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Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: (ALL)
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MeSH term: Leukemia
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This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Efficacy and Safety of Midostaurin in Advanced Systemic Mastocytosis.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 374(26):2530-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We conducted an open-label study of oral midostaurin at a dose of 100 mg twice daily in 116 patients, of whom 89 with mastocytosis-related organ damage were eligible for inclusion in the primary efficacy population; 16 had aggressive systemic mastocytosis, 57 had systemic mastocytosis with an associated hematologic neoplasm, and 16 had mast-cell leukemia. The primary outcome was the best overall response.
RESULTS: The overall response rate was 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49 to 70); 45% of the patients had a major response, which was defined as complete resolution of at least one type of mastocytosis-related organ damage. Response rates were similar regardless of the subtype of advanced systemic mastocytosis, KIT mutation status, or exposure to previous therapy. The median best percentage changes in bone marrow mast-cell burden and serum tryptase level were -59% and -58%, respectively. The median overall survival was 28.7 months, and the median progression-free survival was 14.1 months. Among the 16 patients with mast-cell leukemia, the median overall survival was 9.4 months (95% CI, 7.5 to not estimated). Dose reduction owing to toxic effects occurred in 56% of the patients; re-escalation to the starting dose was feasible in 32% of those patients. The most frequent adverse events were low-grade nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. New or worsening grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 24%, 41%, and 29% of the patients, respectively, mostly in those with preexisting cytopenias.
CONCLUSIONS: In this open-label study, midostaurin showed efficacy in patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis, including the highly fatal variant mast-cell leukemia. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00782067.).
Dual targeting of p53 and c-MYC selectively eliminates leukaemic stem cells.
Nature. 2016; 534(7607):341-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/12/2016 Related Publications
Peripartum cardiomyopathy in a patient treated for acute myeloid leukemia.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2016 Jan-Feb; 144(1-2):77-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE OUTLINE: We report a 30-year-old female who was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, with maturation and cytogenetic finding of t(8;21)(q22;q22),del(9)(q22) in January 2004. She was treated with chemotherapy and achieved complete remission that lasts to date. She became pregnant and delivered a healthy newborn with caesarean section in 2009. Seven months later, she again became pregnant and delivered the second child with caesarean section in January 2011. Seven days after delivery she developed symptoms and signs of heart failure. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, low voltage and negative T-waves in inferior and lateral leads. Echocardiography revealed global left ventricular dysfunction with ejection fraction of 15%, with mobile thrombotic mass of 12 mm attached to the left ventricle wall. She was treated with both unfractionated and low-molecular heparin, diuretics, cardiotonics, and beta-blockers. Within six following weeks left ventricle systolic function improved up to 25-30%. The full clinical recovery was achieved in September 2013, resulting in absence of heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction of 54%.
CONCLUSION: Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare condition. The cause of cardiomyopathy is unknown, but it is believed that it could be triggered by various conditions and risk factors. Although the patient was treated with cardiotoxic drugs (doxorubicin and mitoxantrone) in permitted doses, they could have been contributory factors of myocardial damage. Close monitoring of cardiac function in the peripartal period might be beneficial in patients treated with cardiotoxic drugs.
Occupational Risk Factors of Lymphohematopoietic Cancer in Rayong Province, Thailand.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2015; 98 Suppl 10:S13-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of occupational exposure and LHC risks in Rayong province, Thailand.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: This matched hospital-based case-control study was conducted in a Rayong provincial hospital from September 2009 to January 2013. One LHC case was matched with four controls in gender and age, ±5 years. Demographic data, residential factors, behavioral factors, and occupational exposure-including chemical exposure-were obtained by interviews and collected by occupational health care officers. The risk factor was analyzed by conditional logistic regression and reported in odds ratio with 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS: This study found 105 LHC cases which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study, yielding a 66% cover rate of cases reported in the database. The histology of LHC were 51 leukemia cases (47.7%), 43 lymphoma cases (42.0%), and 11 multiple myeloma cases (10.3%). The results revealed that occupational exposure to pesticide and smoke were statistically significantly associated with LHC with adjusted ORs 2.26 (95% CI 1.30-3.91) and 1.99 (95% CI = 1.13-3.51), respectively. When stratified to histological subtype of LHC by WHO 2000, leukemia was statistically significantly associated with occupational exposure to smoke, adjusted ORs 2.43 (95% CI 1.11-5.36), with occupational pesticide exposure a significant risk of lymphoma, adjusted ORs 4.69 (95% CI 2.01-10.96). However, neither fumes, wood dust, working outdoors, cleaners, contact with animals, petroleum products and chlorine; nor occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene or organic solvents, were statistically significant risk factors of LHC. In addition, there were no significant risks in the demographic data, residential factors, and behavioral factors.
CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to pesticides and smoke were important occupational risks in developing LHC in Rayong province. However, the ability or power to detect this problem due to the small sample size and recall bias from the study design could not be excluded.
Genomic Classification and Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 374(23):2209-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We enrolled a total of 1540 patients in three prospective trials of intensive therapy. Combining driver mutations in 111 cancer genes with cytogenetic and clinical data, we defined AML genomic subgroups and their relevance to clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: We identified 5234 driver mutations across 76 genes or genomic regions, with 2 or more drivers identified in 86% of the patients. Patterns of co-mutation compartmentalized the cohort into 11 classes, each with distinct diagnostic features and clinical outcomes. In addition to currently defined AML subgroups, three heterogeneous genomic categories emerged: AML with mutations in genes encoding chromatin, RNA-splicing regulators, or both (in 18% of patients); AML with TP53 mutations, chromosomal aneuploidies, or both (in 13%); and, provisionally, AML with IDH2(R172) mutations (in 1%). Patients with chromatin-spliceosome and TP53-aneuploidy AML had poor outcomes, with the various class-defining mutations contributing independently and additively to the outcome. In addition to class-defining lesions, other co-occurring driver mutations also had a substantial effect on overall survival. The prognostic effects of individual mutations were often significantly altered by the presence or absence of other driver mutations. Such gene-gene interactions were especially pronounced for NPM1-mutated AML, in which patterns of co-mutation identified groups with a favorable or adverse prognosis. These predictions require validation in prospective clinical trials.
CONCLUSIONS: The driver landscape in AML reveals distinct molecular subgroups that reflect discrete paths in the evolution of AML, informing disease classification and prognostic stratification. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00146120.).
Correlation of p210 BCR-ABL transcript variants with clinical, parameters and disease outcome in 45 chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
J BUON. 2016 Mar-Apr; 21(2):444-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: 45 bone marrow or peripheral blood samples from untreated CML patients in chronic phase (CP) were obtained at diagnosis, and analyzed by nested RT-PCR, conventional cytogenetics and molecular cyto-genetics methods.
RESULTS: 45 patients examined were positive for some type of BCR/ABL1 fusion gene rearrangement. Out of 45 studied CML patients, 23 (51.1%) expressed b3a2 fusion transcript, 21 (46.7%) b2a2 transcript, and 1 (2.2%) a rare b2a3 transcript. No patient co-expressed both b3a2/b2a2 types.
CONCLUSIONS: The distribution BCR-ABL1 transcript types found in Syria were similar to that of Indian Far-Eastern, African or European populations and the M-BCR rearrangement types were not dependent on white blood count (WBC), platelet count, hemoglobin level or gender of the patients. Overall, we could show that patients with b3a2 rearrangements were younger than patients with b2a2 transcripts, thus our young patients may have a worse prognosis.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Biologic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Insights.
Oncology (Williston Park). 2016; 30(4):318-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
THE MANY FACES OF CARING IN NURSING.
Beginnings. 2016; 36(1):15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Factors affecting survival in acute leukemia with donor lymphocyte infusion in the first relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
J BUON. 2016 Jan-Feb; 21(1):227-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this retrospective study 54 patients (26 with acute myeloid leukemia [AML] and 28 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) in their first relapse after allo-SCT who received fludarabine-based chemotherapy followed by DLI were evaluated.
