Gene Summary

Gene:VEGFA; vascular endothelial growth factor A
Aliases: VPF, VEGF, MVCD1
Summary:This gene is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. It encodes a heparin-binding protein, which exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. This growth factor induces proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, and is essential for both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. This gene is upregulated in many known tumors and its expression is correlated with tumor stage and progression. Elevated levels of this protein are found in patients with POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with microvascular complications of diabetes 1 (MVCD1) and atherosclerosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from upstream non-AUG (CUG) codons resulting in additional isoforms. A recent study showed that a C-terminally extended isoform is produced by use of an alternative in-frame translation termination codon via a stop codon readthrough mechanism, and that this isoform is antiangiogenic. Expression of some isoforms derived from the AUG start codon is regulated by a small upstream open reading frame, which is located within an internal ribosome entry site. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:vascular endothelial growth factor A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: VEGFA (cancer-related)

Ramezani S, Vousooghi N, Kapourchali FR, et al.
Rolipram potentiates bevacizumab-induced cell death in human glioblastoma stem-like cells.
Life Sci. 2017; 173:11-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs) promote themselves proliferation by secreting the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in an autocrine manner, positively regulated by phosphodiesterase IV (PDE4). In the current study, we investigated the putative cytotoxic effect of bevacizumab, a VEGFA blocker, alone and in combination with a specific inhibitor of PDE4 called rolipram on GCSCs isolated from human surgical tumor specimen with a focus on PI3K/AKT pathway.
MAIN METHODS: CD133+/CD15+ GCSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and expanded in a serum-free primary culture system. The cell survival, apoptosis, and protein expression values were measured using MTT assay, TUNEL staining and western blot, successively. Intracellular cAMP and free secreted VEGFA levels were assessed by cAMP enzyme immunoassay and ELISA, respectively.
KEY FINDINGS: Bevacizumab suppressed GCSCs survival with IC50~6.5μg/ml and enhanced the levels of apoptosis, p53 and cleaved-caspase3 along with a decrease in free VEGFA levels and ERKs activation. However, there was no significant modulation of AKT phosphorylation on serine 473, the intracellular PDE4A, VEGFA and cAMP levels. More cytotoxicity in co-treated cells coupled with a more substantial decline in the free VEGFA levels and a greater increase in the quantities of p53 and cleaved-caspase3 compared to those treated with bevacizumab alone. Co-treatment reduced phospho-AKT, endogenous VEGFA and PDE4A values but elevated cAMP levels.
SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlighted a booster cytotoxic effect of combined rolipram and bevacizumab treatment on the GCSCs primary culture, suggesting that this approach is warranted in treatment of GBMs overexpressing VEGFA and PDE4A.

Naykoo NA, Dil-Afroze, Rasool R, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms, haplotype association and tumour expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene with lung carcinoma.
Gene. 2017; 608:95-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
VEGF contains several polymorphic sites known to influence its expression. We examined the possible association between+405(-634)C>G,+936C>T,-2578C>A and lung cancer in 199 Kashmiri patients and 401 healthy controls. VEGF+405CG,+936CT+TT and-2578CA genotypes were significantly associated with lung cancer risk compared to VEGF+405CC,+936CC and-2578AA+CC genotypes [OR=0.07 (0.04-0.13), P<0.0001, OR=0.36 (0.25-0.52), P<0.0001 and 0.08 (0.05-0.13), P<0.0001]. Haplotype analysis revealed that CGA and TGA haplotypes of VEGF gene conveys the risk for lung cancer [OR=0.18 (0.10-0.33), P<0.0001 and 0.07 (0.03-0.13), P<0.0001]. VEGF expression revealed non-significant association with the genotypes of the three SNPs. In conclusion, the SNPs examined appear to influence lung cancer susceptibility while as genotypes of the SNPs don't appear to have significant association with VEGF mRNA expression in lung tumours.

Xu G, Zhang M, Zhu H, Xu J
A 15-gene signature for prediction of colon cancer recurrence and prognosis based on SVM.
Gene. 2017; 604:33-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To screen the gene signature for distinguishing patients with high risks from those with low-risks for colon cancer recurrence and predicting their prognosis.
METHODS: Five microarray datasets of colon cancer samples were collected from Gene Expression Omnibus database and one was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). After preprocessing, data in GSE17537 were analyzed using the Linear Models for Microarray data (LIMMA) method to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The DEGs further underwent PPI network-based neighborhood scoring and support vector machine (SVM) analyses to screen the feature genes associated with recurrence and prognosis, which were then validated by four datasets GSE38832, GSE17538, GSE28814 and TCGA using SVM and Cox regression analyses.
RESULTS: A total of 1207 genes were identified as DEGs between recurrence and no-recurrence samples, including 726 downregulated and 481 upregulated genes. Using SVM analysis and five gene expression profile data confirmation, a 15-gene signature (HES5, ZNF417, GLRA2, OR8D2, HOXA7, FABP6, MUSK, HTR6, GRIP2, KLRK1, VEGFA, AKAP12, RHEB, NCRNA00152 and PMEPA1) were identified as a predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis for colon cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: Our identified 15-gene signature may be useful to classify colon cancer patients with different prognosis and some genes in this signature may represent new therapeutic targets.

