Research IndicatorsGraph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: MMP9 (cancer-related)
Akashi M, Hisaka T, Sakai H, et al.Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4485-4490 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) has a variety of histological and morphological appearances. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been considered to be associated with tumor progression or poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular basis of IPMN variation in different types of lesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MMP-1,2,7,9 in 51 cases of IPMN were investigated. The MMP score was calculated as the sum of the score of staining distribution and the score of the intensity staining.
RESULTS: MMP scores were correlated with histological grade, histological subtype, and type of invasion. MMP high expression groups (MMP score ≥5) had worse prognosis than low-expression groups.
CONCLUSION: MMP expression varied between different types of IPMN, a result supporting differences in molecular basis of malignancies. These considerations may be helpful for optimal management or treatment according to various types of IPMN.
Guo Q, Wang L, Zhu L, et al.The clinical significance and biological function of lncRNA SOCAR in serous ovarian carcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 713:143969 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is one of the most lethal gynecologic malignancies worldwide. Pelvic and abdominal metastasis is a leading cause for the poor prognosis of OvCa patients. The relationship between long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and OvCa remains unclear. Identifying key lncRNAs related with OvCa metastasis is crucial for research on the mechanism of OvCa metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the role of a novel lncRNA, which we named SOCAR, in serous OvCa.
METHODS: LncRNA microarray and Real-time PCR were used to examine SOCAR expression in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and normal ovary tissues. The proliferation, migration and invasion of OvCa cell lines SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 were analyzed by CCK-8, Transwell and Scratch wound healing assays. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related proteins.
RESULTS: A novel serous OvCa-related lncRNA, SOCAR, was identified via microarray. SOCAR was overexpressed in primary HGSOC tumors compared with normal ovary tissues, and the expression of SOCAR correlated with progression in HGSOC patients. SOCAR also had higher expression in metastatic HGSOC tissues compared with primary cancer tissues. Moreover, upregulation of SOCAR promoted proliferation, migration and invasion in OvCa cells. Expression of Wnt1, β-catenin and MMP-9 were all increased by SOCAR overexpression.
CONCLUSION: SOCAR is related with HGSOC oncogenesis and progression. It may promote proliferation, migration and invasion in OvCa cells partially by upregulating MMP-9 through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a malignancy that severely threatens human health and carries a high incidence rate and a low 5-year survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are commonly accepted as a key regulatory function in human cancer, but the potential regulatory mechanisms of miRNA-mRNA related to ESCC remain poorly understood.The GSE55857, GSE43732, and GSE6188 miRNA microarray datasets and the gene expression microarray datasets GSE70409, GSE29001, and GSE20347 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus databases. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using GEO2R. Gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis for DEGs were performed by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and functional modules were established using the STRING database and were visualized by Cytoscape. Kaplan-Meier analysis was constructed based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.In total, 26 DEMs and 280 DEGs that consisted of 96 upregulated and 184 downregulated genes were screened out. A functional enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in the ECM-receptor interaction and cytochrome P450 metabolic pathways. In addition, MMP9, PCNA, TOP2A, MMP1, AURKA, MCM2, IVL, CYP2E1, SPRR3, FOS, FLG, TGM1, and CYP2C9 were considered to be hub genes owing to high degrees in the PPI network. MiR-183-5p was with the highest connectivity target genes in hub genes. FOS was predicted to be a common target gene of the significant DEMs. Hsa-miR-9-3p, hsa-miR-34c-3p and FOS were related to patient prognosis and higher expression of the transcripts were associated with a poor OS in patients with ESCC.Our study revealed the miRNA-mediated hub genes regulatory network as a model for predicting the molecular mechanism of ESCC. This may provide novel insights for unraveling the pathogenesis of ESCC.
Nazir SU, Kumar R, Singh A, et al.Breast cancer invasion and progression by MMP-9 through Ets-1 transcription factor.
Gene. 2019; 711:143952 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ets-1 is one of the crucial member of transcription factor family which share a unique DNA binding domain. It is predominantly expressed in various tumor subtypes and has shown its association in the regulation of various important genes which include ECM-degrading proteases. Our study aimed to understand the mechanism(s) in the pathogenesis of breast carcinogenesis by Ets-1 transcription factor and its downstream target gene MMP-9. Role of Ets-1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was studied by RNA-interference in combination with pull down and ChIP assays to identify the regulation of MMP-9 in these cell lines. Our results showed that transfection of Ets-1 siRNA in breast cancer cell lines resulted in downregulation of Ets-1 and MMP-9. Ets-1 knock down also showed reduced cell invasion and altered expression of EMT markers. Moreover, we could also predict that MMP-9 gene promoter harbors a binding site for Ets-1 transcription factor may be responsible in direct transactivation of Ets-1 along with EMT markers. Phenotypic changes and molecular alterations that may result in increased aggressiveness/invasiveness and metastatic nature of cancerous cells may lead to changes in EMT markers. Therefore, these findings may suggest a plausible role of Ets-1 dependent regulation of MMP-9 gene and may have a significant impact on breast carcinogenesis.
