEs) and other medical costs. As an application example, we describe the analysis for the comparison of four regimens, cisplatin plus irinotecan, carboplatin plus paclitaxel, cisplatin plus gemcitabine (GP), and cisplatin plus vinorelbine, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The factors, drug efficacy explained by overall survival or time to treatment failure, frequency and severity of AEs, utility value of AEs to determine QOL, the drugs' and other medical costs in Japan, were included in the model. The simulation was performed and quality adjusted life years (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated. An index, percentage of superiority (%SUP) which is the rate of the increased cost vs. QALY-gained plots within the area of positive QALY-gained and also below some threshold values of the ICER, was calculated as functions of threshold values of the ICER. An M&S process was developed, and for the simulation example, the GP regimen was the most cost-effective, in case of threshold values of the ICER=$70000/year, the %SUP for the GP are more than 50%. We developed an M&S process for probabilistic cost-effective analysis, this method would be useful for decision-making in choosing a cancer chemotherapy regimen in terms of pharmacoeconomic.

Zhao T, Jin Y, Mao G, et al.
CYFRA 21-1 is an early predictor of chemotherapeutic effectiveness in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: An observational study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5748 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) has been found to be a useful prognostic marker in lung cancer. Previous studies have revealed that change in CYFRA21-1 synchronously predicted therapeutic effectiveness in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after the second cycle of chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the early predictive value of percentage change in serum CYFRA21-1 from pretreatment to completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy for chemotherapeutic effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients.Ninety-seven advanced NSCLC patients with elevated serum CYFRA21-1 level (≥3.8 μg/L), who received 2 platinum-containing drugs, were included in this retrospective study. Serum CYFRA21-1 had been assayed before and after the first cycle of chemotherapy. To evaluate the effectiveness of chemotherapy, patients were allocated to disease control (DC) and progressive disease groups. The percentage changes of serum CYFRA21-1 concentration before and after first-cycle chemotherapy that occurred in each group were evaluated for their ability to predict achievement of radiologic DC, that is, to predict therapeutic effectiveness.The percentage change of serum CYFRA21-1 and the prevalence of ≥5% weight loss were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with DC. The differences in other clinical and pathological variables including age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, cigarette smoking, histological type, gross type, clinical stage, and chemotherapy regimens of the 2 groups were not significant. Both multiple generalized linear model analysis and linear trend tests indicated that the percentage change of serum CYFRA21-1 concentration was independently and negatively linked to the effectiveness of chemotherapy for NSCLC (P < 0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the percentage change in prediction of DC was 0.84 and the optimal cut-off value was17.5% (P < 0.001).The percentage change of serum CYFRA21-1 after completing the first cycle of chemotherapy was predictive of treatment effects and might be helpful in making early decisions to change chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC.

Maemura K, Mataki Y, Kurahara H, et al.
Gemcitabine and S-1 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancers.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):233-237 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine and S-1 are drugs commonly used for treating locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, the safety and efficacy of combination of these agents for induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by chemoradiotherapy are not well-defined.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with LAPC (IC-CRT group) were treated with gemcitabine and S-1 IC, followed by S-1 chemoradiotherapy. The clinical outcomes were compared to a cohort of 38 patients who received chemoradiotherapy alone (CRT group).
RESULTS: Disease control rates in the CRT and IC-CRT groups were 84% and 93%, respectively (p=0.024). The median time of disease progression was 10.8 and 15.4 months in the CRT and IC-CRT group, respectively (p=0.043). The median overall survival time was longer in the IC-CRT group compared to CRT (23.4 vs. 17.3 months), but this increase was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine and S-1 combination chemotherapy, followed by CRT, is a promising IC regimen for treating LAPC.

