ESR1

Gene Summary

Gene:ESR1; estrogen receptor 1
Aliases: ER, ESR, Era, ESRA, ESTRR, NR3A1
Location:6q25.1-q25.2
Summary:This gene encodes an estrogen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription. The protein localizes to the nucleus where it may form a homodimer or a heterodimer with estrogen receptor 2. Estrogen and its receptors are essential for sexual development and reproductive function, but also play a role in other tissues such as bone. Estrogen receptors are also involved in pathological processes including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. Alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing result in dozens of transcript variants, but the full-length nature of many of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:estrogen receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Hormone-Dependent Cancers
  • Breast Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Up-Regulation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Gene Amplification
  • ESR1
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Genotype
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Multigene Family
  • TNF
  • DNA Methylation
  • Chromosome 6
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cohort Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3
  • Estrogens
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Alleles
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Epigenetics
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Staging
  • CpG Islands
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Regression Analysis
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ESR1 (cancer-related)

Chou ST, Hsiang CY, Lo HY, et al.
Exploration of anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of Zuo-Jin-Wan and its alkaloid components in vitro and in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft immunocompetent mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Zuo-Jin-Wan (ZJW), a two-herb formula consisting of Coptis chinensis (CC) and Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancers. However, the efficacies and mechanisms of ZJW and its alkaloid components on cancers are still unclear.
METHODS: Here we investigated the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine in cells and in intrahepatic xenograft mice.
RESULTS: Treatment of HepG2 cells with ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine significantly displayed cytotoxic effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hierarchical cluster analysis of gene expression profiles showed that CC and ZJW shared a similar mechanism for the cytotoxic effects, suggesting that CC was the active ingredient of ZJW for anti-cancer activity. Network analysis further showed that c-myc was the likely key molecule involved in the regulation of ZJW-affected gene expression. A human hepatoma xenograft model was established by intrahepatic injection of HepG2 cells containing nuclear factor-κB-driven luciferase genes in immunocompetent mice. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that cells had been successfully transplanted in mouse liver. Oral administration of ZJW for 28 consecutive days led to a significant decrease in the accumulation of ascites, the ratio of tumor-to-liver, and the number of transplanted cells in livers.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings suggested for the first time that ZJW significantly suppressed human cancer cell growth in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft-bearing immunocompetent mice. Moreover, c-myc might play a potent role in the cytotoxic mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine.

Cheng S, Castillo V, Welty M, et al.
BreastDefend enhances effect of tamoxifen in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen (TAM) has been widely used for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer and its combination with other therapies is being actively investigated as a way to increase efficacy and decrease side effects. Here, we evaluate the therapeutic potential of co-treatment with TAM and BreastDefend (BD), a dietary supplement formula, in ER-positive human breast cancer.
METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined in ER-positive human breast cancer cells MCF-7 by MTT assay, quantitation of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments and expression of cleaved PARP, respectively. The molecular mechanism was identified using RNA microarray analysis and western blotting. Tumor tissues from xenograft mouse model were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Our data clearly demonstrate that a combination of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) with BD lead to profound inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This effect is consistent with the regulation of apoptotic and TAM resistant genes at the transcription and translation levels. Importantly, TAM and BD co-treatment significantly enhanced apoptosis, suppressed tumor growth and reduced tumor weight in a xenograft model of human ER-positive breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: BD sensitized ER-positive human breast cancer cells to 4-OHT/TAM treatment in vitro and in vivo. BreastDefend can be used in an adjuvant therapy to increase the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in patients with ER-positive breast cancer.

Jeong YJ, Jung JW, Cho YY, et al.
Correlation of hypoxia inducible transcription factor in breast cancer and SUVmax of F-18 FDG PET/CT.
Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2017; 20(1):32-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor hypoxia induces the expression of several genes via the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 alpha (HIF-1a). It is associated with the prognosis of several cancers. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of HIF-1a in patients with invasive ductal cancer (IDC) of the breast and the possible correlation with the maximum standardized uptake value of the primary tumor (pSUVmax) as well as other biological parameters. Prognostic significance of pSUVmax and expression of HIF-1a for the prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) was also assessed.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred seven female patients with IDC who underwent pretreatment fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) were enrolled. The pSUVmax was compared with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis, stage and HIF-1a expression. The prognostic value of pSUVmax for PFS was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: pSUVmax was significantly higher in patients with HIF-1a expression ≥ 2 compared to patients with HIF-1a expression < 2 (5.2 ± 4.5 vs. 3.7 ± 3.1, p = 0.008). pSUVmax was also significantly higher in higher stage (p < 0.000001), ER-negative tumors (p < 0.0001), PR-negative tumors (p = 0.0011) and positive LN metastasis (p = 0.0013). pSUVmax was significantly higher in patients with progression compared to patients who were disease-free (6.8 ± 4.4 vs. 4.1 ± 3.7, p = 0.0005). A receiver-operating characteristic curve demonstrated a pSUVmax of 6.51 to be the optimal cutoff for predicting PFS (sensitivity: 53.6%, specificity: 86.0%). Patients with high pSUVmax (> 6.5) had significantly shorter PFS compared to patients with low pSUVmax (p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: pSUVmax on pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/ CT reflect expression of HIF-1a and can be used as a good surrogate marker for the prediction of progression in patients with IDC. The amount of FDG uptake is determined by the presence of glucose metabolism and hypoxia in breast cancer cell.