Wu TK, Chen CH, Pan YR, et al.Cetrimonium Bromide Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatic SK-HEP-1 Cells Through Modulating the Canonical and Non-canonical TGF-β Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3621-3631 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a quaternary ammonium surfactant, is an antiseptic agent against bacteria and fungi. However, the mechanisms by which its pharmacological actions affect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, such as adenocarcinoma in SK-HEP-1 cells, have not been investigated. We, thereby, investigated whether CTAB inhibits cellular mobility and invasiveness of human hepatic adenocarcinoma in SK-HEP-1 cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SK-HEP-1 cells were treated with CTAB, and subsequent migration and invasion were measured by wound healing and transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunoblotting analysis.
RESULTS: Our data revealed that treatment of SK-HEP-1 cells with CTAB altered their mesenchymal spindle-like morphology. CTAB exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of SK-HEP-1 cells dose-dependently, and reduced protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, snail, slug, twist, vimentin, fibronectin, N-cadherin, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), p-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, β-catenin, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but increased protein levels of tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, claudin-1 and p-GSK3β. Based on these observations, we suggest that CTAB not only inhibits the canonical transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway though reducing SMADs (an acronym from the fusion of Caenorhabditis elegans Sma genes and the Drosophila Mad, Mothers against decapentaplegic proteins), but also restrains the non-canonical TGF-β signaling including MAPK pathways like ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK and PI3K.
CONCLUSION: CTAB is involved in the suppression of TGF-β-mediated mesenchymal phenotype and could be a potent medical agent for use in controlling the migration and invasion of hepatic adenocarcinoma.
Kishore C, Sundaram S, Karunagaran DVitamin K3 (menadione) suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal-transition and Wnt signaling pathway in human colorectal cancer cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 309:108725 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tumor recurrence and metastasis decrease the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Menadione reduces the numbers and incidences of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon tumors in mouse but the mechanism of anticancer activity of menadione in colorectal cancer is not very clear. Since Wnt signaling is constitutively active in CRC and it aggravates the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the regulation of EMT and Wnt signaling by menadione (vitamin K3) was investigated in CRC cells. Menadione showed cytotoxicity against human CRC cells (SW480 and SW620) and human primary colon cancer cells but was relatively ineffective against the cells from human normal colon (CRL-1790) and human primary colon epithelial cells. Menadione suppressed invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human CRC cells by upregulating the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), ZO-1 and downregulating that of N-cadherin (CDH2), Vimentin (VIM), ZEB1, MMP2 and MMP9. Menadione decreased TOPFlash/FOPFlash luciferase activity and expression of several downstream targets of Wnt signaling and coactivators such as β-catenin (CTNNB1), TCF7L2, Bcl9l, p300 (EP300) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) was suppressed. Menadione induced differentiation and increased apoptotic cell population in SubG0 phase of cell cycle in SW480 and SW620 cells. The ability of menadione to suppress EMT, migration, invasion, Wnt signaling, cell proliferation and induce Sub G0 arrest, highlights its potential to be considered for intensive preclinical and clinical investigation in CRC.
Ou J, Guan D, Yang YNon-contact co-culture with human vascular endothelial cells promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer SiHa cells by activating the NOTCH1/LOX/SNAIL pathway.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:39 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the cervical cancer cell line SiHa by studying the Notch1/lysyl oxidase (LOX)/SNAIL1 pathway.
Methods: Monocultures of SiHa cells, SiHa cells containing a control sequence, and
Results: Compared with monocultured SiHa cells, co-cultured SiHa cells showed a significant increase in their invasiveness and expression levels of vimentin, as well as of NOTCH 1, LOX, and SNAIL1, whereas their expression of E-cadherin was significantly reduced and protein activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased. Compared with SiHa, mono- and co-cultured
Conclusion: Co-culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells promoted the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of SiHa cells by activating the NOTCH1/LOX/SNAIL1 pathway in SiHa cells, which enhanced their invasive and metastatic capacities. The results of this study may provide a new perspective on cervical cancer metastasis and a theoretical basis for clinical treatment.
Extracellular ATP has been shown to play an important role in invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in breast cancer; however, the mechanism is unclear. Here, by using a cDNA microarray, we demonstrated that extracellular ATP could stimulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling and upregulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1/2α (HIF-1/2α) expression. After knocking down HIF-1/2α using siRNA, we found that ATP-driven invasion and EMT were significantly attenuated via HIF2A-siRNA in breast cancer cells. By using ChIP assays, we revealed that the biological function of extracellular ATP in invasion and EMT process depended on HIF-2α direct targets, among which lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mediated ATP-driven invasion, and E-cadherin and Snail mediated ATP-driven EMT, respectively. In addition, using silver staining and mass spectrometry, we found that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) could interact with HIF-2α and mediate ATP-driven HIF-2α upregulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that expressions of HIF-2α and its target proteins could be regulated via ATP by AKT-PGK1 pathway. Using a Balb/c mice model, we illustrated the function of HIF-2α in promoting tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, by exploring online databases, we found that molecules involved in ATP-HIF-2α signaling were highly expressed in human breast carcinoma tissues and were associated with poor prognosis. Altogether, these findings suggest that extracellular ATP could promote breast carcinoma invasion and EMT via HIF-2α signaling, which may be a potential target for future anti-metastasis therapy.
