CDH1; cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial) (16q22.1)

Gene Summary

Gene:CDH1; cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial)
Aliases: UVO, CDHE, ECAD, LCAM, Arc-1, CD324
Summary:This gene is a classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily. The encoded protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Mutations in this gene are correlated with gastric, breast, colorectal, thyroid and ovarian cancer. Loss of function is thought to contribute to progression in cancer by increasing proliferation, invasion, and/or metastasis. The ectodomain of this protein mediates bacterial adhesion to mammalian cells and the cytoplasmic domain is required for internalization. Identified transcript variants arise from mutation at consensus splice sites. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Updated:16 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (63)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Downregulated of MTA-3 in ER-negative Breast Tumors BIOCARTA
- SUMOylation as a mechanism to modulate CtBP-dependent gene responses BIOCARTA
- TGF beta signaling pathway BIOCARTA
- Adherens junction KEGG
- Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 16 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Publication Bias
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Liver Cancer
  • Review Literature as Topic
  • Weight Loss
  • DNA Methylation
  • Cadherins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Staging
  • RNA Interference
  • CDH1
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Phenotype
  • rap GTP-Binding Proteins
  • CpG Islands
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Taiwan
  • Tumor Burden
  • Down-Regulation
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Chromosome 16
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cell Movement
  • Epigenetics
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Risk Factors
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • p53 Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Gastrectomy
  • Young Adult
  • Cervical Cancer
Tag cloud generated 16 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (5)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Stomach CancerCDH1 and Stomach Cancer View Publications272
Breast CancerCDH1 and Breast Cancer View Publications159
Liver CancerCDH1 and Liver Cancer View Publications45
Cervical CancerCDH1 and Cervical Cancer View Publications18
Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC)CDH1 and Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer
Germline mutations of CDH1 are detected in around 30% of people diagnosed with Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer. HDGC is a rare autosomal dominant inherited condition with increase risk of early onset and diffuse gastric cancer.
View Publications109

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: CDH1 (cancer-related)

Liszka L
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas usually retained SMAD4 and p53 protein status as well as expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers and cell cycle regulators at the stage of liver metastasis.
Pol J Pathol. 2014; 65(2):100-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are limited data on the biology of metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of the present study was to compare the expression of immunohistochemical markers that may be involved in the development of metastatic disease in primary PDAC and in synchronous liver metastatic tissues. Thirty-two stains (corresponding to proteins encoded by 31 genes: SMAD4, TP53, ACTA2, CDH1, CDKN1A, CLDN1, CLDN4, CLDN7, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, FN1, KRT19, MAPK1/MAPK3, MAPK14, MKI67, MMP2, MMP9, MUC1 (3 antibodies), MUC5AC, MUC6, MTOR, MYC, NES, PTGS2, RPS6, RPS6KB1, TGFB1, TGFBR1, VIM) were evaluated using tissue microarray of 26 pairs of primary PDACs and their liver metastases. There were no significant differences in expression levels of examined proteins between primary and secondary lesions. In particular, metastatic PDAC retained the primary tumour's SMAD4 protein status in all and p53 protein status in all but one case. This surprising homogeneity also involved expression levels of markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as cell cycle regulators studied. In conclusion, the biological profiles of primary PDACs and their liver metastases seemed to be similar. Molecular alterations of PDAC related to a set of immunohistochemical markers examined in the present study were already present at the stage of localized disease.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer MADH4 TP53

Vladušić T, Hrašćan R, Krušlin B, et al.
Histological groups of human postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours harbour different genetic alterations.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(8):4005-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumours are the most common malignancies in young males. Molecular biology studies of these tumours are often contradictory. Two histological groups, seminoma and non-seminoma, differ both morphologically and in malignant behaviour. Although a common cytogenetic feature is seen, namely the amplification of the 12p chromosomal region, the development mechanisms of less aggressive seminomas and more aggressive non-seminomas are unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occurrence of structural genetic alterations was analyzed in 18 seminomas and 22 non-seminomas for genes involved in the malignant tumour phenotype: cadherin 1, Type 1, E-cadherin (Epithelial), CDH1; adenomatous polyposis coli, APC; NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1, NME1; tumour protein P53, TP53; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A; retinoblastoma 1, RB1; RAD51 recombinase, RAD51; mutS homolog 2, MSH2; MutL homolog 1, MLH1; breast cancer 1, early onset, BRCA1; BCL2-Associated X Protein, BAX; ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE), Member 2, ABCG2. Genetic alterations, loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability, were analyzed using restriction fragment or microsatellite repeat length polymorphisms.
RESULTS: A difference in genetic alteration occurrence between seminomas and non-seminomas was observed.
CONCLUSION: Occurrence of genetic alterations correlates with clinical behaviour of these tumours and may indicate that such alterations could occur early in the development of seminomas and non-seminomas.