Yang T, Yao Q, Cao F, et al.
Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:6679-6692 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis.

He W, Huang L, Shen X, et al.
Relationship between RSUME and HIF-1α/VEGF-A with invasion of pituitary adenoma.
Gene. 2017; 603:54-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The RWD-containing sumoylation enhancer (RSUME) can stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) which promotes vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression. RSUME plays an important role in promoting the invasion of pituitary adenoma. In this study, we compared the mRNA and protein levels of RSUME, HIF-1α, and VEGF-A in pituitary adenoma tissue and analyzed the correlation. We found that the expression levels of RSUME, HIF-1α, and VEGF-A in invasive pituitary adenoma were significantly higher than in noninvasive pituitary adenoma. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between RSUME and HIF-1α/VEGF pathways. RSUME and HIF-1α were treated with hypoxia-mimicking CoCl2 and transfected into AtT-20 and GT1.1 cell lines to determine the relationship between them. It was found that RSUME effects post-transcriptional expression of HIF-1α regulated VEGF-A secretion. Reducing RSUME expression using siRNA transfection resulted in a decrease of the invasion inhibition rate of AtT-20 cells, as determined using Transwell and MTT assays. Together, we found that RSUME silencing can inhibit the invasion of pituitary adenoma cells.

El-Aarag B, Kasai T, Masuda J, et al.
Anticancer effects of novel thalidomide analogs in A549 cells through inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:549-555 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common form of lung cancer. Several studies had shown that thalidomide has potential for prevention and therapy of cancer. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of two novel thalidomide analogs in human lung cancer A549 cells. The antiproliferative, antimigratory, and apoptotic effects in A549 cells induced by thalidomide analogs were examined. In addition, their effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were evaluated. Their influence on the tumor volume in nude mice was also determined. Results revealed that thalidomide analogs exhibited antiproliferative, antimigratory, and apoptotic activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide drug. Furthermore, analogs 1 and 2 suppressed the expression levels of VEGF165 by 42% and 53.2% and those of MMP-2 by 45% and 52%, respectively. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 also reduced the tumor volume by 30.11% and 53.52%, respectively. Therefore, this study provides evidence that thalidomide analogs may serve as a new therapeutic option for treating lung cancer.

Li G, Zheng J, Xu B, et al.
Simvastatin inhibits tumor angiogenesis in HER2-overexpressing human colorectal cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:418-424 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of the HER2 oncogene contributes to tumor angiogenesis, which is an essential hallmark of cancer. Simvastatin has been reported to exhibit antitumor activities in several cancers; however, its roles and molecular mechanismsin the regulation of colorectal angiogenesis remain to be clarified. Here, we show that colon cancer cells express high levels of VEGF, total HER2 and phosphorylated HER2, and simvastatin apparently decreased their expression in HER2-overexpressing colon cancer cells. Simvastatin pretreatment reduced endothelial tube formation in vitro and microvessel density in vivo. Furthermore, simvastatin markedly inhibited tumor angiogenesis even in the presence of heregulin (HRG)-β1 (a HER2 co-activator) pretreatment in HER2+ tumor cells. Mechanistic investigation showed that simvastatin significantly abrogated HER2-induced tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF secretion. Together, these results provide a novel mechanism underlying the simvastatin-induced inhibition of tumor angiogenesis through regulating HER2/VEGF axis.

Zhu D, Shen Z, Liu J, et al.
The ROS-mediated activation of STAT-3/VEGF signaling is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced angiogenesis in human breast cancer cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2016; 264:79-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females worldwide, and angiogenesis plays a crucial role in BC progression. 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator, which promotes the growth and metastasis of BC. Here, we further found that, 27HC improved the angiogenic ability of BC in a VEGF-dependent manner. For the molecular mechanisms, on one hand, as an estrogen-like factor, 27HC enhanced the expression of VEGF by the classical ERα/VEGF signaling in ER-positive BC cells; on the other hand, in both ER-positive and ER-negative BC cells, 27HC enhanced the generation of ROS, which in turn activated the STAT-3/VEGF signaling in an ER independent manner. Either blocking the generation of ROS or knockdown of STAT-3 attenuated the 27HC-induced autocrine of VEGF and angiogenesis. These findings not only suggested a mechanism whereby 27HC enhanced the angiogenesis, but also helped to recognize the 27HC as a novel potential harmful factor in BC, especially in the menopause patients.

Li SL, Ma XH, Ji JF, et al.
miR-1 association with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in vestibular schwannoma by targeting VEGFA.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
A growing body of research has demonstrated the tumor suppressive function of microRNA (miR)-1 in many cancers. Our study aimed to investigate its role in vestibular schwannoma (VS). We examined miR-1 expression in 95 VS specimens and 79 normal vestibular nerves using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, miR-1 mimics, miR-1 inhibitors, and negative control oligonucleotides were transfected into HEI-193 human VS cells to investigate the functional significance of miR-1 expression in this condition at a cellular level. Finally, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in miR-1-mediated HEI-193 cell growth was confirmed. miR-1 levels were significantly reduced in VS specimens compared with normal vestibular nerve tissues (P < 0.001). In addition, low levels of miR-1 were associated with larger tumor volumes. In functional assays, miR-1 suppressed HEI-193 cell proliferation and colony formation, and enhanced apoptosis. VEGFA was verified as a target gene of miR-1, and VEGFA overexpression partially negated the effects of miR-1 on HEI-193 cells. These findings suggest that miR-1 suppresses VS growth by targeting VEGFA, and should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of this condition.

