MMP9

Gene Summary

Gene:MMP9; matrix metallopeptidase 9
Aliases: GELB, CLG4B, MMP-9, MANDP2
Location:20q13.12
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The enzyme encoded by this gene degrades type IV and V collagens. Studies in rhesus monkeys suggest that the enzyme is involved in IL-8-induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow, and murine studies suggest a role in tumor-associated tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:matrix metalloproteinase-9
Source:NCBIAccessed: 12 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 12 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • VEGFA
  • Cell Movement
  • Wound Healing
  • SMAD3
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • VHL
  • Tyrphostins
  • Russia
  • alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Young Adult
  • Tumor Burden
  • Up-Regulation
  • Chromosome 20
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Signal Transduction
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family
  • Wnt3A Protein
  • Transfection
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
  • TRPC Cation Channels
  • eIF-2 Kinase
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • RTPCR
  • Cervical Cancer
  • TIMP1
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • TIMP2
  • Xenograft Models
  • MMP9
  • BCL2 protein
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Survival Rate
  • Transcription Factors
  • ROC Curve
Tag cloud generated 12 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP9 (cancer-related)

Glebauskiene B, Liutkeviciene R, Vilkeviciute A, et al.
Does MMP-9 Gene Polymorphism Play a Role in Pituitary Adenoma Development?
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:5839528 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Purpose. To determine if the MMP-9 genotype has an influence on development of pituitary adenoma (PA). Methodology. The study enrolled n = 86 patients with PA and n = 526 healthy controls (reference group). The genotyping of MMP-9 was carried out using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results. Our data demonstrated that the MMP-9 (-1562) C/C genotype was more frequent in PA group than in healthy controls (81.4% versus 64.6%, p = 0.002); C/C genotype was more frequently present in PA females compared to healthy control females, 81.5% versus 64.6%, p = 0.018, as well. MMP-9 (-1562) C/C genotype was frequently observed for all subgroups: noninvasive and invasive, nonrecurrence, and inactive PA compared to healthy controls: 81.8% versus 64.6%, p = 0.021; 81.0% versus 64.6%, p = 0.041; 81.8% versus 64.6%, p = 0.005; 100.0% versus 64.6%, p < 0.001, respectively. MMP-9 (-1562) C/C genotype was more frequent in inactive PA compared to active PA: 100.0% versus 71.4%; p < 0.001. Conclusion. MMP-9 (-1562) C/C genotype plays a role in nonrecurrence, inactive, and invasive as well as in nonivasive PA development.

Long H, Liang C, Zhang X, et al.
Prediction and Analysis of Key Genes in Glioblastoma Based on Bioinformatics.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:7653101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding the mechanisms of glioblastoma at the molecular and structural level is not only interesting for basic science but also valuable for biotechnological application, such as the clinical treatment. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis was performed to reveal and identify the key genes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The results obtained in the present study signified the importance of some genes, such as COL3A1, FN1, and MMP9, for glioblastoma. Based on the selected genes, a prediction model was built, which achieved 94.4% prediction accuracy. These findings might provide more insights into the genetic basis of glioblastoma.

Agosto-Arroyo E, Isayeva T, Wei S, et al.
Differential Gene Expression in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast Based on ERBB2 Status.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):102-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular signature of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the breast is not well understood. Erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 [formerly known as HER2/neu]) positivity in DCIS is predictive of coexistent early invasive breast carcinoma. The aim of this study is to identify the gene-expression signature profiles of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes of DCIS.
METHODS: Based on ER, PR, and ERBB2 status, a total of 18 high nuclear grade DCIS cases with no evidence of invasive breast carcinoma were selected along with 6 non-neoplastic controls. The 3 study groups were defined as ER/PR-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes.
RESULTS: A total of 49 genes were differentially expressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with the ER/PR-positive and triple-negative groups. PROM1 was overexpressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with ER/PR-positive and triple-negative subtypes. Other genes differentially expressed included TAOK1, AREG, AGR3, PEG10, and MMP9.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified unique gene signatures in ERBB2-positive DCIS, which may be associated with the development of invasive breast carcinoma. The results may enhance our understanding of the progression of breast cancer and become the basis for developing new predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets for DCIS.

Zhang LQ, Yang SQ, Wang Y, et al.
Long Noncoding RNA MIR4697HG Promotes Cell Growth and Metastasis in Human Ovarian Cancer.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2017; 2017:8267863 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the three most common gynecological malignant tumors worldwide. The prognosis of patients suffering from this malignancy remains poor because of limited therapeutic strategies. Herein, we investigated the role of a long noncoding RNA named MIR4697 host gene (MIR4697HG) in the cell growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Results showed that the transcriptional level of MIR4697HG in cancerous tissues increased twofold compared with that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. MIR4697HG was differentially expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, with the highest levels in OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. MIR4697HG knockdown by specific shRNA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in both OVCAR3 and SKOC3 cells. Consistently, in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer, MIR4697HG depletion also significantly restricted tumor volumes and weights. Furthermore, MIR4697HG knockdown inhibited cell migration and invasion capacities. Invasion ability was inhibited by 58% in SKOV3 cells and 40% in OVCAR3 cells, and migration ability was inhibited by 73% in SKOV3 cells and 62% in OVCAR3 cells after MIR4697HG knockdown. MIR4697HG knockdown also caused a decrease in matrix metalloprotease-9, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated AKT. These data suggested that MIR4697HG promoted ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. The aggressive role of MIR4697HG in ovarian cancer may be related to the ERK and AKT signaling pathways.