Related: Germ Cell Tumors Testicular Cancer

Yun JA, Kim SH, Hong HK, et al.
Loss of E-Cadherin expression is associated with a poor prognosis in stage III colorectal cancer.
Oncology. 2014; 86(5-6):318-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to be associated with tumor progression, invasion and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples obtained from 409 patients with stage III CRC treated from 2006 to 2007 were examined by immunohistochemistry to reveal the expression levels of E-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA).
RESULTS: Among the 409 patients, 402 cases (98.3%) showed positive E-cadherin expression. Positive E-cadherin expression was associated with well or moderately differentiated cell types and a stable microsatellite status. In multivariate analysis, a preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level >5 ng/ml (p = 0.021), advanced N stage (p = 0.017), positive vascular invasion (p = 0.048), positive perineural invasion (p = 0.002) and negative E-cadherin expression (p = 0.002, relative risk = 5.098, 95% CI = 1.801-14.430) were poor prognostic factors affecting disease-free survival. The declining E-cadherin expression was associated with a poor outcome in terms of overall survival in univariate (p = 0.016) but not in multivariate analyses (p = 0.303, relative risk = 1.984, 95% CI = 0.539-7.296). Fibronectin, vimentin and α-SMA were of no prognostic value in this study.
CONCLUSION: The expression pattern of EMT markers in stage III CRC suggests that declining E-cadherin expression is a possible immunohistochemical predictor of patient prognosis.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Fujii R, Imanishi Y, Shibata K, et al.
Restoration of E-cadherin expression by selective Cox-2 inhibition and the clinical relevance of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by the downregulation of E-cadherin has been thought to promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is presumed to contribute to cancer progression through its multifaceted function, and recently its inverse relationship with E-cadherin was suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective Cox-2 inhibitors restore the expression of E-cadherin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells, and to examine the possible correlations of the expression levels of EMT-related molecules with clinicopathological factors in HNSCC.
METHODS: We used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the effects of three selective Cox-2 inhibitors, i.e., celecoxib, NS-398, and SC-791 on the gene expressions of E-cadherin (CDH-1) and its transcriptional repressors (SIP1, Snail, Twist) in the human HNSCC cell lines HSC-2 and HSC-4. To evaluate the changes in E-cadherin expression on the cell surface, we used a flowcytometer and immunofluorescent staining in addition to Western blotting. We evaluated and statistically analyzed the clinicopathological factors and mRNA expressions of Cox-2, CDH-1 and its repressors in surgical specimens of 40 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).
RESULTS: The selective Cox-2 inhibitors upregulated the E-cadherin expression on the cell surface of the HNSCC cells through the downregulation of its transcriptional repressors. The extent of this effect depended on the baseline expression levels of both E-cadherin and Cox-2 in each cell line. A univariate analysis showed that higher Cox-2 mRNA expression (p = 0.037), lower CDH-1 mRNA expression (p = 0.020), and advanced T-classification (p = 0.036) were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in TSCC. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that lower CDH-1 mRNA expression was the independent risk factor affecting lymph node metastasis (p = 0.041).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the appropriately selective administration of certain Cox-2 inhibitors may have an anti-metastatic effect through suppression of the EMT by restoring E-cadherin expression. In addition, the downregulation of CDH-1 resulting from the EMT may be closely involved in lymph node metastasis in TSCC.

Related: COX2 (PTGS2) Oral Cancer

Silva FC, Lisboa BC, Figueiredo MC, et al.
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2014; 15:55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1).
METHODS: Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes.
RESULTS: The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria for HBOC and negative for BRCA1/2 genes should be tested for the TP53 R337H variant. Furthermore, the presence of genomic structural rearrangement resulting in CNVs in other genes that predispose breast cancer in conjunction with BRCA2 point mutations demonstrated a highly complex genetic etiology in Brazilian breast cancer families.


Davidov T, Nagar M, Kierson M, et al.
Carbonic anhydrase 4 and crystallin α-B immunoreactivity may distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients with indeterminate thyroid cytology.
J Surg Res. 2014; 190(2):565-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are present in 19%-67% of the population and carry a 5%-10% risk of malignancy. Unfortunately, fine-needle aspiration biopsies are indeterminate in 20%-30% of patients, often necessitating thyroid surgery for diagnosis. Numerous DNA microarray studies including a recently commercialized molecular classifier have helped to better distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, these assays often require probes for >100 genes, are expensive, and only available at a few laboratories. We sought to validate these DNA microarray assays at the protein level and determine whether simple and widely available immunohistochemical biomarkers alone could distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
METHODS: A tissue microarray (TMA) composed of 26 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 53 follicular adenomas (FAs) from patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules was stained with 17 immunohistochemical biomarkers selected based on prior DNA microarray studies. Antibodies used included galectin 3, growth and differentiation factor 15, protein convertase 2, cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase 1 (GOT1), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), Friedreich Ataxia gene (X123), fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), crystallin alpha-B (CRYAB), peptidylprolyl isomerase F (PPIF), asparagine synthase (ASNS), sodium channel, non-voltage gated, 1 alpha subunit (SCNN1A), frizzled homolog 1 (FZD1), tyrosine related protein 1 (TYRP1), E cadherin, type 1 (ECAD), and thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 220 (TRAP220). Of note, two of these biomarkers (GOT1 and CD44) are now used in the Afirma classifier assay. We chose to compare specifically FTC versus FA rather than include all histologic categories to create a more uniform immunohistochemical comparison. In addition, we have found that most papillary thyroid carcinoma could often be reasonably distinguished from benign disease by morphological cytology findings alone.
RESULTS: Increased immunoreactivity of CRYAB was associated with thyroid malignancy (c-statistic, 0.644; negative predictive value [NPV], 0.90) and loss of immunoreactivity of CA4 was also associated with malignancy (c-statistic, 0.715; NPV, 0.90) in indeterminate thyroid specimens. The combination of CA4 and CRYAB for discriminating FTC from FA resulted in a better c-statistic of 0.75, sensitivity of 0.76, specificity of 0.59, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.32, and NPV of 0.91. When comparing widely angioinvasive FTC from FA, the resultant c-statistic improved to 0.84, sensitivity of 0.75, specificity of 0.76, PPV of 0.11, and NPV of 0.99.
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of CA4 and increase in CRYAB immunoreactivity distinguish FTC from FA in indeterminate thyroid nodules on a thyroid TMA with an NPV of 91%. Further studies in preoperative patient fine needle aspiration (FNAs) are needed to validate these results.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Sung JY, Park SY, Kim JH, et al.
Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenomena, cell-motility, and invasion via TGF-β signaling in U2OS cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1224 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor induced by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family. ICSBP is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and regulates the immune response and cell growth and differentiation. However, little is known about its function in non-hematopoietic cells. Here we show a novel function for ICSBP in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenomena (ELP), cell motility, and invasion in human osteosarcoma cell lines, including U2OS cells. IFN-γ treatment induced ICSBP expression and EMT-like morphological change in U2OS cells, which were suppressed by ICSBP knockdown. To further investigate the role of ICSBP in ELP, we established a stable U2OS cell line that overexpresses ICSBP. ICSBP expression caused U2OS cells to have a more elongated shape and an increased vimentin and fibronectin expression. ICSBP expression also promoted adhesiveness, motility, and invasiveness of U2OS cells. ICSBP upregulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptors and activated TGF-β signaling cascades, which were responsible for ELP as well as increased cell motility and invasion. In addition, ICSBP-induced TGF-β receptor activation resulted in the upregulation of Snail. Knockdown of Snail attenuated the ICSBP-induced augmentation of cell motility and invasion. Upregulation of Snail, ELP, and increased invasion by ICSBP expression were also observed in other osteosarcoma cell lines, such as Saos-2 and 143B. Furthermore, ICSBP and TGF-β receptor I were expressed in 45/54 (84%) and 47/54 (87%) of human osteosarcoma tissues, respectively, and showed significant correlation (r=0.47, P=0.0007) with respect to their expression levels. Taken altogether, these data demonstrate a novel function for ICSBP in ELP, cell motility, and invasion through the TGF-β and Snail signaling pathways.