Zhou Y, Jin G, Mi R, et al.
Inhibition of fatty acid synthase suppresses neovascularization via regulating the expression of VEGF-A in glioma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(12):2447-2459 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Fatty acids (FAs) are essential for membrane lipids biosynthesis and energy consumption in cancer cells. De novo FAs synthesis is catalyzed by fatty acid synthase (FASN), which is overexpressed and correlates with histological grade in glioma. Herein, we focused on the role of FASN in glioma neovascularization.
METHODS: The expression levels of FASN, Ki67 and CD34 were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). FASN specific-targeted shRNA and C75 were applied to evaluate the influence of FASN on glioma stem cell proliferation, migration and tube formation ability in vitro. An intracranial glioma model was established to study the effects of FASN on tumor growth and neovascularization in vivo.
RESULTS: IHC staining showed that the expression level of FASN correlated with tumor grade, Ki67 levels and microvessels density (MVD) in human gliomas. Inhibition of FASN using shRNAs or C75 decreased tumor growth, prolonged the overall survival of xenograft mice and decreased MVD in brain tumor sections. Moreover, inhibition of FASN blocked hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) signaling and upregulated the anti-angiogenic isoform-VEGF165b.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that FASN plays a pivotal role in glioma neovascularization, and inhibition of FASN may be a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy for glioma.

Niu J, Sun Y, Guo Q, et al.
miR-1 Inhibits Cell Growth, Migration, and Invasion by Targeting VEGFA in Osteosarcoma Cells.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:7068986 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs and have been shown to play a crucial role in the osteosarcoma (OS) tumorigenesis and progression. VEGFA is a key regulator of angiogenesis and plays an important role in regulation of tumor metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether VEGFA was involved in miR-1-mediated suppression of proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. The expression levels of miR-1 were significantly lower in OS tumor tissues than those in adjacent normal tissues and in SAOS-2 and U2OS cell lines compared to a normal osteoblast (NHOst) cell line. VEGFA was upregulated in OS tumor tissues and SAOS-2 and U2OS cell lines. The results of CCK-8 assay and transwell assay showed that miR-1 acted as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in U2OS cells. Dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that VEGFA was a direct and functional target gene of miR-1. miR-1 directly inhibits the protein expression of VEGFA via its 3'-UTR. Knockdown of VEGFA by siRNA inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of U2OS cells. Our study suggested the potential inhibitory function of miR-1 in OS cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via inhibiting VEGFA.

Kim BR, Kang MH, Kim JL, et al.
RUNX3 inhibits the metastasis and angiogenesis of colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2601-2608 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have determined that inactivation of runt‑related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) expression is highly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in various types of cancer. However, the mechanism of RUNX3-mediated suppression of tumor metastasis remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to clarify the effect of RUNX3 on metastasis and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Firstly, we found that the reduction in expression of RUNX3 in CRC tissues when compared with tumor adjacent normal colon tissues, as indicated by reduced RUNX3 staining, was significantly correlated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Secondly, we demonstrated that RUNX3 overexpression inhibited CRC cell migration and invasion resulting from the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. In contrast, the knockdown of RUNX3 reduced the inhibition of migration and invasion of CRC cells. Finally, we found that restoration of RUNX3 decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and suppressed endothelial cell growth and tube formation in CRC cells. All in all, our findings may provide insight into the development of RUNX3 for CRC metastasis diagnostics and therapeutics.

Shitara K, Yonesaka K, Denda T, et al.
Randomized study of FOLFIRI plus either panitumumab or bevacizumab for wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer-WJOG 6210G.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(12):1843-1850 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This randomized phase II trial compared panitumumab plus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI as second-line chemotherapy for wild-type (WT) KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and to explore the values of oncogenes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and serum proteins as predictive biomarkers. Patients with WT KRAS exon 2 mCRC refractory to first-line chemotherapy containing oxaliplatin and bevacizumab were randomly assigned to panitumumab plus FOLFIRI or bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI. Of 121 randomly assigned patients, 117 were eligible. Median overall survival (OS) for panitumumab plus FOLFIRI and bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI were 16.2 and 13.4 months [hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76-1.77], respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) was also similar (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.78-1.66). KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF status using ctDNA was successfully examined in 109 patients, and mutations were identified in 19 patients (17.4%). Panitumumab plus FOLFIRI showed favorable survival compared with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI in WT patients and unfavorable survival in those with mutations (P for interaction = 0.026 in OS and 0.054 in PFS). OS with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI was better than panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with high serum vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) levels and worse in those with low levels (P for interaction = 0.016). Second-line FOLFIRI plus panitumumab and FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab showed a similar efficacy in patients with WT KRAS exon 2 mCRC. RAS and BRAF mutation in ctDNA could be a negative predictive marker for panitumumab.