RESULTS: The relative risk for mortality was significantly higher in patients with acute leukemia (AL) within the high-risk group who went through transplantation (risk ratio: 4.866; 95% CI: 2.029-11.670;p<0.001) and in transplants performed in the remission phases following the first complete remission (risk ratio: 2.371; 95% CI: 1.154 - 4.872; p=0.019). Additionally, the relative mortality risk of transplantation in patients with acute leukemia (AL) with a number of DLIs applied (risk ratio: 0.456; 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.717; p=0.001) nd non-myeloablative regimen (risk ratio: 0.229; 95% CI: 0.053-0.992; p=0.049) was significantly lower.
CONCLUSION: Efforts to enhance the number of DLIs, thus the number of infused cells, may result in better OS in cases with AL with relapse.
Silencing of myeloid cell leukemia-1 by small interfering RNA improves chemosensitivity to etoposide in u-937 leukemic cells.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jan-Mar; 30(1):55-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Physical exercise training interventions for children and young adults during and after treatment for childhood cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 3:CD008796 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a physical exercise training intervention on the physical fitness (i.e. aerobic capacity, muscle strength, or functional performance) of children with cancer within the first five years from their diagnosis (performed either during or after cancer treatment), compared to a control group of children with cancer who did not receive an exercise intervention.To determine whether physical exercise within the first five years of diagnosis has an effect on fatigue, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, and HRQoL and to determine whether there are any adverse effects of the intervention.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the electronic databases of Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro; ongoing trial registries and conference proceedings on 6 September 2011 and 11 November 2014. In addition, we performed a handsearch of reference lists.
SELECTION CRITERIA: The review included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) that compared the effects of physical exercise training with no training, in people who were within the first five years of their diagnosis of childhood cancer.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently identified studies meeting the inclusion criteria, performed the data extraction, and assessed the risk of bias using standardized forms. Study quality was rated by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria.
MAIN RESULTS: Apart from the five studies in the original review, this update included one additional RCT. In total, the analysis included 171 participants, all during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).The duration of the training sessions ranged from 15 to 60 minutes per session. Both the type of intervention and intervention period varied in all the included studies. However, the control group always received usual care.All studies had methodological limitations, such as small numbers of participants, unclear randomization methods, and single-blind study designs in case of one RCT and all results were of moderate to very low quality (GRADE).Cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the 9-minute run-walk test, timed up-and-down stairs test, the timed up-and-go time test, and the 20-m shuttle run test. Data of the 9-minute run-walk test and the timed up-and-down stairs test could be pooled. The combined 9-minute run-walk test results showed significant differences between the intervention and the control groups, in favour of the intervention group (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 1.35). Pooled data from the timed up-and-down stairs test showed no significant differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (SMD -0.54; 95% CI -1.77 to 0.70). However, there was considerable heterogeneity (I(2) = 84%) between the two studies on this outcome. The other two single-study outcomes, 20-m shuttle run test and the timed up-and-go test, also showed positive results for cardiorespiratory fitness in favour of the intervention group.Only one study assessed the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (total body), showing a statistically significant positive intervention effect (SMD 1.07; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.66). The pooled data on body mass index showed no statistically significant end-score difference between the intervention and control group (SMD 0.59; 95% CI -0.23 to 1.41).Three studies assessed flexibility. Two studies assessed ankle dorsiflexion. One study assessed active ankle dorsiflexion, while the other assessed passive ankle dorsiflexion. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control group with the active ankle dorsiflexion test; however, in favour of the intervention group, they were found for passive ankle dorsiflexion (SMD 0.69; 95% CI 0.12 to 1.25). The third study assessed body flexibility using the sit-and-reach distance test, but identified no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control group.Three studies assessed muscle strength (knee, ankle, back and leg, and inspiratory muscle strength). Only the back and leg strength combination score showed statistically significant differences on the muscle strength end-score between the intervention and control group (SMD 1.41; 95% CI 0.71 to 2.11).Apart from one sub-scale of the cancer scale (Worries; P value = 0.03), none of the health-related quality of life scales showed a significant difference between both study groups on the end-score. For the other outcomes of fatigue, level of daily activity, and adverse events (all assessed in one study), there were no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control group.None of the included studies evaluated activity energy expenditure, time spent on exercise, anxiety and depression, or self efficacy as an outcome.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of physical exercise training interventions for childhood cancer participants are not yet convincing. Possible reasons are the small numbers of participants and insufficient study designs, but it can also be that this type of intervention is not as effective as in adult cancer patients. However, the first results show some positive effects on physical fitness in the intervention group compared to the control group. There were positive intervention effects for body composition, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and health-related quality of life (cancer-related items). These were measured by some assessment methods, but not all. However, the quality of the evidence was low and these positive effects were not found for the other assessed outcomes, such as fatigue, level of daily activity, and adverse events. There is a need for more studies with comparable aims and interventions, using a higher number of participants that also include diagnoses other than ALL.