Wang F, Du X, Li X, et al.
Effects of sequential paclitaxel-carboplatin followed by gemcitabine-based chemotherapy compared with paclitaxel-carboplatin therapy administered to patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A retrospective, STROBE-compliant study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(51):e5696 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We aimed to compare the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel-carboplatin for treating advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in this retrospective, STROBE-compliant study. Patients' tolerance to treatment was also assessed.We retrospectively analyzed the records of 178 women who underwent initial optimal debulking surgery between January 2003 and December 2011 to treat FIGO stage IIIc epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients in arm 1 (n = 88) received 4 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by 2 to 4 cycles of gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy. Patients in arm 2 (n = 90) received 6 to 8 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin. The granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was administered prophylactically to all patients.The median follow-up for both arms was 62 months. Medianprogression-free survival (PFS) between arms 1 and 2 (28 and 19 months [P = 0.003]) as well as 5-year OS (34.1% and 18.9% [P = 0.021]) differed significantly. The neurotoxicity rate was significantly higher in arm 2 than in arm 1 (45.2% vs 27.1%, P = 0.026). There was no significant difference between study arms in hematological toxicity.The sequential regimen significantly improved PFS and 5-year OS with tolerable toxicity compared with the single regimen, and offers an alternative for treating patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

Yang J, He J, Yu M, et al.
The efficacy and safety of platinum plus gemcitabine (PG) chemotherapy with or without molecular targeted agent (MTA) in first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(50):e5599 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trials investigating the efficacy and safety of combining molecular targeted agent (MTA) with platinum-gemcitabine (PG) in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have shown inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis aimed to explore whether the addition of MTAs to PG in NSCLC could provide a survival benefit with a tolerable toxicity.
METHODS: Web of knowledge, PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies and extract data on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and common grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Subgroup analyses were conducted on the basis of race and the type of MTA.
RESULTS: Twelve trials with a total of 6143 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with PG chemotherapy, combination therapy of MTA with PG did not improve OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90-1.01) but improved PFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.89) and ORR (risk ratio [RR] = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.11-1.60). Subanalysis indicated that there was more incidence of grade 3 or 4 rash (RR = 11.20, 95% CI = 6.07-20.68), anemia (RR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.01-1.46), diarrhea (RR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.21-5.65), and anorexia (RR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.12-3.88) in combining epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy group compared to PG group. An increased risk of grade 3 or 4 rash (RR = 5.08, 95% CI = 1.53-16.79), thrombocytopenia (RR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.03-2.18), and hypertension (RR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.05-5.32) was observed in sorafenib combination group.
CONCLUSION: The combination of PG plus MTA was superior to PG alone in terms of PFS and ORR but not in OS. The combination chemotherapy also showed a higher frequency of grade 3 or higher toxic effects in patients with advanced NSCLC than PG chemotherapy.

Boussios S, Seraj E, Zarkavelis G, et al.
Management of patients with recurrent/advanced cervical cancer beyond first line platinum regimens: Where do we stand? A literature review.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 108:164-174 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Despite advances in screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, a significant number of women present with or develop advanced disease. Palliative platinum-based chemotherapy (CT) is the standard first-line treatment for metastatic/recurrent cervical cancer. The prognosis remains poor and effective second line options are urgently needed.
METHODS: We searched the English-language medical literature as well as relevant guideline databases, published from January 1981 to December 2015 and identified publications related to cervical cancer and its therapies. Our effort was to highlight the available treatment options in the setting of recurrent/metastatic disease.
RESULTS: Although there have been important advances in the management of women with cervical cancer, the optimal treatment for patients with locally recurrent and metastatic disease after platinum failure is still problematic. Overall, there is a trend in terms of longer overall survival (OS) and better quality of life for the combination of cisplatin/paclitaxel (PC) as compared to the doublets of cisplatin/topotecan (TC), cisplatin/vinorelbine (VC), and cisplatin/gemcitabine (GC). Currently available single agents beyond first-line platinum-based therapy have limited efficacy in this setting and include topoisomerase inhibitors, vinca alkaloids, taxanes, alkylating agents and antimetabolites. Several targeted therapies have demonstrated activity in advanced cervical cancer. Bevacizumab has been evaluated in a phase III trial using doublets of cisplatin with paclitaxel or topotecan and has been approved in the first-line setting by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Selective targeting of angiogenic kinases by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may represent a novel therapeutic tool in this setting, but its use alone or in combination with CT is still investigational. Early reports have implicated PI3KCA somatic mutations suggesting that mTOR-targeted agents should be explored in this disease. Development of the immune checkpoint programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and T-lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors have been of considerable interest, leading to ongoing phase II studies in patients with advanced cervical cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Progress in the management of recurrent and advanced cervical cancer patients has been slow and restricted to palliative intent. These patients should be considered for clinical trials of novel targeted agents and/or immunotherapy.