Related: Bone Cancers Osteosarcoma Signal Transduction TGFBR1

Wang K, Yuen ST, Xu J, et al.
Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular profiling identify new driver mutations in gastric cancer.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(6):573-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse molecular and histological subtypes. We performed whole-genome sequencing in 100 tumor-normal pairs, along with DNA copy number, gene expression and methylation profiling, for integrative genomic analysis. We found subtype-specific genetic and epigenetic perturbations and unique mutational signatures. We identified previously known (TP53, ARID1A and CDH1) and new (MUC6, CTNNA2, GLI3, RNF43 and others) significantly mutated driver genes. Specifically, we found RHOA mutations in 14.3% of diffuse-type tumors but not in intestinal-type tumors (P < 0.001). The mutations clustered in recurrent hotspots affecting functional domains and caused defective RHOA signaling, promoting escape from anoikis in organoid cultures. The top perturbed pathways in gastric cancer included adherens junction and focal adhesion, in which RHOA and other mutated genes we identified participate as key players. These findings illustrate a multidimensional and comprehensive genomic landscape that highlights the molecular complexity of gastric cancer and provides a road map to facilitate genome-guided personalized therapy.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer RHOA

Yue D, Li H, Che J, et al.
Hedgehog/Gli promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung squamous cell carcinomas.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer. Investigation of the mechanism of invasion and metastasis of lung SCC will be of great help for the development of meaningful targeted therapeutics. This study is intended to understand whether the activation of Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is involved in lung SCC, and whether activated Hh signaling regulates metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung SCC.
METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with lung SCC were studied. Protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, or immunofluorescence. Protein expression levels in tissue specimens were scored and correlations were analyzed. Vismodegib and a Gli inhibitor were used to inhibit Shh/Gli activity, and recombinant Shh proteins were used to stimulate the Hh pathway in lung SCC cell lines. Cell migration assay was performed in vitro.
RESULTS: Shh/Gli pathway components were aberrantly expressed in lung SCC tissue samples. Gli1 expression was reversely associated with the expression of EMT markers E-Cadherin and β-Catenin in lung SCC specimens. Inhibition of the Shh/Gli pathway suppressed migration and up-regulated E-Cadherin expression in lung SCC cells. Stimulation of the pathway increased migration and down-regulated E-Cadherin expression in lung SCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the Shh/Gli pathway may be critical for lung SCC recurrence, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Inhibition of the Shh/Gli pathway activity/function is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung SCC patients.

Related: Lung Cancer Signal Transduction GLI

Kupfer SS, Skol AD, Hong E, et al.
Shared and independent colorectal cancer risk alleles in TGFβ-related genes in African and European Americans.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(9):2025-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) identified five regions near transforming growth factor β-related genes BMP4, GREM1, CDH1, SMAD7 and RPHN2. The true risk alleles remain to be identified in these regions, and their role in CRC risk in non-European populations has been understudied. Our previous work noted significant genetic heterogeneity between African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in GWAS. We hypothesized that associations may not have been replicated in AAs due to differential or independent genetic structures. In order to test this hypothesis, we genotyped 195 tagging SNPs across these five gene regions in 1194 CRC cases (795 AAs and 399 EAs) and 1352 controls (985 AAs and 367 EAs). Imputation was performed, and association testing of genotyped and imputed SNPs included ancestry, age and sex as covariates. In two of the five genes originally associated with CRC, we found evidence for association in AAs including rs1862748 in CDH1 (OR(Add) = 0.82, P = 0.02) and in GREM1 the SNPs rs10318 (OR(Rec) = 60.1, P = 0.01), rs11632715 (OR(Rec) = 2.36; P = 0.004) and rs12902616 (OR(Rec) = 1.28, P = 0.005), the latter which is in linkage disequilibrium with the previously identified SNP rs4779584. Testing more broadly for associations in these gene regions in AAs, we noted three statistically significant association peaks in GREM1 and RHPN2 that were not identified in EAs. We conclude that some CRC risk alleles are shared between EAs and AAs and others are population specific.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer SMAD7