Xia S, Ji R, Zhan W
Long noncoding RNA papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility candidate 3 (PTCSC3) inhibits proliferation and invasion of glioma cells by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
BMC Neurol. 2017; 17(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been identified in a variety of cancers. An increasing number of studies have found the critical role of lncRNAs in the regulation of cellular processes, such as proliferation, invasion and differentiation. Long noncoding RNA papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility candidate 3 (PTCSC3) is a novel lncRNA that was primarily detected in papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of lncRNA PTCSC3 in glioma are still unknown.
METHODS: The expression level of lncRNA PTCSC3 in human microglia and glioma cell lines was examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The influence of lncRNA PTCSC3 on cell proliferation were studied using the cell counting kit-8, and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry assays. The migration and invasion abilities were investigated by transwell and wound healing assays. The target genes of lncRNA PTCSC3 were explored by qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blot.
RESULTS: LncRNA PTCSC3 was significantly downregulated in glioma cell lines. The overexpression of lncRNA PTCSC3 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in U87 and U251 cells. Additionally, the overexpression of lncRNA PTCSC3 inhibited the migration and invasion of U87 and U251 cells. Moreover, lncRNA PTCSC3 inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of U87 cells. The study also demonstrated that LRP6, as a receptor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, was a target of lncRNA PTCSC3. By evaluating the expression levels of Axin1, active β-catenin, c-myc, and cyclin D1, the study indicated that lncRNA PTCSC3 inhibited the activation of the Wnt/β-cateninpathway through targeting LRP6.
CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA PTCSC3 inhibits the proliferation and migration of glioma cells and suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting LRP6. LncRNA PTCSC3 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of glioma.

Wu HC, Southey MC, Hibshoosh H, et al.
DNA Methylation in Breast Tumor from High-risk Women in the Breast Cancer Family Registry.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):659-664 [PubMed] Related Publications
To examine DNA methylation profiles in breast tumors of women with a strong breast cancer family history, we measured methylation by bisulfite sequencing in 40 genes in 40 breast tumor tissues from women in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We selected candidate genes from analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA) breast data. Compared to TCGA breast cancer, BCFR cases are younger and more likely to be ER-negative. Overall, we found that many of the methylation differences between BCFR tumor and normal adjacent tissues were smaller than that in TCGA samples. We found only 32% of tested genes were hypermethylated in BCFR; the largest difference was 36.1% for SEPW1, and the smallest difference was 10% for RYR2. These data suggest the importance of examining breast cancer cases including familial cases enriched with early-onset cancers to identify methylation markers that can be examined in blood as biomarkers for early detection.

Esposito MR, Aveic S, Seydel A, Tonini GP
Neuroblastoma treatment in the post-genomic era.
J Biomed Sci. 2017; 24(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is an embryonic malignancy of early childhood originating from neural crest cells and showing heterogeneous biological, morphological, genetic and clinical characteristics. The correct stratification of neuroblastoma patients within risk groups (low, intermediate, high and ultra-high) is critical for the adequate treatment of the patients.High-throughput technologies in the Omics disciplines are leading to significant insights into the molecular pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Nonetheless, further study of Omics data is necessary to better characterise neuroblastoma tumour biology. In the present review, we report an update of compounds that are used in preclinical tests and/or in Phase I-II trials for neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we recapitulate a number of compounds targeting proteins associated to neuroblastoma: MYCN (direct and indirect inhibitors) and downstream targets, Trk, ALK and its downstream signalling pathways. In particular, for the latter, given the frequency of ALK gene deregulation in neuroblastoma patients, we discuss on second-generation ALK inhibitors in preclinical or clinical phases developed for the treatment of neuroblastoma patients resistant to crizotinib.We summarise how Omics drive clinical trials for neuroblastoma treatment and how much the research of biological targets is useful for personalised medicine. Finally, we give an overview of the most recent druggable targets selected by Omics investigation and discuss how the Omics results can provide us additional advantages for overcoming tumour drug resistance.