Pectasides D, Kotoula V, Papaxoinis G, et al.
Expression Patterns of Growth and Survival Genes with Prognostic Implications in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6347-6356 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression pattern of growth- and survival-related genes and assess their prognostic significance in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 98 patients were included in this retrospective translational research study and were evaluated for Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutational status, and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 (AKT2), AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 (AKT3), cyclin D1 (CCND1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), hepatocellular growth factor receptor (MET), avian myelomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKb1), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (FRAP1) genes mRNA expression. Among these patients, 73 received first-line gemcitabine combined with erlotinib (N=57) or gefitinib (N=16).
RESULTS: KRAS mutation did not correlate with mRNA gene expression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering according to mRNA gene expression successfully distinguished four prognostically distinct groups of tumors. Overexpression of all genes was associated with best prognosis, while suppression or heterogeneous expression patterns of the examined genes were associated with expression patterns of growth- and survival-related genes, classifying pancreatic tumors into distinct groups with possibly different outcomes.

Takeda H, Okada M, Suzuki S, et al.
Rho-Associated Protein Kinase (ROCK) Inhibitors Inhibit Survivin Expression and Sensitize Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells to Gemcitabine.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6311-6318 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting pathways regulating survivin expression, which has been implicated in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, is a promising strategy to overcome cancer chemoresistance. To date, the role of rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) in survivin expression remains largely unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and fasudil on survivin expression and cell viability were determined by immunoblot analysis and dye exclusion, respectively, in PANC-1 CSLC, a cancer stem cell line derived from a serum-cultured, gemcitabine-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1.
RESULTS: siRNA-mediated knockdown of survivin revealed that the gemcitabine resistance of PANC-1 CSLC was dependent on survivin expression. Both Y-27632 and fasudil, reduced survivin expression in PANC-1 CSLC cells and sensitized them to gemcitabine. ROCK inhibition also reduced survivin expression in various other human cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Small molecule inhibitor-mediated targeting of ROCK may be a viable strategy to overcome cancer chemoresistance through down-regulation of survivin.

Martín Broto J, Le Cesne A, Reichardt P
The importance of treating by histological subtype in advanced soft tissue sarcoma.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(1s):23-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
While surgical resection (±radiotherapy) is standard treatment for localized soft tissue sarcomas (STS), chemotherapy is the mainstay for managing locally advanced and metastatic disease. Expanding knowledge of the biologies and sensitivities of STS histotypes, in conjunction with results from a growing collection of retrospective reviews and prospective randomized studies, point to the importance of treating in consideration of histological subtype. Doxorubicin ± ifosfamide continues to be standard first-line therapy for most STS subtypes. Main options for second- or later-line therapy include trabectedin, dacarbazine, gemcitabine combinations, pazopanib and, most recently, eribulin. Using illustrative case studies, treatment options are reviewed for three of the more common STS subtypes - uterine leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma - with a focus on use of trabectedin.

Ashihara N, Nakajima K, Nakamura Y, et al.
Denosumab is Effective for Controlling Serum Calcium Levels in Patients with Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Syndrome: A Case Report on Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein-producing Cholangiocarcinoma.
Intern Med. 2016; 55(23):3453-3457 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypercalcemia resulting in the elevation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and suppression of serum PTH was observed in a patient with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) and multiple lymph node metastases. We confirmed humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy based on PTHrP-producing CCC. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin could not control the patient's serum PTHrP levels and the patient was affected with bisphosphonate-refractory hypercalcemia. We administered a single dose of denosumab, an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand monoclonal antibody, and the patient's serum calcium levels remained close to the normal range for approximately 3 weeks without additional treatment.

