Gene Summary

Gene:EIF4E; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E
Aliases: CBP, EIF4F, AUTS19, EIF4E1, eIF-4E, EIF4EL1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex, which recognizes the 7-methylguanosine cap structure at the 5' end of messenger RNAs. The encoded protein aids in translation initiation by recruiting ribosomes to the 5'-cap structure. Association of this protein with the 4F complex is the rate-limiting step in translation initiation. This gene acts as a proto-oncogene, and its expression and activation is associated with transformation and tumorigenesis. Several pseudogenes of this gene are found on other chromosomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Sirolimus
  • Phosphoproteins
  • RNA Caps
  • EIF4E
  • Western Blotting
  • Peptide Initiation Factors
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Cyclin D1
  • Lung Cancer
  • Virus Replication
  • AKT1
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Proliferation
  • ras Proteins
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Survival Rate
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Survival
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • RNA Interference
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • siRNA
  • Protein Kinases
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Chromosome 4
  • Drug Resistance
  • Phosphorylation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Skin Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EIF4E (cancer-related)

Gu ML, Wang YM, Zhou XX, et al.
An inhibitor of the acetyltransferases CBP/p300 exerts antineoplastic effects on gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2763-2770 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm featured by activated mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. Although overall survival rates have greatly improved by the development of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most patients ultimately acquire resistance due to secondary mutations of KIT or PDGFRA. Inhibition of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREB‑binding protein (CBP) and p300 results in antineoplastic effects in various cancers. To determine whether CBP/p300 can serve as an antineoplastic target for GISTs, specific short interfering RNA sequences and the selective HAT inhibitor C646 were administered to GIST882 cells. Cell viability, apoptosis and the cell cycle were analysed using the Cell Counting Kit-8, a caspase-3/7 activity assay or Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and PI staining. Gene and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Transcriptional blockage of CBP, rather than p300, resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. Interestingly, both CBP and p300 depletion enhanced caspase-3/7 activity. A lack of CBP and p300 caused ETS translocation variant 1 (ETV1) downregulation and KIT inhibition in GIST cells. Nevertheless, the absence of CBP, not p300, leads to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inactivation and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation, suggesting a more crucial role for CBP than p300 in cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, proliferation of GIST cells was reduced by administration of C646, a selective HAT inhibitor for CBP/p300. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were detected after exposure to C646, indicating that its antitumor activities were supported by its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Additionally, C646 treatment attenuated ETV1 protein expression and inactivated KIT-dependent pathways. Taken together, the present study suggests that CBP/p300 may serve as novel antineoplastic targets and that use of the selective HAT inhibitor C646 is a promising antitumor strategy for GISTs.

Li ZY, Li QZ, Chen L, et al.
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor RGFP109 Overcomes Temozolomide Resistance by Blocking NF-κB-Dependent Transcription in Glioblastoma Cell Lines.
Neurochem Res. 2016; 41(12):3192-3205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive tumour in the central nervous system. Many studies have demonstrated that upregulation of the NF-κB onco-pathway is accompanied by the acquisition of Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in GBM cells. Here, we show that RGFP109, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC1 and HDAC3) inhibitor, overcomes TMZ resistance and downregulates the expression of NF-κB-regulated pro-survival genes in a TMZ-resistant (TR) GBM cell line. RGFP109 did not alter the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB/p65 or inhibitory κBα (IκBα). Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that RGFP109 does not block the nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65. However, co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that RGFP109 induces the hyperacetylation of NF-κB/p65 and histones, and blocks interactions between NF-κB/p65 and its coactivators, p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF). These results indicate that RGFP109-mediated post-translational nuclear acetylation may be involved in the regulation of NF-κB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that RGFP109 reduces NF-κB/p65 binding to κB-DNA and decreased the transcriptional level of κB-mediated genes, suggesting that RGFP109-induced hyperacetylation leads to attenuated transcription of the κB gene. In addition, RGFP109 elevates the expression of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), which is typically downregulated in GBM cells. Importantly, we found that RGFP109 enhances ING4 recognition and binding to NF-κB/p65, which may be positively correlated with reduced interactions between NF-κB/p65 and p300/PCAF, thereby effecting transcription of the κB gene. Finally, we show that knockdown of ING4 with plasmids containing pcDNA3.1-ING4 shRNA abolished the effect of RGFP109. Therefore, ING4 may act as a corepressor and facilitate RGFP109-triggered suppression of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, our data show that RGFP109, an HDAC inhibitor, in combination with TMZ may be a therapeutic candidate for patients with temozolomide-resistant GBM.