Shui Y, Yu X, Duan R, et al.
miR-130b-3p inhibits cell invasion and migration by targeting the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in breast carcinoma.
Gene. 2017; 609:80-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women, and the incidence rate has increased dramatically in recent years. Metastasis is responsible for most advanced breast cancer mortality, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood despite extensive research. Recently, short non-coding RNA molecules, including miRNAs, which mediate changes in signalling pathways, have emerged as metastatic regulators of the breast carcinoma. Previous reports have suggested that miR-130b-3p has both oncogenic and tumour suppressor functions in a cancer type-dependent manner. However, the roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-130b-3p in the development of metastasis in breast carcinoma remain unclear. Here, we reported for the first time that miR-130b-3p was differentially expressed in early-stage non-invasive MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells and aggressive late-stage MDA-MB-231 cells. In gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that miR-130b-3p could inhibit breast carcinoma cell invasion and migration by directly targeting the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1). Our data also indicated that MMP-9, MMP-13, and VEGF were regulated by miR-130b-3p and may be involved in the inhibition of cell invasion and migration in breast carcinoma. Collectively, our findings reveal a new regulatory mechanism of miR-130b-3p and suggest that miR-130b-3p may be a potential target against human breast cancer metastasis.

Leopizzi M, Cocchiola R, Milanetti E, et al.
IKKα inibition by a glucosamine derivative enhances Maspin expression in osteosarcoma cell line.
Chem Biol Interact. 2017; 262:19-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation has been associated to cancer development by the alteration of several inflammatory pathways, such as Nuclear Factor-κB pathway. In particular, IκB kinase α (IKKα), one of two catalytic subunit of IKK complex, has been described to be associated to cancer progression and metastasis in a number of cancers. The molecular mechanism by which IKKα affects cancer progression is not yet completely clarified, anyway an association between IKKα and the expression of Maspin (Mammary Serine Protease Inhibitor or SerpinB5), a tumor suppressor protein, has been described. IKKα shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus, and when is localized into the nuclei, IKKα regulates the expression of several genes, among them Maspin gene, whose expression is repressed by high amount of nuclear IKKα. Considering that high levels of Maspin have been associated with reduced metastatic progression, it could be hypothesized that the repression of IKKα nuclear translocation could be associated with the repression of metastatic phenotype. The present study is aimed to explore the ability of a glucosamine derivative, 2-(N-Carbobenzyloxy)l-phenylalanylamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucose (NCPA), synthesized in our laboratory, to stimulate the production of Maspin in an osteosarcoma cell line, 143B. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting experiments showed that NCPA is able to inhibit IKKα nuclear translocation, and to stimulate Maspin production. Moreover, in association with stimulation of Maspin production we found the decrease of β1 Integrin expression, the down-regulation of metalloproteases MMP-9 and MMP-13 production and cell migration inhibition. Taking in account that β1 Integrin and MMP-9 and -13 have been correlated with the invasiveness of osteosarcoma, considering that NCPA affects the invasiveness of 143B cell line, we suggest that this molecule could affect the osteosarcoma metastatic ability.

Zhang L, Jia G, Shi B, et al.
PRSS8 is Downregulated and Suppresses Tumour Growth and Metastases in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(3-4):757-769 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protease serine 8 (PRSS8), a trypsin-like serine peptidase, has been shown to function as a tumour suppressor in various malignancies. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern, prognostic value and the biological role of PRSS8 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: PRSS8 expression in 106 HCC surgical specimens was examined by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, and its clinical significance was analysed. The role of PRSS8 in cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were examined in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: PRSS8 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in most HCC tumours from that in matched adjacent non-tumour tissues. Low intratumoral PRSS8 expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS) in patients with HCC (P = 0.001). PRSS8 expression was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.704, P = 0.009). Furthermore, restoring PRSS8 expression in high metastatic HCCLM3 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. In contrast, silencing PRSS8 expression in non-metastatic HepG2 cells significantly enhanced cell growth and invasion. Moreover, our in vivo data revealed that attenuated PRSS8 expression in HepG2 cells greatly promoted tumour growth, while overexpression of PRSS8 remarkably inhibited tumour growth in an HCCLM3 xenograft model. Enhanced cell growth and invasion ability mediated by the loss of PRSS8 expression was associated with downregulation of PTEN, Bax and E-cadherin and an upregulation in Bcl-2, MMP9 and N-cadherin.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that PRSS8 may serve as a tumour suppressor in HCC progression, and represent a valuable prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for HCC.

