Gene Summary

Gene:CXCR4; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4
Summary:This gene encodes a CXC chemokine receptor specific for stromal cell-derived factor-1. The protein has 7 transmembrane regions and is located on the cell surface. It acts with the CD4 protein to support HIV entry into cells and is also highly expressed in breast cancer cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CXCR4 (cancer-related)

Naghizadeh S, Mohammadi A, Baradaran B, Mansoori B
Overcoming multiple drug resistance in lung cancer using siRNA targeted therapy.
Gene. 2019; 714:143972 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among cancers, lung cancer is the most morbidity and mortality disease that is remaining the fatalist. Generally, there are multiple treatment procedures for lung cancer, such as surgery, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There is, therefore, an urgent need for more specified and efficient methods for treatment of lung cancer such as RNAi, which in combination with traditional therapies could silence genes that are involved in the drug resistance. These genes may either be motivators of apoptosis inhibition, EMT and DNA repair system promoters or a member of intracellular signaling pathways, such as JAK/STAT, RAS/RAF/MEK, PI3K/AKT, NICD, B-catenin/TCF/LEF and their stimulator receptors including IGFR, EGFR, FGFR, VEGFR, CXCR4, MET, INTEGRINS, NOTCH1 and FRIZZLED, so could be considered as appropriate targets. In current review, the results of multiple studies which have employed drug application after one specific gene silencing or more than one gene from distinct pathways also simultaneous drug and RNAi usage in vitro and in vivo in lung cancer were summarized.

Timin AS, Peltek OO, Zyuzin MV, et al.
Safe and Effective Delivery of Antitumor Drug Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells Impregnated with Submicron Carriers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019; 11(14):13091-13104 [PubMed] Related Publications
An important area in modern malignant tumor therapy is the optimization of antitumor drugs pharmacokinetics. The use of some antitumor drugs is limited in clinical practice due to their high toxicity. Therefore, the strategy for optimizing the drug pharmacokinetics focuses on the generation of high local concentrations of these drugs in the tumor area with minimal systemic and tissue-specific toxicity. This can be achieved by encapsulation of highly toxic antitumor drug (vincristine (VCR) that is 20-50 times more toxic than widely used the antitumor drug doxorubicin) into nano- and microcarriers with their further association into therapeutically relevant cells that possess the ability to migrate to sites of tumor. Here, we fundamentally examine the effect of drug carrier size on the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), including internalization efficiency, cytotoxicity, cell movement, to optimize the conditions for the development of carrier-hMSCs drug delivery platform. Using the malignant tumors derived from patients, we evaluated the capability of hMSCs associated with VCR-loaded carriers to target tumors using a three-dimensional spheroid model in collagen gel. Compared to free VCR, the developed hMSC-based drug delivery platform showed enhanced antitumor activity regarding those tumors that express CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)) gene, inducing directed migration of hMSCs via CXCL12 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 pathway. These results show that the combination of encapsulated antitumor drugs and hMSCs, which possess the properties of active migration into tumors, is therapeutically beneficial and demonstrated high efficiency and low systematic toxicity, revealing novel strategies for chemotherapy in the future.

Fang Y, Sun B, Wang J, Wang Y
miR-622 inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing the CXCR4-VEGFA axis in colorectal cancer.
Gene. 2019; 699:37-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis is essential for tumor metastasis. Our previous study has revealed that miR-622 inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. Here, we aimed to explore the effects and potential molecular mechanisms of action of miR-622 on angiogenesis. We found that overexpression of miR-622 inhibited CRC angiogenesis in vitro, according to suppression of proliferation, migration, tube formation, and invasiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with a tumor cell-conditioned medium derived from Caco-2 or HT-29 cells. Likewise, enhanced miR-622 expression suppressed CRC angiogenesis in vivo as determined by the measurement of Ki67 and VEGFA levels and microvessel density (by immunostaining). CXCR4, encoding a positive regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), was shown to be a direct target of miR-622. Overexpression of CXCR4 attenuated the inhibition of VEGFA expression by miR-622 and reversed the loss of tumor angiogenesis caused by miR-622. Taken together, these data show that miR-622 inhibits CRC angiogenesis by suppressing the CXCR4-VEGFA signaling axis, which represents a promising target for developing a new therapeutic strategy against CRC.

Shirkavand A, Boroujeni ZN, Aleyasin SA
Examination of methylation changes of
Indian J Cancer. 2018 Oct-Dec; 55(4):366-371 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Studying whole blood DNA methylation as a risk marker has valuable applications in either diagnosis or staging of breast cancer. We investigated whole blood DNA methylation status of VIM, CXCR4, DOK7, and SPDEF genes in breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy control subjects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 patients with breast cancer and 40 healthy controls were examined. Genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood and restriction enzyme polymerase chain reaction (REP) method was applied for analysis. Real-time PCR was used to confirm methylation status of the aforementioned genes and therefore to find out the methylation differences between normal and breast cancer subjects.
RESULTS: Level of DOK7 promoter hypomethylation in normal and breast cancer samples was significant (P-value = 0.001). The study, also, showed that hypomethylation of VIM and CXCR4 genes are significant in patients compared with normal cases (P-value < 0.05). Furthermore, SPDEF promoter hypomethylation was not significantly differed between normal and breast cancer samples (P-value = 0.2).
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of DOK7 gene in DNA from patients affected with breast cancer offers a biomarker for diagnosis of the breast cancer. This study indicates that methylation status of VIM and CXCR4 genes changes in breast cancer; so, they can be used as molecular biomarkers in breast cancer prognosis.