Holmes B, Lee J, Landon KA, et al.
Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibition Synergizes with Reduced Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-mediated Translation of Cyclin D1 and c-MYC mRNAs to Treat Glioblastoma.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(27):14146-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
Our previous work has demonstrated an intrinsic mRNA-specific protein synthesis salvage pathway operative in glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells that is resistant to mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. The activation of this internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mRNA translation initiation pathway results in continued translation of critical transcripts involved in cell cycle progression in the face of global eIF-4E-mediated translation inhibition. Recently we identified compound 11 (C11), a small molecule capable of inhibiting c-MYC IRES translation as a consequence of blocking the interaction of a requisite c-MYC IRES trans-acting factor, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, with its IRES. Here we demonstrate that C11 also blocks cyclin D1 IRES-dependent initiation and demonstrates synergistic anti-GBM properties when combined with the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor PP242. The structure-activity relationship of C11 was investigated and resulted in the identification of IRES-J007, which displayed improved IRES-dependent initiation blockade and synergistic anti-GBM effects with PP242. Mechanistic studies with C11 and IRES-J007 revealed binding of the inhibitors within the UP1 fragment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, and docking analysis suggested a small pocket within close proximity to RRM2 as the potential binding site. We further demonstrate that co-therapy with IRES-J007 and PP242 significantly reduces tumor growth of GBM xenografts in mice and that combined inhibitor treatments markedly reduce the mRNA translational state of cyclin D1 and c-MYC transcripts in these tumors. These data support the combined use of IRES-J007 and PP242 to achieve synergistic antitumor responses in GBM.

Deb P, Bhan A, Hussain I, et al.
Endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol-A, induces breast cancer associated gene HOXB9 expression in vitro and in vivo.
Gene. 2016; 590(2):234-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
HOXB9 is a homeobox-containing gene that plays a key role in mammary gland development and is associated with breast and other types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that HOXB9 expression is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol (E2), in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol-A (BPA) induces HOXB9 expression in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF7) as well as in vivo in the mammary glands of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Luciferase assay showed that estrogen-response-elements (EREs) in the HOXB9 promoter are required for BPA-induced expression. Estrogen-receptors (ERs) and ER-co-regulators such as MLL-histone methylase (MLL3), histone acetylases, CBP/P300, bind to the HOXB9 promoter EREs in the presence of BPA, modify chromatin (histone methylation and acetylation) and lead to gene activation. In summary, our results demonstrate that BPA exposure, like estradiol, increases HOXB9 expression in breast cells both in vitro and in vivo through a mechanism that involves increased recruitment of transcription and chromatin modification factors.

Riquelme I, Tapia O, Espinoza JA, et al.
The Gene Expression Status of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway in Gastric Cancer Tissues and Cell Lines.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(4):797-805 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. Emerging evidence has shown that deregulation of this pathway has a role promoting gastric cancer (GC). The aim was to assess the expression of genes involved in this pathway by qPCR in 23 tumor and 23 non-tumor gastric mucosa samples from advanced GC patients, and in AGS, MKN28 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines. Results showed a slight overexpression of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, AKT1, MTOR, RPS6KB1, EIF4EBP1 and EIF4E genes, and a slightly decreased PTEN and TSC1 expression. In AGS, MKN28 and MKN45 cells a significant gene overexpression of PIK3CA, PIK3CB, AKT1, MTOR, RPS6KB1 and EIF4E, and a significant repression of PTEN gene expression were observed. Immunoblotting showed that PI3K-β, AKT, p-AKT, PTEN, mTOR, p-mTOR, P70S6K1, p-P70S6K1, 4E-BP1, p-4E-BP1, eIF4E and p-eIF4E proteins were present in cell lines at different levels, confirming activation of this pathway in vitro. This is the first time this extensive panel of 9 genes within PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been studied in GC to clarify the biological role of this pathway in GC and develop new strategies for this malignancy.

Mognol GP, Carneiro FR, Robbs BK, et al.
Cell cycle and apoptosis regulation by NFAT transcription factors: new roles for an old player.
Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7:e2199 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
The NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of transcription factors consists of four Ca(2+)-regulated members (NFAT1-NFAT4), which were first described in T lymphocytes. In addition to their well-documented role in T lymphocytes, where they control gene expression during cell activation and differentiation, NFAT proteins are also expressed in a wide range of cells and tissue types and regulate genes involved in cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. The NFAT proteins share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD), which allows all NFAT members to bind to the same DNA sequence in enhancers or promoter regions. The same DNA-binding specificity suggests redundant roles for the NFAT proteins, which is true during the regulation of some genes such as IL-2 and p21. However, it has become increasingly clear that different NFAT proteins and even isoforms can have unique functions. In this review, we address the possible reasons for these distinct roles, particularly regarding N- and C-terminal transactivation regions (TADs) and the partner proteins that interact with these TADs. We also discuss the genes regulated by NFAT during cell cycle regulation and apoptosis and the role of NFAT during tumorigenesis.