Ghasemi A, Saeidi J, Mohtashami M, Hashemy SIEstrogen-independent role of ERα in ovarian cancer progression induced by leptin/Ob-Rb axis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 458(1-2):207-217 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Leptin induces ovarian cancer cell invasion via overexpression of MMP7, MMP9, and upA. In addition, the key role of ERα in leptin-increased cell growth was indicated. However, the influence of ER on leptin-mediated cell invasion remains still unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the E2-independent effect of ERα/β on leptin-mediated cell invasion and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer. We utilized SKOV3 cancer (expressing OB-Rb and ERα/β, insensitive to estrogen) and OVCAR3 (expressing OB-Rb) cell lines to show the involvement of ER in leptin-mediated effects in an E2-independent manner. MTT, BrdU, and BD matrigel invasion assays were applied to analyze cell growth, proliferation, and invasion. The siRNA approach was used to confirm the role of ERα/β in leptin effects. Moreover, western blotting and Real-time PCR were employed to detect the OB-Rb, ER, MMP9/7, and upA proteins and mRNAs. Leptin, in the absence of E2, increased ERα expression in SKOV3 cells, which was attenuated using knockdown of OB-Rb gene by siRNA. The effect of leptin on the cell growth was promoted in the presence of PPT, but not in the presence of DNP and E2, which was lost when OB-Rb siRNA was transfected. Furthermore, ERα gene silencing and/or pre-incubation with ER antagonist (ICI 182,780, 10 nM) significantly reduced cell invasion and MMP9 expression stimulated by leptin. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that ERα, but not ERβ, is involved in leptin-induced ovarian cancer in an E2-independent manner, providing new evidence for cancer progression in obesity-associated ovarian cancer.
Gastric cancer is diagnosed in nearly one million new patients each year and it remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although gastric cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases, chronic inflammation has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis. Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumour initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment is important in maintaining normal tissue homeostasis or promoting tumour development. A plethora of immune cells (i.e., lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, Treg cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells) are components of gastric cancer microenvironment. Mast cell density is increased in gastric cancer and there is a correlation with angiogenesis, the number of metastatic lymph nodes and the survival of these patients. Mast cells exert a protumorigenic role in gastric cancer through the release of angiogenic (VEGF-A, CXCL8, MMP-9) and lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-C and VEGF-F). Gastric mast cells express the programmed death ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) which are relevant as immune checkpoints in cancer. Several clinical undergoing trials targeting immune checkpoints could be an innovative therapeutic strategy in gastric cancer. Elucidation of the role of subsets of mast cells in different human gastric cancers will demand studies of increasing complexity beyond those assessing merely mast cell density and microlocalization.
Hung CY, Lee CH, Chiou HL, et al.Praeruptorin-B Inhibits 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Cell Invasion by Targeting AKT/NF-κB via Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 Expression in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(6):1255-1266 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Praeruptorins, a seselin-type coumarin, possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor promoting properties. However, molecular mechanisms through which Praeruptorin-B (Pra-B) exerts an antimetastatic effect on cervical cancer cells remain unclear.
METHODS: Cell viability was examined using the MTT assay, whereas cell migration and invasion were examined using the Boyden chamber assay. Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Pra-B on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9) expression in HeLa cells. The findings of the luciferase assay confirmed the inhibitory effect of Pra-B on TPA-induced transcriptional activity of MMP2/-9 in HeLa cells.
RESULTS: Pra-B inhibited TPA-induced metastatic ability of human cervical cancer cells without any significant toxicity. Pra-B suppressed TPA-induced mRNA and protein expression and transcriptional activity of MMP-2/-9 in HeLa cells. Furthermore, Pra-B inhibited AKT phosphorylation but did not affect the MAPK pathway. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with TPA plus Pra-B or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) reduced cell invasion and MMP-2/-9 expression and transcriptional activity. In addition, Pra-B attenuated TPA-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65/-p50, which reduced Ikk-α phosphorylation in HeLa cells. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with TPA plus Pra-B or LY294002 reduced NF-κB nuclear translocation.
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that Pra-B-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced cell metastasis involved the suppression of p-AKT/NF-κB via MMP-2/-9 expression in HeLa cells. Pra-B can be a potential antimetastatic agent against cervical cancer.