Agosto-Arroyo E, Isayeva T, Wei S, et al.
Differential Gene Expression in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast Based on ERBB2 Status.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):102-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular signature of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the breast is not well understood. Erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 [formerly known as HER2/neu]) positivity in DCIS is predictive of coexistent early invasive breast carcinoma. The aim of this study is to identify the gene-expression signature profiles of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes of DCIS.
METHODS: Based on ER, PR, and ERBB2 status, a total of 18 high nuclear grade DCIS cases with no evidence of invasive breast carcinoma were selected along with 6 non-neoplastic controls. The 3 study groups were defined as ER/PR-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes.
RESULTS: A total of 49 genes were differentially expressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with the ER/PR-positive and triple-negative groups. PROM1 was overexpressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with ER/PR-positive and triple-negative subtypes. Other genes differentially expressed included TAOK1, AREG, AGR3, PEG10, and MMP9.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified unique gene signatures in ERBB2-positive DCIS, which may be associated with the development of invasive breast carcinoma. The results may enhance our understanding of the progression of breast cancer and become the basis for developing new predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets for DCIS.

Rezende LM, Marson FA, Lima CS, Bertuzzo CS
Variants of estrogen receptor alpha and beta genes modify the severity of sporadic breast cancer.
Gene. 2017; 608:73-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive factors pose a risk for sporadic breast cancer (BC) development owing to the lifetime exposure to estrogen, a hormone responsible for cell proliferation in the breast. Because variants of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta genes have been associated with BC risk in numerous populations, the objective of the study was to determine whether the risk and severity of sporadic BC was associated with the rs2228480 (ESR1) and rs4986938 (ESR2) variants in a Brazilian population.
METHODS: A total of 253 DNA samples from sporadic BC patients and 257 DNA samples from healthy controls were studied. The samples were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Epidemiological, clinical, and reproductive factors were analyzed. Statistical tests conducted included the χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests or their parametric equivalents.
RESULTS: There was a high frequency of the rs2228480*GG genotype among the ER-positive tumors (OR=2.13; 95% CI=1.189-3.816) and it showed minor association with clinical stage 0 (OR=0.324; 95% CI=0.116-0.904). The rs2228480*GA genotype was associated with minor ER expression, whereas rs2228480*GG was associated with high expression of the progesterone receptor (PR). The frequency of rs4986938*GA was high among women who breastfed (OR=2.11; 95% CI=1.203-3.702), and it showed high association with clinical stage 0 (OR=4.383; 95% CI=1.606-11.96) whereas it had minor association with systemic arterial hypertension (OR=0.53; 95% CI=0.319-0.880). The rs2228480*GG/rs4986938*GG haplotype occurred at a low frequency among women who breastfed (OR=0.525; 95% CI=0.298-0.924) but it was associated with a high expression of PR.
CONCLUSION: The rs2228480 and rs4986938 variants did not alter sporadic BC risk, but they did modulate the BC severity.

Zhang H
Three generations of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors developed to revolutionize the therapy of lung cancer.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016; 10:3867-3872 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer, ~80%-85% of which is non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene (EGFRm(+)), such as exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R point mutations, are the most important drivers in NSCLC patients. In this respect, small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been designed and developed, which launched the era of targeted, personalized and precise medicine for lung cancer. Patients with EGFRm(+) could achieve good responses to the treatment with the first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as erlotinib and gefitinib. However, most patients develop acquired drug resistance mostly driven by the T790M mutation occurring within exon 20. Although the second-generation EGFR TKIs, such as afatinib, dacomitinib and neratinib, demonstrated promising activity against T790M in preclinical models, they have failed to overcome resistance in patients due to dose-limiting toxicity. Recently, the third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown to be effective against cell lines and murine models harboring T790M mutations while sparing wild-type EGFR, which represents a promising breakthrough approach in overcoming T790M-mediated resistance in NSCLC patients. This article provides a comprehensive review of the therapy revolution for NSCLC with three generations of EGFR TKIs.

Martinez-Gutierrez JC, D'Andrea MR, Cahill DP, et al.
Diagnosis and management of craniopharyngiomas in the era of genomics and targeted therapy.
Neurosurg Focus. 2016; 41(6):E2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Craniopharyngiomas are rare intracranial neoplasms that pose clinical challenges due to their location adjacent to vital structures. The authors have previously shown high mutation rates of BRAF V600E in papillary craniopharyngioma and of CTNNB1 in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. These activating driver mutations are potential therapeutic targets, and the authors have recently reported a significant response to BRAF/MEK inhibition in a patient with multiply recurrent PCP. As these targetable mutations warrant prospective research, the authors will be conducting a national National Cancer Institute-sponsored multicenter clinical trial to investigate BRAF/MEK inhibition in the treatment of craniopharyngioma. In this new era of genomic discovery, the treatment paradigm of craniopharyngioma is likely to change.