Wang J, Yang ZH, Chen H, et al.
Nemo-like kinase as a negative regulator of nuclear receptor Nurr1 gene transcription in prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:257 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nurr1, a member of the orphan receptor family, plays an important role in several types of cancer. Our previous work demonstrated that increased expression of Nurr1 plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), though the mechanisms for regulation of Nurr1 expression remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is a key regulator of Nurr1 expression in PCa.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate levels of NLK and Nurr1 in prostatic tissues and cell lines. The effects of overexpression or knockdown of Nurr1 were evaluated in PCa cells through use of PCR, Western blots and promoter reporter assays. The role of Nurr1 promoter cis element was studied by creation of two mutant Nurr1 promoter luciferase constructs, one with a mutated NF-κB binding site and one with a mutated CREB binding site. In addition, three specific inhibitors were used to investigate the roles of these proteins in transcriptional activation of Nurr1, including BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), KG-501 (CREB inhibitor) and ICG-001 (CREB binding protein, CBP, inhibitor). The function of CBP in NLK-mediated regulation of Nurr1 expression was investigated using immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIPs).
RESULTS: NLK expression was inversely correlated with Nurr1 expression in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of NLK suppressed Nurr1 promoter activity, leading to downregulation of Nurr1 expression. In contrast, knockdown of NLK demonstrated opposite results, leading to upregulation of Nurr1. When compared with the wild-type Nurr1 promoter, mutation of NF-κB- and CREB-binding sites of the Nurr1 promoter region significantly reduced the upregulation of Nurr1 induced by knockdown of NLK in LNCaP cells; treatment with inhibitors of CREB, CBP and NF-κB led to similar results. We also found that NLK directly interacts with CBP, that knockdown of NLK significantly increases the recruitment of CBP to both NF-κB- and CREB-binding sites, and that regulation of NLK on Nurr1 expression is abrogated by knockdown of CBP.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that NLK inhibits transcriptional activation of Nurr1 gene by impeding CBP's role as a co-activator of NF-κB and CREB in prostate cancer.

Bararia D, Kwok HS, Welner RS, et al.
Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10968 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation.

Kitange GJ, Mladek AC, Schroeder MA, et al.
Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4 Modulates Temozolomide Sensitivity in Glioblastoma by Regulating DNA Repair Proteins.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(11):2587-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
Here we provide evidence that RBBP4 modulates temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity through coordinate regulation of two key DNA repair genes critical for recovery from TMZ-induced DNA damage: methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and RAD51. Disruption of RBBP4 enhanced TMZ sensitivity, induced synthetic lethality to PARP inhibition, and increased DNA damage signaling in response to TMZ. Moreover, RBBP4 silencing enhanced TMZ-induced H2AX phosphorylation and apoptosis in GBM cells. Intriguingly, RBBP4 knockdown suppressed the expression of MGMT, RAD51, and other genes in association with decreased promoter H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) and increased H3K9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3). Consistent with these data, RBBP4 interacts with CBP/p300 to form a chromatin-modifying complex that binds within the promoter of MGMT, RAD51, and perhaps other genes. Globally, RBBP4 positively and negatively regulates genes involved in critical cellular functions including tumorigenesis. The RBBP4/CBP/p300 complex may provide an interesting target for developing therapy-sensitizing strategies for GBM and other tumors.

Yu Y, Tian L, Feng X, et al.
eIF4E-phosphorylation-mediated Sox2 upregulation promotes pancreatic tumor cell repopulation after irradiation.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 375(1):31-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease characterized by treatment resistance and high recurrence rate. Repopulation of surviving tumor cells undergoing radiotherapy is one of the most common reasons for recurrence. Our previous studies have discovered a novel mechanism for repopulation after irradiation that activation of caspase-3 in irradiated tumor cells activates PKCδ/p38 axis to transmit proliferation signals promoting repopulation of surviving tumor cells. Here we found Sox2 expression is up-regulated in irradiated pancreatic cancer cells, which played a major role in tumor cell repopulation after irradiation. Over-expression of Sox2 strongly enhanced the growth-stimulating effect of irradiated dying tumor cells on living tumor cells through a paracrine modality. Furthermore, we identified activated eIF4E, which is phosphorylated by MNK1, as a regulator of Sox2 expression after irradiation, and pharmacologic inhibition of eIF4E with CGP57380 and Ribavirin significantly weakened Sox2-mediated tumor cell repopulation. Finally, we showed the activation of caspase 3/PKCδ/p38/MNK1 signal pathway in irradiated pancreatic tumor cells. Together, we showed a novel pathway regulating Sox2 expression and Sox2 may be a promising target to reduce recurrence due to repopulation of surviving tumor cells after radiotherapy.