Vera R, Dotor E, Feliu J, et al.
SEOM Clinical Guideline for the treatment of pancreatic cancer (2016).
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(12):1172-1178 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer remains an aggressive disease with a 5 year survival rate of 5%. Only 15% of patients with pancreatic cancer are eligible for radical surgery. Evidence suggests a benefit on survival with adjuvant chemotherapy (gemcitabine o fluourouracil) after R1/R0 resection. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is also a valid option in patients with positive margins. Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer is defined as the involvement of the mesenteric vasculature with a limited extension. These tumors are technically resectable, but with a high risk of positive margins. Neoadjuvant treatment represents the best option for achieving an R0 resection. In advanced disease, two new chemotherapy treatment schemes (Folfirinox or Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel) have showed improvements in overall survival compared with gemcitabine alone. Progress in pancreatic cancer treatment will require a better knowledge of the molecular biology of this disease, focusing on personalized cancer therapies in the near future.

Cheema AR, O'Reilly EM
Management of Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.
Surg Clin North Am. 2016; 96(6):1391-1414 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal and clinically challenging malignancies to treat, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of approximately 7%. At the time of initial presentation, a majority of patients have metastatic disease. The median overall survival in these patients with good performance status is 8.5 to 11.1 months and in patients with significantly impaired performance status, even less. Strategies to integrate novel agents with traditional cytotoxic therapies are under investigation and hold promise for improving outcomes in patients with metastatic PDAC. This article focuses on the current management options and novel therapeutics for metastatic PDAC.

Tan Q, Qin Q, Yang W, et al.
Combination of 125I brachytherapy and chemotherapy for unresectable recurrent breast cancer: A retrospective control study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(44):e5302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurrent breast cancer remains an incurable malignancy and cannot be removed by surgery in the majority of cases. This study aimed to explore the feasibility and efficacy of the combination of I brachytherapy and chemotherapy for the treatment of unresectable recurrent breast cancer. Patients with unresectable recurrent breast cancer treated between January 2011 and December 2014 with a combination of I brachytherapy and capecitabine or gemcitabine were evaluated and outcomes were compared with those of women treated with capecitabine or gemcitabine in conventional dose as a monotherapy. Of 61 patients evaluated, 28 received the combination treatment and 33 received capecitabine or gemcitabine monotherapy. The combination of I brachytherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a significant improvement in progression-free survival versus capecitabine or gemcitabine monotherapy (median, 17.8 vs 11.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.84; P = 0.013). The objective response rate (ORR) was significantly higher with the combination (82.1%) than with monotherapy (54.5%; P = 0.022), and the rate of pain relief was higher in the combination arm (100% vs 73.6%; P = 0.038). There was no significant improvement for overall survival (median, 30.1 vs 27.2 months; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.47-1.44; P = 0.496). There were no serious complications detected during the follow-up period, any grade toxicities were comparable between treatment arms. In conclusion, the combination of I brachytherapy and second-line chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy alone and is an effective and safe therapy for unresectable recurrent breast cancer. However, further investigation and much larger scale randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed.