Corrado C, Costa V, Giavaresi G, et al.
Long Non Coding RNA H19: A New Player in Hypoxia-Induced Multiple Myeloma Cell Dissemination.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The long non-coding RNA H19 (lncH19) is broadly transcribed in the first stage of development and silenced in most cells of an adult organism; it appears again in several tumors where, through different molecular mediators, promotes cell proliferation, motility and metastases. LncH19 has been associated with hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) activation and, in some tumors, it has proved to be necessary and required to sustain hypoxic responses. Here we propose to investigate a putative role for the lncH19 in hypoxia induced multiple myeloma (MM) progression. Transcriptional analysis of MM cell lines (RPMI and MM1.S) exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (1% O₂) was done in order to evaluate lncH19 levels under hypoxic stimulation. Then, to investigate the role of lncH19 in hypoxia mediated MM progression, transcriptional, protein and functional assays have been performed on hypoxia stimulated MM cell lines, silenced or not for lncH19. Our data demonstrated that hypoxic stimulation in MM cell lines induced the overexpression of lncH19, which, in turn, is required for the expression of the hypoxia induced genes involved in MM dissemination, such as C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) and Snail. Moreover, adhesion assays demonstrated that lncH19 silencing abrogates the increased adhesion on stromal cells induced by the hypoxic condition. Finally, Western blot analysis indicated that lncH19 silencing impaired HIF1α nuclear translocation. The LncH19, required for the induction of hypoxic responses in MM cells, could represent a new therapeutic target for MM.

Kang N, Choi SY, Kim BN, et al.
Hypoxia-induced cancer stemness acquisition is associated with CXCR4 activation by its aberrant promoter demethylation.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):148 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A hypoxic microenvironment leads to an increase in the invasiveness and the metastatic potential of cancer cells within tumors via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness acquisition. However, hypoxia-induced changes in the expression and function of candidate stem cell markers and their possible molecular mechanism is still not understood.
METHODS: Lung cell lines were analyzed in normoxic or hypoxic conditions. For screening among the stem cell markers, a transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing was performed. For validation, the EMT and stem cell characteristics were analyzed. To determine whether an epigenetic mechanism was involved, the cell lines were treated with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (AZA), and methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing were performed.
RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing revealed that the CXCR4 expression was significantly higher after the hypoxic condition, which functionally resulted in the EMT and cancer stemness acquisition. The acquisition of the EMT and stemness properties was inhibited by treatment with CXCR4 siRNA. The CXCR4 was activated by either the hypoxic condition or treatment with AZA. The methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing displayed a decreased CXCR4 promoter methylation in the hypoxic condition.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hypoxia-induced acquisition of cancer stem cell characteristics was associated with CXCR4 activation by its aberrant promoter demethylation.

Ibraheem A, Attar-Schneider O, Dabbah M, et al.
BM-MSCs-derived ECM modifies multiple myeloma phenotype and drug response in a source-dependent manner.
Transl Res. 2019; 207:83-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow (BM) where their interaction with the microenvironment promotes disease progression and drug resistance. Previously, we have shown that MM cells cocultured with BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) comodulated cells' phenotype in a MAPKs/translation initiation (TI)-dependent manner. Dissection of the coculture model showed that BM-MSCs secretomes and microvesicles (MVs) participate in this crosstalk. Here, we addressed the role of the BM-MSCs extracellular matrix (ECM). MM cell lines cultured on decellularized ECM of normal donors' (ND) or MM patients' BM-MSCs were assayed for phenotype (viability, cell count, death, proliferation, migration, and invasion), microRNAs (MIR125a-3p, MIR199a-3p) and targets, MAPKs, TI epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), CXCR4, and autophagy. Drug (doxorubicin, velcade) response of MM cells cultured on ND/MM-MSCs' ECM with/without adhered MVs was also evaluated. ECM evoked opposite responses according to its origin: MM cells cultured on ND-MSCs' ECM demonstrated a rapid and continued decrease in MAPK/TI activation (↓10%-25%, P < 0.05) (15-24 hours) followed by diminished viability, cell count, proliferation, migration, and invasion (16-72 hours) (↓10%-50%, P < 0.05). In contrast, MM cells cultured on MM-MSCs' ECM displayed activated MAPK/TI, proliferation, EMT, and CXCR4 (↑15%-250%, P < 0.05). Corresponding changes in microRNAs relevant to the MM cells' altered phenotype were also determined. The hierarchy and interdependence of MAPKs/TI/autophagy/phenotype cascade were demonstrated. Finally, we showed that the ECM cooperates with MVs to modulate MM cells drug response. These data demonstrate the contribution of BM-MSCs' ECM to MM niche design and underscore the clinical potential of identifying targetable signals.