Kim NI, Kim GE, Lee JS, Park MH
In phyllodes tumors of the breast expression of SPARC (osteonectin/BM40) mRNA by in situ hybridization correlates with protein expression by immunohistochemistry and is associated with tumor progression.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):91-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) plays an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The present work was undertaken to detect expression of SPARC mRNA in phyllodes tumors (PTs) and its association with SPARC protein expression. This study also evaluated expression of SPARC mRNA and its correlation between grade and clinical behavior of PTs. In addition, we assessed in PTs the association of expression of SPARC with that of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and of MMP-9. SPARC mRNA expression was determined by RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH) in 50 benign, 22 borderline, and 10 malignant PTs using a tissue microarray. Furthermore, we applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) to examine expression of SPARC, MMP-2, and MMP-9. SPARC mRNA appeared to be concentrated mainly in the stromal compartment of PTs. IHC staining patterns of SPARC protein showed concordance with SPARC mRNA ISH results. Stromal SPARC expression increased continuously as PTs progress from benign through borderline to malignant PTs, both at mRNA (using ISH) (P = 0.044) and protein level (using IHC) (P = 0.000). The recurrence percentage was higher in the stromal SPARC mRNA or protein-positive group than in the SPARC-negative group but this difference was not statistically significant. Stromal SPARC mRNA and protein expression was associated with PT grade and correlated with MMP-2 expression. These results indicate that SPARC-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix, and its possible association with MMPs, might contribute to progression of PTs.

Liang P, Song Z, Chen D, et al.
GINS2 regulates matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression and cancer stem cell property in human triple negative Breast cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1568-1574 [PubMed] Related Publications
GINS2, a subunit of GINS complex, is critical for the initiation of DNA replication and DNA replication fork progression. The expression of GINS2 is misregulated in many malignant tumors, such as leukemia, breast cancer and melanoma. However, the role of GINS in breast cancer remains poorly characterized. We investigate the possible effect and particular mechanism of GINS in breast cancer cells. We showed that expression of GINS2 is enriched in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Furthermore, GINS2 knockdown decreased the growth, invasive ability and stem-like property of TNBC cells. Mechanistically, silencing of GINS2 in TNBC cells caused dramatic decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Finally, the abundance of GINS2 correlated with the advance stages of tumor in human TNBC patients. Our studies provided insight into the molecular regulation of TNBC progression and invasion. More importantly, our data suggest that GINS2 could be an outstanding therapeutic target for inhibiting invasive TNBC growth and metastasis.

Zhou M, Wang S, Hu L, et al.
miR-199a-5p suppresses human bladder cancer cell metastasis by targeting CCR7.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) overexpression correlated with lymphatic metastasis and poor prognosis is a major obstacle to bladder cancer treatment. Recent studies have revealed that miR-199a-5p was significantly abnormal expressed in several solid tumors and functioned as oncogene or tumor suppressor. This study was aimed to further investigate the effects of miR-199a-5p on the cell metastasis mediated by CCR7 in bladder cancer.
METHODS: Quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR) was firstly performed to identified the expression of miR-199a-5p and CCR7 in human bladder cancer samples and cell lines. Following that, the effects of miR-199a-5p on cell migratory and invasive activities were assessed by wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. Finally, luciferase reporter assay and western blot were employed to investigate whether CCR7 could directly interact with miR-199a-5p.
RESULTS: miR-199a-5p downregulation and CCR7 upregulation were firstly observed in bladder cancer samples and cell lines. In addition, both miR-199a-5p downregulation and CCR7 upregulation were significantly involved in bladder cancer clinicopathological features. Moreover, overexpression of miR-199a-5p could inhibit baldder cancer cell migration and invasion. miR-199a-5p was confirmed to be able to target the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of CCR7 and regulate the expression of CCR7, Matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-related proteins.
CONCLUSION: Our findings added newer insights into the multifaceted role played by miR-199a-5p/CCR7 in bladder cancer, prompting for the first time this miRNA/chemokine axis that regulates cell metastasis. The results strongly supported miR-199a-5p as a potential therapeutic agent and diagnostic marker of bladder cancer.

Rahman FU, Ali A, Khan IU, et al.
Novel phenylenediamine bridged mixed ligands dimetallic square planner Pt(II) complex inhibits MMPs expression via p53 and caspase-dependent signaling and suppress cancer metastasis and invasion.
Eur J Med Chem. 2017; 125:1064-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel phenylenediamine bridged mixed ligands dimetallic square planner Pt(II) complex (L-Pt-Py) was synthesized from simple commercially available precursors in good yield and characterized by (1)H, (13)C, 2D NOESY NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). The stability of L-Pt-Py was checked by (1)H NMR in mixed DMSO-d6/D2O solvents. L-Pt-Py showed considerable in vitro cytotoxicity in lung (A549), breast (MCF-7) and liver (HepG2) cancer cell lines and strong in vivo growth inhibition in Escherichia coli (E. coli). These results were compared to the well-known market available platinum anticancer drug cisplatin. L-Pt-Py has strong ability to suppress the growth of multiple cancer cells. Mechanistically, it enhanced p53 protein expression and regulated p53-dependent genes expression such as p21, PUMA, MYC and hTERT. The TUNEL assay showed that L-Pt-Py induced cell death in cancer cells. Inhibition of caspase signaling with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suggested that cell death induced by this complex was caspase-dependent. Importantly, L-Pt-Py has the ability to suppress the invasion and migration of human lung and luminal-like breast cancer cells. Similarly L-Pt-Py suppressed the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7 and MMP-9 to inhibit lung and breast cancer cell metastasis. L-Pt-Py showed stronger inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and also resulted in filamentous morphology of bacterial cells. The gel electrophoresis study of DNA migration revealed the strong interaction of L-Pt-Py with DNA. Taken altogether, L-Pt-Py was highly stable and the in vitro and in vivo biological study results corroborated this complex to be effective anticancer agent.