Qi F, Dong M, He X, et al.
Gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) as salvage chemotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(2):245-251 [PubMed] Related Publications
Standard therapeutic options for patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) remain unclear. There are few large cohort studies specifically focused on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for PTCL-NOS. We retrospectively reviewed patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL-NOS who received salvage GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin) chemotherapy at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China, from May 2008 to August 2014. Twenty-five patients were enrolled and analyzed. The median number of cycles of GDP chemotherapy per patient was four (range, 2-8 cycles). Overall response rate was 64.0% (16/25) with five achieved complete remission or complete remission unconfirmed. After a median follow-up of 9 months, median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival after relapse or progression (second-PFS) were 9.3 and 5.4 months. One-year PFS rate and 1-year OS rate were 27.4% and 43.9%, respectively. Median second-PFS was significantly longer in patients sensitive to GDP than the ones resistant to the treatment (10.3 vs. 2.8 months, p < .01). In addition, the low International Prognostic Index, low Prognostic Index for T cell lymphoma, or normal level of LDH in serum was associated with favorable prognosis. Grade 3/4 adverse effect was observed in 10 of 25 patients treated with GDP including neutropenia (8/25), thrombocytopenia (5/25), and anemia (4/25). Taken together, our study suggests that GDP is an effective and optional salvage regimen for relapsed or refractory PTCL-NOS.

Jia Z, Paz-Fumagalli R, Frey G, et al.
Resin-based Yttrium-90 microspheres for unresectable and failed first-line chemotherapy intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: preliminary results.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(3):481-489 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of resin-based yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization for unresectable and failed first-line chemotherapy (cisplatin plus gemcitabine) intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).
METHODS: From February 2006 to September 2015, a retrospective study was conducted of all patients who underwent resin-based (90)Y therapy for unresectable and failed first-line chemotherapy ICC. Tumor response was assessed using modified RECIST criteria; side effects were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03; survivals were calculated from the date of diagnosis of ICC, beginning of first-line chemotherapy and first (90)Y procedure, respectively; effects of factors on survival were analyzed by Cox regression model.
RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (eight male and 16 female) were included in this study. Mean 5.6 ± 1.6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy were performed prior to (90)Y treatment. The mean delivered activity of (90)Y was 1.6 ± 0.4 GBq with a total of 27 treatments. Disease control rate was 81.8% at 3 months after (90)Y therapy, with partial response (n = 8, 36.4%), stable disease (n = 10, 45.5%) and progressive disease (n = 6, 18.2%). CA199 changes pre- and 1 month post-treatment were complete (n = 2), partial (n = 2), none (n = 5) and progression (n = 2), respectively. Side effects included fatigue (n = 21, 87.5%), anorexia (n = 19, 79.2%), nausea (n = 15, 62.5%), abdominal pain (n = 10, 58.3%), vomiting (n = 4, 16.7%) and fever (n = 3, 12.5%). Radiation-induced gastrointestinal ulcer was identified in one patient. The mean follow-up was 11.3 ± 6.6 months, and the median survivals from the time of diagnosis of ICC, beginning of first-line chemotherapy and first (90)Y procedure were 24.0, 16.0 and 9.0 months, respectively, and the 6-, 12-, 18-, 24- and 30-month survival after (90)Y therapy were 69.9, 32.6, 27.2, 20.4 and 20.4%, respectively. ECOG performance status (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastases (P = 0.019) had statistically significant influence on overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Resin-based (90)Y radioembolization can provide palliative control of unresectable and failed first-line chemotherapy ICC in a salvage setting with acceptable side effects.

Ohtake S, Kawahara T, Kasahara R, et al.
Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Can Predict the Prognosis in Bladder Cancer Patients Who Receive Gemcitabine and Nedaplatin Therapy.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:9846823 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction and Objectives. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been suggested to be a simple marker of the systemic inflammatory response in critical care patients. We previously assessed the utility of NLR as a biomarker to predict tumor recurrence and cancer death in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic impact of NLR in bladder cancer patients who received gemcitabine and nedaplatin (GN) chemotherapy. Methods. A total of 23 patients who received GN chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer were enrolled in this study. The cut-off point of NLR according to the sensitivity and specificity levels was derived from the area under receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve plotted for disease progression or overall mortality. Results. The NLR cut-off point was determined as 4.14 for both tumor progression and overall mortality. Median progression-free survival (PFS)/overall survival (OS) in the higher NLR group (NLR ≥ 4.14) and lower NLR group (NLR < 4.14) were 194/468 days versus 73/237 days, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that higher NLR significantly correlated with poorer PFS (p = 0.011) and OS (p = 0.045). Conclusions. NLR may serve as a new biomarker to predict responses to GN-based chemotherapy in advanced bladder cancer patients and/or their prognosis.