Kurian AW, Hare EE, Mills MA, et al.
Clinical evaluation of a multiple-gene sequencing panel for hereditary cancer risk assessment.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(19):2001-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Multiple-gene sequencing is entering practice, but its clinical value is unknown. We evaluated the performance of a customized germline-DNA sequencing panel for cancer-risk assessment in a representative clinical sample.
METHODS: Patients referred for clinical BRCA1/2 testing from 2002 to 2012 were invited to donate a research blood sample. Samples were frozen at -80° C, and DNA was extracted from them after 1 to 10 years. The entire coding region, exon-intron boundaries, and all known pathogenic variants in other regions were sequenced for 42 genes that had cancer risk associations. Potentially actionable results were disclosed to participants.
RESULTS: In total, 198 women participated in the study: 174 had breast cancer and 57 carried germline BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1/2 analysis was fully concordant with prior testing. Sixteen pathogenic variants were identified in ATM, BLM, CDH1, CDKN2A, MUTYH, MLH1, NBN, PRSS1, and SLX4 among 141 women without BRCA1/2 mutations. Fourteen participants carried 15 pathogenic variants, warranting a possible change in care; they were invited for targeted screening recommendations, enabling early detection and removal of a tubular adenoma by colonoscopy. Participants carried an average of 2.1 variants of uncertain significance among 42 genes.
CONCLUSION: Among women testing negative for BRCA1/2 mutations, multiple-gene sequencing identified 16 potentially pathogenic mutations in other genes (11.4%; 95% CI, 7.0% to 17.7%), of which 15 (10.6%; 95% CI, 6.5% to 16.9%) prompted consideration of a change in care, enabling early detection of a precancerous colon polyp. Additional studies are required to quantify the penetrance of identified mutations and determine clinical utility. However, these results suggest that multiple-gene sequencing may benefit appropriately selected patients.

Related: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Screening Cancer Screening and Early Detection

Tanabe S, Aoyagi K, Yokozaki H, Sasaki H
Gene expression signatures for identifying diffuse-type gastric cancer associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(6):1955-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with tumor malignancy. The hedgehog-EMT pathway is preferentially activated in diffuse-type gastric cancer (GC) compared with intestinal-type GC; however, histological typing is currently the only method for distinguishing these two major types of GC. We compared the gene expression profiles of 12 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell cultures and 5 diffuse-type GC tissue samples. Numerous upregulated or downregulated genes were identified in diffuse-type GC, including CDH1, CDH2, VIM, WNT4 and WNT5. Among these genes, the mRNA ratio of CDH2 to CDH1 could distinguish the 15 diffuse-type GC samples from the 17 intestinal-type GC samples. Our results suggested that the mesenchymal features were more prominent in diffuse-type GC than in intestinal-type GC, but were weaker in diffuse-type GC than in mesenchymal stem cells. Diffuse-type GC that has undergone extensive EMT, which has a poor prognosis, can be identified by quantitative PCR analysis of only two genes.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Gregoire C, Muller G, Machiels JP, Goeminne JC
Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.
Acta Clin Belg. 2014; 69(2):135-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
About 3-5% of metastatic cancers originate from an unknown primary origin. Some have a signet-ring cell (SRC) component. We report the medical history of three patients with SRC carcinoma expressing both the oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). Although no primary breast cancer could be identified, we considered these three patients as having metastatic breast cancer. All of them were therefore treated with standard breast anti-hormonal therapies and all demonstrated benefit. The pitfalls of clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, and treatment are discussed.

Related: Breast Cancer

Verschuur-Maes AH, Moelans CB, de Bruin PC, van Diest PJ
Analysis of gene copy number alterations by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in columnar cell lesions of the breast.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(2):147-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Columnar cell lesions (CCLs) are possible precursors of breast cancer, but little is known about the role of breast cancer-related genes in the progression of CCL to invasive breast cancer.
METHODS: Gene copy numbers of 17 breast cancer-related genes were analyzed using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) in CCL (N = 28), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) grade I likely originating from CCL (N = 5), and paired CCL (N = 14/28) with DCIS (N = 7) and/or invasive carcinoma (N = 13). The genes included were BIRC5, C11orf30, CCND1, CCNE1, CDH1, CPD, EGFR, ERBB2, ESR1, FGFR1, IKBKB, MAPT, MED1, MTDH, MYC, TOP2A and TRAF4.
RESULTS: No high level gene amplifications were observed in CCL, but copy number gains were encountered for the C11orf30 (3/28), MYC, CPD, MTDH (2/28), and CCND1, CCNE1, ESR1 and TOP2A genes (1/28). In addition, CDH1 showed loss in 2/28 and TOP2A in 1/28 cases. CCLs with or without atypia exhibited comparable numbers of copy number changes (p = 0.312). Overall, the frequency of gene copy number changes increased from CCL towards DCIS and invasive carcinoma (p = 0.004). Also in the cases with synchronous lesions, the CCLs exhibited fewer copy number changes than the DCIS/invasive carcinomas.
CONCLUSIONS: CCLs carry copy number changes of several known breast cancer-related genes, thereby substantiating their role in breast carcinogenesis. Among them, CCND1 and ESR1 copy number gains and CDH1 copy number losses are of particular interest. Since the copy number changes observed were more prevalent in DCIS and invasive carcinoma than in CCL, the corresponding gene alterations may represent rather late occurring events in low nuclear grade breast carcinogenesis.