Shen KH, Li CF, Chien LH, et al.
Role of galectin-1 in urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cell invasion through the JNK pathway.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(10):1390-1398 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human galectin-1 is a member of the galectin family, proteins with conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains that bind galactoside. Galectin-1 is highly expressed in various tumors and participates in various oncogenic processes. However, detailed descriptions of the function of galectin-1 in urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma have not been reported. Our previous cohort investigation showed that galectin-1 is associated with tumor invasiveness and is a possible independent prognostic marker of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma. The present study aimed to clarify the relevance of galectin-1 expression level to tumor progression and invasion. In order to decipher a mechanism for the contribution of galectin-1 to the malignant behavior of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma, two bladder cancer cell lines (T24 and J82) were established with knockdown of galectin-1 expression by shRNA. Bladder cancer cells with LGALS1 gene silencing showed reduced cell proliferation, lower invasive capability, and lower clonogenicity. Extensive signaling pathway studies indicated that galectin-1 participated in bladder cancer cell invasion by mediating the activity of MMP9 through the Ras-Rac1-MEKK4-JNK-AP1 signaling pathway. Our functional analyses of galectin-1 in urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma provided novel insights into the critical role of galectin-1 in tumor progression and invasion. These results revealed that silencing the galectin-1-mediated MAPK signaling pathway presented a novel strategy for bladder cancer therapy.

Eiro N, Fernandez-Gomez J, Sacristán R, et al.
Stromal factors involved in human prostate cancer development, progression and castration resistance.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):351-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To detect new predictive markers from the prostate cancer tissue, to study the expression by cultured cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of stromal factors implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and to compare their expressions in localized, metastatic, castration-sensitive (CSCP), castration-resistant prostate tumors (CRCP) as well as in fibroblasts from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic expression of 20 stroma-derived factors, including the androgen receptor (AR), growth factors (FGF2, FGF7, FGF10, HGF, TGFβ, PDGFB), protein implicated in invasion (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11), inflammation (IL-6, IL-17, STAT-3 and NFκB), stroma/epithelium interaction (CDH11, FAP, CXCL12 and CXCL14) and chaperones (HPA1A and HSF1), was evaluated in cultured fibroblasts both from BHP and prostate carcinomas (PCa). After isolation and culture of fibroblasts by biopsy specimens, RNA was isolated and genomic studies performed.
RESULTS: Finally, 5 BPH and 37 PCa specimens were selected: clinically localized (19), metastatic (5), CSCP (7) and CRPC (6). Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17RB) was highly expressed in CAFs compared with fibroblasts from BPH. However, metalloproteinase-2 and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were expressed at higher levels by fibroblasts from BPH. The fibroblastic growth factor-7 was highly expressed by CAFs from localized tumors, but metalloproteinase-11 in metastatic tumors. MMP-11, androgen receptor (AR) and heat-shock-70kda-protein-1A (HSPA1A) expressions were significantly higher in CAFs from CRPC.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a CAFs heterogeneity among prostate carcinomas with regard to some molecular profile expressions that may be relevant in tumor development (IL-17RB), progression (MMP-11) and castration resistance (AR, MMP-11 and HSPA1A).

Hu R, Hu F, Xie X, et al.
TMEM45B, up-regulated in human lung cancer, enhances tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12181-12191 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transmembrane protein 45B (TMEM45B) is a member of TMEMs. Altered expression of TMEMs is frequently observed in a variety of human cancers, but the expression and functional roles of TMEM45B in lung cancer is not reported. In the present study, levels of mRNA expression of TMEM45B in lung cancer tissues were assessed using re-analyzing expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung cancer cohort and real-time PCR analysis on our own cohort. Lung cancer cells, A549 and NCI-H1975, infected with TMEM45B short hairpin RNA were examined in cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis, wound-healing, and cell invasion assays as well as mouse xenograft models. Here, we demonstrated that TMEM45B was overexpressed in lung cancer and its expression correlated with overall survival of patients. In addition, silencing of TMEM45B expression reduced cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis, and blocked cell migration and invasion. Moreover, knockdown of TMEM45B significantly suppressed G1/S transition, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins (CDK2, CDC25A, and PCNA), cell apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl2, Bax, and Cleaved Caspase 3), and metastasis-related proteins (MMP-9, Twist, and Snail), respectively. Thus, TMEM45B is a potential prognostic marker and cancer-selective therapeutic target in lung cancer.