How J, Blattner M, Fowler S, et al.
Chemotherapy-associated Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Neurologist. 2016; 21(6):112-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There are increasing reports of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) associated with the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Recognition of PRES is crucial given its reversibility with appropriate supportive management. We report a patient presenting with PRES after treatment with Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin/Adriamycin, Oncovin/Vincristine, Prednisone (R-CHOP) and intrathecal methotrexate. We also perform a systematic review of the literature on chemotherapy-associated PRES.
CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old man with recently diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma became unresponsive 4 days after initiation of R-CHOP and intrathecal methotrexate. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed interval development of occipital and temporal fluid attenuation inversion recovery hyperintensities consistent with PRES. The patient's blood pressure was aggressively controlled and he received 5 days of high-dose methylprednisone. He subsequently regained consciousness and his mental status gradually improved. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging showed interval resolution of the bilateral fluid attenuation inversion recovery hyperintensities.
REVIEW SUMMARY: We performed a systematic review of the literature and included a total of 70 unique cases involving chemotherapy-associated PRES. Platinum-containing drugs, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin/Adriamycin, Oncovin/Vincristine, Prednisone/R-CHOP regimens, and gemcitabine were the agents most commonly used in patients who developed suspected chemo-associated PRES. Median onset of symptoms occurred 8 days after chemotherapy. Hypertension was the most commonly reported risk factor associated with the development of chemotherapy-associated PRES. In most cases, PRES improved with supportive management alone within 2 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy-associated PRES is an increasingly encountered syndrome. Both neurologists and non-neurologists should be familiar with the most commonly implicated agents, symptoms, risk factors, and clinical course of chemotherapy-associated PRES, given its favorable prognosis with appropriate management.

Formica V, Morelli C, Ferroni P, et al.
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio helps select metastatic pancreatic cancer patients benefitting from oxaliplatin.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(3):335-345 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as a measure of enhanced inflammatory response, has been negatively associated with prognosis in patients with localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA).
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed at investigating the prognostic value of NLR in two homogeneous groups of chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PDA patients. Patients were treated with either gemcitabine (GEM) or gemcitabine/oxaliplatin (GEMOXA). We also assessed whether NLR could identify patients benefiting from the use of oxaliplatin.
METHODS: Consecutive PDA patients treated at the Medical Oncology Unit of Tor Vergata University Hospital of Rome with either GEM or GEMOXA were included (n= 103). NLR was assessed before and during chemotherapy and correlated with outcome together with common clinical and biochemical variables.
RESULTS: Among 17 analyzed variables NLR, Karhofsky Perfomance Status (KPS), d-dimer and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were found to be significantly associated with median Overall Survival (mOS) at the univariate analysis. Only NLR and KPS were independent prognosticator at multivariate analysis, with NLR displaying the highest statistical significance. NLR was also predictive of oxaliplatin activity, as only patients with NLR > 2.5 (cutoff determined upon ROC analysis) derived benefit from GEMOXA over GEM.
CONCLUSIONS: NLR is both an independent prognostic and predictive factor in metastatic PDA, since only patients with high NLR seem to benefit from the addition of oxaliplatin. NLR may help select patients for whom a particularly poor prognosis might justify more intensive, yet less tolerable, combination regimens.

