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Dasatinib (Sprycel)

Web Resources: Dasatinib (Sprycel)
Latest Research Publications

Web Resources: Dasatinib (Sprycel) (6 links)

Latest Research Publications

Massimino M, Stella S, Tirrò E, et al.
Efficacy of Dasatinib in a Very Elderly CML Patient Expressing a Rare E13a3
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3949-3954 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the case of an 89-year-old male diagnosed with chronic-phase CML and expressing a rare e13a3 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript. His cytogenetic analysis showed the t(9;22) translocation generating the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), with a multiplex RT-PCR detecting an atypical fragment. Using two primers complementary to exon 10 of BCR and exon 4 of ABL1, a larger PCR product was observed, where after Sanger sequencing, an e13a3 BCR-ABL1 transcript was revealed. Given the diagnosis, the patient received 100 mg of dasatinib every other day and was then monitored by measuring both hematological and cytogenetic parameters, while his BCR-ABL1 transcripts were examined by PCR and semi-nested-PCR. According to the 2013 European Leukemia Network criteria, after six months of dasatinib the patient's response was classified as warning as he displayed 20% of Philadelphia-positive metaphases. Sequencing of the ABL1 catalytic domain did not detect point mutations. A complete cytogenetic response was achieved after one year of dasatinib. However, semi-nested-PCR confirmed the presence of the e13a3 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript that has persisted up to the latest follow-up visit.

Ren X, Qin Y, Huang X, et al.
Assessment of chronic renal injury in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(7):1627-1640 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to evaluate the incidence of chronic renal injury in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and to identify the associated factors. Data for CML-CP patients with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and receiving TKI therapy ≥ 3 months were retrospectively reviewed. The CRAE (chronic renal adverse event, defined as a 30% eGFR reduction from baseline or eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m

Caocci G, Mulas O, Abruzzese E, et al.
Incidence and evaluation of predisposition to cardiovascular toxicity in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with bosutinib in the real-life practice.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(8):1885-1890 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is little information about cardiovascular adverse event (CV-AE) incidence in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with bosutinib in the real-life practice. We identified 54 consecutive CML patients treated with bosutinib, stratified according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) assessment, based on sex, age, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels. The 40-month cumulative incidence of CV-AEs was 25.2 ± 8.1%. Patients with the SCORE of high-very high showed a significantly higher incidence of CV-AEs (55 ± 12.9% vs 9 ± 9.5%; p = 0.002). Overall, 9 CV-AEs were reported, with 2 deaths attributed to CV-AE. In conclusion, the SCORE assessment before starting treatment is helpful in identifying CV-AE high-risk patients during bosutinib treatment.

Kizilors A, Crisà E, Lea N, et al.
Effect of low-level BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations identified by next-generation sequencing in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia: a population-based study.
Lancet Haematol. 2019; 6(5):e276-e284 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Kinase domain mutations in BCR-ABL1 are associated with resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows detection of low-level kinase domain mutations, but its relevance in clinical practice remains debated. We aimed to examine the clinical effects of low-level kinase domain mutations identified using NGS in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
METHODS: In this population-based study, we included consecutive patients newly diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and patients identified at the time of resistance to first-line treatment with imatinib at six institutions (teaching hospitals and district hospitals) in southeast England. We screened patients for BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations using NGS, irrespective of patient response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. When we detected a mutation with NGS, we retrospectively analysed all previous samples to establish the date of first occurrence and subsequent kinetics of the mutant subclone (or subclones). The primary endpoints of this study were progression-free and event-free survival at 5 years.
FINDINGS: Between Feb 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, we screened 121 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia for BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutation. 99 consecutive patients were newly diagnosed, with available sequential RNA stored. The remaining 22 patients were diagnosed between June 1, 1999, and June 30, 2006, and were screened at the time of resistance to first-line treatment with imatinib. Imatinib was the first-line treatment for 111 patients, nilotinib for seven patients, and dasatinib for three patients. We detected a kinase domain mutation in 25 (21%) of 121 patients. Low-level kinase domain mutations were first identified in 17 (68%) of 25 patients with mutation. For patients with a complete cytogenetic response, 13 (14%) of 93 patients screened had a mutation. Five (71%) of the seven patients with a clinically relevant mutation lost complete cytogenetic response compared with 15 (17%) of 86 patients without a clinically relevant mutation (80 patients without mutation and six patients with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutation, p=0·0031). Patients harbouring a mutant clone had poorer 5-year progression-free survival (65·3% [95% CI 40·5-81·8] vs 86·9% [75·8-93·2]; p=0·0161) and poorer 5-year event-free survival (22·2% [CI 5·6-45·9] vs 62·0% [50·4-71·6]; p<0·0001) than did patients without a mutation. We identified a kinase domain mutation in four (10%) of 41 patients with samples available at 3 months after starting first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment; all four subsequently progressed to accelerated phase disease compared with only three (8%) of 37 without a mutation (p<0·0001).
INTERPRETATION: NGS reliably and consistently detected early appearance of kinase domain mutations that would not otherwise be detected by Sanger sequencing. For the first time, to our knowledge, we report the presence of kinase domain mutations after only 3 months of therapy, which could have substantial clinical implications. NGS will allow early clinical intervention and our findings will contribute to the establishment of new recommendations on the frequency of kinase domain mutation analysis to improve patient clinical care.