Li J, Huang Y, Gao Y, et al.
Antibiotic drug rifabutin is effective against lung cancer cells by targeting the eIF4E-β-catenin axis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 472(2):299-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
The essential roles of overexpression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and aberrant activation of β-catenin in lung cancer development have been recently identified. However, whether there is a direct connection between eIF4E overexpression and β-catenin activation in lung cancer cells is unknown. In this study, we show that antibiotic drug rifabutin targets human lung cancer cells via inhibition of eIF4E-β-catenin axis. Rifabutin is effectively against lung cancer cells in in vitro cultured cells and in vivo xenograft mouse model through inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Mechanistically, eIF4E regulates β-catenin activity in lung cancer cells as shown by the increased β-catenin phosphorylation and activity in cells overexpressing eIF4E, and furthermore that the regulation is dependent on phosphorylation at S209. Rifabutin suppresses eIF4E phosphorylation, leads to decreased β-catenin phosphorylation and its subsequent transcriptional activities. Depletion of eIF4E abolishes the inhibitory effects of rifabutin on β-catenin activities and overexpression of β-catenin reverses the inhibitory effects of rifabutin on cell growth and survival, further confirming that rifabutin acts on lung cancer cells via targeting eIF4E- β-catenin axis. Our findings identify the eIF4E- β-catenin axis as a critical regulator of lung cancer cell growth and survival, and suggest that its pharmacological inhibition may be therapeutically useful in lung cancer.

Wang M, Zhou A, An T, et al.
N-Hydroxyphthalimide exhibits antitumor activity by suppressing mTOR signaling pathway in BT-20 and LoVo cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: N-Hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), an important chemical raw material, was found to have potent and selective anti-proliferative effect on human breast carcinoma BT-20 cells, human colon adenocarcinoma LoVo and HT-29 cells during our screening for anticancer compounds. The purpose of this study is to assess the antitumor efficacy of NHPI in vitro and in vivo and to explore the underlying antitumor mechanism.
METHODS: Cell cytotoxicity of NHPI was evaluated using MTS assay and cell morphological analysis. After NHPI treatment, cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed using flow cytometer. The subcellular localization of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. The antitumor efficacy of NHPI in vivo was tested in BT-20 xenografts. The underlying antitumor mechanisms of NHPI in vitro and in vivo were investigated with western blot analysis in NHPI-treated cancer cells and tumor tissues. Statistical significance was determined using Student's t-test.
RESULTS: In vitro, NHPI selectively inhibited the proliferation and induced G2/M phase arrest in BT-20 and LoVo cells, which was attributed to the inhibition of cyclin B1 and cdc2 expressions. Furthermore, NHPI induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. Of note, NHPI effectively inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling, and overcame the feedback activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) caused by mTORC1 inhibition in BT-20 and LoVo cells. In vivo, NHPI inhibited tumor growth and suppressed mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in BT-20 xenografts with no obvious toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: We found for the first time that NHPI displayed antitumor activity which is associated with the inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that NHPI may be developed as a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics by targeting mTOR signaling pathway and as such warrants further exploration.

Duren RP, Boudreaux SP, Conneely OM
Genome Wide Mapping of NR4A Binding Reveals Cooperativity with ETS Factors to Promote Epigenetic Activation of Distal Enhancers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150450 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
Members of the NR4A subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors regulate cell fate decisions via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms in a cell and tissue selective manner. NR4As play a key role in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and are critical tumor suppressors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Expression of NR4As is broadly silenced in leukemia initiating cell enriched populations from human patients relative to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Rescue of NR4A expression in human AML cells inhibits proliferation and reprograms AML gene signatures via transcriptional mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. By intersecting an acutely regulated NR4A1 dependent transcriptional profile with genome wide NR4A binding distribution, we now identify an NR4A targetome of 685 genes that are directly regulated by NR4A1. We show that NR4As regulate gene transcription primarily through interaction with distal enhancers that are co-enriched for NR4A1 and ETS transcription factor motifs. Using a subset of NR4A activated genes, we demonstrate that the ETS factors ERG and FLI-1 are required for activation of NR4A bound enhancers and NR4A target gene induction. NR4A1 dependent recruitment of ERG and FLI-1 promotes binding of p300 histone acetyltransferase to epigenetically activate NR4A bound enhancers via acetylation at histone H3K27. These findings disclose novel epigenetic mechanisms by which NR4As and ETS factors cooperate to drive NR4A dependent gene transcription in human AML cells.

Cao W, Wei W, Zhan Z, et al.
MiR-1284 modulates multidrug resistance of gastric cancer cells by targeting EIF4A1.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(5):2583-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Routine chemotherapy as an important treatment mode often can not be effective because of multidrug resistance (MDR). MicroRNA (miRNA) modulates the expression of a great number of genes, including MDR. In this study, the expression of miR-1284 was reduced in gastric cancer (GC) tissue specimens with metastasis and in vincristine-resistant (VCR) GC SGC7901 cells (SGC-7901/VCR) compared to that in the controls. Recombinant lentiviral vectors with miR-1284 led to the overexpression of miR-1284 mRNA and reversed the chemoresistance of SGC7901/VCR cells, promoted cell cycle arrested at the G0/G1 phase, accelerated drug-induced apoptosis, and decreased migration and invasiveness of SGC-7901/VCR. In addition, the overexpression of miR-1284 sensitized tumors to chemotherapy in vivo. Our data provide combined evidence that miR-1284 can heighten the expression of MYC and reduce the expression of JUN, MMP12, and EIF4A1 that was the direct target. In conclusion, miR-1284 can function as a new regulator to reduce GC MDR cells by targeting EIF4A1.