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex (ARPC2) is an actin‑binding component involved in the regulation of actin polymerization. It mediates the formation of branched actin networks and contacts the mother actin filament. Migration and invasion are key processes which enable tumor cells to infiltrate blood vessels or lymphatic vessels, and the actin pathway plays a very important role. Given that ARPC2 is critical to this progression, the present study focused on ARPC2 activity in breast cancer (BrCa) cell invasion and migration. Limited data are available on the expression and role of ARPC2 proteins in breast carcinomas. We screened the Oncomine database for messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are upregulated in BrCa and found that ARPC2 was one of the most consistently involved mRNAs in BrCa. The analysis of immunohistochemical data revealed that ARPC2 expression was higher in breast cancerous tissues than in adjacent non‑cancerous tissues. In addition, ARPC2 was highly associated with the tumor stage, nodal metastasis, and overall survival of patients with BrCa. We performed siRNA‑ARPC2 transfection to investigate the effect of ARPC2 on the proliferation, migration, invasion and arrest of BrCa cells. It was revealed that ectopic ARPC2 expression significantly upregulated N‑cadherin, vimentin, ZEB1, MMP‑9 and MMP‑3 expression and also activated the TGF‑β pathway to contribute to epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). These results collectively indicated that ARPC2 promoted the tumorigenesis of breast carcinoma and the initiation of EMT. Therefore, ARPC2 was revealed to be a potential therapeutic target in patients with BrCa.
The ubiquitin‑specific protease 9X (USP9X) is a conserved deubiquitinase that has been investigated in several types of human cancer. However, the clinical significance and the biological roles of USP9X in prostate cancer remain unexplored. In the present study, an investigation into the expression and clinical significance of USP9X in prostate cancer revealed that USP9X expression was downregulated in prostate cancer tissues compared with that in healthy tissues. In addition, decreased USP9X expression was associated with a higher Gleason score and local invasion. Depletion of USP9X in prostate cancer LNCaP and PC‑3 cells by small interfering RNA promoted cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, USP9X depletion upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and the phosphorylation of dynamin‑related protein 1 (DRP1). Notably, a significant increase in phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), an upstream activator of MMP9 and DRP1, was observed. To investigate whether ERK activation was able to increase MMP9 protein levels and induce DRP1 phosphorylation, an ERK inhibitor was used, demonstrating that ERK‑mediated MMP9 production and change in mitochondrial function was critical for the biological function of USP9X in prostate cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that USP9X is downregulated in prostate cancer and functions as an inhibitor of tumor cell invasion, possibly through the regulation of the ERK signaling pathway.
Thammineni KL, Thakur GK, Kaur N, Banerjee BDSignificance of MMP-9 and VEGF-C expression in North Indian women with breast cancer diagnosis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 457(1-2):93-103 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-associated mortality and renders the targeted therapy fruitless in the patients of breast cancer. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C) are thought to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-C at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer and to correlate with lymph node metastasis and other clinicopathological characteristics. Biopsy specimens (N = 100) of breast cancer & benign breast disease (N = 100) were investigated for the mRNA expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-C by Real-time PCR and Protein expression by Western blot. Elevated levels of MMP-9 (p < 0.001) and VEGF-C (p < 0.001) expression were detected in breast cancer with corresponding to benign breast disease. Additionally, we found significantly increased levels of MMP-9 and VEGF-C in node-positive group with respect to node-negative group. Moreover, the levels of MMP-9 were significantly increased in larger tumor size (T3/T4) (p < 0.05) as compared to smaller size (T1/T2), which suggests that MMP-9 plays an important role in the progression of breast cancer. VEGF-C expression was associated with the TNM stage of tumor (p < 0.05). Further, a significant positive correlation was established between the mRNA levels of these two genes (p < 0.001). However, we could not obtain any significant correlation between expression of these genes with other clinicopathological parameters like tumor grade, age, menopausal status, and receptor status like ER, PR, and Her2. This study suggests that the high expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-C could act as markers for the tumor presence in breast cancer. In addition, this study recommends that expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-C was significantly associated with lymph node status and may provide valuable diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. Further, MMP-9 expression was associated with the tumor size and VEGF-C expression was correlated with the staging of the tumor, although no association was observed with other clinicopathological variables.
The main reasons for the inefficiency of standard glioblastoma (GBM) therapy are the occurrence of chemoresistance and the invasion of GBM cells into surrounding brain tissues. New therapeutic approaches obstructing these processes may provide substantial survival improvements. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of lipophilic antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to increase sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) and suppress glioma cell invasion. To that end, we used a previously established TMZ-resistant RC6 rat glioma cell line, characterized by increased production of ROS, altered antioxidative capacity, and high invasion potential. CoQ10 in combination with TMZ exerted a synergistic antiproliferative effect. These results were confirmed in a 3D model of microfluidic devices showing that the CoQ10 and TMZ combination is more cytotoxic to RC6 cells than TMZ monotherapy. In addition, cotreatment with TMZ increased expression of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes in RC6 cells. The anti-invasive potential of the combined treatment was shown by gelatin degradation, Matrigel invasion, and 3D spheroid invasion assays as well as in animal models. Inhibition of MMP9 gene expression as well as decreased N-cadherin and vimentin protein expression implied that CoQ10 can suppress invasiveness and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in RC6 cells. Therefore, our data provide evidences in favor of CoQ10 supplementation to standard GBM treatment due to its potential to inhibit GBM invasion through modulation of the antioxidant capacity.