Iranshahi N, Zafari P, Yari KH, Alizadeh E
The most common genes involved in epigenetics modifications among Iranian patients with breast cancer: A systematic review.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(12):116-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer, with a lifelong risk of one in nine, is the most common cancer among women. In Iran, breast cancer is one of the growing and important women's health problems. Several environmental, genetic and epigenetics factors have been suggested to have a role in breast cancer development. Epigenetics alterations are heritable changes in gene expression that occur without causing any change in DNA sequence. DNA methylation as a main epigenetics modification in human cancer is found as a promising biomarker in early detection of breast cancer. Association between epigenetics changes of many gene promoters with the risk of breast cancer has been investigated worldwide. This aberrant methylation may be occur in specific genes related to cell cycle, cell adhesion, apoptosis and DNA repairing mechanisms and results in silencing of these important genes. In this review study, we have gathered all the data until December 2015 about epigenetics modifications among Iranian population with breast cancer.  We searched international web databases such as: PubMed, Scopus, and Persian web databases; IranMedex and Magiran to investigate the association of epigenetics change and incidence of breast cancer among Iranian population. Using "methylation" or "epigenetics" key words and "Iran" as affiliation, all the published data were 31. After arbitrary limitation in search keywords the result have been 20 articles.  Data analysis show that "ER-α" and "E-Cadherin" are most common studied genes in epigenetics modifications. Also, maximum studies were done in Tehran and Tabriz. We thought that more studies will be helpful to reveal the relation of methylation status in candidate genes with the breast cancer risk in Iranian populations.

Angus L, Beije N, Jager A, et al.
ESR1 mutations: Moving towards guiding treatment decision-making in metastatic breast cancer patients.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 52:33-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the gene coding for the estrogen receptor (ER), ESR1, have been associated with acquired endocrine resistance in patients with ER-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Functional studies revealed that these ESR1 mutations lead to constitutive activity of the ER, meaning that the receptor is active in absence of its ligand estrogen, conferring resistance against several endocrine agents. While recent clinical studies reported that the occurrence of ESR1 mutations is rare in primary breast cancer tumors, these mutations are more frequently observed in metastatic tissue and circulating cell-free DNA of MBC patients pretreated with endocrine therapy. Given the assumed impact that the presence of ESR1 mutations has on outcome to endocrine therapy, assessing ESR1 mutations in MBC patients is likely to be of significant interest to further individualize treatment for MBC patients. Here, ESR1 mutation detection methods and the most relevant pre-clinical and clinical studies on ESR1 mutations regarding endocrine resistance are reviewed, with particular interest in the ultimate goal of guiding treatment decision-making based on ESR1 mutations.

Zhu D, Shen Z, Liu J, et al.
The ROS-mediated activation of STAT-3/VEGF signaling is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced angiogenesis in human breast cancer cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2016; 264:79-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females worldwide, and angiogenesis plays a crucial role in BC progression. 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator, which promotes the growth and metastasis of BC. Here, we further found that, 27HC improved the angiogenic ability of BC in a VEGF-dependent manner. For the molecular mechanisms, on one hand, as an estrogen-like factor, 27HC enhanced the expression of VEGF by the classical ERα/VEGF signaling in ER-positive BC cells; on the other hand, in both ER-positive and ER-negative BC cells, 27HC enhanced the generation of ROS, which in turn activated the STAT-3/VEGF signaling in an ER independent manner. Either blocking the generation of ROS or knockdown of STAT-3 attenuated the 27HC-induced autocrine of VEGF and angiogenesis. These findings not only suggested a mechanism whereby 27HC enhanced the angiogenesis, but also helped to recognize the 27HC as a novel potential harmful factor in BC, especially in the menopause patients.

Ramaswamy V, Taylor MD
Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups.
Chin J Cancer. 2016; 35(1):93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.

Gelsomino F, Barbolini M, Spallanzani A, et al.
The evolving role of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: A review.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 51:19-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular marker of a deficient mismatch repair (MMR) system and occurs in approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), more frequently in early than late-stage of disease. While in sporadic cases (about two-thirds of MSI-H CRCs) MMR deficiency is caused by an epigenetic inactivation of MLH1 gene, the remainder are associated with Lynch syndrome, that is linked to a germ-line mutation of one of the MMR genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2). MSI-H colorectal cancers have distinct clinical and pathological features such as proximal location, early-stage (predominantly stage II), poor differentiation, mucinous histology and association with BRAF mutations. In early-stage CRC, MSI can select a group of tumors with a better prognosis, while in metastatic disease it seems to confer a negative prognosis. Although with conflicting results, a large amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests a possible resistance to 5-FU in these tumors. The higher mutational load in MSI-H CRC can elicit an endogenous immune anti-tumor response, counterbalanced by the expression of immune inhibitory signals, such as PD-1 or PD-L1, that resist tumor elimination. Based on these considerations, MSI-H CRCs seem to be particularly responsive to immunotherapy, such as anti-PD-1, opening a new era in the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic CRC.