Brattås MK, Reikvam H, Tvedt THA, Bruserud Ø
Dasatinib as an investigational drug for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2019; 28(5):411-420 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with BCR-ABL1 translocation is an aggressive malignancy that is usually treated with intensive chemotherapy with the possibility of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The encoded fusion protein may be important for leukemogenesis; clinical studies show that dasatinib has an antileukemic effect in combination with steroids alone or intensive chemotherapy. Areas covered: Relevant publications were identified through literature searches (the used terms being acute lymphoblastic leukemia plus dasatinib) in the PubMed database. We searched for original articles and reviews describing the pharmacology and clinical use of dasatinib in ALL with BCR-ABL1. The mechanism of action, pharmacology and clinical study findings are examined. Expert opinion: Dasatinib is associated with a high complete remission rate in ALL when used alone and in combination with steroids or intensive chemotherapy. However, mutations at T315 and F317 are associated with dasatinib resistance. Overall toxicity has been acceptable in these studies and no unexpected toxicity was observed. It is not known whether the antileukemic effect of dasatinib differs between subsets of BCR-ABL1

Flis S, Chojnacki T
Chronic myelogenous leukemia, a still unsolved problem: pitfalls and new therapeutic possibilities.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2019; 13:825-843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of hematopoietic stem cells. At the molecular level, the disorder results from t(9;22)(q34;q11) reciprocal translocation between chromosomes, which leads to the formation of an oncogenic

Shibata N, Ohoka N, Hattori T, Naito M
Development of a Potent Protein Degrader against Oncogenic BCR-ABL Protein.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2019; 67(3):165-172 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocation occurs in some cancer cells, resulting in the expression of aberrant oncogenic fusion proteins that include BCR-ABL in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Inhibitors of ABL tyrosine kinase, such as imatinib and dasatinib, exhibit remarkable therapeutic effects, although emergence of drug resistance hampers the therapy during long-term treatment. An alternative approach to treat CML is to downregulate expression of the BCR-ABL protein. Recently, we have devised a protein knockdown system by hybrid molecules named Specific and Nongenetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent Protein Erasers (SNIPER). This system is designed to induce IAP-mediated ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of target proteins. In this review, we describe the development of SNIPER against BCR-ABL, and discuss the features and prospect for treatment of CML.

Kizaki M, Takahashi N, Iriyama N, et al.
Efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia over a 5-year period: results from the Japanese registry obtained by the New TARGET system.
Int J Hematol. 2019; 109(4):426-439 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the results of a multicenter observational study using the New TARGET system, in which the effectiveness and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were evaluated in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. A total of 506 patients were enrolled between April 2010 and March 2013. Median age was 56 (range 18-92) years; 35% of patients were females. As the first-line therapy, 139 (27.9%), 169 (33.9%) and 144 (28.9%) patients were treated with imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib, respectively. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93.8% and 94.5%, respectively. The OS curve was significantly superior for patients treated with second-generation TKIs than imatinib (P = 0.0068), and an early molecular response (EMR) at 3 months (BCR-ABL1 < 10%) was detected in 328 of 377 patients evaluated for molecular response. The PFS curve was significantly superior for patients with EMR than without (P < 0.0001). Although 12 patients experienced vascular adverse events, no new safety issues were observed in patients with adverse events. The results of this observational study demonstrated that treating newly diagnosed CML-CP patients with TKI results in satisfactory and reliable outcomes.