Zhang T, Liu W, Zeng XC, et al.
Down-regulation of microRNA-338-3p promoted angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:583-591 [PubMed] Related Publications
miRNAs are involved in substantial biological passways, including tumorigenesis, cancer development and progression. Angiogenesis plays a vital role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and VEGF is closely associated with the angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of miRNAs in regulation tumorigenesis of HCC remains to be investigated. In the present research, we confirmed that miR-338-3p was suppressed both in HCC tissues and HCC cell lines. Then the tube formation, transwell and Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay were carried out, such indicated that down-regulation of miR-338-3p can sharply increased, while up-regulation drastically suppressed angiogenesis of HCC cells in vitro. Moreover, MACC1 is predicted to be a target of miR-338-3p and we checked the prediction through luciferase assay. And then, our research showed that negative correlation existed between miR-338-3p and MACC1, β-catenin and VEGF that has been reported participated in cancer behavior in HCC cell lines. Subsequently, our assays illustrated that suppression miR-338-3p can up-regulate MACC1, β-catenin and VEGF expression of HCC cells. In conclusion, our research discovered that miR-338-3p can contribute to HCC angiogenesis by targeting MACC1, β-catenin and VEGF.

Calvo E, Schmidinger M, Heng DY, et al.
Improvement in survival end points of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma through sequential targeted therapy.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:109-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has improved since the advent of targeted therapy. Approved agents include the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, pazopanib, cabozantinib, and lenvatinib (approved in combination with everolimus), the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus, and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) targeted immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab. The identification of predictive and prognostic factors of survival is increasing, and both clinical predictive factors and pathology-related prognostic factors are being evaluated. Serum-based biomarkers and certain histologic subtypes of RCC, as well as clinical factors such as dose intensity and the development of some class effect adverse events, have been identified as predictors of survival. Expression levels of microRNAs, expression of chemokine receptor 4, hypermethylation of certain genes, VEGF polymorphisms, and elevation of plasma fibrinogen or d-dimer have been shown to be prognostic indicators of survival. In the future, prognosis and treatment of patients with mRCC might be based on genomic classification, especially of the 4 most commonly mutated genes in RCC (VHL, PBRM1, BAP1, and SETD2). Median overall survival has improved for patients treated with a first-line targeted agent compared with survival of patients treated with first-line interferon-α, and results of clinical trials have shown a survival benefit of sequential treatment with targeted agents. Prognosis of patients with mRCC will likely improve with optimization and individualization of current sequential treatment with targeted agents.

Palaska I, Gagari E, Theoharides TC
The effects of P. gingivalis and E. coli LPS on the expression of proinflammatory mediators in human mast cells and their relevance to periodontal disease.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jul-Sep; 30(3):655-664 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-resident immune cells that participate in a variety of allergic and inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease, through the release of cytokines, chemokines and proteolytic enzymes. Porhyromonas gingivalis (P. g) is widely recognized as a major pathogen in the development and progression of periodontitis. Here we compared the differential effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from P. g and E. coli on the expression and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) by human MCs. Human LAD2 MCs were stimulated with LPS from either P. g or E. coli (1-1000 ng/ml). MCs were also stimulated with SP (2μM) serving as the positive control or media alone as the negative control. After 24 h, the cells and supernatant fluids were collected and analyzed for β-Hexosaminidase (β-hex) spectrophotometrically, TNF, VEGF and MCP-1 release by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mediator gene expression, respectively. To assess the functional role of tolllike receptors (TRL) in mediator release, MCs were pre-incubated with either anti-TLR2 or anti- TLR4 (2 μg/ml) polyclonal antibody for 1 h before stimulation with LPS. When MCs were stimulated with SP (2 μM), there was a statistically significant β-hex release as well as release of TNF, VEGF and MCP-1. Stimulation of MCs with either type of LPS did not induce degranulation based on the lack of β-hex release. However, both types of LPS stimulated expression and release of TNF, VEGF and MCP-1. Although, P. g LPS induced significant release of TNF, VEGF and MCP-1, the effect was not concentration-dependent. There was no statistically significant difference between the effects of P. g and E. coli LPS. P. g LPS stimulated TNF through TLR-2 while E. coli utilized TRL-4 instead. In contrast, VEGF release by P. g LPS required both TRL-2 and TRL-4 while E. coli LPS required TLR-4. Release of MCP-1 was independent of TLR-2 or TLR-4. P. g LPS activates human MCs to generate and release TNF, VEGF and MCP-1 through different TLRs than E. coli LPS. MCs may, therefore, be involved in the inflammatory processes responsible for periodontal disease.