Kumpiro S, Sriuranpong V, Areepium N
Impact of the Copper Transporter Protein 1 (CTR1) Polymorphism on Adverse Events among Advanced NonSmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with a Carboplatin/Gemcitabine Regimen.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(9):4391-4394 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based regimens are effective treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the five-year survival rate is still less than 20%. One possible factor appears to be resistance involving polymorphisms in the CTR1 gene which plays an importance role in accumulation of platinum in the cytoplasm.
PURPOSE: To establish both prevalence of CTR1 polymorphism and its impact on treatment related toxicity in Thai advanced NSCLC patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two advanced NSCLC participants received carboplatin and gemcitabine during January to June 2016 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) were recruited for analysis of the CTR1 rs12686377 genotype. These participants were planning to be treated with platinum-based chemotherapy for at least two cycles.
RESULTS: Allele frequency of CTR1 polymorphism G?T was found to be 25%. The results showed that genetic polymorphism at CTR1 rs12686377 was associated with emesis side effects (P = 0.020) and neuropathic symptoms (P = 0.010). In addition, hematologic side effects in terms of anemia also tended to be related to this polymorphism.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study suggesting that polymorphism at CTR1 rs12686377 may be associated with toxicity from platinum-based regimens. Therefore, it could be a factor to aid in treatment decision-making.

Kim N, Lee SH, Son JH, et al.
Fisetin Reduces Cell Viability Through Up-Regulation of Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):6109-6116 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Effective prevention and treatment of CCA require developing novel anticancer agents and improved therapeutic regimens. As natural products are concidered a rich source of potential anticancer agents, we investigated the anticancer effect of fisetin in combination with gemcitabine.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxic effect of fisetin and gemcitabine on a human CCA cell line SNU-308 was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and apoptosis assay using propidium iodine and annexin V. Molecular mechanisms of fisetin action in CCA were investigated by western blotting.
RESULTS: Fisetin was found to inhibit survival of CCA cells, through strongly phosphorylating ERK. It also induced cellular apoptosis additively in combination with gemcitabine. Expression of cellular proliferative markers, such as phospho-p65 and myelocytomatosis (MYC), were reduced by fisetin.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest fisetin in combination with gemcitabine as a candidate for use in improved anticancer regimens.

Takezaki Y, Namikawa T, Koyama T, et al.
Antitumor Effects of Eribulin Mesylate in Gemcitabine-resistant Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):6077-6082 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: One reason of poor survival rate of patients with pancreatic cancer is the development of chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eribulin mesylate in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, Panc-1, and SUIT-2) and human pancreatic endoderm (hPE) cells were used to evaluate the antitumor effects of gemcitabine and eribulin mesylate. Cell viability after treatment of cells with different concentrations of gemcitabine and eribulin mesylate was evaluated using water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST) assays; cytotoxic effects were evaluated on the basis of morphological changes to cells.
RESULTS: Gemcitabine had no effect on cell viability of AsPC-1 nor Panc-1 cells, whereas gemcitabine reduced cell viability of SUIT-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Eribulin mesylate significantly reduced cell viability of both AsPC-1 and Panc-1 cells (p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively), but had no effect on hPE cells. Microscopic examination of AsPC-1 and Panc-1 cells after treatment with eribulin mesylate revealed morphological changes that included cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and fragmentation of the cells after drug exposure, and these were concentration-dependent effects.
CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggest that eribulin mesylate may be a promising potential anticancer drug for gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer.

Yin L, Liu S, Li C, et al.
CYLD downregulates Livin and synergistically improves gemcitabine chemosensitivity and decreases migratory/invasive potential in bladder cancer: the effect is autophagy-associated.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12731-12742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although GC (gemcitabine and cisplatin) chemotherapy remains an effective method for treating bladder cancer (BCa), chemoresistance is a major obstacle in chemotherapy. In this study, we determined whether gemcitabine resistance correlates with migratory/invasive potential in BCa and whether this relationship is regulated by the cylindromatosis (CYLD)-Livin module. First, we independently investigated the correlation of CYLD/Livin and gemcitabine resistance with the potential for tumor migration and invasiveness. Second, we found that co-transfected CYLD and Livin dramatically improved sensitivity to gemcitabine chemotherapy and decreased migration/invasion potential. Next, we determined that CYLD may regulate Livin by the NF-κB-dependent pathway. We also found that CYLD overexpression and Livin knockdown might improve gemcitabine chemosensitivity by decreasing autophagy and increasing apoptosis in BCa cells. Finally, the effects of CYLD-Livin on tumor growth in vivo were evaluated. Our study demonstrates that CYLD-Livin might represent a potential therapeutic for chemoresistant BCa.