Aladağ E, Haznedaroğlu İC
Current perspectives for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia
Turk J Med Sci. 2019; 49(1):1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
With an annual incidence of 1-2 in a million, Ph*(+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease that makes myeloid neoplastic cells breed out of control. This BCR-ABL(+) myeloproliferative disease makes up about 15%-20% of all leukemia cases in adults. CML is seen more in males than females, with a rate of three to two. However, it does not show differences in prevalence in terms of age. CML consists of three clinical phases. The first one is the chronic phase, defined by rising white blood cell levels and also by myeloid proliferation and bone marrow maturation. While this phase does not exhibit complications, in diagnosis, it comprises most of the patients. The second phase is the accelerated phase, which the disease progresses to if it is not treated or does not respond to treatment. This usually takes about 3 years. The third phase is the blastic phase. The chronic phase can still progress to the next two phases within the first 2 years, with a rate of 10%. In the following years, the possibility increases by 15%-20% each year. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are revolutionary drugs for the management of disease course in CML. The aim of this review is to assess current approaches to CML patients' follow-up and treatment with TKIs. A literature search on CML and TKIs was made in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus with particular focus on randomized clinical trials, recommendations, guidelines, and expert opinions. In managing CML, various treatment methods have been utilized for many decades. Prior to the development of TKIs, interferon alpha was the primary tool, which was then complemented by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HSCT was successful in slowing the disease down in the long term and curing up to 50% of patients. Then the coming of the imatinib era opened up different treatment perspectives. For the patients resistant or intolerant to imatinib, second- and third-generation TKIs are successfully used in distinct CML disease states. The survival benefits of TKIs including imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and ponatinib for CML patients are outstanding. TKI-related adverse events could impact the clinical course, especially in long-term drug administrations. The current aim for CML disease management in the TKI era is to provide age- and sex-matched normal life duration to CML patients.

Shen J, Li L, Yang T, et al.
Drug Sensitivity Screening and Targeted Pathway Analysis Reveal a Multi-Driver Proliferative Mechanism and Suggest a Strategy of Combination Targeted Therapy for Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Molecules. 2019; 24(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment of colorectal cancer mostly relies on traditional therapeutic approaches, such as surgery and chemotherapy. Limited options of targeted therapy for colorectal cancer narrowly focus on blocking cancer-generic targets VEGFR and EGFR. Identifying the oncogenic drivers, understanding their contribution to proliferation, and finding inhibitors to block such drivers are the keys to developing targeted therapy for colorectal cancer. In this study, ten colorectal cancer cell lines were screened against a panel of protein kinase inhibitors blocking key oncogenic signaling pathways. The results show that four of the 10 cell lines did not respond to any kinase inhibitors significantly, the other six were mildly inhibited by AZD-6244, BMS-754807, and/or dasatinib. Mechanistic analyses demonstrate that these inhibitors independently block the MAP kinase pathway, IR/IGF-1R/AKT pathway, and Src kinases, suggesting a multi-driver nature of proliferative signaling in these cells. Most of these cell lines were potently and synergistically inhibited by pair-wise combinations of these drugs. Furthermore, seven of the 10 cell lines were inhibited by the triple combination of AZD-6244/BMS-754807/dasatinib with IC

Yang W, Meng L, Chen K, et al.
Preclinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of a new Src/FOSL1 inhibitor, LY-1816, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(4):1408-1419 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite tremendous efforts, the clinical prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains disappointing. There is an urgent need to develop more effective treatment strategies to improve the prognosis of patients with PDAC. In this study, we evaluate the anti-PDAC effects of LY-1816, a new multikinase inhibitor developed by us. In in vitro assays, LY-1816 showed significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human PDAC cells, and induced PDAC cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that LY-1816 markedly suppressed the Src signaling, and downregulated the expression of FOSL1; FOSL1 is an oncogene vulnerability in KRAS-driven pancreatic cancer. In in vivo models of PDAC xenografts (Aspc-1 and Bxpc-3), LY-1816 showed more potent antitumor activity than dasatinib and gemcitabine. Moreover, mice treated with LY-1816 showed a much more significant survival advantage in a metastatic model of PDAC compared with those treated with vehicle, dasatinib, or gemcitabine. These results provide effective support for the subsequent clinical evaluation of LY-1816 in the treatment of PDAC.

Ocana A, Gil-Martin M, Antolín S, et al.
Efficacy and safety of dasatinib with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in first line HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: results from the phase II GEICAM/2010-04 study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(3):693-701 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An important proportion of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients do not respond to trastuzumab. The combination of dasatinib and trastuzumab has shown to be synergistic in preclinical models.
METHODS: We conducted a phase II trial combining dasatinib 100 mg once daily with trastuzumab 2 mg/kg and paclitaxel 80 mg/m
RESULTS: From June 2013 to December 2015, 29 patients were included. Median number of cycles was 12 (1-49). Only 6 patients discontinued due to adverse events. ORR was 79.3% (95% CI 60.3-92), clinical benefit rate 82.8% (95% CI 64.2-94.2). Median time to progression 23.9 months (95% CI 14.9-not reached [NR]), median progression-free survival 23.9 months (95% CI 10.3-NR). No grade 4 toxicity was seen. Grade 3 toxicities included: ejection fraction decrease, neutropenia, hyponatremia, fatigue and sensory neuropathy and one left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Phosphorylated (p)-SRC was reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Phosphorylated SRC, ERK and AKT were also reduced in epidermal keratinocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: Dasatinib can be safely combined with trastuzumab and paclitaxel. The combination is active with an ORR of almost 80%.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01306942, EudraCT 2010-023304-27.