Kumagai S, Ishibashi K, Kataoka M, et al.
Impact of Sulfatase-2 on cancer progression and prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(11):1632-1641 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heparan sulfate-specific endosulfatase-2 (SULF-2) can modulate the signaling of heparan sulfate proteoglycan-binding proteins. The involvement of SULF-2 in cancer growth varies by cancer type. The roles of SULF-2 expression in the progression and prognosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) have not yet been fully clarified. In the present study, the expression levels of SULF-2 mRNA and protein in 49 clinical RCC samples were determined by RT-PCR and immunostaining. The existence of RCC with higher SULF-2 expression and lower SULF-2 expression compared to the adjacent normal kidney tissues was suggested. High SULF-2 expression was correlated with an early clinical stage and less invasive pathological factors. Low SULF-2 expression was correlated with an advanced stage and higher invasive factors. Three-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) for high SULF-2 RCC and low SULF-2 RCC were 100% and 71.4%, respectively (log-rank P = 0.0019), with a significantly shorter CSS observed in low SULF-2 RCC patients. The influence of SULF-2 expression level on Wnt/VEGF/FGF signaling, cell viability and invasive properties was examined in three RCC cell lines, Caki-2, ACHN and 786-O, using a SULF-2 suppression model involving siRNA or a SULF-2 overexpression model involving a plasmid vector. High SULF-2 expression enhanced Wnt signaling and Wnt-induced cell viability, but not cell invasion. In contrast, low levels of SULF-2 expression significantly enhanced both cell invasion and viability through the activation of VEGF/FGF pathways. RCC with lower SULF-2 expression might have a higher potential for cell invasion and proliferation, leading to a poorer prognosis via the activation of VEGF and/or FGF signaling.

Dong S, Xia J, Wang H, et al.
Overexpression of TRIB3 promotes angiogenesis in human gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2339-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) plays important roles in many types of malignancies. However, whether TRIB3 is involved in the development or progression of gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed TRIB3 expression in GC tissues from 191 GC patients categorized with stage I to Ⅳ disease, to examine the role of TRIB3 in GC, and examined the relationship between TRIB3 and tumor angiogenesis. We found that TRIB3 expression was significantly higher in GC tissues than that in adjacent non‑tumor tissues. TRIB3 expression was associated with VEGF‑A and tumor microvessel density, as well as overall TNM stage, T stage, N stage, and distant metastasis in GC tissues. Furthermore, TRIB3 silencing downregulated VEGF‑A expression in GC cells, which subsequently suppressed endothelial cell recruitment and vessel formation. In conclusion, overexpression of TRIB3 is associated with tumor angiogenesis and a poor prognosis in patients with GC. Our findings indicate that TRIB3 is a promising target for anti‑angiogenic therapy in GC.

Wang W, Liu J, Qi J, et al.
RLIP76 increases apoptosis through Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2216-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
RLIP76 is a stress-responsive multifunctional protein and is usually overexpressed in malignant carcinomas. It plays a significant role in multiple cellular biological behaviors, including cell growth, motility, division and apoptosis, in many types of malignant cells. However, functions of RLIP76 in gastric cancer (GC) remain unknown. In the present study, RLIP76 was overexpressed in GC tissues by immunohistochemistry. RLIP76-targeted shRNA-containing lentivirus (KD) and the scrambled shRNA (NC) were used to explore the knockout of RLIP76 on cellular functions of human GC SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting were used to confirm that the RLIP76 was suppressed both on mRNA and protein levels after transfection. The mRNA level in SGC-7901 and MGC-803 after transfection of RLIP76-targeted shRNA was 0.245722±0.021077 (p<0.05) and 0.225389±0.00974 (p<0.05), respectively. Our results showed that the konckdown of RLIP76 downregulated cell growth after 24 h in Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, reduced migration from 486.7±128.8 to 219.7±43.6 in SGC-7901 (p<0.05) and from 630±95 to 333.7±46.5 in MGC-803 (p<0.05), decreased invasion from 306±33.5 to 97.7±24.3 in SGC-7901 (p<0.05) and from 350±50.9 to 163.3±87.5 in MGC-803 (p<0.05). Length of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tube formation also decreased from 202.8±83.3 to 44.5±3.69 in SGC-7901 and from 193±3.5 to 71.8±8.83 in MGC-803 (p<0.05). Phosphorylation level of Akt declined from 138.45±13.8 to 69.9±29.7% in SGC-7901, and from 115.5±26.6 to 49.07±27% in MGC-803 (p<0.05) and phosphorylation level of mTOR also significantly decreased (p<0.05). While apoptosis of GC cells increased which we verified with apoptosis proteins and staining analysis. Our data showed that RLIP76 plays a significant oncogenic role in GC and it maybe a potential target in GC treatment.