Ochnik AM, Peterson MS, Avdulov SV, et al.
Amplified in Breast Cancer Regulates Transcription and Translation in Breast Cancer Cells.
Neoplasia. 2016; 18(2):100-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Control of mRNA translation is fundamentally altered in cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling regulates key translation mediators to modulate protein synthesis (e.g. eIF4E, 4E-BP1, mTOR, and S6K1). Importantly the Amplified in Breast Cancer (AIB1) oncogene regulates transcription and is also a downstream mediator of IGF-I signaling.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine if AIB1 also affects mRNA translation, we conducted gain and loss of AIB1 function experiments in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)(+) (MCF-7L) and ERα(-) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and LCC6) breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: AIB1 positively regulated IGF-I-induced mRNA translation in both ERα(+) and ERα(-) cells. Formation of the eIF4E-4E-BP1 translational complex was altered in the AIB1 ERα(+) and ERα(-) knockdown cells, leading to a reduction in the eIF4E/4E-BP1 and eIF4G/4E-BP1 ratios. In basal and IGF-I stimulated MCF-7 and LCC6 cells, knockdown of AIB1 decreased the integrity of the cap-binding complex, reduced global IGF-I stimulated polyribosomal mRNA recruitment with a concomitant decrease in ten of the thirteen genes tested in polysome-bound mRNAs mapping to proliferation, cell cycle, survival, transcription, translation and ribosome biogenesis ontologies. Specifically, knockdown of AIB1 decreased ribosome-bound mRNA and steady-state protein levels of the transcription factors ERα and E2F1 in addition to reduced ribosome-bound mRNA of the ribosome biogenesis factor BYSL in a cell-line specific manner to regulate mRNA translation.
CONCLUSION: The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation.

Wu CF, Seo EJ, Klauck SM, Efferth T
Cryptotanshinone deregulates unfolded protein response and eukaryotic initiation factor signaling in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Phytomedicine. 2016; 23(2):174-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Unfolded protein responses (UPR) determine cell fate and are recognized as anticancer targets. In a previous research, we reported that cryptotanshinone (CPT) exerted cytotoxic effects toward acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells through mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
PURPOSE: In the present study, we further investigated the role of UPR in CPT-induced cytotoxicity on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by applying tools of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics.
METHODS: Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization. Potential transcription factor binding motifs were identified in the promoter regions of the deregulated genes by Cistrome software. Molecular docking on eIF-4A and PI3K was performed to investigate the inhibitory activity of CPT on translation initiation.
RESULTS: CPT regulated genes related to UPR and eIF2 signaling pathways. The DNA-Damage-Inducible Transcript 3 (DDIT3) gene, which is activated as consequence of UPR malfunction during apoptosis, was induced and validated by in vitro experiments. Transcription factor binding motif analysis of the microarrary-retrieved deregulated genes in the promoter region emphasized the relevance of transcription factors, such as ATF2, ATF4 and XBP1, regulating UPR and cell apoptosis. Molecular docking suggested inhibitory effects of CPT by binding to eIF-4A and PI3K providing evidence for a role of CPT's in the disruption of protein synthesis.
CONCLUSION: CPT triggered UPR and inhibited protein synthesis via eIF-mediated translation initiation, potentially supporting CPT-induced cytotoxic effects toward acute leukemia cells.

Qin X, Jiang B, Zhang Y
4E-BP1, a multifactor regulated multifunctional protein.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(6):781-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/09/2017 Related Publications
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) is a member of a family of translation repressor proteins, and a well-known substrate of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 causes its release from eIF4E to allow cap-dependent translation to proceed. Recently, 4E-BP1 was shown to be phosphorylated by other kinases besides mTOR, and overexpression of 4E-BP1 was found in different human carcinomas. In this review, we summarize the novel findings on mTOR independent 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in carcinomas. The implications of overexpression and possible multi-function of 4E-BP1 are also discussed.