Yu X, Wang D, Wang X, et al.
CXCL12/CXCR4 promotes inflammation-driven colorectal cancer progression through activation of RhoA signaling by sponging miR-133a-3p.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activation of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been found to be associated with invasion and metastasis in many cancers. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Increasing data highlight that non-coding RNAs are linked to CRC progression.
METHODS: The effects of CXCR4 were investigated using villin-CXCR4 transgenic mice model by flow cytometry assay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. The mechanism was explored through bioinformatics, luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay.
RESULTS: We found that high CXCR4 expression exacerbated colitis-associated cancer in villin-CXCR4 transgenic mice. CXCR4
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed the critical role of CXCR4 in promoting progression of inflammatory colorectal cancer through recruiting immunocytes and enhancing cytoskeletal remodeling by lncRNA XIST/ miR-133a-3p/ RhoA signaling. These results provide novel potential therapeutic targets for hindering CXCL12/CXCR4-induced CRC progression.

Gao C, Xiao G, Piersigilli A, et al.
Context-dependent roles of MDMX (MDM4) and MDM2 in breast cancer proliferation and circulating tumor cells.
Breast Cancer Res. 2019; 21(1):5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Many human breast cancers overexpress the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and its homolog MDMX. Expression of MDM2 and MDMX occurs in estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα
METHODS: To assess the context-dependent roles, we carried out MDM2 and MDMX knockdown in orthotopic tumors of TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells expressing mtp53 R280K and MDM2 knockdown in ERα
RESULTS: Knocking down MDMX or MDM2 in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced cell migration and CTC detection, but only MDMX knockdown reduced tumor volumes at early time points. This is the first report of MDMX overexpression in TNBC enhancing the CTC phenotype with correlated upregulation of CXCR4. Experiments were carried out to compare MDM2-knockdown outcomes in nonmetastatic ERα
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report showing that the expression of MDM2 in ERα

Yao Q, Morgan GJ, Chim CS
Distinct promoter methylation profile reveals spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in 2 myeloma patients with multifocal extramedullary relapses.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spatial and subclonal genetic heterogeneity in multiple myeloma (MM) have been demonstrated by sequencing of plasma cells from multi-focal regions, but studies of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity are scanty. Herein, promoter methylation status of genes implicated in disease progression (CDKN2A and SHP1) and marrow escape (CDH1, CD56, and CXCR4) was studied in two patients with multi-focal extramedullary relapses. Patient 1 developed simultaneous chest wall and duodenal plasmacytoma at relapse. While SHP1 and CDKN2A were hypermethylated in both plasmacytomas, CDH1 hypermethylation was detected only in the chest wall. In patient 2, SHP1 methylation was found in the extradural plasmacytoma but not bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis, and the circulating PCs but not the BM at relapse. As the clonality, based on sequence of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the immunoglobulin gene, was conserved in plasma cells at diagnosis and relapse, differential methylation of CDH1 in patient 1 and SHP1 in patient 2 was an illustration of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity. Furthermore, subclonal epigenetic heterogeneity was identified by the presence of subclonal SHP1 promoter methylation within the chest wall plasmacytoma of patient 1. In summary, our data showed distinct promoter methylation profile of plasma cells from multiple regions. This is the first report of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in MM.

Zhuang XM, Zhou B
CXCR4 enhances cisplatin resistance of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2019; 48(2):122-128 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) plays an important role in tumor progression. Overexpressed CXCR4 is associated with a poor prognosis of patient with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the correlation between CXCR4 and chemotherapy resistance in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains obscure.
METHODS: Stable cisplatin-resistant CAL27 CDDP and SCC25 CDDP cells were established and identified by CCK8 assay, and the CXCR4 expression was detected using qRT-PCR and Western blot. CXCR4-siRNA was transfected into TSCC CDDP cells, whose transfect efficiency was examined. Cisplatin sensitivity was further detected, as well as several proliferation and apoptosis-related proteins.
RESULTS: CAL27 CDDP and SCC25 CDDP cells were successfully established, which exhibited significantly higher cell viability and less apoptosis under cisplatin stimulation than that of parental cells. CXCR4 expression was increased in TSCC CDDP cells. After transfection of CXCR4-siRNA, the expression of CXCR4 was reduced by 73% and 78% in CAL27 CDDP and SCC25 CDDP cells, respectively. CCK8 assay and flow cytometry assay revealed that the proliferative capacity under cisplatin stimulation significantly decreased after CXCR4 silencing. Moreover, increased TSCC CDDP cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase after knockdown of CXCR4. Compared with negative control group, the expression of cyclin D1 and p-AKT decreased, while that of p-caspase-3 and Bax significantly increased.
CONCLUSIONS: Silencing CXCR4 may evidently inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and enhance cisplatin sensitivity of TSCC CDDP cells by reduced cyclin D1 and p-AKT, and increased p-caspase-3 and Bax.