Related: Breast Cancer

Li C, Ma H, Wang Y, et al.
Excess PLAC8 promotes an unconventional ERK2-dependent EMT in colon cancer.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(5):2172-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcriptional program is characterized by repression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and induction of N-cadherin (CDH2), and mesenchymal genes like vimentin (VIM). Placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) has been implicated in colon cancer; however, how PLAC8 contributes to disease is unknown, and endogenous PLAC8 protein has not been studied. We analyzed zebrafish and human tissues and found that endogenous PLAC8 localizes to the apical domain of differentiated intestinal epithelium. Colon cancer cells with elevated PLAC8 levels exhibited EMT features, including increased expression of VIM and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), aberrant cell motility, and increased invasiveness. In contrast to classical EMT, PLAC8 overexpression reduced cell surface CDH1 and upregulated P-cadherin (CDH3) without affecting CDH2 expression. PLAC8-induced EMT was linked to increased phosphorylated ERK2 (p-ERK2), and ERK2 knockdown restored cell surface CDH1 and suppressed CDH3, VIM, and ZEB1 upregulation. In vitro, PLAC8 directly bound and inactivated the ERK2 phosphatase DUSP6, thereby increasing p-ERK2. In a murine xenograft model, knockdown of endogenous PLAC8 in colon cancer cells resulted in smaller tumors, reduced local invasion, and decreased p-ERK2. Using MultiOmyx, a multiplex immunofluorescence-based methodology, we observed coexpression of cytosolic PLAC8, CDH3, and VIM at the leading edge of a human colorectal tumor, supporting a role for PLAC8 in cancer invasion in vivo.

Yu J, Zhang W, Gao F, et al.
FBW7 increases chemosensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2014; 13(2):184-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: FBW7 is a tumor suppressor which regulates a network of proteins with central roles in cell division, cell growth and differentiation. This study aimed to evaluate the role of FBW7 in chemosensitivity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in different hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and to investigate the relevant underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Different human HCC cell lines (Hep3B, Huh-7, and SNU-449) were cultured. The cell viability was evaluated by cell counting kit-8, and FBW7 mRNA transcription and protein expression were quantitated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expressions of vimentin (mesenchymal biomarker) and E-cadherin (epithelial biomarker) were evaluated by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Cell invasion was assayed by Transwell migration, and FBW7 plasmid or siRNA was used to evaluate the effect of FBW7 overexpression or silencing on cell chemosensitivity.
RESULTS: FBW7 expression affected tumor cell chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and tumor cell invasive capacity in different HCC cell lines. FBW7hi (high FBW7 expression) Hep3B and FBW7mi (median FBW7 expression) Huh-7 cells were more sensitive to doxorubicin and lower in invasive capacity than FBW7lo (low FBW7 expression) SNU-449 cells. Silencing of FBW7 in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells induced the resistance to doxorubicin and enhanced cell invasion, whereas overexpression of FBW7 in SNU-449 cells restored the sensitivity to doxorubicin and significantly reduced invasive capacity. Furthermore, doxorubicin induced EMT toward mesenchyme in HCC cells. Downregulation of FBW7 in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells or upregulation of FBW7 in SNU-449 cells altered the direction of EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: The level of FBW7 expression impacted the tumor resistance to doxorubicin and the invasion capability of HCC cells. FBW7 therefore may be a potential target for the chemotherapy of HCC through the regulation of EMT.