Skoko J, Rožanc J, Charles EM, et al.
Post-treatment de-phosphorylation of p53 correlates with dasatinib responsiveness in malignant melanoma.
BMC Cell Biol. 2018; 19(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dasatinib (Sprycel) was developed as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting Bcr-Abl and the family of Src kinases. Dasatinib is commonly used for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Previous clinical studies in melanoma returned inconclusive results and suggested that patients respond highly heterogeneously to dasatinib as single agent or in combination with standard-of-care chemotherapeutic dacarbazine. Reliable biomarkers to predict dasatinib responsiveness in melanoma have not yet been developed.
RESULTS: Here, we collected comprehensive in vitro data from experimentally well-controlled conditions to study the effect of dasatinib, alone and in combination with dacarbazine, on cell proliferation and cell survival. Sixteen treatment conditions, covering therapeutically relevant concentrations ranges of both drugs, were tested in 12 melanoma cell lines with diverse mutational backgrounds. Melanoma cell lines responded heterogeneously and, importantly, dasatinib and dacarbazine did not synergize in suppressing proliferation or inducing cell death. Since dasatinib is a promiscuous kinase inhibitor, possibly affecting multiple disease-relevant pathways, we also determined if basal phospho-protein amounts and treatment-induced changes in phospho-protein levels are indicative of dasatinib responsiveness. We found that treatment-induced de-phosphorylation of p53 correlates with dasatinib responsiveness in malignant melanoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of p53 phosphorylation might be an interesting candidate for a kinetic marker of dasatinib responsiveness in melanoma, pending more comprehensive validation in future studies.

Xie W, Wang SA, Hu S, et al.
Myeloproliferative neoplasm with ABL1/ETV6 rearrangement mimics chronic myeloid leukemia and responds to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:41-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) associated with ABL1-ETV6 fusions are rare and poorly characterized. To date, less than 20 cases of ABL1-ETV6+ MPN have been reported. We report a 47-year-old man who presented with MPN with clinicopathologic features resembling chronic myeloid leukemia, but there was no evidence of t(9;22)(p34.1;q11.2) or BCR-ABL1 fusion. Conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed ins(12;9)(p13;q34q34) that led to ETV6-ABL1 fusion. The patient responded well to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and achieved remission for 7 years.

Chen LF, Yuan GL, Zhong ZD, et al.
Efficacy and Safety of Generic Dasatinib as a Second-line Treatment for Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: a Multicenter Retrospective Study in Hubei Province, China.
Curr Med Sci. 2018; 38(6):1005-1011 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dasatinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and it could be used as a second-line treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Yinishu, a generic dasatinib made in China, was approved by the China Food and Drug Administration in 2013 and it costs much less than the patented dasatinib SPRYCEL. The present study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of Yinishu as a second-line treatment for CML by comparing the baseline clinical characteristics, rates of adverse events and efficacy between Yinishu and SPRYCEL groups. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the rates of optimal response between Yinishu and SPRYCEL for patients who started second-line treatment because of treatment failure. For patients who started second-line treatment because of intolerance of first-line treatment, their levels of BCR-ABL1/ABL1 on the international scale (BCR-ABL

Kessler BE, Mishall KM, Kellett MD, et al.
Resistance to Src inhibition alters the BRAF-mutant tumor secretome to promote an invasive phenotype and therapeutic escape through a FAK>p130Cas>c-Jun signaling axis.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(14):2565-2579 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Few therapy options exist for patients with advanced papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer. We and others have previously identified c-Src as a key mediator of thyroid cancer pro-tumorigenic processes and a promising therapeutic target for thyroid cancer. To increase the efficacy of targeting Src in the clinic, we sought to define mechanisms of resistance to the Src inhibitor, dasatinib, to identify key pathways to target in combination. Using a panel of thyroid cancer cell lines expressing clinically relevant mutations in BRAF or RAS, which were previously developed to be resistant to dasatinib, we identified a switch to a more invasive phenotype in the BRAF-mutant cells as a potential therapy escape mechanism. This phenotype switch is driven by FAK kinase activity, and signaling through the p130Cas>c-Jun signaling axis. We have further shown this more invasive phenotype is accompanied by alterations in the secretome through the increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, and the pro-invasive metalloprotease, MMP-9. Furthermore, IL-1β signals via a feedforward autocrine loop to promote invasion through a FAK>p130Cas>c-Jun>MMP-9 signaling axis. We further demonstrate that upfront combined inhibition of FAK and Src synergistically inhibits growth and invasion, and induces apoptosis in a panel of BRAF- and RAS-mutant thyroid cancer cell lines. Together our data demonstrate that acquired resistance to single-agent Src inhibition promotes a more invasive phenotype through an IL-1β>FAK>p130Cas>c-Jun >MMP signaling axis, and that combined inhibition of FAK and Src has the potential to block this inhibitor-induced phenotype switch.