García-Quiroz J, García-Becerra R, Santos-Martínez N, et al.
Calcitriol stimulates gene expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in breast cancer cells with different phenotype.
J Biomed Sci. 2016; 23(1):78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In normal and neoplastic cells, growth-promoting, proangiogenic, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects have all been attributed to cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP). Nevertheless, little is known about the factors regulating this peptide expression in breast cancer. Herein we asked if the well-known antineoplastic hormone calcitriol could differentially modulate CAMP gene expression in human breast cancer cells depending on the cell phenotype in terms of efficacy and potency.
METHODS: The established breast cancer cell lines MCF7, BT-474, HCC1806, HCC1937, SUM-229PE and a primary cell culture generated from invasive ductal breast carcinoma were used in this study. Calcitriol regulation of cathelicidin gene expression in vitro and in human breast cancer xenografts was studied by real time PCR. Tumorigenicity was evaluated for each cell line in athymic mice.
RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER)α + breast cancer cells showed the highest basal CAMP gene expression. When incubated with calcitriol, CAMP gene expression was stimulated in a dose-dependent and cell phenotype-independent manner. Efficacy of calcitriol was lower in ERα + cells when compared to ERα- cells (<10 vs. >70 folds over control, respectively). Conversely, calcitriol lowest potency upon CAMP gene expression was observed in the ERα-/EGFR+ SUM-229PE cell line (EC50 = 70.8 nM), while the highest was in the basal-type/triple-negative cells HCC1806 (EC50 = 2.13 nM) followed by ERα + cells MCF7 and BT-474 (EC50 = 4.42 nM and 14.6 nM, respectively). In vivo, lower basal CAMP gene expression was related to increased tumorigenicity and lack of ERα expression. Xenografted triple-negative breast tumors of calcitriol-treated mice showed increased CAMP gene expression compared to vehicle-treated animals.
CONCLUSIONS: Independently of the cell phenotype, calcitriol provoked a concentration-dependent stimulation on CAMP gene expression, showing greater potency in the triple negative HCC1806 cell line. Efficacy of calcitriol was lower in ERα + cells when compared to ERα- cells in terms of stimulating CAMP gene expression. Lower basal CAMP and lack of ERα gene expression was related to increased tumorigenicity. Our results suggest that calcitriol anti-cancer therapy is more likely to induce higher levels of CAMP in ERα- breast cancer cells, when compared to ERα + breast cancer cells.

Soheili S, Asadi MH, Farsinejad A
Distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 variants in different types of breast cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 18(1):69-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: OCT4 is a key regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells which can potentially encode three spliced variants designated OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1. Based on cancer stem cell concept, it is suggested that the stemness factors misexpressed in cancer cells and potentially is involved in tumorigenesis.
OBJECTIVE: Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the potential expression of OCT4 variants in breast cancer tissues.
METHODS: A total of 94 tumoral and peritumoral breast specimens were evaluated with respect to the expression of OCT4 variants using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis.
RESULTS: We detected the expression of OCT4 variants in breast tumor tissues with no or very low levels of expression in peritumoral samples of the same patients. While OCT4B was highly expressed in lobular type of breast cancer, OCT4A and OCTB1 variants are highly expressed in low grade (I and II) ductal tumors. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed a considerable association between the expression level of OCT4 variants and the expression of ER, PR, Her2 and P53 factors.
CONCLUSIONS: All data demonstrated a distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 spliced variants in different types of breast cancer and provide further evidence for the involvement of embryonic genes in carcinogenesis.

Wang Y, Zhang X, Chao Z, et al.
MiR-34a modulates ErbB2 in breast cancer.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(1):93-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the second highest cause of carcinoma-related death caused by distant metastasis in women. Estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, (HER2) and progesterone receptor (PR) are three classified makers of breast cancer, which are defined as ER+, HER2+, and the most serious ER-PR-HER2- (triple-negative). It is well known that ErbB2 (V-Erb-B2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) plays an important part in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ErbB2 action needs to be well studied. In this report, we discovered that the decreased expression levels of miR-34a were inversely correlated with the increased ErbB2 levels in breast cancer. A luciferase reporter assay was done to understand the potential correlation between ErbB2 and miR-34a. Over-expression of miR-34a reduces ErbB2 expression and suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and growth in vitro. What's more, reduced expression of ErbB2 inhibits breast Cancer cell proliferation and re-expression of ErbB2 reversed miR-34a-dependent tumor suppression. Meanwhile, miR-34a levels were correlated inversely with breast cancer malignancy. Our study demonstrates that miR-34a, like ErbB2, might be a diagnostic target in breast cancer.