Related: Doxorubicin Liver Cancer FBXW7 gene

Chu CM, Chen CJ, Chan DC, et al.
CDH1 polymorphisms and haplotypes in sporadic diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer: a case-control study based on direct sequencing analysis.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Findings related to the influence of the -160C → A promoter polymorphism and haplotypes of the E-cadherin (CDH1) gene have not been consistent in previous studies regarding the risk for sporadic gastric cancer. Investigators in most previous studies detected those genotypes using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of the CDH1 - 160C → A promoter polymorphism and haplotypes for cancer risk related to sporadic diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer by direct sequencing analysis.
METHODS: We included 107 diffuse gastric cancer cases, 60 intestinal gastric cancer cases and 134 controls. The genotypic polymorphisms in the -160 promoter region, exons and intron-exon boundaries of CDH1 were detected by direct sequencing analysis. Genotype frequencies were compared. The CDH1 - 160C → A promoter polymorphism and four polymorphisms (48 + 6 T → C, 2076C → T, 2253C → T and 1937-13 T → C) were included in the haplotype analyses, which were estimated using the expectation-maximization algorithm.
RESULTS: Compared to controls, the frequency of the -160A allele was significantly higher in diffuse gastric cancer cases (P = 0.005), but it was not significantly different in intestinal gastric cancer cases (P = 0.119). Two sets of three-marker haplotypes (-160C → A, 48 + 6 T → C, 2076C → T and -160C → A, 1937-13 T → C, 2253C → T) were associated with the risk of diffuse gastric cancer (P = 0.011 and P = 0.042, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Based on direct sequencing analysis, our findings suggest that the CDH1 - 160C → A promoter polymorphism and haplotypes play significant roles in cancer risk for sporadic diffuse gastric cancer, but not for intestinal gastric cancer, in a Taiwanese population.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Li YX, Lu Y, Li CY, et al.
Role of CDH1 promoter methylation in colorectal carcinogenesis: a meta-analysis.
DNA Cell Biol. 2014; 33(7):455-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the role of CDH1 promoter methylation in colorectal carcinogenesis. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before November 1st, 2013 without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Nine clinical cohort studies met all our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 883 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were assessed. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the frequencies of CDH1 promoter methylation in CRC tissues were higher than those in control tissues (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.24-5.50, p=0.012). A subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that CDH1 promoter methylation was closely linked to the pathogenesis of CRC among Asians and Africans (Asians: OR=2.90, 95% CI=1.26-6.67, p=0.012; Africans: OR=3.81, 95% CI=1.56-9.34, p=0.003; respectively), but not among Caucasians (OR=1.68, 95% CI=0.24-11.72, p=0.598). A further subgroup analysis by type of control tissues suggested that CRC tissues also exhibited higher frequencies of CDH1 promoter methylation than those of normal and adjacent tissues (normal: OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.12-2.21, p=0.009; adjacent: OR=5.07, 95% CI=2.91-8.82, p<0.001; respectively). However, we found no evidence for any significant difference in the frequencies of CDH1 promoter methylation between CRC tissues and adenomas tissues (OR=1.18, 95% CI=0.74-1.90, p=0.485). Our findings provide empirical evidence that CDH1 promoter methylation may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, CDH1 promoter methylation may be a useful biomarker for the early diagnosis of CRC.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Jing Y, Cui D, Guo W, et al.
Activated androgen receptor promotes bladder cancer metastasis via Slug mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 348(1-2):135-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) has been indicated to be involved in bladder cancer progression. We showed androgen induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in AR-positive bladder cancer cells and promoted tumor metastasis in xenograft models. We subsequently identified that Slug was the mediator of EMT induced by androgen. Furthermore, upregulation of Slug was due to activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in response to androgen. Finally, expression of AR showed strong correlation with loss of E-cadherin, higher expression of Slug and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in bladder tumor tissues. Taken together, our results suggest AR signaling promotes bladder cancer metastasis through Slug mediated EMT.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology CTNNB1 gene AR: androgen receptor

Zhang J, Zhan Z, Wu J, et al.
Association among lifestyle, clinical examination, polymorphisms in CDH1 gene and Traditional Chinese Medicine syndrome differentiation of gastric cancer.
J Tradit Chin Med. 2013; 33(5):572-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association among life-style, clinical examination, polymorphisms in CDH1 gene and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiation of gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: A hospital-based population of 387 GC patients was investigated in Jiangsu province. Relevant information regarding lifestyle and clinical examination were collected by a standard questionnaire. Four known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CDH1 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction methods. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS 16.0 software.
RESULTS: The results showed that meal duration and the status of glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly associated with TCM syndrome differentiation of GC (both P < 0.05). None of the four SNPs in the E-cadherin (CDH1) gene achieved significant differences in their distributions among the nine syndrome types of GC (both P > 0.05). However, significant differences were observed in rs13689 genotype distributions between several pairs of syndrome types of GC, suggesting that rs13689 is correlated with the syndrome differentiation of GC.
CONCLUSION: Integrated analysis of lifestyle, clinical examination and CDH1 gene polymorphisms can contribute to a better understanding of the GC syndrome types and may improve the efficacy of interventions by stratifying disease according to TCM criteria.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Malho P, Dunn K, Donaldson D, et al.
Investigation of prognostic indicators for human uveal melanoma as biomarkers of canine uveal melanoma metastasis.
J Small Anim Pract. 2013; 54(11):584-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if 14 genes that discriminate metastasising and non-metastasising human uveal melanomas can differentiate metastasising and non-metastasising uveal melanomas in dogs.
METHODS: Nineteen archival biopsies of eyes with a histopathological classification of primary benign (n = 9) and malignant (n = 10) uveal melanoma were selected. Thoracic and/or abdominal metastases confirmed metastatic spread of the primary tumour in seven dogs during the follow-up period. Gene expression was assayed by Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Genes displaying statistically significant differences in expression between the metastasising and non-metastasising tumours were identified.
RESULTS: Four genes (HTR2B, FXR1, LTA4H and CDH1) demonstrated increased expression in the metastasising uveal melanomas.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This preliminary study illustrates the potential utility of gene expression markers for predicting canine uveal melanoma metastasis. The genes displaying elevated expression in the metastasising tumours are part of a 12-discriminating gene set used in a routine assay, performed on fine needle aspirate biopsies collected without enucleation, for predicting human uveal melanoma metastasis. Further work is required to validate the results.