Shin SY, Kim CG, Jung YJ, et al.
Euphorbia humifusa Willd exerts inhibition of breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis through inhibition of TNFα-induced MMP-9 expression.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16(1):413 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in women worldwide. Euphorbia humifusa Willd (EuH) is a plant that is widely used as a traditional medicine. However, no systemic studies on the anti-cancer effects of EuH have been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-metastatic effect of the EuH.
METHODS: Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared from EuH methanol extracts (EA/EuH). Inhibitory effect of EA/EuH on cell migration was determined using an in vitro scratch-wound healing assay. The anti-invasive activity was determined by in vitro three-dimensional spheroid culture system and in vivo syngenic experimental lung metastasis experiment. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by using RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay systems.
RESULTS: Ethyl acetate fraction from the EuH extract (EA/EuH) inhibited the migration and invasive capabilities of highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and attenuated syngeneic lung metastasis of mouse 4 T1 breast cancer cells in vivo. Mechanistically, EA/EuH decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA expression through the inhibition of NF-κB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.
CONCLUSION: EuH may be beneficial in the prevention of invasion and metastasis of early stage breast cancer and can be served as an anti-metastatic agent or adjuvant therapy against metastatic breast cancer.

Wang Q, Yu W, Huang T, et al.
RUNX2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion by upregulating MMP9 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2777-2784 [PubMed] Related Publications
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was first identified as a transcription factor to play an important role in different biological processes of osteoblast and chondrocyte, including differentiation and migration. Recently, RUNX2 has been implicated in promigratory/proinvasive behavior in different human malignancies. In the present study, we demonstrated that the RUNX2 mRNA and protein expression were both increased significantly in HCC tissues and cell lines. High RUNX2 expression was correlated obviously with poor clinicopathological characteristics including multiple tumor nodes, high histological grading, venous infiltration and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. In addition, we demonstrated that RUNX2 was a prognostic indicator for predicting 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival of HCC patients. Our studies showed that RUXN2 overexpression promoted, while RUNX2 knockdown inhibited HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Notably, RUNX2 positively regulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) accumulation in HCC cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that RUNX2 was positively correlated with MMP9 expression in HCC tissues by Pearson correlation analysis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that MMP9 overexpression increased HCC cell migration and invasion, while MMP9 knockdown reduced HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Alteration of MMP9 expression partially abrogated the effects of RUNX2 on HCC cell migration and invasion, which suggests that RUNX2 developed its pro-metastatic biological function by upregulating the expression of MMP9 in HCC cells. In conclusion, our results reveal that RUNX2 promotes HCC cell migration and invasion by MMP9-mediated pathway, and potentially serves as a new prognostic biomarker and in therapeutic strategies for HCC.

Zhou JX, Zhou L, Li QJ, et al.
Association between high levels of Notch3 expression and high invasion and poor overall survival rates in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2893-2901 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a commonly fatal tumour. It is characterized by early metastasis and high mortality. Many patients die as a result of PDAC tumour progression. However, the underlying mechanism of invasion and metastasis in PDAC is still not fully understood. Previous studies showed that the Notch signalling pathway may play an important role in the progression of tumour invasion and metastasis. However, it is not yet known whether the Notch signalling pathway participates in the progression of invasion in PDAC. In the present study, immunohistochemistry showed that a high expression of Notch3 was correlated with tumour grade, metastasis, venous invasion and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Kaplan-Meier curves suggested that a high expression of Notch3 was a significant risk factor for shortened survival time. We also showed that inhibition of Notch3 had an anti‑invasion role in PDAC cells. In vitro, the inhibition of Notch3 reduced the migration and invasion capabilities of PDAC cells by regulating the expressions of E-cadherin, CD44v6, MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and uPA via regulating the COX-2 and ERK1/2 pathways. These results indicated that downregulation of the Notch signalling pathway may be a novel and useful approach for preventing and treating PDAC invasion.

Xu K, Pei H, Zhang Z, et al.
FoxO3a mediates glioma cell invasion by regulating MMP9 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):3044-3050 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of FoxO3a in glioma progression is poorly defined. Herein, we show that silencing FoxO3a in U251 cells leads to decreased invasive migration and proliferation, while ectopic expression of FoxO3a in U87 cells with weak endogenous FoxO3a protein levels enhances invasion and proliferation. To further investigate the mechanism by which FoxO3a promotes invasion, we detected key members of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are associated with invasion. Our findings showed that, among these MMP members, only FoxO3a induced MMP9 expression, and MMP9 overexpression reversed the effect that silencing FoxO3a had on the attenuation of cell invasion. Taken together, these data link FoxO3a to the promotion of metastasis in glioma cells.