Cabrero-de Las Heras S, Martínez-Balibrea E
CXC family of chemokines as prognostic or predictive biomarkers and possible drug targets in colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(42):4738-4749 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women, worldwide. In the early stages of the disease, biomarkers predicting early relapse would improve survival rates. In metastatic patients, the use of predictive biomarkers could potentially result in more personalized treatments and better outcomes. The CXC family of chemokines (CXCL1 to 17) are small (8 to 10 kDa) secreted proteins that attract neutrophils and lymphocytes. These chemokines signal through chemokine receptors (CXCR) 1 to 8. Several studies have reported that these chemokines and receptors have a role in either the promotion or inhibition of cancer, depending on their capacity to suppress or stimulate the action of the immune system, respectively. In general terms, activation of the CXCR1/CXCR2 pathway or the CXCR4/CXCR7 pathway is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis; therefore, the specific inhibition of these receptors is a possible therapeutic strategy. On the other hand, the lesser known CXCR3 and CXCR5 axes are generally considered to be tumor suppressor signaling pathways, and their stimulation has been suggested as a way to fight cancer. These pathways have been studied in tumor tissues (using immunohistochemistry or measuring mRNA levels) or serum [using enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplexing techniques], among other sample types. Common variants in genes encoding for the CXC chemokines have also been investigated as possible biomarkers of the disease. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the role of CXC chemokines and their receptors in CRC and discusses their possible value as prognostic or predictive biomarkers as well as the possibility of targeting them as a therapeutic strategy.

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T
Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:257-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify key molecular mechanisms of adaptogenic plants traditionally used to treat stress and aging-related disorders, i.e., Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Bryonia alba.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptogens, we conducted RNA sequencing to profile gene expression alterations in T98G neuroglia cells upon treatment of adaptogens and analyzed the relevance of deregulated genes to adaptive stress-response signaling pathways using in silico pathway analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At least 88 of the 3516 genes regulated by adaptogens were closely associated with adaptive stress response and adaptive stress-response signaling pathways (ASRSPs), including neuronal signaling related to corticotropin-releasing hormone, cAMP-mediated, protein kinase A, and CREB; pathways related to signaling involving CXCR4, melatonin, nitric oxide synthase, GP6, Gαs, MAPK, neuroinflammation, neuropathic pain, opioids, renin-angiotensin, AMPK, calcium, and synapses; and pathways associated with dendritic cell maturation and G-coupled protein receptor-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells. All samples tested showed significant effects on the expression of genes encoding neurohormones CRH, GNRH, UCN, G-protein-coupled and other transmembrane receptors TLR9, PRLR, CHRNE, GP1BA, PLXNA4, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor RORA, transmembrane channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), and other proteins, all of which modulate numerous life processes, playing key roles in several canonical pathways involved in defense response and regulation of homeostasis in organisms. It is for the first time we report that the molecular mechanism of actions of melatonin and plant adaptogens are alike, all adaptogens tested activated the melatonin signaling pathway by acting through two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and upregulation of the ligand-specific nuclear receptor RORA, which plays a role in intellectual disability, neurological disorders, retinopathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cancer, which are common in aging. Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which were commonly regulated by all adaptogens tested. We conclude that melatonin is an adaptation hormone playing an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Adaptogens presumably worked as eustressors ("stress-vaccines") to activate the cellular adaptive system by inducing the expression of ASRSPs, which then reciprocally protected cells from damage caused by distress. Functional investigation by interactive pathways analysis demonstrated that adaptogens activated ASRSPs associated with stress-induced and aging-related disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular health, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.

Ando N, Furuichi Y, Kasai S, et al.
Chemosensitivity is differentially regulated by the SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with MLL gene rearrangements.
Leuk Res. 2018; 75:36-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although recent advances in chemotherapy have markedly improved outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), infantile ALL with MLL gene rearrangements (MLL+ALL) is refractory to chemotherapy. We have shown that specific cytokines FLT3 ligand and TGFβ1 both of which are produced from bone marrow stromal cells synergistically induced MLL+ALL cells into chemo-resistant quiescence, and that treatment of MLL+ALL cells with inhibitors against FLT3 and/or TGFβ1 receptor partially but significantly converts them toward chemo-sensitive. In the present study, we showed that MLL+ALL cells expressed CXCR4 and CXCR7, both receptors for the same chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), but their biological events were differentially regulated by the SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axes and particularly exerted an opposite effect for determining chemo-sensitivity of MLL+ALL cells; enhancement via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis vs. suppression via the SDF-1/CXCR7 axis. Because cytosine-arabinoside-induced apoptosis of MLL+ALL cells was inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 inhibitor but rather accelerated by pretreatment with the CXCR7 inhibitor, an application of the CXCR7 inhibitor may become a good treatment option in future for MLL+ALL patients. MLL+ALL has a unique gene profile distinguishable from other types of ALL and AML, and should be investigated separately in responses to biological active agents including chemokine inhibitors.