Samarin J, Laketa V, Malz M, et al.
PI3K/AKT/mTOR-dependent stabilization of oncogenic far-upstream element binding proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Hepatology. 2016; 63(3):813-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Transcription factors of the far-upstream element-binding protein (FBP) family represent cellular pathway hubs, and their overexpression in liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) stimulates tumor cell proliferation and correlates with poor prognosis. Here we determine the mode of oncogenic FBP overexpression in HCC cells. Using perturbation approaches (kinase inhibitors, small interfering RNAs) and a novel system for rapalog-dependent activation of AKT isoforms, we demonstrate that activity of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase/AKT pathway is involved in the enrichment of nuclear FBP1 and FBP2 in liver cancer cells. In human HCC tissues, phospho-AKT significantly correlates with nuclear FBP1/2 accumulation and expression of the proliferation marker KI67. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition or blockade of its downstream effector eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E activity equally reduced FBP1/2 concentrations. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin diminishes FBP enrichment in liver tumors after hydrodynamic gene delivery of AKT plasmids. In addition, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib significantly reduces FBP levels in HCC cells and in multidrug resistance 2-deficient mice that develop HCC due to severe inflammation. Both FBP1/2 messenger RNAs are highly stable, with FBP2 being more stable than FBP1. Importantly, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling significantly diminishes FBP1/2 protein stability in a caspase-3/-7-dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: These data provide insight into a transcription-independent mechanism of FBP protein enrichment in liver cancer; further studies will have to show whether this previously unknown interaction between phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway activity and caspase-mediated FBP stabilization allows the establishment of interventional strategies in FBP-positive HCCs.

Hanada T, Kanamitsu K, Chayama K, et al.
A Long-term Survivor after Congenital Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(8 ; 16)(p11 ; p13).
Acta Med Okayama. 2016; 70(1):31-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment of patients with congenital leukemia is difficult and often results in a poor prognosis. We present here the case of a female child with congenital acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8 ; 16) (p11 ; p13) who received chemotherapy and survived for more than 10 years without relapse. A novel MOZ-CBP chimera was found in her diagnostic sample. Although adult AML patients with MOZ-CBP have mainly been reported as having therapy-related AML and showed poor prognoses, the present case supports the idea that AML with MOZ-CBP in the pediatric population might show better prognoses.

Zha L, Cao Q, Cui X, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin expression by the histone demethylase UTX in colon cancer cells.
Med Oncol. 2016; 33(3):21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decreased epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) gene expression, a hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is essential for triggering metastatic advantage of the colon cancer. Genetic mechanisms underlying the regulation of E-cadherin expression in EMT have been extensively investigated; however, much is unknown about the epigenetic mechanism underlying this process. Here, we identified ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX), a histone demethylase involved in demethylating di- or tri-methylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3), as a positive regulator for the expression of E-cadherin in the colon cancer cell line HCT-116. We showed that inactivation of UTX down-regulated E-cadherin gene expression, while overexpression of UTX did the opposite. Notably, overexpression of UTX inhibited migration and invasion of HCT-116 cells. Moreover, UTX demethylated H3K27me3, a histone transcriptional repressive mark, leading to decreased H3K27me3 at the E-cadherin promoter. Further, UTX interacted with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protein CBP and recruited it to the E-cadherin promoter, resulting in increased H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), a histone transcriptional active mark. UTX positively regulates E-cadherin expression through coordinated regulation of H3K27 demethylation and acetylation, switching the transcriptional repressive state to the transcriptional active state at the E-cadherin promoter. We conclude that UTX may play a role in regulation of E-cadherin gene expression in HCT-116 cells and that UTX may serve as a therapeutic target against the metastasis in the treatment of colon cancer.

Lu C, Makala L, Wu D, Cai Y
Targeting translation: eIF4E as an emerging anticancer drug target.
Expert Rev Mol Med. 2016; 18:e2 [PubMed] Related Publications
The translation initiation factor eIF4E mediates a rate-limiting process that drives selective translation of many oncongenic proteins such as cyclin D1, survivin and VEGF, thereby contributing to tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. As an essential regulatory hub in cancer signalling network, many oncogenic signalling pathways appear to converge on eIF4E. Therefore, targeting eIF4E-mediated cap-dependent translation is considered a promising anticancer strategy. This paper reviews the strategies that can be used to target eIF4E, highlighting agents that target eIF4E activity at each distinct level.

Conery AR, Centore RC, Neiss A, et al.
Bromodomain inhibition of the transcriptional coactivators CBP/EP300 as a therapeutic strategy to target the IRF4 network in multiple myeloma.
Elife. 2016; 5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pharmacological inhibition of chromatin co-regulatory factors represents a clinically validated strategy to modulate oncogenic signaling through selective attenuation of gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition preferentially abrogates the viability of multiple myeloma cell lines. Selective targeting of multiple myeloma cell lines through CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition is the result of direct transcriptional suppression of the lymphocyte-specific transcription factor IRF4, which is essential for the viability of myeloma cells, and the concomitant repression of the IRF4 target gene c-MYC. Ectopic expression of either IRF4 or MYC antagonizes the phenotypic and transcriptional effects of CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition, highlighting the IRF4/MYC axis as a key component of its mechanism of action. These findings suggest that CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition represents a viable therapeutic strategy for targeting multiple myeloma and other lymphoid malignancies dependent on the IRF4 network.