Micocci KC, Moritz MN, Lino RL, et al.
ADAM9 silencing inhibits breast tumor cells transmigration through blood and lymphatic endothelial cells.
Biochimie. 2016 Sep-Oct; 128-129:174-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
ADAMs are transmembrane multifunctional proteins that contain disintegrin and metalloprotease domains. ADAMs act in a diverse set of biological processes, including fertilization, inflammatory responses, myogenesis, cell migration, cell proliferation and ectodomain cleavage of membrane proteins. These proteins also have additional functions in pathological processes as cancer and metastasis development. ADAM9 is a member of ADAM protein family that is overexpressed in several types of human carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ADAM9 in hematogenous and lymphatic tumor cell dissemination assisting the development of new therapeutic tools. The role of ADAM9 in the interaction of breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) and endothelial cells was studied through RNA silencing. ADAM9 silencing in MDA-MB-231 cells had no influence in expression of several genes related to the metastatic process such as ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM17, cMYC, MMP9, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, osteopontin and collagen XVII. However, there was a minor decrease in ADAM15 expression but an increase in that of MMP2. Moreover, ADAM9 silencing had no effect in the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to vascular (HMEC-1 and HUVEC) and lymphatic cells (HMVEC-dLyNeo) under flow condition. Nevertheless, siADAM9 in MDA-MB-231 decreased transendothelial cell migration in vitro through HUVEC, HMEC-1 and HMVEC-dLyNeo (50%, 40% and 32% respectively). These results suggest a role for ADAM9 on the extravasation step of the metastatic cascade through both blood and lymph vessels.

Terashima J, Sampei S, Iidzuka M, et al.
VEGF expression is regulated by HIF-1α and ARNT in 3D KYSE-70, esophageal cancer cell spheroids.
Cell Biol Int. 2016; 40(11):1187-1194 [PubMed] Related Publications
In 3D cultured cell systems, the cells form 3D spheroids that mimic cancer cell spheroids in vivo. Cancer cells form cell spheroids as they grow. The in vivo spheroids do not contain a vascular network; therefore, oxygen and nutrition supplies are insufficient. Specifically, the cells in the core region of the cluster are exposed to higher stress levels than the cells in the outer spheroid layer. As a result, the cells in the spheroid are exposed to low nutrition and hypoxia conditions. To overcome these shortages, angiogenesis is induced in cancer spheroids in vivo. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important molecule involved in angiogenesis. VEGF is secreted by cancer cells in vivo in response to stress conditions such as hypoxia. VEGF expression in cancer cells is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), which accumulates in cancer cells during hypoxia. In this report, we show that VEGF expression is regulated by HIF1α and that VEGF is secreted to the outside of the spheroid in vitro. Several investigators have reported that HIF1α forms a protein-protein complex with aryl hydrocarbon receptor translocator (ARNT). We report here that not only HIF1α but also ARNT regulates VEGF expression in 3D cancer spheroids. Our results suggest the utility of the in vitro 3D cancer spheroid model for investigating angiogenesis in cancerous tissues.

Ahmadvand M, Noruzinia M, Soleimani M, Abroun S
Comparison of Expression Signature of Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) in Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma and Normal Donors.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3605-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone acetylation in chromatin structures plays a key role in regulation of gene transcription and is strictly controlled by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) activities. HDAC deregulation has been reported in several cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of 10 HDACs (including HDAC class I and II) was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptionPCR (qRTPCR) in a cohort of mesenchymal stem cells (MMMSCs) from 10 multiple myeloma patients with a median age 60y. The results were compared with those obtained for normal donors. Then, a coculture system was performed between MMMSCs and u266 cell line, in the presence or absence of sodium butyrate (NaBT), to understand the effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) in MMMSCs on multiple myeloma cases. Also, the interleukin6 (IL6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) gene expression level and apoptotic effects were investigated in MMMSCs patients and control group following NaBT treatment.
RESULTS: The results indicated that upregulated (HDACs) and downregulated (IL6 and VEGFA) genes were differentially expressed in the MMMSCs derived from patients with multiple myeloma and NDMSCs from normal donors. Comparison of the MMMSCs and NDMSCs also showed distinct HDACs expression patterns. For the first time to our knowledge, a significant increase of apoptosis was observed in coculture with MMMSCs treated with NaBT.
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained findings elucidate a complex set of actions in MSCs in response to HDAC inhibitors, which may be responsible for anticancer effects. Also, the data support the idea that MSCs are new therapeutic targets as a potential effective strategy for MM.

Yanagawa M, Morii E, Hata A, et al.
Dual-energy dynamic CT of lung adenocarcinoma: correlation of iodine uptake with tumor gene expression.
Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85(8):1407-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To compare iodine content (IC) of solitary lung cancer using dynamic measurements of CT attenuation (Hounsfield Units, HU) and to correlate their quantitative CT data with expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) using immunostaining methods.
METHODS: This study included 18 patients with adenocarcinoma, who undergone dual energy dynamic multiphase CT to examine solitary lung nodules (6 part-solid and 12 solid nodules). Tumor size was 21.1 mm±8.1 (9-39mm) [Mean±SD (range)]. Contrast volume was determined by weight (2ml/kg). Contrast volume and injection rate were 110.5 ml±17.2 (80-144ml) and 1.84ml/s±0.30 (1.3-2.4ml/s), respectively. Enhancement values ([CT value at each delayed scan-CT value at unenhanced scan]) and net enhancement values ([peak CT value-CT value at unenhanced scan]) were calculated in HU from 65keV monochromatic image. IC at each delayed scan was measured in mg/cm(3) from the iodine-water material decomposition pair on the advantage workstation VolumeShare4. Immunostaining using VEGF, EGFR, and HIF-1α was performed by two pathologists, who evaluated the expression level of them subjectively. Statistical analyses were performed with rank correlation tests and regression analysis.
RESULTS: IC at 2- and 3-minute delayed scan (x) and immunostaining score of HIF-1α (y) showed a significantly positive correlation (r=0.64 and 0.52, p=0.004 and 0.03): regression equation, y=1.34+0.58x and y=1.51+0.55x, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Dual-energy dynamic multiphase CT can measure iodine content in lung adenocarcinoma. Iodine content at 2- and 3-minute delayed scan might correlate with the expression level of HIF-1α.