Kim BR, Kang MH, Kim JL, et al.
RUNX3 inhibits the metastasis and angiogenesis of colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2601-2608 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have determined that inactivation of runt‑related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) expression is highly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in various types of cancer. However, the mechanism of RUNX3-mediated suppression of tumor metastasis remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to clarify the effect of RUNX3 on metastasis and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Firstly, we found that the reduction in expression of RUNX3 in CRC tissues when compared with tumor adjacent normal colon tissues, as indicated by reduced RUNX3 staining, was significantly correlated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Secondly, we demonstrated that RUNX3 overexpression inhibited CRC cell migration and invasion resulting from the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. In contrast, the knockdown of RUNX3 reduced the inhibition of migration and invasion of CRC cells. Finally, we found that restoration of RUNX3 decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and suppressed endothelial cell growth and tube formation in CRC cells. All in all, our findings may provide insight into the development of RUNX3 for CRC metastasis diagnostics and therapeutics.

Seifi-Najmi M, Hajivalili M, Safaralizadeh R, et al.
SiRNA/DOX lodeded chitosan based nanoparticles: Development, Characterization and in vitro evaluation on A549 lung cancer cell line.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(11):87-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-mobility group AT-hook2 (HMGA2), involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, has a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Lung cancer therapy with HMGA2 suppressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been introduced recently while doxorubicin (DOX) has been used as a frequent cancer chemotherapy agent. Both reagents have been faced with obstacles in clinic which make them ineffective. NanoParticles (NPs) provided a platform for efficient co delivery of the anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was production and in vitro characterization of different pharmacological groups (siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX) of carboxymethyl dextran thrimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMDTMChiNPs) on cytotoxicity, gene expression, apoptosis and migration of metastatic lung cancer cell line (A-549). CMDTMChiNPs were synthesized and encapsulated with siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX. Then the effects of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX co delivery was assessed in A549 viability and target genes (HMGA2, Ecadherin, vimentin and MMP9) by MTT and real time PCR, respectively. In addition capability of apoptosis induction and anti-migratory features of formulated NPs were analyzed by flowcytometry and wound healing assays. SiRNA-DOX-CMDTM ChiNPs approximate size were 207±5 with poly dispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of 0.4 and 16.3±0.3, respectively. NPs loaded with DOX and siRNA were the most efficient drug formulations in A549 cell cytotoxicity, altering of EMT markers, apoptosis induction and migration inhibition. Generally our results showed that co delivery of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX by novel designed CMDTMChiNPs is a new therapeutic approach with great potential efficiency for lung cancer treatment.

Bigagli E, De Filippo C, Castagnini C, et al.
DNA copy number alterations, gene expression changes and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a 10 year follow-up.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(6):545-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression changes have amply been encountered in colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the extent at which CNAs affect gene expression, as well as their relevance for tumor development, are still poorly defined. Here we aimed at assessing the clinical relevance of these parameters in a 10 year follow-up study.
METHODS: Tumors and normal adjacent colon mucosa, obtained at primary surgery from 21 CRC patients, were subjected to (i) high-resolution array CGH (a-CGH) for the detection of CNAs and (ii) microarray-based transcriptome profiling for the detection of gene expression (GE) changes. Correlations between these genomic and transcriptomic changes and their associations with clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed with the aim to identify molecular signatures associated with disease-free survival of the CRC patients during a 10 year follow-up.
RESULTS: DNA copy number gains were frequently detected in chromosomes 7, 8q, 13, 19, 20q and X, whereas DNA copy number losses were frequently detected in chromosomes 1p, 4, 8p, 15, 17p, 18, 19 and 22q. None of these alterations were observed in all samples. In addition, we found that 2,498 genes were up- and that 1,094 genes were down-regulated in the tumor samples compared to their corresponding normal mucosa (p < 0.01). The expression of 65 genes was found to be significantly associated with prognosis (p < 0.01). Specifically, we found that up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, were strongly associated with a poor survival. Subsequent integrated analyses revealed that increased expression levels of the MMP9, BMP7, UBE2C, I-CAM, NOTCH3, NOTCH1, PTGES2, HMGB1 and ERBB3 genes were associated with copy number gains, whereas decreased expression levels of the MUC1, E2F2, HRAS and SIRT3 genes were associated with copy number losses. Pathways related to cell cycle progression, eicosanoid metabolism, and TGF-β and apoptosis signaling, were found to be most significantly affected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CNAs in CRC tumor tissues are associated with concomitant changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. In other genes epigenetic mechanism may be at work. Up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, appear to be associated with a poor survival. These alterations may, in addition to Dukes' staging, be employed as new prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of clinical outcome in CRC patients.

Kong X, Qian X, Duan L, et al.
microRNA-372 Suppresses Migration and Invasion by Targeting p65 in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(12):828-835 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors. microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis, and their roles in PCa are becoming more apparent. In this study, we found that microRNA-372 (miR-372) is downregulated in human PCa and inhibits the proliferation activity, migration, and invasion of DU145 cells. Subsequently, p65 is confirmed as a target of miR-372, and knockdown of p65 expression similarly resulted in decreased proliferation activity, migration, and invasion. CDK8, MMP-9, and prostate-specific antigen were involved in both these processes. Taken together, our results show evidence that miR-372 may function as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating p65 in PCa and may provide a strategy for blocking PCa metastasis.