Jia ZM, Ai X, Teng JF, et al.
p21 and CK2 interaction-mediated HDAC2 phosphorylation modulates KLF4 acetylation to regulate bladder cancer cell proliferation.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8293-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor involved in both tumor suppression and oncogenesis as a transcriptional activator or repressor in a context-dependent manner. KLF4 acts as a regulator of p53 depending on p21 status in breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the distinct role of KLF4 remain poorly understood. Here, we revealed that p21 depletion converted KLF4 from a cell cycle inhibitor to a promoter of bladder cancer cell proliferation. Additionally, KLF4 was acetylated in a p21-dependent manner to inhibit bladder cancer cell growth as a tumor suppressor. However, deacetylated KLF4 functioned as an oncogene promoting bladder cancer cell proliferation. Mechanistically, p21 and CK2 interaction, but not CK2 alone, enhanced HDAC2 phosphorylation and restricted KLF4 deacetylation and subsequent tumor promotion. Furthermore, we observed that KLF4 was acetylated by CBP/p300 and that overexpression of CBP resulted in KLF4 acetylation and tumor suppression even in p21-depleted bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we discovered that Notch-1 knockdown-induced KLF4 is acetylated form of KLF4, which may mediate Notch-1 function in bladder cancer cell proliferation. Our data demonstrate that KLF4 acts as a tumor suppressor or oncogene to activate or repress target gene transcription depending on its acetylation status, which is regulated by p21 and CK2 interaction-mediated HDAC2 phosphorylation. Targeting KLF4 at the post-transcriptional levels may provide novel insight for bladder cancer therapy.

Inagaki Y, Shiraki K, Sugimoto K, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of proliferation and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase activity.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(2):533-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered epigenetic control of gene expression plays a substantial role in tumor development and progression. Accumulating studies suggest that somatic mutations of CREB binding proteins (CBP)/p300 occur in some cancer cells. CBP/p300 possess histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, and are involved in many cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the expression and functional role of CBP/p300 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the specific inhibitor C646 of CBP/p300 HAT activity. We examined its effect on several apoptosis-related proteins and invasion-related genes. The results showed that CBP/p300 were highly expressed in HCC tissues and that expression of p300, but not of CBP, was strongly correlated with the malignant character of HCC. C646 inhibited proliferation of HCC cell lines in a dose dependent manner. C646 significantly augmented TRAIL-induced apoptotic sensitivity, which was accompanied by reduced levels of survivin, in HepG2, HLE and SK-HEP1 cells. C646 significantly inhibited invasion of Huh7, HLE and SK-HEP1 cells. The level of matrix metallopeptidase 15 (MMP15) mRNA expression was significantly reduced, whereas the level of laminin alpha 3 (LAMA3) and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) mRNA expression was significantly increased in Huh7 cells following exposure to C646. In conclusion, our results suggest that CBP/p300 HAT activity has an important role in malignant transformation, proliferation, apoptotic sensitivity and invasion in HCC. CBP/p300 could be a promising therapeutic target in HCC.

Feng C, Xiong Z, Jiang H, et al.
Genetic alteration in notch pathway is associated with better prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.
Biofactors. 2016 Jan-Feb; 42(1):41-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Notch signaling was associated with a variety of cancers but was not comprehensively studied in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We have in this study studied the genetic alteration (mutation and copy number variance) of Notch gene set in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) database. We found that Notch pathway was frequently altered in ccRCC. The Notch gene set was genetically altered in 182 (44%) of the 415 ccRCC patients. CNV was the predominant type of alteration in most genes. Alterations in KAT2B and MAML1 occurred in 13% and 19% of patients, respectively, both of which were functionally active in ccRCC. Deletion of VHL was exclusively found in cases with Notch alteration. Overall survival was longer in ccRCC patients with altered-Notch pathway. The median survival was 90.41 months in Notch-altered cases and 69.15 in Notch-unaltered cases (P = 0.0404). The median disease free time was 89.82 months in Notch-altered cases and 77.27 months in in Notch-unaltered cases (P = 0.935). Conclusively, Notch signaling was altered in almost half of the ccRCC patients and copy number variances in MAML1 and KAT2B were predominant changes. These findings broadened our understanding of the role of Notch in ccRCC.

Yin YW, Jin HJ, Zhao W, et al.
The Histone Acetyltransferase GCN5 Expression Is Elevated and Regulated by c-Myc and E2F1 Transcription Factors in Human Colon Cancer.
Gene Expr. 2015; 16(4):187-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 has been suggested to be involved in promoting cancer cell growth. But its role in human colon cancer development remains unknown. Herein we discovered that GCN5 expression is significantly upregulated in human colon adenocarcinoma tissues. We further demonstrate that GCN5 is upregulated in human colon cancer at the mRNA level. Surprisingly, two transcription factors, the oncogenic c-Myc and the proapoptotic E2F1, are responsible for GCN5 mRNA transcription. Knockdown of c-Myc inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation largely through downregulating GCN5 transcription, which can be fully rescued by the ectopic GCN5 expression. In contrast, E2F1 expression induced human colon cancer cell death, and suppression of GCN5 expression in cells with E2F1 overexpression further facilitated cell apoptosis, suggesting that GCN5 expression is induced by E2F1 as a possible negative feedback in suppressing E2F1-mediated cell apoptosis. In addition, suppression of GCN5 with its specific inhibitor CPTH2 inhibited human colon cancer cell growth. Our studies reveal that GCN5 plays a positive role in human colon cancer development, and its suppression holds a great therapeutic potential in antitumor therapy.