Martin-Liberal J, Pérez E, García Del Muro X
Investigational therapies in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2019; 28(1):39-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by a historic lack of active treatment options. However, several new drugs and indications have become available in recent years.
AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the most relevant phase II studies that utilize chemotherapy agents (aldoxorubicin, amrubicin, trabectedin alone or in combination with doxorubicin, and gemcitabine plus docetaxel), targeted therapies (Imatinib, dasatinib, regorafenib, tivozanib, palbociclib and selinexor), a combination of chemotherapy plus targeted therapies (fucusing on doxorubicin plus olaratumab) and immunotherapies (pembrolizumab, combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab and adaptive cell therapy) in STS (other than gastrointestinal stromal tumors) (GIST) published from 2015. Some of these strategies are under further clinical development or will likely be assessed in future phase III studies.
EXPERT OPINION: A series of novel treatments have shown encouraging results in STS in recent years. The most important is the combination of the standard cytotoxic agent doxorubicin plus the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor olaratumab, although definitive results from a phase III trial are expected. Immunotherapy has not been as successful in STS so far. However, further investigations are ongoing.

Tian J, Raffa FA, Dai M, et al.
Dasatinib sensitises triple negative breast cancer cells to chemotherapy by targeting breast cancer stem cells.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(12):1495-1507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) exhibit poor prognosis and are at high risk of tumour relapse, due to the resistance to chemotherapy. These aggressive phenotypes are in part attributed to the presence of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Therefore, targeting BCSCs is a priority to overcoming chemotherapy failure in TNBCs.
METHODS: We generated paclitaxel (pac)-resistant TNBC cells which displayed higher sphere forming potential and percentage of BCSC subpopulations compared to the parental cells. A screen with various kinase inhibitors revealed dasatinib, a Src kinase family inhibitor, as a potent suppressor of BCSC expansion/sphere formation in pac-resistant TNBC cells.
RESULTS: We found dasatinib to block pac-induced BCSC enrichment and Src activation in both parental and pac-resistant TNBC cells. Interestingly, dasatinib induced an epithelial differentiation of the pac-resistant mesenchymal cells, resulting in their enhanced sensitivity to paclitaxel. The combination treatment of dasatinib and paclitaxel not only decreased the BCSCs numbers and their sphere forming capacity but also synergistically reduced cell viability of pac-resistant cells. Preclinical models of breast cancer further demonstrated the efficiency of the dasatinib/paclitaxel combination treatment in inhibiting tumour growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Dasatinib is a promising anti-BCSC drug that could be used in combination with paclitaxel to overcome chemoresistance in TNBC.

Roberts KG
Why and how to treat Ph-like ALL?
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2018; 31(4):351-356 [PubMed] Related Publications
Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL), or BCR-ABL1-like ALL, is a high-risk subtype of B-cell precursor ALL characterized by a gene expression profile similar to Ph-positive ALL, a high frequency of IKZF1 alterations, and poor outcome. The prevalence of Ph-like ALL is common among all ages, ranging from 10% to 15% in children to over 25% in young adults. Patients with Ph-like ALL harbor a diverse range of genetic alterations that activate cytokine receptor and kinase signaling and can be targeted with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The majority of Ph-like ALL alterations are divided into two main groups based on activation of ABL-class or JAK-STAT alterations. Accordingly, preclinical studies and anecdotal reports suggest patients harboring ABL-class fusions are candidates for ABL1-inhibitors, whilst alterations activating the JAK-STAT pathway may be amenable to treatment with JAK inhibitors. Diagnostic screening approaches and precision medicine trials are now being developed and implemented to test the efficacy of targeted therapy with a backbone of chemotherapy, similar to the treatment of Ph-positive ALL.