Ding X, Li F, Zhang LKnockdown of Delta-like 3 restricts lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, migration and invasion of A2058 melanoma cells via blocking Twist1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Life Sci. 2019; 226:149-155 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of DLL3 in inflammation-mediated A2058 melanoma cell invasion and metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Melanoma A2058 cells was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with or without transfection of DLL3 siRNA, or DLL3 overexpression vector, or Twist1 siRNA. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell invasion assay. The production of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 was measured by ELISA. The expression of Notch signaling-related molecules was detected by PCR and western blot. The protein expression of MMP1, MMP9, VEGF, DLL3, and EMT-related molecules was tested by western blot.
KEY FINDINGS: LPS treatment increased migration and invasion of A2058 cells, accompanied by increased expression of TNF-α and IL-6. DLL3 was both upregulated in the LPS- or TNF-α-stimulated A2058 cells, and DLL3 knockdown inhibited LPS-induced inflammation, migration and invasion of A2058 cells, accompanied by down-regulation of MMP1, MMP9 and VEGF. Besides, DLL3 knockdown inhibits the expression of Twist1, a key EMT regulating factor, as well as the EMT hallmarks slug, N-cadherin and vimentin. Moreover, Twist1 silence inhibited EMT, and limited LPS-induced migration and invasion of A2058 cells, with decreased expression of MMP1, MMP9 and VEGF and reduced production of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated A2058 cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: Knockdown of DLL3 restricts LPS-induced inflammation, migration and invasion of A2058 melanoma cells via blocking Twist1-mediated EMT. Therefore, targeting DLL3 may be a promising therapeutic strategy against inflammation-aggravated melanoma progression.
Xu J, Wang Y, Li Z, et al.Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction (UTMD) Combined with Liposome Increases the Effectiveness of Suppressing Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) via Targeting Metadherin (MTDH) by ShRNA.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:2640-2648 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Reports show that ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a promising method of gene therapy, and metadherin (MTDH) is related to the development of breast cancer. Thus, we investigated the role of MTDH in breast cancer and compared the effect of suppressing MTDH by shRNA using liposome, UTMD, or the combination of these 2 methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS Graphing of survival curves of MTDH was analyzed by bioinformatics. UTMD was conducted using an ultrasonic therapeutic apparatus. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure cell viability. Migration and invasion rates were measured by wound healing test and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. The expression of MTDH, E-cadherin, metastasis-associated protein-1 (MTA-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were measured by Western blot and qPCR. RESULTS The prognosis of breast cancer can be decreased by the high expression of MTDH, and elevated expression of MTDH was discovered in MCF-7, MCF-10A, and T47D cell lines. UTMD combined with liposome is most efficient in transfecting shRNA, clearly suppressing the expression of MTDH and thereby decreasing cell viability, migration, invasion rate, and epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes in the MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSIONS UTMD combined with liposome could be used as a more efficient way to transfect shRNA into cells to suppress the expression of MTDH and thus lead to the downregulation of proliferation, migration, and EMT processes of the MCF-7 cell line, showing the potential for use in gene therapy.
Kim JHDi(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes lung cancer cell line A549 progression via Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
J Toxicol Sci. 2019; 44(4):237-244 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used in polyvinylchloride-based materials and remains intact in the environment. Lungs are one route of entry of DEHP into the body; however, there is limited information on the effects and mechanism of action of DEHP on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we addressed this by examining the effect of DEHP on the proliferation of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells by MTS assay. The induction of inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, were assessed by western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Although there were discrepancies in the concentration, DEHP treatment enhanced A549 cell viability accompanied by increased mRNA and protein levels of inflammation-related factors, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 and nuclear factor-κB. Additionally, EMT was activated in cells according to decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression. Furthermore, MAPK pathway components, including phosphorylated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, including phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β and β-catenin, as well as their downstream genes c-Myc and cyclin D1, were upregulated in the presence of DEHP. These results suggest that DEHP promotes NSCLC progression by promoting cell proliferation, inflammation, and EMT via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic head and neck cancer. Distant metastasis becomes the predominant mode of treatment failure in NPC patients. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), an active pharmaceutical component extracted from traditional Chinese medicine ginseng, shows antitumor effects in various cancers. In this study, we aimed to determine whether Rg3 inhibits the migration and invasion activity of NPC cells and to explore the possible mechanisms. Our results revealed that Rg3 hampers cell migration and invasion in both HNE1 and CNE2 cell lines. A reduced level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 was induced by Rg3 treatment. In addition, Rg3 significantly altered the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers with increased E-cadherin but decreased Vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Transforming growth factor
Hsieh SL, Hsieh S, Lai PY, et al.Carnosine Suppresses Human Colorectal Cell Migration and Intravasation by Regulating EMT and MMP Expression.