Related: Melanoma Ocular Melanoma IntraOcular Melanoma

Li X, Stevens PD, Liu J, et al.
PHLPP is a negative regulator of RAF1, which reduces colorectal cancer cell motility and prevents tumor progression in mice.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 146(5):1301-12.e1-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyperactivation of the RAS-RAF signaling pathway in colorectal tumors is associated with metastasis and poor outcomes of patients. Little is known about how RAS-RAF signaling is turned off once activated. We investigated how the pH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases (PHLPPs) control RAS-RAF signaling and colorectal cancer (CRC) development.
METHODS: We used co-immunoprecipitation assays to identify substrates of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2. We studied phosphorylation of RAF1 in CRC cells that express exogenous PHLPP1 or PHLPP2, or lentiviral-based small hairpin RNAs against their transcripts; we measured effects on cell motility, migration, and invasion in vitro. Tumor progression and survival were analyzed in Phlpp1(-/-) Apc(Min) and Apc(Min)/Phlpp1(-/-) mice. Microarray datasets of colorectal tumor and nontumor tissues were analyzed for PHLPP gene expression.
RESULTS: PHLPP1 and 2 were found to dephosphorylate RAF1 at S338, inhibiting its kinase activity in vitro and in CRC cells. In cells, knockdown of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 increased the amplitude and duration of RAF-MEK-ERK signaling downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS, whereas overexpression had the opposite effect. In addition, knockdown of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 caused CRC cells to express markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and increased cell migration and invasion. Apc(Min)/Phlpp1(-/-) mice had decreased survival and developed larger intestinal and colon tumors compared to Apc(Min) mice. Whereas Apc(Min) mice developed mostly low-grade adenomas, 20% of the tumors that developed in Apc(Min)/Phlpp1(-/-) mice were invasive adenocarcinomas. Normal villi and adenomas of Apc(Min)/Phlpp1(-/-) mice had significantly fewer apoptotic cells than Apc(Min) mice. Human CRC patient microarray data revealed that the expression of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 is positively correlated with CDH1.
CONCLUSIONS: PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 dephosphorylate RAF1 to reduce its signaling, increase the invasive and migratory activities of CRC cells, and activate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In Apc(Min) mice, loss of PHLPP1 promotes tumor progression.

Related: Apoptosis Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer APC AKT1 Signal Transduction PHLPP1

Yang S, Kim HM
ROCK inhibition activates MCF-7 cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88489 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Dormant carcinoma cancer cells showing epithelial characteristics can be activated to dissipate into the surrounding tissue or organs through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the molecular details underlying the activation of dormant cancer cells have been less explored. In this study, we examined the molecular pathway to activate dormant breast cancer cells. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibition disrupted cell junction, promoted cell proliferation and migration / invasion in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional substrates. The disintegration of cell junction upon ROCK inhibition, coupled with the loss of E-cadherin and b-catenin from the cell membrane, was associated with the activation of Rac1 upon ROCK inhibition. Migration / invasion also increased upon ROCK inhibition. However, the activation of MCF-7 cells upon ROCK inhibition was not associated with the up-regulation of typical EMT markers, such as snail and slug. Based on these results, we suggest the potential risk for dormant cancer cells to dissipate through non-typical EMT when ROCK activity is down-regulated.

Related: CTNNB1 gene

Piao HL, Yuan Y, Wang M, et al.
α-catenin acts as a tumour suppressor in E-cadherin-negative basal-like breast cancer by inhibiting NF-κB signalling.
Nat Cell Biol. 2014; 16(3):245-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Basal-like breast cancer is a highly aggressive tumour subtype associated with poor prognosis. Aberrant activation of NF-κB signalling is frequently found in triple-negative basal-like breast cancer cells, but the cause of this activation has remained elusive.Here we report that α-catenin functions as a tumour suppressor in E-cadherin-negative basal-like breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB signalling. Mechanistically, α-catenin interacts with the IκBα protein, and stabilizes IκBα by inhibiting its ubiquitylation and its association with the proteasome. This stabilization in turn prevents nuclear localization of RelA and p50, leading to decreased expression of TNF-α, IL-8 and RelB. In human breast cancer, CTNNA1 expression is specifically downregulated in the basal-like subtype, correlates with clinical outcome and inversely correlates with TNF and RELB expression. Taken together, these results uncover a previously undescribed mechanism by which the NF-κB pathway is activated in E-cadherin-negative basal-like breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer Signal Transduction

Pradella LM, Evangelisti C, Ligorio C, et al.
A novel deleterious PTEN mutation in a patient with early-onset bilateral breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An early age at Breast Cancer (BC) onset may be a hallmark of inherited predisposition, but BRCA1/2 mutations are only found in a minority of younger BC patients. Among the others, a fraction may carry mutations in rarer BC genes, such as TP53, STK11, CDH1 and PTEN. As the identification of women harboring such mutations allows for targeted risk-management, the knowledge of associated manifestations and an accurate clinical and family history evaluation are warranted.
CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a woman who developed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast at the age of 32, a contralateral BC at age 36 and another BC of the right breast at 40. When she was 39 years-old, during a dermatological examination, mucocutaneous features suggestive of Cowden Syndrome, a disorder associated to germ-line PTEN mutations, were noticed. PTEN genetic testing revealed the novel c.71A > T (p.Asp24Val) mutation, whose deleterious effect, suggested by conservation data and in silico tools, was definitely demonstrated by the incapacity of mutant PTEN to inhibit Akt phosphorylation when used to complement PTEN-null cells. In BC tissue, despite the absence of LOH or somatic mutations of PTEN, Akt phosphorylation was markedly increased in comparison to normal tissue, thus implying additional somatic events into the deregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and, presumably, into carcinogenesis. Hence, known oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA (exons 10 and 21) and AKT1 (exon 2) were screened in tumor DNA with negative results, which suggests that the responsible somatic event(s) is a different, uncommon one.
CONCLUSION: This case stresses the importance of clinical/genetic assessment of early-onset BC patients in order to identify mutation carriers, who are at high risk of new events, so requiring tailored management. Moreover, it revealed a novel PTEN mutation with pathogenic effect, pointing out, however, the need for further efforts to elucidate the molecular steps of PTEN-associated carcinogenesis.