Pazzaglia L, Pollino S, Vitale M, et al.
miR‑494.3p expression in synovial sarcoma: Role of CXCR4 as a potential target gene.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):361-369 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare tumour, with dismal survival when metastasis occurs. SS contains a characteristic translocation (X;18)(p11;q11) and the fusion genes appear to be mutually exclusive and concordant in primary and metastatic tumours. Novel prognostic and predictive factors are required. The C‑X‑C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/C‑X‑C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis is involved in tumour development and metastatic spread in many types of cancer and previous data have demonstrated a pivotal role of CXCR4 in SS cell migration and invasion. Bioinformatics and biological data indicated CXCR4 is a possible candidate target of miR‑494.3p, known to be involved in tumour progression. In this study, we analysed the expression of miR‑494.3p and its potential target, CXCR4, in a series of SS specimens. A significantly lower miR‑494.3p expression was found in the tumour compared to normal tissue associated with higher levels of CXCR4 both at the gene and protein level. The role of CXCR4 as a potential target of miR‑494.3p was assessed in two SS cell lines (SW982 and SYO‑I). Transfection with miR‑494.3p expression plasmid led to a marked decrease in CXCR4 gene and protein expression, concomitant with a transitory decrease in cell proliferation and migration. The SYO‑I cells also responded with an increased apoptotic fraction. The data of this study also demonstrate that the downregulation of miR‑494.3p in SS surgical specimens, concomitant with an increased expression of its potential target, CXCR4, was more evident in the metastatic subset. In vitro experiments confirmed that miR‑494.3p functioned as a tumour suppressor through the involvement of CXCR4 and ongoing studies are directed to better clarify its role in SS therapeutic strategies.

Song ZY, Wang F, Cui SX, et al.
CXCR7/CXCR4 heterodimer-induced histone demethylation: a new mechanism of colorectal tumorigenesis.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(9):1560-1575 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both chemokine receptors (CXCRs) 7 and 4 can facilitate immune cell migration and mediate a vast array of physiological and pathological events. Herein we report, in both human and animal studies, that these two CXCRs can form heterodimers in vivo and promote colorectal tumorigenesis through histone demethylation. Compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissue, human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue showed a significant higher expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7, which was colocalized in the cancer cell epithelium. The CXCR/CXCR4 heterodimerization was associated with increased histone demethylase JMJD2A. Villin-CXCR7-CXCR4 transgenic mice demonstrated a greater degree of exacerbated colitis and tumorigenesis than villin-CXCR7 and villin-CXCR4 mice. The CXCR7/CXCR4 heterodimerization also promoted APC mutation-driven colorectal tumorigenesis in APC

Fu Z, Zhang P, Luo H, et al.
CXCL12 modulates the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer by regulating CD44.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):5101-5108 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of stromal cell‑derived factor 1 (CXCL12) in the radioresistance of cervical cancer, which was upregulated in tumors in our previous study. A CCK‑8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis and the expression levels of CD44 and CXCR4. ELISA was performed to measure the expression level of CXCL12 protein and CXCL12 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined with or without treatment with CXCL12 small interfering (si)RNA to examine the function of CXCL12 in Hela cells. The expression level of CD44 antigen (CD44) and C‑X‑C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) were measured using flow cytometry in the presence of CXCL12 and irradiation. In the present study, it was demonstrated that inhibition of CXCL12 reduced cell viability and increased cellular apoptosis in Hela cells treated with irradiation. Following treatment with CXCL12 siRNA, the expression level of CD44 was downregulated and the expression level of CXCR4 was upregulated. This effect of regulation additionally occurred in the presence of irradiation. In conclusion, the present data demonstrated that CXCL12 served an important role in the radioresistance of cervical cancer, suggestinh a novel therapeutic target.

He C, Zhang H, Wang B, et al.
SDF-1/CXCR4 axis promotes the growth and sphere formation of hypoxic breast cancer SP cells by c-Jun/ABCG2 pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(2):593-599 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) confers to the major phenotypes of side population (SP) cells, the cancer stem-like cells. In this study, the SP cells displayed a distinctly higher ABCG2 expression level, sphere formation efficiency (SFE) and growth rate even under hypoxia condition. CXCR4 overexpression by pcDNA-CXCR4 transfection robustly increased ABCG2 expression, and promoted SFE and growth of hypoxic SP cells, while CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 could suppress the promotion. Additionally, we found that CXCR4 promoted the expression of c-Jun, a major gene in the oncogenic JNK/c-Jun pathway. Our data on electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays both showed that c-Jun directly bound with the ABCG2 promoter sequence. Moreover, overexpression of JNK/c-Jun promoted ABCG2 expression, SFE, and growth of hypoxic SP cells and the promotion could be rescued by c-Jun inhibitor SP600125. In conclusion, CXCR4 increases the growth and SFE of breast cancer SP cells under hypoxia through c-Jun-mediated transcriptional activation of ABCG2.