Li C, Tang C, He G
Tristetraprolin: a novel mediator of the anticancer properties of resveratrol.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol is a natural compound that exhibits anticancer properties. Previous studies have proved that it can inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines and upregulate some cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The initiation and progression of cancer are associated with the abnormal expression of multiple cytokines. Tristetraprolin (TTP), an mRNA-binding protein, is one of the key proteins that participate in regulating cytokine expression. Two different proliferation assays on MCF-7 cells showed that the cell proliferation rate significantly reduced following treatment with resveratrol. Most importantly, we found that resveratrol promoted TTP expression at both the mRNA and protein level in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of COX-2 and VEGF were significantly suppressed by resveratrol while that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was upregulated. Lastly, the effects of resveratrol on both MCF-7 proliferation and expression of COX-2, VEGF, and iNOS were significantly inhibited by TTP knockdown, indicating that TTP mediates the anticancer properties of resveratrol. In summary, we conclude that resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by TTP upregulation, which is associated with downregulation of COX-2 and VEGF and upregulation of iNOS.

Jin G, Yang Y, Liu H, et al.
Genome-wide analysis of the effect of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):155-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
A large volume of data indicates that controlling tumor-associated angiogenesis is a promising therapy against cancer. However, angiogenesis is a complex process, little is known about the differential gene expression in the process of normal endothelial cell differentiation toward tumor vascular endothelial cells induced by tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of tumor microenvironment simulated by the supernatant of esophageal squamous cancer cells (KYSE70) on normal endothelial cells (HUVECs) at the whole genome level. The gene expression profile was studied through gene ontology and signal pathway analysis. Compared with the normal HUVECs, a total of 3769 differentially expressed genes in induced HUVECs were detected, including 1609 upregulated genes and 2160 downregulated genes. Moreover, the microarray data analysis showed that 11 significant biological processes and 10 significant signaling pathways changed most, which are associated with angiogenesis and cell differentiation. According to the different expression levels in the microarrays and their functions, four differentially expressed genes involved in tumor angiogenesis and cell differentiation (IL6, VEGFA, S1PR1, TYMP) were selected and analyzed by qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results were consistent with the microarray data. Furthermore, we simulated the tumor microenvironment by human esophageal carcinoma tissue homogenate to investigate its effect on HUVECs, the qRT-PCR results indicated that the above genes were highly expressed in HUVECs after induction by esophageal carcinoma tissue homogenate. In conclusion, tumor microenvironment impact on normal endothelial cells differentiated toward tumor vascular endothelial cells, and the selected genes, which are associated with tumor angiogenesis, would be anti-angiogenesis targets against esophageal carcinoma.

Li HX, Yang K, Fu XJ, Zhao Q
[Effect and Regulatory Mechanism of Clock Gene Per1 on Biological Behaviors of Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2016; 38(2):155-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and regulatory mechanism of clock gene Per1 on the proliferation,apoptosis,migration,and invasion of human oral squamous carcinoma SCC15 cells.
METHODS: RNA interference was used to knock down Per1 gene in human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC15 cell line. Changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Transwell assay was carried out to assess cell migration and invasion. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expressions of Ki-67, murine double minute 2 (MDM2), c-Myc, p53, Bax, Bcl-2, metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP9, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
RESULTS: shRNA-mediated knockdown of Per1 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion capacity, and inhibited cell apoptosis capacity of SCC15 cells (all P<0.05). Additionally, Per1 knockdown also increased the mRNA expressions of Ki-67, MDM2, Bcl-2, MMP2, and MMP9 and decreased the mRNA expressions of c-Myc, p53, and Bax (all P<0.05); however, the VEGF mRNA expression did not differ significantly after Per1 knockdown (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Clock gene Perl can regulate important tumor-related genes downstream such as Ki-67, MDM2, c-Myc, p53, Bax, Bcl-2, MMP2, and MMP9, and the aberrant expression of Per1 can affect tumor cell proliferation,apoptosis,migration and invasion. An in-depth study of Per1 may further clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis and tumor development and thus provides new effective molecular targets for cancer treatment.