Mao QQ, Chen JJ, Dong L, et al.
Krüppel-like factor 2 suppresses growth and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jul-Sep; 30(3):703-712 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a novel tumor-suppressor gene, is implicated in diverse cellular processes, including cell growth, apoptosis, and invasion. However, the role and action mechanisms of KLF2 in gastric cancer (GC) need be further elucidated. The expression of KLF2 was investigated by immunohistochemical assay in human GC tissues, and lentivirus-mediated KLF2 overexpression was transfected into GC cells (AGS and HGC-27) for assessing cell proliferation and invasion, respectively indicated by MTT and Transwell assays. Subcutaneous GC tumor models were constructed for estimating tumor growth in vivo. As a result, the expression level of KLF2 was decreased in GC tissues compared with the para-carcinoma tissues (31.03% vs 53.45%, P=0.035), and negatively correlated with the lymph node metastasis in GC patients (P=0.02). Moreover, overexpression of KLF2 inhibited the cell proliferation and invasive potential and downregulated the protein expression of PCNA, Bcl-2 and MMP-9 in GC cells. The result in vivo showed KLF2 overexpression reduced the xenograft tumor growth. In conclusion, our findings indicate that KLF2 may function as a tumor suppressor involved in the progression of human GC.

Wang J, Huang HH, Liu FB
ZNF185 inhibits growth and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of the akt/gsk3β pathway.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jul-Sep; 30(3):683-691 [PubMed] Related Publications
Zinc finger (ZNF) proteins, a diverse family of proteins, have multiple biological functions in cancer. Increased expression of ZNF185 has been involved in the regulation of tumor growth and metastasis. However, the function and underlying mechanisms of ZNF185 in the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remain unclear. The protein expression of ZNF185 was examined in human LAC tissues by immunohistochemical assay. After lentiviral vector-mediated ZNF185 overexpression was infected into the LAC cell lines (A549 and LETPα-2), cell growth and invasive potential were respectively evaluated by MTT and Transwell assays. We found that the protein expression of ZNF185 was significantly downregulated in LAC tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT) (37.10% vs 58.06%, P=0.015), and was negatively correlated with the lymph node metastasis of the LAC patients (P=0.005). Furthermore, overexpression of ZNF185 reduced cell proliferation and invasion in LAC cells, followed by the downregulation of p-AKT, p-GSK3β, VEGF and MMP-9 expression. Taken together, our findings indicate that the decreased expression of ZNF185 is linked to the tumor metastasis in human LAC patients, and ZNF185 overexpression inhibits the growth and invasion of LAC cells through inhibition of the AKT/GSK3β signaling, suggesting that ZNF185 may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of LAC.

Cheng L, Wei X, Zhao K, et al.
The predictive potential and oncogenic effects of HOXC8 expression on osteosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14961-14967 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeobox C8 (HOXC8) has been implicated in cell growth, migration, and metastasis of various cancers, yet its role in osteosarcoma remains to be explored. In the present study, resected osteosarcoma specimens from 50 patients were enrolled to evaluate the expression of HOXC8 protein by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine the effect of HOXC8 on cell growth, migration, and tumor growth. HOXC8 expression was observed in 31 (62.0 %) of the 50 primary tumors and significantly associated with poorly or un-differentiated specimens (P = 0.031) and larger tumor size (P = 0.049). Survival analysis demonstrated that HOXC8 is a candidate predictive factor in predicting patients' outcome and chemotherapeutic effect. HOXC8 knockdown led to inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro by inhibiting MMP-9 expression and tumor growth in vivo. Our results strongly suggest that HOXC8 is involved in the tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma and might serve as a novel predictor for patients' outcome.

Sumei Z, Shaolong C, Xiang W, et al.
Endocan reduces the malign grade of gastric cancer cells by regulating associated protein expression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14915-14921 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endocan, which has been identified to be low expressed in gastric cancer, was found to be positively related to the differentiation level of gastric cancer in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of endocan in gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC7901 by artificially upregualting or downregulating endocan expression using endocan recombinant vector or specific small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting endocan gene, respectively. The effects of endocan recombinant vector-mediated over-expressing and siRNA-mediated endocan silencing on the differentiation, migration, and apoptosis of SGC7901 cells were assessed. Furthermore, the primary molecular mechanisms of endocan were explored by testing the expression alterations of associated protein in SGC7901 along endocan over-expression or knockdown. We found that over-expression of endocan reduced the migration but promoted the differentiation and apoptosis of SGC7901 cells. While, knockdown of endocan did just the opposite. Some molecules were found to participate in endocan-mediated anti-tumor effects, such as p53, caspase 3, and MMP-9. In conclusion, our findings suggest that endocan plays an anti-carcinogenic role in gastric cancer development and progression and might serve as a prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Gui F, Hong Z, You Z, et al.
MiR-21 inhibitor suppressed the progression of retinoblastoma via the modulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.
Cell Biol Int. 2016; 40(12):1294-1302 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) was reported to act as an oncogene during the development of many human tumors. However, little was revealed about the function of miR-21 in retinoblastoma (RB). In this study, we examined the expression of miR-21 in RB tissues and explored the relationship between miR-21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signal. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the level of miR-21 in RB tissues was higher than that in retinal normal tissues. In Weri-Rb-1 cells, miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the expression of miR-21 and cell viability, but improved cell apoptotic rates by modulating the levels of PDCD4, Bax, and Bcl-2. Meanwhile, miR-21 inhibitor suppressed cell migration and invasion via inhibiting the protein levels of MMP2 and MMP9 and significantly affected the expression of PTEN, PI3K, and p-AKT. Taken together, miR-21 inhibitor suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signal. These findings revealed the molecular basis of miR-21 functioning in the progression of RB and provided a new means for cell therapy in RB.