Zhang YJ, Ma YS, Xia Q, et al.
MicroRNA‑mRNA integrated analysis based on a case of well‑differentiated thyroid cancer with both metastasis and metastatic recurrence.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3803-3811 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of well‑differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) is rapidly increasing. Poor survival follows distant metastasis (DM) and recurrence. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the expression alterations in different stages of WDTC and the regulatory mechanism of DM and the recurrence of DM. A male patient diagnosed with follicular thyroid cancer and distant metastasis in the eleventh thoracic vertebrae received total thyroidectomy and the removal of a metastatic lesion. A local relapse was found in the vertebrae after four‑time iodine‑131 treatment. We performed mRNA and microRNA microarray on the paracancerous, cancerous, metastatic and metastatic recurrent tissue. In combination with the data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we used bioinformatics approaches to analyze the common alterations and microRNA‑mRNA interactions among the processes of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Metastatic lesions and recurrent lesions were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of tumor evolution and recurrence in this case. A total of four mRNAs and two microRNAs were newly found to be related to patient survival in WDTC. The microRNA‑mRNA interactions were predicted for the overlapped mRNAs and microRNAs. Lineage deregulation of genes, such as C‑X‑C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and thyroglobulin (TG) were found from the tumorigenic stage to the metastatic stage. The ribosome pathway was highly enriched in the bone metastasis compared with the cancerous tissue. The downstreaming effects of p53 were impaired in the recurrent lesion due to deregulation of several functional genes. The integrated analysis with TCGA data indicated several prognostic markers and regulatory networks for potential treatment. Our results also provided possible molecular mechanisms in which the ribosome and p53 pathways may respectively contribute to bone metastasis and local recurrence of metastasis.

Pan WL, Wang Y, Hao Y, et al.
Overexpression of CXCR4 synergizes with LL-37 in the metastasis of breast cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018; 1864(11):3837-3846 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokine receptor CXCR4 was involved in the progression of breast cancer to a metastatic phenotype, leading to the major cause of death in patients. A more in-depth understanding of signaling mechanism underlying CXCR4 is critical to develop effective therapies toward metastasis. Recently, the role of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in contributing to the metastasis of breast cancer cells was observed. Clinical analysis of data herein demonstrated for the first time that overexpression of LL-37 and CXCR4 co-existed in human primary breast tumors with lymph node metastases. Further study disclosed that forced expression of CXCR4 led to the enhancement of pro-migratory signaling and migration rate induced by LL-37 in breast cancer cells. Moreover, LL-37 affected tumor microenvironment including induction of migration of mesenchymal stem cells and CXCR4-dependent capillary-like tubule formation. Functional analysis showed that LL-37 induced the internalization of CXCR4 through approaching Glu268, the residue of CXCR4, independent of the binding pocket (Asp171, Asp262, and Glu288) for CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100, signifying that LL-37 is a distinct agonist of CXCR4. These results suggest the reciprocal roles of LL-37 and CXCR4 in promoting breast cancer cell migration and provide new insight into the design of CXCR4 inhibitor for intervention of metastatic breast cancer.

Heriady Y, Achmad D, Hernowo BS, et al.
Expression of the RAC1, RHOA and CXCR4 proteins and their interaction as risk factors for infiltration to the nipple areola complex in operable breast carcinoma.
Breast Cancer. 2019; 26(2):172-179 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nipple areola complex (NAC) infiltration in operable breast carcinoma (OBC) is associated with local recurrence. NAC infiltration in OBC suggests that RAC1, RHOA and CXCR4 proteins are risk factors for migration and infiltration of OBC to NAC. This study aims to analyze the expression and interactions of these proteins as risk factors for NAC infiltration in OBC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an analytic observational cross-sectional study coupled with a categorical comparative study in each 40 subjects of OBC with and without NAC infiltration. The immunohistochemistry performed with a cut-off point based on the result of a receiver operating characteristics (ROC).
RESULTS: RAC1, p < 0.001 with POR 5.76, 95% CI: 2.06-16.08; RHOA, p < 0.001 with POR 7.00, 95% CI: 2.28-21.53; and CXCR4, p = 0.001 with POR 6.33, 95% CI 2.06-19.49. There was an interaction between RAC1 and RHOA (p < 0.001 with POR 17.14, 95% CI: 3.07-125.66); between RAC1 and CXCR4 (p < 0.001 with POR 30.93, 95% CI 3.62-686.89); between RHOA and CXCR4 (p < 0.001 with POR 10.21, 95% CI 2.19-54.17); and between the RAC1, RHOA and CXCR4 proteins (p < 0.001 with POR = 23.69, 95% CI 2.51-544.86).
CONCLUSION: We conclude that the expression of the RAC1, RHOA, and CXCR4 proteins and their interactions play a role as risk factors of NAC infiltration.

Li X, Xu L, Sheng X, et al.
Upregulated microRNA-146a expression induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhanced low-dosage chemotherapy response in aged acute myeloid leukemia patients.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 68:66-79.e3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The selection of chemotherapy regimen for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains challenging. Here, we report that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) upregulates the expression of microRNA (miR)-146a in a nuclear factor kappaB-dependent manner, leading to direct decreases in the expression of the target proteins CXCR4 and Smad4 in AML cells in vitro. The reduction in CXCR4 expression suppressed the migration abilities of leukemia cells. Downregulation of Smad4 promoted cell cycle entry in leukemia cells. Furthermore, an increase in apoptosis was observed when leukemia cells were treated sequentially with G-CSF and cytosine arabinoside in vitro. These findings suggest that G-CSF treatment may disrupt the protection of bone marrow niches from leukemia cells. In a review of data from 78 cases of primary AML, we found that a high miR-146a expression and/or upregulation of this miRNA during G-CSF priming chemotherapy was predictive of better clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that miR-146a may be a novel biomarker for evaluating the clinical prognosis and treatment effects of a G-CSF priming protocol in elderly patients with AML.