Xu Z, Sun Y, Guo Y, et al.
NF-YA promotes invasion and angiogenesis by upregulating EZH2-STAT3 signaling in human melanoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(6):3630-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The process of angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is overexpressed in most human cancers, has been demonstrated to be a major modulator of angiogenesis. Thus, inhibition of VEGF signaling has the potential for tumor anti-angiogenic therapy. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is a key regulator for angiogenesis by directly binding to the VEGF promoter to upregulate its transcription. Several factors can enhance STAT3 activity to affect angiogenesis. Here, we found that overexpression of nuclear transcription factor-Y alpha (NF-YA) gene could promote cell invasion and angiogenesis accompanying the increase of STAT3 signaling in human melanoma cells. Moreover, the expression and secretion of VEGF was also found to be upregulated by the overexpression of NF-YA gene in melanoma cells. The STAT3 inhibitor was able to attenuate the upregulation of VEGF induced by NF-YA overexpression. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, enhances STAT3 activity by mediating its lysine methylation. We also showed that NF-YA upregulated the expression of EZH2 and NF-YA‑induced angiogenesis could be inhibited by EZH2 knockdown. Taken together, these findings indicate that overexpression of NF-YA contributes to tumor angiogenesis through EZH2-STAT3 signaling in human melanoma cells, highlighting NF-YA as a potential therapeutic target in human melanoma.

Nel I, Gauler TC, Bublitz K, et al.
Circulating Tumor Cell Composition in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153018 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Due to their minimal-invasive yet potentially current character circulating tumor cells (CTC) might be useful as a "liquid biopsy" in solid tumors. However, successful application in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has been very limited so far. High plasticity and heterogeneity of CTC morphology challenges currently available enrichment and detection techniques with EpCAM as the usual surface marker being underrepresented in mRCC. We recently described a method that enables us to identify and characterize non-hematopoietic cells in the peripheral blood stream with varying characteristics and define CTC subgroups that distinctly associate to clinical parameters. With this pilot study we wanted to scrutinize feasibility of this approach and its potential usage in clinical studies.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood was drawn from 14 consecutive mRCC patients at the West German Cancer Center and CTC profiles were analyzed by Multi-Parameter Immunofluorescence Microscopy (MPIM). Additionally angiogenesis-related genes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR analysis.
RESULTS: We detected CTC with epithelial, mesenchymal, stem cell-like or mixed-cell characteristics at different time-points during anti-angiogenic therapy. The presence and quantity of N-cadherin-positive or CD133-positive CTC was associated with inferior PFS. There was an inverse correlation between high expression of HIF1A, VEGFA, VEGFR and FGFR and the presence of N-cadherin-positive and CD133-positive CTC.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mRCC exhibit distinct CTC profiles that may implicate differences in therapeutic outcome. Prospective evaluation of phenotypic and genetic CTC profiling as prognostic and predictive biomarker in mRCC is warranted.

De Blasio A, Di Fiore R, Morreale M, et al.
Unusual roles of caspase-8 in triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(6):2339-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a clinically aggressive form of breast cancer that is unresponsive to endocrine agents or trastuzumab. TNBC accounts for ~10-20% of all breast cancer cases and represents the form with the poorest prognosis. Patients with TNBC are at higher risk of early recurrence, mainly in the lungs, brain and soft tissue, therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapies. The present study was carried out in MDA-MB-231 cells, where we assessed the role of caspase-8 (casp-8), a critical effector of death receptors, also involved in non‑apoptotic functions. Analysis of casp-8 mRNA and protein levels indicated that they were up-regulated with respect to the normal human mammalian epithelial cells. We demonstrated that silencing of casp-8 by small interfering-RNA, strongly decreased MDA-MB-231 cell growth by delaying G0/G1- to S-phase transition and increasing p21, p27 and hypo-phosphorylated/active form of pRb levels. Surprisingly, casp-8-knockdown, also potently increased both the migratory and metastatic capacity of MDA-MB‑231 cells, as shown by both wound healing and Matrigel assay, and by the expression of a number of related-genes and/or proteins such as VEGFA, C-MYC, CTNNB1, HMGA2, CXCR4, KLF4, VERSICAN V1 and MMP2. Among these, KLF4, a transcriptional factor with a dual role (activator and repressor), seemed to play critical roles. We suggest that in MDA-MB‑231 cells, the endogenous expression of casp-8 might keep the cells perpetually cycling through downregulation of KLF4, the subsequent lowering of p21 and p27, and the inactivation by hyperphosphorylation of pRb. Simultaneously, by lowering the expression of some migratory and invasive genes, casp-8 might restrain the metastatic ability of the cells. Overall, our findings showed that, in MDA-MB-231 cells, casp-8 might play some unusual roles which should be better explored, in order to understand whether it might be identified as a molecular therapeutic target.

Ma H, Pan JS, Jin LX, et al.
MicroRNA-17~92 inhibits colorectal cancer progression by targeting angiogenesis.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 376(2):293-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
The miR-17~92 microRNA (miRNA) cluster host gene is upregulated in a broad spectrum of human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous studies have shown that miR-17~92 promotes tumorigenesis and cancer angiogenesis in some tumor models. However, its role in the initiation and progression of CRC remains unknown. In this study, we found that transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17~92 specifically in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines exhibited decreased tumor size and tumor angiogenesis in azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt (AOM-DSS)-induced CRC model as compared to their littermates control. Further study showed that miR-17~92 inhibited the progression of CRC via suppressing tumor angiogenesis through targeting multiple tumor angiogenesis-inducing genes, TGFBR2, HIF1α, and VEGFA in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, we demonstrated that miR-17~92 suppressed tumor progression by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis in a genetically engineered mouse model, indicating the presence of cellular context-dependent pro- and anti-cancer effects of miR-17~92.

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