McCafferty EH, Dhillon S, Deeks ED
Dasatinib: A Review in Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
Paediatr Drugs. 2018; 20(6):593-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease that is typically characterized by the abnormal BCR-ABL1 fusion gene on the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in neoplastic cells. Dasatinib (Sprycel

García-Gutiérrez V, Milojkovic D, Hernandez-Boluda JC, et al.
Safety and efficacy of bosutinib in fourth-line therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(2):321-330 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bosutinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (2GTKI) approved at 400 mg once daily (QD) as first-line therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients and at 500 mg QD in patients who are resistant to or intolerant of prior therapy. In clinical practice, bosutinib is often given to patients who have failed imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib (i.e., as fourth-line treatment), despite the limited data on its clinical benefit in this setting. We have retrospectively evaluated the results of bosutinib in a series of 62 CML patients who have failed to prior treatment with all three, imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. Median time on TKI treatment before bosutinib start was 105 (9-163) months, and median duration on bosutinib was 9 months (1-30). Overall, probabilities to achieve complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and major molecular response (MMR) were 25% and 24% respectively. After a median follow-up period of 14 months, the event-free survival and progression-free survival were 68 and 85%, respectively. Sixty-four percent of patients in CCyR at the time of bosutinib start were able to achieve MMR. In contrast, patients without CCyR, probabilities to obtain CCyR and MMR were 25% and 14%. Bosutinib was well tolerated in this heavily pretreated patients' cohort. Pleural effusions and diarrhea were the most frequent grade II-IV side effects, leading to treatment discontinuation in 16% of patients. Bosutinib is an effective treatment option for patients who have failed previous 2GTKIs due to intolerance. However, efficacy seems to be related to the molecular response that the patient achieved prior to bosutinib.

Fujisawa S, Ueda Y, Usuki K, et al.
Feasibility of the imatinib stop study in the Japanese clinical setting: delightedly overcome CML expert stop TKI trial (DOMEST Trial).
Int J Clin Oncol. 2019; 24(4):445-453 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment-free remission (TFR), the ability to maintain a molecular response (MR), occurs in approximately 50% of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
METHODS: A multicenter phase 2 trial (Delightedly Overcome CML Expert Stop TKI Trial: DOMEST Trial) was conducted to test the safety and efficacy of discontinuing imatinib. Patients with CML with a sustained MR of 4.0 or MR4.0-equivalent for at least 2 years and confirmed MR4.0 at the beginning of the study were enrolled. In the TFR phase, the international scale (IS) was regularly monitored by IS-PCR testing. Molecular recurrence was defined as the loss of MR4.0. Recurrent patients were immediately treated with dasatinib or other TKIs including imatinib.
RESULTS: Of 110 enrolled patients, 99 were evaluable. The median time from diagnosis to discontinuation of imatinib was 103 months, and the median duration of imatinib therapy was 100 months. Molecular recurrence-free survival rates were 69.6%, 68.6% and 64.3% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. After discontinuation of imatinib therapy, 26 patients showed molecular recurrence, and 25 re-achieved deep MR after dasatinib treatment. Molecular response MR4.0 was achieved in 23 patients within 6 months and 25 patients within 12 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that a longer time from diagnosis to discontinuation of imatinib therapy (p = 0.0002) and long duration of imatinib therapy (p = 0.0029) predicted a favorable prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: This DOMEST Trial showed the feasibility of TKI discontinuation in a Japanese clinical setting.

Elnair R, Galal A
Finding the right BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor: a case report of successful treatment of a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and a V299L mutation using nilotinib.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1097 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia can be effectively treated with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, BCR-ABL1 mutations can develop and cause secondary resistance to these inhibitors. For each of the available BCR-ABL1 inhibitors, certain mutations are known to be associated with resistance, although most mutations that confer resistance to one tyrosine kinase inhibitor remain sensitive to one or more of the other available inhibitors. For patients displaying poor response or loss of response to frontline treatment, the possibility that they have developed a new BCR-ABL1 mutation must be considered, and selection of a second-line treatment must consider the patient's mutational profile. Here we describe a case in which a patient developed a V299L mutation; although this mutation is known to be associated with resistance to dasatinib while remaining sensitive to nilotinib, limited information is currently available regarding the use of second-line nilotinib following development of a V299L mutation while receiving dasatinib.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man presenting with fatigue and drenching night sweats lasting for 2 weeks was diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia based on an analysis of a bone marrow biopsy and detection of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in peripheral blood. The patient initiated frontline treatment with dasatinib. A good treatment response was seen initially, with a complete hematologic response by month 2 of treatment. By month 20 however, BCR-ABL1 transcript levels rose markedly, and a mutational analysis revealed a BCR-ABL1 V299L mutation. Based on the identification of this specific mutation, the patient switched treatment to nilotinib; by month 18 of nilotinib treatment, the patient achieved a deeper reduction in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels than was seen with dasatinib. To date, in month 34 of treatment with nilotinib, the patient has shown good tolerance of the drug and has no clinical evidence of disease progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our case report illustrates the benefit of having multiple drugs available to treat chronic myeloid leukemia, each with the ability to inhibit a distinct set of BCR-ABL1 mutations. This patient's case suggests that switching to nilotinib can be an effective treatment option for patients who develop a BCR-ABL1 V299L mutation while receiving dasatinib.