Am J Chin Med. 2019; 47(2):477-494 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide found in the vertebrate skeletal muscles that is usually obtained through the diet. To investigate the mechanism by which carnosine regulates the migration and intravasation of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, we used cultured HCT-116 cells as an experimental model in this study. We examined HCT-116 cell migratory and intravasive abilities and expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) after carnosine treatment. The results showed that both migration and invasion were inhibited in cells treated with carnosine. We found significant decreases in Twist-1 protein levels and increases in E-cadherin protein levels in HCT-116 cells after carnosine exposure. Although plasminogen activator (uPA) and MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels were decreased, TIMP-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased. Furthermore, the cytosolic levels of phosphorylated I
Ding Q, Li X, Sun Y, Zhang XSchizandrin A inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of thyroid cancer cell line TPC-1 by down regulation of microRNA-429.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(4):497-508 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Schizandrin A (SchA) exerts anticancer potential. However, the effects of SchA on thyroid cancer (TC) have not been clear illuminated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SchA on TC cell line TPC-1 and the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: TPC-1 cells were treated with SchA and/or transfected with miR-429 mimic, anti-miR-429 and their corresponding negative controls (NC). Cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion and cell apoptosis were examined by CCK-8 assay, bromodeoxyuridine, modified two-chamber migration assay, Millicell Hanging Cell Culture and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expression of miR-429, p16, Cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 4 (CDK4), matrix metalloprotein (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and Vimentin was detected by qRT-PCR. All protein expression was examined by western blot.
RESULTS: SchA inhibited cell proliferation, metastasis and induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, SchA negatively regulated miR-429 expression. Treatment with miR-429 mimic and SchA reversed the results led by SchA and NC. Furthermore, the phosphorylation β-catenin, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were statistically down-regulated by SchA while co-treatment with miR-429 mimic and SchA led to the opposite trend. Moreover, miR-429 knockdown showed contrary results.
CONCLUSION: SchA inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion and inactivates Wnt/β-catenin and MEK/ERK signaling pathways by down regulating miR-429.
Guan Y, Luan Y, Xie Y, et al.Chloride channel-3 is required for efficient tumour cell migration and invasion in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(3):661-669 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) plays significant roles in various physiological and physiopathological activities, including cell migration and invasion ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ClC-3 influences the migration and invasion of cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells and its possible mechanisms.
METHODS: Paraffin-embedded cervical tissues, including normal cervical tissues, cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and homologous paracancerous tissues, were collected. The cervical squamous cell carcinoma and matched paracarcinoma fresh tissues specimens were collected from 49 patients with SCC, and the normal cervical tissues were collected from 45 non-cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. The human cervical squamous carcinoma cell line SiHa was cultured. ClC-3 expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and the expression of phospho-PI3K/Akt/mTOR and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was detected by Western blot. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology was used to knockdown ClC-3 expression. SiHa cell migration and invasion ability were measured using Transwell assays with or without Matrigel-coated membranes.
RESULTS: ClC-3 mRNA and protein expression in SCC tissues from cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly upregulated, and no significant difference was noted between the matched paracarcinoma fresh tissue from the same patients and non-cervical cancer patients. SiHa cell migration and invasion and phospho-PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MMP-9 expression were attenuated by knocking down ClC-3 expression using ClC-3 siRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: ClC-3 participates in the processes of SCC cell migration and invasion and regulates MMP-9 expression via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Sherman-Samis M, Onallah H, Holth A, et al.SOX2 and SOX9 are markers of clinically aggressive disease in metastatic high-grade serous carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(3):651-660 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the expression, biological role and clinical relevance of cancer stem cell markers in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC).
METHODS: mRNA expression by qRT-PCR of NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SOX4, SOX9, LIN28A and LIN28B was analyzed in 134 HGSC specimens (84 effusions, 50 surgical specimens). Nanog, OCT3/4, SOX2 and SOX9 protein expression by immunohistochemistry was analyzed in 52 HGSC effusions. Nanog protein expression in exosomes from 80 HGSC effusions was studied by Western Blotting. OVCAR3 cells underwent CRISPR/Cas9 Nanog knockout (KO), and the effect of Nanog KO on migration, invasion, proliferation and proteolytic activity was analyzed in OVCAR3 and OVCAR8 cells.
RESULTS: OCT4 mRNA was overexpressed in effusions compared to solid specimens (p = 0.046), whereas SOX9 was overexpressed in the ovarian tumors compared to effusions and solid metastases (p = 0.003). Higher SOX2 and SOX9 expression was associated with primary (intrinsic) chemoresistance (p = 0.009 and p = 0.02, respectively). Higher SOX9 levels were associated with shorter overall survival in univariate (p = 0.04) and multivariate (p = 0.049) analysis. OCT3/4, SOX2 and SOX9 proteins were found in HGSC cells, whereas Nanog was detected only in exosomes. Higher SOX2 protein expression was associated with shorter overall survival in univariate analysis (p = 0.049). OVCAR cells exposed to OVCAR3 NANOG KO exosomes had reduced migration, invasion and MMP9 activity.