Shin SS, Park SS, Hwang B, et al.
MicroRNA-892b influences proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells by mediating the p19ARF/cyclin D1/CDK6 and Sp-1/MMP-9 pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2313-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers often utilize microRNAs to suppress tumor suppressor genes, thus facilitating their potential for growth and invasion. In the present study, we report the novel findings that miR-892b inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells. The basal expression level of miR‑892b was significantly lower in 3 different bladder cancer cell lines than in normal human urothelial cells. Transfection of miR-892b mimics to bladder cancer cells resulted in dose‑dependent growth arrest. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle showed that miR-892b-transfected bladder cancer cells were subject to arrest in the G1 phase, which was due to the downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK6 followed by upregulation of p19ARF. In addition, overexpression of miR-892b impeded the migration and invasion of EJ cells. Expression of MMP-9 in EJ cells was blocked by transfection of miR-892b; the effect was regulated, at least in part, by activation of the Sp-1 transcription factor. Overall, we verified that miR-892b regulates the p19ARF/cyclin D1/CDK6 and Sp-1/MMP-9 signaling networks in bladder cancer cells and may provide a treatment option for advanced-stage bladder cancers.

Cao L, Liu J, Zhang L, et al.
Curcumin inhibits H2O2-induced invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer via suppression of the ERK/NF-κB pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2245-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural polyphenol present in turmeric, possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and antitumor metastatic activities. However, the underlying mechanisms by which curcumin suppresses the metastasis of pancreatic cancer are still not fully elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that a moderate amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is able to promote pancreatic cancer invasion. The aim of this study was to determine whether curcumin can suppress H2O2-induced tumor invasive and migratory abilities. Human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cells were exposed to H2O2 with or without curcumin or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; a scavenger of free radicals). The effects of curcumin on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation was analyzed using MTT assay. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorecein diacetate. The cellular invasive and migratory abilities were analyzed using Transwell Matrigel invasion assay and wound healing assay, respectively. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined using qT-PCR and western blotting at mRNA and protein level. The activation of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were measured by western blotting. Our data showed that curcumin inhibited cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin and NAC were able to inhibit H2O2-induced ROS production, reduce the migration and invasion, and decrease the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, the H2O2‑induced elevation of p-ERK and p-NF-κB in BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cells were reduced by curcumin, NAC and PD 98059 (an ERK inhibitor). These data indicate that curcumin suppresses pancreatic cancer migration and invasion through the inhibition of the ROS/ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. This study suggests that curcumin may be a potential anticancer agent for pancreatic cancer.

Radunovic M, Nikolic N, Milenkovic S, et al.
The MMP-2 and MMP-9 promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to salivary gland cancer.
J BUON. 2016 May-Jun; 21(3):597-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that may play an important role in the development of salivary gland cancer (SGC). MMP-2 and MMP-9, members of the gelatinase protein family, are capable of degrading type IV collagen of basement membranes, and their overexpression is often associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to establish the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes as putative susceptibility factors for the development of SGC.
METHODS: The MMP-2 -1306 C>T, MMP-2 -1575 G>A and MMP-9 -1562 C>T polymorphisms were analyzed in 93 SGC cases and 100 controls using PCR-RFLP.
RESULTS: The T allele for the MMP-2-1306 C>T polymorphism exhibited its effect in heterozygous carriers, increasing the risk for SGC (odds ratio/OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.07-3.65, p=0.03). According to the dominant model, CT+TT genotypes had a 2-fold increased risk of developing SGCs (p=0.02).When the dominant model was applied for the MMP2 -1575 G>A, individuals with GA+AA genotypes exhibited a 1.77-fold increase in cancer risk, but with borderline significance (p=0.049). Heterozygous carriers of the variant T allele for the MMP-9 -1562 C>T polymorphism had roughly a 2-fold increase in susceptibility for SGC compared to wild type homozygotes (CC) (p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest MMP-2-1306 C>T and MMP-9-1562 C>T polymorphisms genotypes seem to influence the development of SGCs, whereas MMP-2 -1575 G>A seems to be of a minor importance.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/MMP9.htm Accessed:

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