Ribeiro AS, Nobre AR, Mendes N, et al.
SRC inhibition prevents P-cadherin mediated signaling and function in basal-like breast cancer cells.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is a poor prognosis subgroup of triple-negative carcinomas that still lack specific target therapies and accurate biomarkers for treatment selection. P-cadherin is frequently overexpressed in these tumors, promoting cell invasion, stem cell activity and tumorigenesis by the activation of Src-Family kinase (SRC) signaling. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate if the treatment of BLBC cells with dasatinib, the FDA approved SRC inhibitor, would impact on P-cadherin induced tumor aggressive behavior.
METHODS: P-cadherin and SRC expression was evaluated in a series of invasive Breast Cancer and contingency tables and chi-square tests were performed. Cell-cell adhesion measurements were performed by Atomic Force Microscopy, where frequency histograms and Gaussian curves were applied. 2D and 3D cell migration and invasion, proteases secretion and self-renew potential were evaluated in vitro. Student's t-tests were used to determine statistically significant differences. The cadherin/catenin complex interactions were evaluated by in situ proximity-ligation assay, and statistically significant results were determined by using Mann-Whitney test with a Bonferroni correction. In vivo xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the impact of dasatinib on tumor growth and survival. ANOVA test was used to evaluate the differences in tumor size, considering a confidence interval of 95%. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier's method, using the log-rank test to assess significant differences for mice overall survival.
RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that P-cadherin overexpression is significantly associated with SRC activation in breast cancer cells, which was also validated in a large series of primary tumor samples. SRC activity suppression with dasatinib significantly prevented the in vitro functional effects of P-cadherin overexpressing cells, as well as their in vivo tumorigenic and metastatic ability, by increasing mice overall survival. Mechanistically, SRC inhibition affects P-cadherin downstream signaling, rescues the E-cadherin/p120-catenin complex to the cell membrane, recovering cell-cell adhesion function.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion our findings show that targeting P-cadherin/SRC signaling and functional activity may open novel therapeutic opportunities for highly aggressive and poor prognostic basal-like breast cancer.

Shao X, Chen D, Xu P, et al.
Primary Philadelphia chromosome positive acute myeloid leukemia: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(44):e12949 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/12/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Philadelphia chromosome positive acute myeloid leukemia (Ph+ AML) is a rare subtype of AML that is now included as a provisional entity in the 2016 revised WHO classification of myeloid malignancies. However, a clear distinction between de novo Ph+ AML and chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis is challenging. It is still a matter of debate whether Ph+ AML patients should be treated with chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line therapy.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported here a case of a 46-year-old man who was diagnosed as Ph+ AML. This diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow pathology and karyotype analysis of 46, XY, t (9; 22). Further examination, molecular genetic analysis showed BCR/ABL1 (p190) without ABL1 kinase domain mutations, and direct evidence demonstrated in AML by flow cytometry.
DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis of Ph+ AML was made on May 2016 according to morphology, immunology, cytogenetic, and molecular criteria, and multiple organ failure was also diagnosed.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with dasatinib as the only medication after experiencing multiple organ failure. Then, he received 2 cycles of chemotherapy with IA (idarubicin 8 mg/m, day 1-3; cytarabine 100 mg/m, day 1-7) in August, 2016.
OUTCOMES: The patient finally achieved a complete molecular remission.
LESSONS: This case study suggests that dasatinib can be a safe and effective treatment for Ph+ AML patients with poor physical condition.

McKnight BN, Viola-Villegas NT
Monitoring Src status after dasatinib treatment in HER2+ breast cancer with
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):130 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: De novo or acquired resistance in breast cancer leads to treatment failures and disease progression. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (HER2+) breast cancer, Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is identified as a major mechanism of trastuzumab resistance, with its activation stabilizing aberrant HER2 signaling, thus making it an attractive target for inhibition. Here, we explored the causal relationship between Src and HER2 by examining the potential of
METHODS: HER2+ primary breast cancer cell lines BT-474 and trastuzumab-resistant JIMT-1 were treated with dasatinib and assessed for expression and localization of HER2, Src, and phosphorylated Src (pSrc) (Y416) through western blots and binding assays. Mice bearing BT-474 or JIMT-1 tumors were treated for 7 or 14 days with dasatinib. At the end of each treatment, tumors were imaged with
RESULTS: In BT-474 and JIMT-1 cells, treatment with dasatinib resulted in a decrease in internalized