Yamaoka R, Ishii T, Kawai T, et al.
CD90 expression in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis.
J Surg Oncol. 2018; 118(4):664-674 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer. However, its prognosis remains poor. Expression of cluster of differentiation 90 (CD90) has been identified as an indicator of poor prognosis in many cancers. Here, we examined the importance of CD90 expression in ICC.
METHODS: We performed immunohistological assays for CD90 in human ICC surgical specimens and assessed its relationship with clinicopathological findings and prognosis. Moreover, we analyzed the characteristics of CD90
RESULTS: CD90 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor. The CD90

Kamijo H, Miyagaki T, Shishido-Takahashi N, et al.
Aberrant CD137 ligand expression induced by GATA6 overexpression promotes tumor progression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 132(18):1922-1935 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD137 and its ligand, CD137L, are expressed on activated T cells and antigen-presenting cells, respectively. Recent studies have shown that CD137L and CD137 are aberrantly expressed by tumor cells, especially in some hematopoietic malignancies, and interactions between these molecules on tumor cells promote tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the roles of CD137L and CD137 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), represented by mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Flow cytometric analysis showed that primary Sézary cells and CTCL cell lines (Hut78, MyLa, HH, SeAx, and MJ) aberrantly expressed CD137L. CD137L expression by tumor cells in CTCL was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Anti-CD137L-neutralizing antibody inhibited proliferation, survival, CXCR4-mediated migration, and in vivo growth in CTCL cell lines through inhibition of phosphorylation of AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK. Moreover, suppression of CD137L signaling decreased antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and phosphorylated Bad. We also explored the transcription factor regulating CD137L expression. Because GATA6 has been proposed as an oncogene in many types of tumors with aberrant CD137L expression, we examined GATA6 expression and the involvement of GATA6 in CD137L expression in CTCL. DNA hypomethylation and histone acetylation induced GATA6 overexpression in CTCL cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter assay, and knockdown by short hairpin RNA showed that GATA6 directly upregulated CD137L expression. Inhibition of GATA6 resulted in decreased survival and in vivo growth in CTCL cells. Collectively, our findings prompt a novel therapeutic approach to CTCL based on the discovery that the GATA6/CD137L axis plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of CTCL.

Spinner MA, Varma G, Advani RH
Novel Approaches in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2018; 32(5):875-890 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in the understanding of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) biology have paved the way for development of a plethora of novel therapeutic strategies. The success of ibrutinib in WM has shifted treatment paradigms away from conventional chemoimmunotherapy approaches. Recognition of high-risk genomic subgroups as well as mechanisms of acquired resistance to ibrutinib have led to targeting of additional pathways. In this article, the authors review ongoing and emerging trials of novel therapies in WM that target the B-cell receptor pathway beyond ibrutinib, toll-like receptor pathway, chemokine signaling, apoptotic pathway, chromatin remodeling, protein transport, the immune microenvironment, and CD19-directed immunotherapy.

Bao Y, Wang Z, Liu B, et al.
A feed-forward loop between nuclear translocation of CXCR4 and HIF-1α promotes renal cell carcinoma metastasis.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(6):881-895 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been suggested to play a critical role in cancer metastasis. Some studies have described CXCR4 nuclear localization in metastatic lesions of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which has been suggested to be correlated with cancer metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism and clinical significance of CXCR4 nuclear localization remains unknown. Here, we show that CXCR4 nuclear localization is more likely to occur in RCC tissues, especially in metastases, and is associated with poor prognosis. CXCR4 nuclear localization requires its nuclear localization sequence (NLS, residues 146-RPRK-149). After the mutation of NLS in CXCR4, CXCR4 nuclear localization in RCC cells is lost. Nuclear localization of CXCR4 promoted RCC tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that CXCR4 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) colocalized in RCC cells and interacted with each other. Moreover, CXCR4 nuclear localization promoted nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α, thereby promoting the expression of genes downstream of HIF-1α. Reciprocally, nuclear HIF-1α promoted CXCR4 transcription, thus forming a feed-forward loop. Subcellular CXCR4 and HIF-1α expression levels were independent adverse prognostic factors and could be combined with TNM stage to generate a predictive nomogram of the clinical outcome of patients with RCC. Therefore, our findings indicate that CXCR4 nuclear translocation plays a critical role in RCC metastasis and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target.

Durinikova E, Kozovska Z, Poturnajova M, et al.
ALDH1A3 upregulation and spontaneous metastasis formation is associated with acquired chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):848 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Efficiency of colorectal carcinoma treatment by chemotherapy is diminished as the resistance develops over time in patients. The same holds true for 5-fluorouracil, the drug used in first line chemotherapy of colorectal carcinoma.
METHODS: Chemoresistant derivative of HT-29 cells was prepared by long-term culturing in increasing concentration of 5-fluorouracil. Cells were characterized by viability assays, flow cytometry, gene expression arrays and kinetic imaging. Immunomagnetic separation was used for isolation of subpopulations positive for cancer stem cells-related surface markers. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression was attenuated by siRNA. In vivo studies were performed on SCID/bg mice.
RESULTS: The prepared chemoresistant cell line labeled as HT-29/EGFP/FUR is assigned with different morphology, decreased proliferation rate and 135-fold increased IC
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that acquired chemoresistance goes along with metastatic and migratory phenotype and can be accompanied with increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We describe here the valuable model to study molecular link between resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic dissemination.