Yilmaz UC, Bagca BG, Karaca E, et al.
Evaluation of the miRNA profiling and effectiveness of the propolis on B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1266-1273 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most frequent causes of death from cancer. Since the discovery of chemotherapeutic agents, ALL has become a model for improvement of survival. In parallel to this, serious side effects were observed and new natural therapeutic options has been discussed. One of these substances is called propolis which is a resinous substance gathered by honeybees. In the molecular era, miRNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of many clinical conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Aydın propolis on 81 human miRNA activity in CCRF-SB leukemia cell line. Apoptotic effects of propolis on cell lines were also evaluated and apoptosis were found to be induced 1.5 fold in B-cell leukemia cells. The expression of 63 miRNAs (46 miRNAs were downregulated, 19 miRNAs were upregulated) in propolis treated leukemia cells have changed significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion propolis has changed expression of miRNAs which have epigenetic effects on leukemic cells. It is thought that it can be a promising agent for ALL treatment for future studies.

Breyer J, Wirtz RM, Laible M, et al.
ESR1, ERBB2, and Ki67 mRNA expression predicts stage and grade of non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (NMIBC).
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(5):547-552 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pathological staging and grading are crucial for risk assessment in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Molecular grading might support pathological evaluation and minimize interobserver variability. In this study, the well-established breast cancer markers ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKI67 were evaluated as potential molecular markers to support grading and staging in NMIBC. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE) of patients with NMIBC. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the aforementioned markers was measured by single-step reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using RNA-specific TaqMan assays. Relative gene expression was determined by normalization to two reference genes (CALM2 and B2M) using the 40(-ΔΔCT) method and correlated to histopathological stage and grade. Pathological assessment was performed by an experienced uropathologist. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS software JMP 9.0.0 version and GraphPad Prism 5.04. Of 381 cases of NMIBC, samples of 100 pTa and 255 pT1 cases were included in the final study. Spearman rank correlation revealed significant correlations between grade and expression of MKI67 (r = 0.52, p < 0.0001), ESR1 (r = 0.25, p < 0.0001), and ERBB2 (r = 0.18, p = 0.0008). In Mann-Whitney tests, MKI67 was significantly different between all grades (p < 0.0001), while ESR1 (p = 0.0006) and ERBB2 (p = 0.027) were significantly different between G2 and G3. Higher expression of MKI67 (r = 0.49; p < 0.0001), ERBB2 (r = 0.22; p < 0.0001), and ESR1 (r = 0.18; p = 0.0009) mRNA was positively correlated with higher stage. MKI67 (p < 0.0001), ERBB2 (p = 0.0058), and PGR (p = 0.0007) were significantly different between pTa and pT1. In NMIBC expression of ESR1, ERBB2 and MKI67 are significantly different between stage and grade. This potentially provides objective parameters for pathological evaluation.

Endo Y, Dong Y, Kondo N, et al.
HER2 mutation status in Japanese HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer. 2016; 23(6):902-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification/overexpression is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer, and has been introduced as a predictive biomarker to identify patients who may benefit from therapy with anti-HER2 agents. HER2 somatic mutations have been reported, and these may influence the effect of HER2-targeted drugs.
METHODS: Here, we sought HER2 mutations in a group of 135 Japanese breast cancer patients with HER2-positive tumors. We analyzed HER2 mutations by direct Sanger sequencing of two major areas, the extracellular domain at position 309-310 and the kinase domain between 755 and 781.
RESULTS: Two patients with the HER2 somatic mutation S310F in the extracellular domain were found in this series. One patient with the S310F mutation had a node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma classified as HER2 2+ by the HercepTest and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) positive, and which was estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and progesterone receptor (PgR)-negative. Another patient with the S310F mutation had an apocrine carcinoma with seven lymph nodes positive for metastasis, classified as HER2 3+ by the HercepTest, but which was FISH-negative, as well as ER-negative and PgR-negative. Both patients had received adjuvant single-agent trastuzumab therapy, and had no local recurrence or distant metastasis for five and three years after surgery, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that HER2 mutations are rare in HER2-positive Japanese breast cancer patients. The two mutations found in this study were identical, S310F. We suggest that in vitro experiments to determine whether the S310F mutation could be involved in resistance to anti-HER2 drugs are worthwhile in future.

Słowikowski BK, Lianeri M, Jagodziński PP
Exploring estrogenic activity in lung cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2017; 44(1):35-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is well known that a connection between xenobiotics inhalation, especially tobacco combustion and Lung Cancer development is strongly significant and indisputable. However, recent studies provide evidence indicating that another factors such as, estrogens are also involved in lung carcinoma biology and metabolism. Although the status of estrogen receptors (ER), in both cancerous and healthy lung tissue has been well documented, there is still inconclusive data with respect of which isoform of the receptor is present in the lungs. However according to several studies, ERβ appears to be predominant form. Apart from ERs, estrogens can work through a recently discovered G-coupled estrogen receptor. Binding with both types of the receptors causes a signal, which leads to i.e. enhanced cell proliferation. There are many published reports which suggest that estrogen can be synthesized in situ in lung cancer. Some disturbances in the activity and expression levels of enzymes involved in estrogen synthesis were proved. This suggests that increased amounts of sex-steroid hormones can affect cells biology and be the reason of the accelerated development and pathogenesis of lung cancer. There also exist phenomena which associate estrogenic metabolism and tobacco combustion and its carcinogenic influence on the lungs. Compounds present in cigarette smoke induce the activity of CYP1B1, the enzyme responsible for estrogenic metabolism and synthesis of their cateholic derivatives. These structures during their redox cycle are able to release reactive oxygen species or form DNA adduct, which generally leads to destruction of genetic material. This process may explain the synergistic effect of smoking and estrogens on estrogen-dependent lung cancer development.