Related: Breast Cancer PTEN AKT1 Signal Transduction

Molinaro V, Pensotti V, Marabelli M, et al.
Complementary molecular approaches reveal heterogeneous CDH1 germline defects in Italian patients with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) syndrome.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(5):432-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline inactivation of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), a rare autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to both diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). We searched for CDH1 germline defects in 32 HDGC Italian probands selected according to international consensus criteria and in 5 selected relatives. We used a series of molecular methods, including: DNA sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, single-nucleotide primer extension, bisulfite sequencing, reverse-transcription PCR, and bioinformatics tools. We identified pathogenic mutations in 6 out of 32 probands (19%): one truncating and two missense mutations, one large deletion, one allelic expression imbalance and one splicing defect. Three out of six CDH1 constitutive alterations were novel. Our data support the need for a multimethod approach for CDH1 genetic testing, demonstrating that both DNA and RNA analyses are required to increase the detection rate of pathogenic mutations, thus reducing the number of patients without a clear molecular diagnosis. On the whole, our results indicate that not only DGC patients, but also subjects with personal or family history of LBC might benefit from CDH1 genetic testing. Moreover, our findings support the notion that prophylactic gastrectomy should be offered to asymptomatic CDH1 mutation carriers; indeed, while endoscopic analysis with histological examination of random gastric biopsies can miss cancer foci, gastrectomy performed in these subjects always revealed foci of cancer cells.

Related: Breast Cancer Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Wang Y, Kong CZ, Zhang Z, et al.
Role of CDH1 promoter polymorphism and DNA methylation in bladder carcinogenesis: a meta-analysis.
DNA Cell Biol. 2014; 33(4):205-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing scientific evidences suggest that CDH1 gene promoter polymorphism and DNA methylation may contribute to the development and progression of bladder cancer, but many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aims to assess the role of CDH1 gene promoter polymorphism and methylation in bladder carcinogenesis. An extensive literature search for relevant studies was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from their inception through April 1, 2013. This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. The crude odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Fifteen studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 824 bladder cancer patients and 818 healthy controls being assessed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the A variant of CDH1 -160C/A polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Further analysis by pathological subtype indicated that patients with invasive carcinoma had a higher frequency of CDH1 -160A variant than those with superficial carcinoma. We analyzed the methylation frequency of CDH1 gene in 608 bladder cancer samples and 338 normal bladder samples. Our data strongly suggest that the CDH1 promoter methylation frequencies in bladder cancer tissues were greater than those in normal control tissues. In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicates that promoter polymorphism and methylation of CDH1 gene may be involved in the development and progression of bladder cancer. CDH1 gene promoter polymorphism and methylation might be promising biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of bladder cancer.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Visnovsky J, Fiolka R, Kudela E, et al.
Hypermethylation of selected genes in endometrial carcinogenesis.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013; 34(7):675-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. The prevention has failed so far to develop an effective screening program and its incidence is rising in proportion to the incidence of cervical cancer. In recent years the investigation of malignancy genomics (genetic and epigenetic changes) has become the main focus of scientists because of its high sensitivity and specificity.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study at the Dpt. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin from 2010 to 2012, in collaboration with the Institute of Pathology of the University Hospital in Martin. We analysed paraffin blocks of endometrial tissue from 123 women with endometrial cancer, hyperplasia and normal endometrial findings. By the use of bisulphidic modification technique and nested methylation-specific PCR (MSP), we analysed the methylation patterns of three genes: GSTP1, E-cad, RASSF1.
RESULTS: We found a statistically significant increase of methylation of the RASSF1 gene in endometrial cancer compared to simplex hyperplasia and intact endometrial tissue (p<0.001). GSTP1 and E-cad did not show any relevant methylation pattern in various endometrial lesions.
CONCLUSION: According to the results of our study, RASSF1 gene methylation could serve as a prognostic factor of endometrial carcinogenesis and could help to predict the behaviour of endometrial hyperplasia.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer GSTP1 RASSF1

Helm O, Held-Feindt J, Grage-Griebenow E, et al.
Tumor-associated macrophages exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory properties by which they impact on pancreatic tumorigenesis.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(4):843-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) still ranking 4th in the order of fatal tumor diseases is characterized by a profound tumor stroma with high numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Driven by environmental factors, monocytes differentiate into M1- or M2-macrophages, the latter commonly regarded as being protumorigenic. Because a detailed analysis of TAMs in human PDAC development is still lacking, freshly isolated PDAC-derived TAMs were analyzed for their phenotype and impact on epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) of benign (H6c7) and malignant (Colo357) pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. TAMs exhibited characteristics of M1-macrophages (expression of HLA-DR, IL-1β, or TNF-α) and M2-macrophages (expression of CD163 and IL-10). In the presence of TAMs, H6c7, and Colo357 cells showed an elongated cell shape along with an increased expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and reduced expression of epithelial E-cadherin. Similar to TAMs, in vitro generated M1- and M2-macrophages both mediated EMT in H6c7 and Colo357 cells. M1-macrophages acquired M2-characteristics during coculture that could be prevented by GM-CSF treatment. However, M1-macrophages still potently induced EMT in H6c7 and Colo357 cells although lacking M2-characteristics. Overall, these data demonstrate that TAMs exhibit anti- as well as proinflammatory properties that equally contribute to EMT induction in PDAC initiation and development.

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van Roy F
Beyond E-cadherin: roles of other cadherin superfamily members in cancer.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2014; 14(2):121-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of cadherin 1 (CDH1; also known as epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)) is used for the diagnosis and prognosis of epithelial cancers. However, it should not be ignored that the superfamily of transmembrane cadherin proteins encompasses more than 100 members in humans, including other classical cadherins, numerous protocadherins and cadherin-related proteins. Elucidation of their roles in suppression versus initiation or progression of various tumour types is a young but fascinating field of molecular cancer research. These cadherins are very diverse in both structure and function, and their mutual interactions seem to influence biological responses in complex and versatile ways.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction


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