A Case of Pneumonia Caused by Pneumocystis Jirovecii and Cryptococcus Neoformans in a Patient with HTLV-1 Associated Adult T- Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: Occam's Razor Blunted.
Conn Med. 2016; 80(2):81-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Down-Regulation of miR-186 Correlates with Poor Survival in de novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(1-2):113-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR was carried out in 112 de novo AML patients and 28 controls.
RESULTS: The level of miR-186 expression in AML was significantly down-regulated compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). Patients with low miR-186 expression presented significantly older age than those with high miR-186 expression (p = 0.004). MiR-186high patients had a significantly higher frequency of CEBPA mutation than miR-186low patients (20% and 4%, respectively, p = 0.022). In addition, miR-186low patients had a significantly lower complete remission (CR) rate (30% vs. 53%, respectively, p = 0.028) than miR-186high patients. Moreover, miR-186low patients showed significantly shorter overall survival (OS) time than miR-186high patients in both whole AML and non-M3 patients (p = 0.023 and 0.026, respectively). Additionally, the adverse prognostic impact of miR-186 down-regulation was also shown in both whole AML and non-M3 patients without CEBPA mutation (p = 0.017 and 0.023, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that miR-186 down-regulation is a frequent event and predicts poor prognosis in de novo AML patients.
JAK2V617F Mutation in a Patient with B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Prefibrotic Primary Myelofibrosis.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2015 Nov-Dec; 143(11-12):739-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE OUTLINE: We report of a 67-year-old man with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia (B-CLL) who developed primary myelofibrosis (PMF) nine years after initial diagnosis. Patient received alkylation agents and purine analogue, which can be a predisposing factor for the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms. JAK2V617F mutation was not present initially at the time of CLL diagnosis, but was found after nine years when PMF occurred, which indicates that B-CLL and PMF represent two separate clonal origin neoplasms.
CONCLUSION: Pathogenic mechanisms for the development of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative neoplasms in the same patient are unknown. Further research is needed to determine whether these malignancies originate from two different cell clones or arise from the same pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell.
Acute Myocardial Infarction during Induction Chemotherapy for Acute MLL t(4;11) Leukemia with Lineage Switch and Extreme Leukocytosis.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2015 Nov-Dec; 143(11-12):734-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE OUTLINE: In April of 2012 a 37-year-old male presented with bilateral deep leg vein thrombosis and malaise. Laboratory data were as follows: Hb 118 g/L, WBC 354 x 10(9)/L (with 91% blasts in differential leukocyte count), platelets 60x109/L. Bone marrow aspirate and immunophenotype revealed the presence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytogenetic analysis was as follows: 46,XY,t(4;11)(q21:q23) /62-82,XYt(4;11). Molecular analysis showed MLL-AF4 rearrangement. The patient was on low molecular weight heparin and combined chemotherapy according to protocol HyperCVAD. On day 10 after chemotherapy he got chest pain. Three days later AMI was diagnosed (creatine kinase 66 U/L, CK-MB 13U/L, troponin 1.19 µg/L). Electrocardiogram showed the ST elevation in leads D1, D2, aVL, V5 and V6 and "micro q" in D1. On echocardiography, hypokinesia of the left ventricle and ejection fraction of 39% was found. After recovering from AMI and restoring left ventricle ejection fraction to 59%, second course of HyperCVAD was given. The control bone marrow aspirate showed 88% of blasts but with monoblastic appearance. Flow cytometry confirmed a lineage switch from lymphoblasts to monoblasts. In further course of the disease he was treated with a variety of chemotherapeutic combinations without achieving remission. Eventually, palliative chemotherapy was administered to reduce the bulk of blasts. He died five months after the initial diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: AMI in young adults with acute leukemia is a very rare complication which may occur in patients with very high white blood cell count in addition with presence of a CD56 adhesion molecule and other concomitant thrombophilic factors. The treatment of AMI in patients with acute leukemias should include antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, even with more aggressive methods depending on patient's age and clinical risk assessment.