Jalota A, Kumar M, Das BC, et al.
Synergistic increase in efficacy of a combination of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and cisplatin in normoxia and hypoxia: switch from autophagy to apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12347-12358 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to drugs, which is aggravated by hypoxia, is a well-known feature of tumors. The combination of drug exposure and hypoxia can give rise to several survival strategies in the exposed cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most hypoxic of solid tumors, and we have used glial cells to identify a drug combination that would be synergistically effective in these cells under both normoxia and hypoxia. Cisplatin (CP) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), which have been used for second-line therapy and for preclinical research, are relatively ineffective as single agents. During in vitro experiments with A172 and LN229 cells, there was increased resistance to both drugs under hypoxia. However, the combination of CP and 2-DG showed a synergistic effect in reducing cell viability under both normoxia and hypoxia, with a combination index of less than 1. Increased autophagy is a distinct feature of the response to 2-DG. However, autophagic markers were reduced, and apoptotic markers were upregulated by the combination, indicating a switch over from autophagic to apoptotic pathways with reduction in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The combination also resulted in a decrease of pAKT levels. The effect of CP in the combination was replicated by the prototype AKT inhibitor LY294002, further supporting the role of AKT inhibition in the synergism. Combination of 2-DG with CP, or possibly an AKT inhibitor, can prove to be an effective rational combination for reducing chemoresistance under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in gliomas.

Zhang L, Chen Z, Xue D, et al.
Prognostic and therapeutic value of mitochondrial serine hydroxyl-methyltransferase 2 as a breast cancer biomarker.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2489-2500 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondrial serine hydroxylmethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2) is a key enzyme in the serine/glycine synthesis pathway. SHMT2 has been implicated as a critical component for tumor cell survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value and efficiency of SHMT2 as a biomarker in patients with breast cancer. Individual and pooled survival analyses were performed on five independent breast cancer microarray datasets. Gene signatures enriched by SHMT2 were also analyzed in these datasets. SHMT2 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay in 128 breast cancer cases. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that SHMT2 was significantly associated with gene signatures of mitochondrial module, cancer invasion, metastasis and poor survival among breast cancer patients (p<0.05). The clinical relevance of SHMT2 was validated on IHC data. The mitochondrial localization of SHMT2 protein was visualized on IHC staining. Independent and pooled analysis confirmed that SHMT2 expression was associated with breast cancer tumor aggressiveness (TNM staging and Elson grade) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The prognostic performance of SHMT2 mRNA was comparable to other gene signatures and proved superior to TNM staging. Further analysis results indicated that SHMT2 had better prognostic value for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer patients, compared to ER-positive patients. In cases involving stage IIb breast cancer, chemotherapy significantly extended survival time among patients with high SHMT2 expression. These results indicate that SHMT2 may be a valuable prognostic biomarker in ER-negative breast cancer cases. Furthermore, SHMT2 may be a potential target for breast cancer treatment and drug discovery.

Zhou X, Xing X, Zhang S, et al.
Glucose-regulated protein 78 contributes to the proliferation and tumorigenesis of human colorectal carcinoma via AKT and ERK pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2723-2730 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a molecular chaperon in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying the role of GRP78 in tumor carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that GRP78 knockdown in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation inhibition of CRC cells by GRP78 knockdown was associated with an S phase arrest, a reduced G1/S transition, and a downregulation of phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2, key cell cycle regulatory proteins. In addition, GRP78 knockdown enhanced the apoptosis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in CRC cells. Taken together, our results indicate that GRP78 plays an important role in the development and progression of CRC and may have therapeutic potential for CRC patients.

He X, Lin X, Cai M, et al.
High expression of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 4 correlates with poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):37-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 4 (CPEB4), a zinc-finger-containing sequence-specific RNA-binding protein, has been associated with tumor proliferation, invasion, and migration. Expression of CPEB4 and its prognostic significance in human colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate expression of CPEB4 and its prognostic significance in CRC. Expression of CPEB4 in CRC tissues from two independent cohorts was examined by immunohistochemistry. Prognostic significance was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox regression analysis. High expression of CPEB4 was observed in 14.8 % of CRCs in the training cohort and 12.2 % of CRCs in the validation cohort. High expression of CPEB4 was significantly correlated with the pM classification, TNM stage, and poorer overall survival in both cohorts. Through multivariate Cox regression analysis, high expression of CPEB4 was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker for overall survival in CRC patients. High expression of CPEB4 may be an independent and useful biomarker for predicting the poor survival of patients with CRC.