Sbrissa D, Semaan L, Govindarajan B, et al.
A novel cross-talk between CXCR4 and PI4KIIIα in prostate cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(3):332-344 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemokine signaling regulates cell migration and tumor metastasis. CXCL12, a member of the chemokine family, and its receptor, CXCR4, a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), are key mediators of prostate-cancer (PC) bone metastasis. In PC cells androgens activate CXCR4 gene expression and receptor signaling on lipid rafts, which induces protease expression and cancer cell invasion. To identify novel lipid-raft-associated CXCR4 regulators supporting invasion/metastasis, we performed a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of lipid-rafts derived from PC3 stable cell lines with overexpression or knockdown of CXCR4. This analysis identified the evolutionarily conserved phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KIIIα), and SAC1 phosphatase that dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate as potential candidate CXCR4 regulators. CXCR4 interacted with PI4KIIIα membrane targeting machinery recruiting them to the plasma membrane for PI4P production. Consistent with this interaction, PI4KIIIα was found tightly linked to the CXCR4 induced PC cell invasion. Thus, ablation of PI4KIIIα in CXCR4-expressing PC3 cells reduced cellular invasion in response to a variety of chemokines. Immunofluorescence microscopy in CXCR4-expressing cells revealed localized production of PI4P on the invasive projections. Human tumor studies documented increased PI4KIIIα expression in metastatic tumors vs. the primary tumor counterparts, further supporting the PI4KIIIα role in tumor metastasis. Furthermore, we also identified an unexpected function of PI4KIIIα in GPCR signaling where CXCR4 regulates PI4KIIIα activity and mediate tumor metastasis. Altogether, our study identifies a novel cross-talk between PI4KIIIα and CXCR4 in promoting tumor metastasis and suggests that PI4KIIIα pharmacological targeting may have therapeutic benefit for advanced prostate cancer patients.

He L, Deng H, Liu S, et al.
Overexpression of amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) gene promotes lung adenocarcinoma aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo by upregulating C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2018; 38(1):53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously found that overexpression of the gene known as amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) was associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, the role of AIB1 in that malignancy remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the function of AIB1 in the process of lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis.
METHODS: A series of in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to elucidate the function of AIB1, while real-time PCR and Western blotting were utilized to identify the potential downstream targets of AIB1 in the process of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. Rescue experiments and in vitro assays were performed to investigate whether the invasiveness of AIB1-induced lung adenocarcinoma was mediated by C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4).
RESULTS: The ectopic overexpression of AIB1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells substantially enhanced cell migration and invasive abilities in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas the depletion of AIB1 expression substantially inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell migration and invasion. CXCR4 was identified as a potential downstream target of AIB1 in lung adenocarcinoma. The knockdown of AIB1 greatly reduced CXCR4 gene expression at both the transcription and protein levels, whereas the knockdown of CXCR4 in cells with AIB1 ectopic overexpression diminished AIB1-induced migration and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we found a significant positive association between the expression of AIB1 and CXCR4 in lung adenocarcinoma patients (183 cases), and the co-overexpression of AIB1 and CXCR4 predicted the poorest prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that AIB1 promotes the aggressiveness of lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo by upregulating CXCR4 and that it might be usable as a novel prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target for this disease.

Yang Z, Tao Y, Xu X, et al.
Bufalin inhibits cell proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via APOBEC3F induced intestinal immune network for IgA production signaling pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(3):2124-2131 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate functions of APOBEC3F gene in biological process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti-tumor mechanisms of bufalin.
METHODS: Effect of APOBEC3F and bufalin on cell proliferation and migration abilities were evaluated by CCK-8, wounding healing tests and transwell assays in SK-Hep1 and Bel-7404 cells. Bioinformatic analysis were also used to compare APOBEC3F expression levels, detect coexpressed genes and enrichment of pathways.
RESULTS: APOBEC3F was overexpressed in tumor tissues compared to adjacent tissues in HCC patients. And, APOBEC3F promotes cell proliferation and migration in SK-Hep1 and Bel-7404 cells. Bufalin inhibits cell proliferation and migration and reduces APOBEC3F expression. GO and KEGG enrichment of APOBEC3F-coexpressed genes revealed that APOBEC3F might active intestinal immune network for IgA production signaling pathway, leading to malignant biological behaviors of HCC cells. Additionally, siAPOBEC3F could decrease pIgR, CCR9, CCR10 and CXCR4 protein levels. And, bufalin inhibits the pIgR, CCR9, CCR10 and CXCR4 protein expressions.
CONCLUSIONS: Bufalin inhibits cell proliferation and migration of HCC cells via APOBEC3F induced intestinal immune network for IgA production signaling pathway.

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