CONCLUSIONS: SOX2 and SOX9 mRNA levels in HGSC effusions may be markers of clinically aggressive disease. Nanog is secreted in HGSC exosomes in effusions and modulates tumor-promoting cellular processes in vitro.
Pacheco-Velázquez SC, Gallardo-Pérez JC, Díaz D, et al.Heart myxoma develops oncogenic and metastatic phenotype.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(5):1283-1295 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Heart myxomas have been frequently considered as benign lesions associated with Carney's complex. However, after surgical removal, myxomas re-emerge causing dysfunctional heart.
METHODS: To identify whether cardiac myxomas may develop a metastatic phenotype as occurs in malignant cancers, a profile of several proteins involved in malignancy such as oncogenes (c-MYC, K-RAS and H-RAS), cancer-associated metabolic transcriptional factors (HIF-1α, p53 and PPAR-γ) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins (fibronectin, vimentin, β-catenin, SNAIL and MMP-9) were evaluated in seven samples from a cohort of patients with atrial and ventricular myxomas. The analysis was also performed in: (1) cardiac tissue surrounding the area where myxoma was removed; (2) non-cancer heart tissue (NCHT); and (3) malignant triple negative breast cancer biopsies for comparative purposes.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis applying univariate (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests) and multivariate analyses (PCA, principal component analysis) revealed that heart myxomas (7-15 times) and myxoma surrounding tissue (22-99 times) vs. NCHT showed high content of c-MYC, p53, vimentin, and HIF-1α, indicating that both myxoma and its surrounding area express oncogenes and malignancy-related proteins as occurs in triple negative breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on ROC (receiver operating characteristics) statistical analysis, c-MYC, HIF-1α, p53, and vimentin may be considered potential biomarkers for malignancy detection in myxoma.
Afshar E, Hashemi-Arabi M, Salami S, et al.Screening of acetaminophen-induced alterations in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related expression of microRNAs in a model of stem-like triple-negative breast cancer cells: The possible functional impacts.
Gene. 2019; 702:46-55 [PubMed
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Current protocols for therapy inefficiently targets triple negative breast cancer and barely eradicate cancer stem cells. Elucidation of the pleiotropic effect of clinically proven therapeutics on cancer cells shed light on novel application of old friends. The pleiotropic effect of acetaminophen (APAP) on breast cancer was previously reported. In a cell model of triple negative breast cancer with stem-like CD44
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a type of head and neck cancer. This study aimed to study the mechanisms of ectopic keratin 6A (KRT6A) in NPC. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting were performed to detect KRT6A levels in NPC cell lines (C666‑1, 5‑8F and SUNE‑1) and a nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line (NP69, as a control). After SUNE‑1 NPC cells had been silenced by KRT6A, cell viability, metastasis and invasion were determined using Cell Counting Kit‑8, wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. KRT6A levels, metastasis‑associated factors and the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway were measured using RT‑qPCR and western blotting. It was demonstrated that KRT6A was upregulated in all detected NPC cells, among which KRT6A was the highest in SUNE‑1 cells. In SUNE‑1 cells, cell viability was inhibited at 24 and 48 h, and that cell metastasis and invasion were demonstrated to be suppressed by KRT6A silencing. Both the mRNA and protein levels of KRT6A, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, MMP‑9, β‑catenin, lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 and T‑cell specific factor 4 were reduced in the small interfering (si)KRT6A group. However, the results demonstrated that the levels of epithelial‑cadherin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase‑2 (TIMP‑2) were promoted in the siKRT6A group. The activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway by lithium chloride reversed the effect of si‑KRT6A by modulating the expression of MMP‑2/9 and TIMP2. It was observed that KRT6A silencing suppressed cell invasion and metastasis of NPC via the β‑catenin cascade. Together these results provide important insights into a novel approach for the diagnosis and treatment of NPC.
Zhang H, Dong R, Zhang P, Wang YSongorine suppresses cell growth and metastasis in epithelial ovarian cancer via the Bcl‑2/Bax and GSK3β/β‑catenin signaling pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):3069-3079 [PubMed
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most frequent cause of cancer‑associated mortality among all types of gynecological cancer. The high recurrence rate and the poor 5‑year survival rate indicate that more effective therapeutic strategies are required. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and potential mechanisms of songorine in treating EOC. EOC cells were cultured with different concentrations of songorine, following which MTT and flow cytometric analyses were conducted to measure cell viability and apoptosis. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect cell migration and invasion abilities. Furthermore, associated molecules in the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)‑3β/β‑catenin and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)/Bcl‑2‑associated X (Bax) signaling pathways were semi‑quantified by western blotting. Finally, tumor size measurements, pathological observations, western blot analysis and toxicological evaluations were performed in SKOV‑3 tumor‑bearing BALB/c nude mice to investigate the efficacy and safety of songorine. As expected, songorine inhibited EOC cell survival, invasion and migration, promoted EOC cell apoptosis and suppressed mammalian EOC tumorigenic behavior. In particular, GSK3β inhibitor treatment restored the songorine‑induced regulation of the GSK3β/β‑catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, songorine consistently downregulated the expression of N‑cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, MMP‑9, phosphorylated‑GSK3β, β‑catenin and Bcl‑2, and upregulated the expression of E‑cadherin, cleaved caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑9 and Bax. In conclusion, songorine exerted its anticancer effect through the GSK3β/β‑catenin and Bcl‑2/Bax signaling pathways. These results highlight the potential use of songorine as a novel therapeutic agent for EOC.