Nooshinfar E, Bashash D, Safaroghli-Azar A, et al.
Melatonin promotes ATO-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells: Proposing novel therapeutic potential for breast cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:456-465 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic trioxide (ATO), a traditional Chinese medicine, has long been of biomedical interest and is largely used for treatment of a broad spectrum of cancers. Melatonin, a naturally occurring indoleamine synthesized in the pineal gland, has been considered as a biomarker for endocrine-dependent tumors, particularly breast cancer. An increasing number of studies indicate that melatonin could be an attractive candidate for combined therapy due to its anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiating effect of melatonin on ATO-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data highlighted for the first time that pre-treating MCF-7 cells with physiological concentration of melatonin substantially augmented the cytotoxic effects of ATO as compared with either agent alone. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that apoptosis induction by the drugs combination was associated with increased p53 transcriptional activity followed by the elevated molecular ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Moreover, induced p21, subsequent G1 cell cycle arrest and transcriptional suppression of survivin-mediated c-Myc and hTERT expression may contribute in the enhanced growth suppressive effect of ATO-plus-melatonin. Due to the safety profile of melatonin, our study suggests that using melatonin in combination with ATO might provide insight into a novel adjuvant therapy and may confer advantages for breast cancer treatment.

Kim H, Skowronski J, Den RB
Prognostic outlier genes for enhanced prostate cancer treatment.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(3):249-261 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To review the current landscape of outlier genes in the field of prostate cancer.
METHODS: A comprehensive review was performed.
RESULTS: Prostate cancer continues to be a significant worldwide health issue. In the era of personalized medicine, more emphasis is being placed on the ability to determine the timing, intensity and type of treatment, according to each patient's unique disease. Several commercial tests are available to determine the risk of aggressive prostate cancer based on genomic biomarkers and gene expression. Outlier genes represent a form of cancer classification that focuses on bimodal expression of a gene in a specific subset of patients. Outlier genes identified in prostate cancer include TMPRSS2-ERG, SPINK1, ScHLAP1, NVL, SMC4 and SQLE.
CONCLUSION: Classifying patient prostate cancers by outlier genes may allow for individualized cancer therapies and improved cancer therapy outcomes.

Soran A, Bhargava R, Johnson R, et al.
The impact of Oncotype DX® recurrence score of paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissues in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.
Breast Dis. 2016; 36(2-3):65-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oncotype DX® test is beneficial in predicting recurrence free survival in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Ability of the assay to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is less well-studied.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize a positive association between the Oncotype DX® recurrence score (RS) and the percentage tumor response (%TR) after NCT.
METHODS: Pre-therapy RS was measured on core biopsies from 60 patients with ER+, HER2- invasive breast cancer (IBC) who then received NCT. Pre-therapy tumor size was measured using imaging. %TR, partial response (PR; >50%), pathologic complete response (pCR) and breast conserving surgery (BCS) rates were measured.
RESULTS: Median RS was 20 (2-69). Median %TR was 42 (0-97)%. PR was observed in 43% of patients. There was no association between %TR and pre-NCT tumor size, age, Nottingham score or nodal status (p > 0.05). No statistically significant association with %TR was seen with RS as a categorical or continuous variable (p = 0.21 and 0.7, respectively). Response to NCT improved as ER (p = 0.02) by RT-PCR decreased. Lower ER expression by IHC correlated with response (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ER+ IBC receiving NCT, RS did not predict response to NCT using %TR. The benefit of the assay prior to NCT requires further study.

Roy N, Narayanankutty A, Nazeem PA, et al.
Plant Phenolics Ferulic Acid and P-Coumaric Acid Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation through EGFR Down-Regulation.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):4019-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) or bowel cancer is one of the most important cancer diseases, needing serious attention. The cell surface receptor gene human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may have an important role in provoking CRC. In this pharmaceutical era, it is always attempted to identify plant-based drugs for cancer, which will have less side effects for human body, unlike the chemically synthesized marketed drugs having serious side effects. So, in this study the authors tried to assess the activity of two important plant compounds, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA), on CRC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: FA and pCA were tested for their cytotoxic effects on the human CRC cell line HCT 15 and also checked for the level of gene expression of EGFR by real time PCR analysis. Positive results were confirmed by in silico molecular docking studies using Discovery Studio (DS) 4.0. The drug parallel features of the same compounds were also assessed in silico.
RESULTS: Cytotoxicity experiments revealed that both the compounds were efficient in killing CRC cells on a controlled concentration basis. In addition, EGFR expression was down-regulated in the presence of the compounds. Docking studies unveiled that both the compounds were able to inhibit EGFR at its active site. Pharmacokinetic analysis of these compounds opened up their drug like behaviour.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study emphasize the importance of plant compounds for targeting diseases like CRC.

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