Duan S, Yuan G, Liu X, et al.
PTEN deficiency reprogrammes human neural stem cells towards a glioblastoma stem cell-like phenotype.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:10068 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in immunodeficient mice. PTEN is localized to the nucleus in NSCs, binds to the PAX7 promoter through association with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB)/CREB binding protein (CBP) and inhibits PAX7 transcription. PTEN deficiency leads to the upregulation of PAX7, which in turn promotes oncogenic transformation of NSCs and instates 'aggressiveness' in human glioblastoma stem cells. In a large clinical database, we find increased PAX7 levels in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. Furthermore, we identify that mitomycin C selectively triggers apoptosis in NSCs with PTEN deficiency. Together, we uncover a potential mechanism of how PTEN safeguards NSCs, and establish a cellular platform to identify factors involved in NSC transformation, potentially permitting personalized treatment of glioblastoma.

Tang Z, Yu W, Zhang C, et al.
CREB-binding protein regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathway.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(2):317-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
CBP (CREB-binding protein) is a transcriptional co-activator which possesses HAT (histone acetyltransferases) activity and participates in many biological processes, including embryonic development, growth control and homeostasis. However, its roles and the underlying mechanisms in the regulation of carcinogenesis and tumor development remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms and potential targets of CBP involved in tumor growth and survival in lung cancer cells. Elevated expression of CBP was detected in lung cancer cells and tumor tissues compared to the normal lung cells and tissues. Knockdown of CBP by siRNA or inhibition of its HAT activity using specific chemical inhibitor effectively suppressed cell proliferation, migration and colony formation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells by inhibiting MAPK and activating cytochrome C/caspase-dependent signaling pathways. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses revealed the co-localization and interaction between CBP and CPSF4 (cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4) proteins in lung cancer cells. Knockdown of CPSF4 inhibited hTERT transcription and cell growth induced by CBP, and vice versa, demonstrating the synergetic effect of CBP and CPSF4 in the regulation of lung cancer cell growth and survival. Moreover, we found that high expression of both CBP and CPSF4 predicted a poor prognosis in the patients with lung adenocarcinomas. Collectively, our results indicate that CBP regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathways.

Raza F, Waldron JA, Quesne JL
Translational dysregulation in cancer: eIF4A isoforms and sequence determinants of eIF4A dependence.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2015; 43(6):1227-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The malignant phenotype is largely the consequence of dysregulated gene expression. Transformed cells depend upon not just a global increase in protein synthesis but an altered translational landscape in which pro-oncogenic mRNAs are translationally up-regulated. Such mRNAs have been shown to possess longer and more structured 5'-UTRs requiring high levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase activity for efficient translation. As such there is a developing focus on targeting eIF4A as a cancer therapy. In order for such treatments to be successful, we must develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms which make specific mRNAs more dependent on eIF4A activity than others. It is also crucial to fully characterize the potentially distinct roles of eIF4A1 and eIF4A2, which until recently were thought to be functionally interchangeable. This review will highlight the recent advances made in this field that address these issues.

Kumar K, Chow CR, Ebine K, et al.
Differential Regulation of ZEB1 and EMT by MAPK-Interacting Protein Kinases (MNK) and eIF4E in Pancreatic Cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2016; 14(2):216-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumors are associated with dysregulation of mRNA translation. In this report, it is demonstrated that PDAC cells grown in collagen exhibit increased activation of the MAPK-interacting protein kinases (MNK) that mediate eIF4E phosphorylation. Pharmacologic and genetic targeting of MNKs reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), decrease cell migration, and reduce protein expression of the EMT-regulator ZEB1 without affecting ZEB1 mRNA levels. Paradoxically, targeting eIF4E, the best-characterized effector of MNKs, increases ZEB1 mRNA expression through repression of ZEB1-targeting miRNAs, miR-200c and miR-141. In contrast, targeting the MNK effector hnRNPA1, which can function as a translational repressor, increases ZEB1 protein without increasing ZEB1 mRNA levels. Importantly, treatment with MNK inhibitors blocks growth of chemoresistant PDAC cells in collagen and decreases the number of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity-positive (Aldefluor+) cells. Significantly, MNK inhibitors increase E-cadherin mRNA levels and decrease vimentin mRNA levels in human PDAC organoids without affecting ZEB1 mRNA levels. Importantly, MNK inhibitors also decrease growth of human PDAC organoids.
IMPLICATIONS: These results demonstrate differential regulation of ZEB1 and EMT by MNKs and eIF4E, and identify MNKs as potential targets in pancreatic cancer.

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