Activation of proto-oncogenes by disruption of chromosome neighborhoods.
Science. 2016; 351(6280):1454-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2016 Related Publications
Acute isolated appendicitis due to Aspergillus carneus in a neutropenic child with acute myeloid leukemia.
New Microbiol. 2016; 39(1):65-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukaemia 'firsts' in cancer research and treatment.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2016; 16(3):163-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2016; 16(3):145-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
New cellular markers at diagnosis are associated with isolated central nervous system relapse in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 172(5):769-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Leukemia.
Klin Onkol. 2016; 29(1):29-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
A variant at 9p21.3 functionally implicates CDKN2B in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia aetiology.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10635 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2016 Related Publications
Association of body mass index and survival in pediatric leukemia: a meta-analysis.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103(3):808-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether a higher BMI at diagnosis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with worse event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR).
DESIGN: We searched 4 electronic databases from inception through March 2015 without language restriction and included studies in pediatric ALL or AML (0-21 y of age) reporting BMI as a predictor of survival or relapse. Higher BMI, defined as obese (≥95%) or overweight/obese (≥85%), was compared with lower BMI [nonoverweight/obese (<85%)]. Summary risk estimates for EFS, OS, and CIR (ALL only) were calculated with random- or fixed-effects models according to tests for between-study heterogeneity.
RESULTS: Of 4690 reports identified, 107 full-text articles were evaluated, with 2 additional articles identified via review of citations; 11 articles were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. In ALL, we observed poorer EFS in children with a higher BMI (RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.51) than in those at a lower BMI. A higher BMI was associated with significantly increased mortality (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.58) and a statistically nonsignificant trend toward greater risk of relapse (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.38) compared with a lower BMI. In AML, a higher BMI was significantly associated with poorer EFS and OS (RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.60 and RR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.86, respectively) than was a lower BMI.
CONCLUSION: Higher BMI at diagnosis is associated with poorer survival in children with pediatric ALL or AML.
Endogenous dendritic cells from the tumor microenvironment support T-ALL growth via IGF1R activation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(8):E1016-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 23/08/2016 Related Publications
Truncating Erythropoietin Receptor Rearrangements in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(2):186-200 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2017 Related Publications
Targeting p38 or MK2 Enhances the Anti-Leukemic Activity of Smac-Mimetics.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(2):145-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-126 Drives Quiescence and Self-Renewal in Leukemic Stem Cells.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(2):133-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
TNFα-Mediated Cytotoxic Responses to IAP Inhibition Are Limited by the p38α MAPK Pathway.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(2):131-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and risk of chronic myelogenous leukemia: a meta-analysis.
J BUON. 2015 Nov-Dec; 20(6):1534-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Pooled odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and stratification analysis were performed to estimate the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of CML under different genetic comparison models.
RESULTS: Data from the meta-analysis showed no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CML risk. However, significant associations were found between MTHFR A1298C variants and CML risk under homozygous comparison model (CC vs AA, OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.11-2.36, p=0.01) and dominant comparison model (CC+AC vs AA, OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.17-2.43, p=0.005) in overall population; especially more obvious impacts were noticed for Asian populations in subgroup analysis for homozygous model (CC vs AA, OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.25-3.21, p=0.004) and dominant model (CC+AC vs AA, OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.42-4.36, p=0.001), but this did not apply in Caucasian populations.
CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis suggested no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CML risk, while an increased CML risk was noticed for 1298C variant carriers, especially in Asian populations but not in Caucasian populations, which suggested ethnicity differences between MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and risk of CML.
KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10647 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2017 Related Publications