BACKGROUND: Swainsonine is a natural indolizidine alkaloid, its anti-tumor activity has been widely reported in varied cancers. This study aimed to investigate whether Swainsonine exerted anti-tumor impact on glioma cells, likewise uncovered the relative molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: After administration with diverse concentrations of Swainsonine, cell growth, migration and invasion in U251 and LN444 cells were appraised by the common-used CCK-8, BrdU, flow cytometry and Transwell assays. MiR-92a mimic, inhibitor and the correlative NC were transfected into U251 and LN444 cells, and assessment of miR-92a expression was by utilizing qRT-PCR. Functions of miR-92a in above-mentioned cell biological processes were analyzed again in Swainsonine-treated cells. The momentous proteins of cell cycle, apoptosis and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were ultimately examined by western blot.
RESULTS: Swainsonine significantly hindered cell proliferation through decreasing cell viability, declining the percentage of BrdU cells, down-regulating CyclinD1 and up-regulating p16 expression. Enhancement of percentage of apoptotic cells was presented in Swainsonine-treated cells via activating cleaved-Caspase-3 and cleaved-Caspase-9. Additionally, Swainsonine impeded the abilities of migration and invasion by decreasing MMP-2, MMP-9, Vimentin and E-cadherin. Repression of miR-92a was observed in Swainsonine-treated cells, and miR-92a overexpression overturned the anti-tumor activity of Swainsonine in glioma cells. Finally, western blot assay displayed that Swainsonine hindered PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway via regulating miR-92a.
CONCLUSIONS: These discoveries corroborated that Swainsonine exerted anti-tumor impacts on glioma cells via repression of miR-92a, and inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are capable of degrading and modifying most components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the basal membrane (BM), and play crucial roles in cancer invasion and metastasis. MMP gene expressions were regulated primarily at the transcriptional level, which was associated with tumor spread and patient prognosis. Polymorphisms in MMPs have been reported to be associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study aim to evaluate the serum levels and polymorphisms of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in non-small cell lung cancer patients compared to normal subjects and their correlation to non-small cell lung cancer histopathology findings in Southern Chinese people.
METHODS: This case⁻control study included 245 patients with NSCLC and 258 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was extracted by using DNA extraction kit, genotyping was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct DNA sequencing, and serum levels of MMP-9 and MMP-13 were measured by using a specific ELISA, Human Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 23.0 software package.
RESULTS: The subjects carrying the TT genotype had a decreased risk of lung cancer in MMP9-1562C/T comparing with the CC genotype (
CONCLUSIONS: The results of these analyses underline the support of the notion that the CC genotype of MMP9-1562C/T and GG genotypes of MMP13-77G/A were associated with the increased risk NSCLC, and the serum levels of MMP9 and MMP13 were consistent with the results of the SNP analysis. MMP13 and MMP9 might be function as a key oncogene in NSCLC with a Southern Chinese population. Combined detection of SNP and enzyme activity between MMP9 and MMP13 are expected to be a potential diagnostic method of non-small cell lung cancer.
Tuponchai P, Kukongviriyapan V, Prawan A, et al.Myricetin ameliorates cytokine-induced migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells via suppression of STAT3 pathway.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jan-Mar; 15(1):157-163 [PubMed
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Aim of Study: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Various cytokines secreted by tumor cells or cells in the tumor environment can promote the metastasis of CCA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of myricetin on the inhibition of cytokine-induced migration and invasion and the associated cellular mechanisms in human CCA cells.
Materials and Methods: CCA KKU-100 cells were treated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture consisting of interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α. The migratory and invasive ability of KKU-100 cells were determined using a wound-healing assay and transwell invasion assay. The effect of myricetin on cytokine-induced STAT3 activation in CCA cells was determined using Western blot analysis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine messenger RNA expression.
Results: Myricetin significantly inhibited cytokine-induced migration and invasion of KKU-100 cells. Detailed molecular analyses revealed that myricetin suppressed the activation of the STAT3 pathway, evidently by a decrease of the active phospho-STAT3 protein expression after myricetin treatment. The cytokine-mediated upregulation of metastasis- and inflammatory-associated genes, which are downstream genes of STAT3 including the intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), were also significantly abolished by myricetin treatment. Moreover, the anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of a widely prescribed COX inhibitor, indomethacin, were also revealed.
Conclusion: This finding reveals the anti-metastatic effect of myricetin against CCA cells which is mediated partly through suppression of the STAT3 pathway. This compound could be potentially useful as a therapeutic agent against CCA.