Yang D, Shi J, Fu H, et al.
Integrinβ1 modulates tumour resistance to gemcitabine and serves as an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic adenocarcinomas.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12315-12327 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies because of its broad resistance to chemotherapy. Numerous evidence indicates that integrinβ1 is upregulated in some human cancers, and it is correlated with resistance to various therapies. However, the role of integrinβ1 in chemotherapy is not clear in pancreatic cancer. The present study evaluates the potential of integrinβ1 to predict chemoresistance and prognosis in patients and to modulate resistance to gemcitabine in PDAC cells. Primary drug-resistance (DR) cancer cells were isolated, and DR cells from MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1 parent cell lines (PCL) were selected. Integrinβ1 expression was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Changes in drug response after knockdown of integrinβ1 via RNA interference (RNAi) were evaluated using the viability of cancer cells as colon formation, proliferation using Western blot of Ki-67 and apoptosis using cleaved caspase-3 immunofluorescence. qRT-PCR and Western blot also detected variations in the activities of cdc42 and AKT after integrinβ1 suppression. Patient survival and relative factors were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Integrinβ1 expression was upregulated in PDAC, which was significantly associated with intrinsic and acquired gemcitabine resistance and worse outcomes. The downregulation of integrinβ1 attenuated PDAC chemoresistance, and this attenuation partially correlated with reduced Cdc42 and AKT activity, which are target molecules of integrinβ1 in some human cancers. These findings identified integrinβ1 as a special marker of drug resistance and a serious prognosis, and they furthermore support the use of integrinβ1 as a novel potential therapeutic target to overcome chemotherapy resistance. The results also suggest a possible drug-resistant signalling pathway of integrinβ1 in PDAC.

Pinto-Leite R, Arantes-Rodrigues R, Sousa N, et al.
mTOR inhibitors in urinary bladder cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11541-11551 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the great scientific advances that have been made in cancer treatment, there is still much to do, particularly with regard to urinary bladder cancer. Some of the drugs used in urinary bladder cancer treatment have been in use for more than 30 years and show reduced effectiveness and high recurrence rates. There have been several attempts to find new and more effective drugs, to be used alone or in combination with the drugs already in use, in order to overcome this situation.The biologically important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is altered in cancer and mTOR inhibitors have raised many expectations as potentially important anticancer drugs. In this article, the authors will review the mTOR pathway and present their experiences of the use of some mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, in isolation and in conjunction with non-mTOR inhibitors cisplatin and gemcitabine, on urinary bladder tumour cell lines. The non-muscle-invasive cell line, 5637, is the only one that exhibits a small alteration in the mTOR and AKT phosphorylation after rapalogs exposure. Also, there was a small inhibition of cell proliferation. With gemcitabine plus everolimus or temsirolimus, the results were encouraging as a more effective response was noticed with both combinations, especially in the 5637 and T24 cell lines. Cisplatin associated with everolimus or temsirolimus also gave promising results, as an antiproliferative effect was observed when the drugs were associated, in particular on the 5637 and HT1376 cell lines. Everolimus or temsirolimus in conjunction with gemcitabine or cisplatin could have an important role to play in urinary bladder cancer treatment, depending on the tumour grading.

Kanaya N, Aoki H, Yamasaki R, et al.
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Producing Gallbladder Cancer.
Acta Med Okayama. 2016; 70(5):393-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing gallbladder tumor associated with fever in a middle-aged female. Preoperative blood analysis showed leukocytosis with elevated levels of C-reactive protein and G-CSF. We resected the liver at S4a+S5, with regional lymph node dissection and partial resection of the duodenum. Histology revealed undifferentiated carcinoma with spindle and giant cells and papillary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed Stage IIIB G-CSF-producing gallbladder cancer. Postoperatively, leukocyte and serum G-CSF levels decreased to within normal limits. Adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy was administered for 16 months, and she has been recurrence-free for 48 months.

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