Singh VK, Coumar MS
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Existing Therapeutic Options and Strategies to Overcome Drug Resistance.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2019; 19(4):333-345 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease caused due to translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 leading to a chimeric gene product known as Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl fusion protein has constitutively activated Abl tyrosine kinase activity which is responsible for the uncontrolled proliferation in CML The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as Imatinib, Dasatinib, and Nilotinib are the current first-line treatments approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the treatment of the disease. Despite the spectacular progress made over the decade with the TKIs, patients develop resistance to these TKIs. In such cases, stem cell transplant therapy, which is limited by donor availability, is the only proven cure for the patients. This highlights the need for the development of new strategies for CML treatment. The Bcr-Abl point mutations, including the gatekeeper T315I mutations, are the principal cause for the development of resistance to TKIs. However, other mechanisms are also involved in the failure of TKI therapy. This review outlines the Bcr-Abl dependent and independent mechanism of TKIs resistance development and the strategies used to overcome drug resistance, such as the development of ATP site and allosteric site inhibitors. Binding mode and structural elements of Bcr-Abl inhibition are discussed with emphasis on pathways involved in this complex disease to determine alternative strategies and combination therapies.

Li Y, Hu J, Song H, Wu T
Antibiotic anisomycin selectively targets leukemia cell lines and patient samples through suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(3):858-864 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) responds well to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as imatinib and dasatinib. However, these inhibitors have been less effective as single agents in the blast phase-CML. In this work, we show that anisomycin, a clinically available drug, targets CML cells at all stages of development and enhances BCR-ABL TKIs' efficacy. Anisomycin at nanomolar concentration inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in a panel of CML cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. It induces apoptosis CD34 stem/progenitor cells isolated from patients with blast phase CML. Using colony formation and serial replating assays, we further show that anisomycin inhibits CML CD34 cell differentiation, proliferation and self-renewal. Additionally, anisomycin is less effective in normal bone marrow (NBM) CD34 cells, suggesting the selective anti-leukemia activity of anisomycin. Combination of anisomycin with imatinib or dasatinib achieves significantly better efficacy than TKI alone in leukemia cell lines and patient samples while sparing normal counterparts. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that p38 MAPK/JNK activation is not required for anti-leukemia activities of anisomycin. Instead, anisomycin displays preferential inhibitory effects to Wnt/β-catenin-mediated signaling in CML. Our work provides the preclinical evidence on the potent efficacy of anisomycin in leukemia and its mechanisms of action. Our work suggests that anisomycin is a potential drug to overcome resistance to BCR-ABL TKI treatment in blast phase CML.

Mashimo K, Tsubaki M, Takeda T, et al.
RANKL-induced c-Src activation contributes to conventional anti-cancer drug resistance and dasatinib overcomes this resistance in RANK-expressing multiple myeloma cells.
Clin Exp Med. 2019; 19(1):133-141 [PubMed] Related Publications
The survival and growth of multiple myeloma (MM) cells are facilitated by cell-cell interactions with bone marrow stromal cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. These interactions induce de novo drug resistance known as cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance. Our previous results recently revealed that the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL), which is expressed by bone marrow stromal cells, contributes to anti-cancer drug resistance through the activation of various signaling molecules and suppression of Bim expression in RANK-expressing MM cells. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying RANKL-induced drug resistance remain uncharacterized. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of RANKL-induced drug resistance in RANK-expressing MM cell lines. We found treatment of MM cells with RANKL-induced c-Src phosphorylation and activation of the downstream signaling molecules Akt, mTOR, STAT3, JNK, and NF-κB. In addition, treatment with dasatinib, a c-Src inhibitor, overcame RANKL- and bone marrow stromal cell-induced drug resistance to adriamycin, vincristine, dexamethasone, and melphalan by suppressing c-Src, Akt, mTOR, STAT3, JNK, and NF-κB activation and enhancing expression of Bim. Overall, RANKL- and bone marrow stromal cell-induced drug resistance correlated with the activation of c-Src signaling pathways, which caused a decrease in Bim expression. Dasatinib treatment of RANK-expressing MM cells re-sensitized them to anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, inhibition of c-Src may be a new therapeutic approach for overcoming RANKL-induced drug resistance in patients with MM.

Zhao P, Huang J, Zhang D, et al.
SLC2A5 overexpression in childhood philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 183(2):242-250 [PubMed] Related Publications
To study glycolysis/glycogenesis-related genes expression in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL), we performed a microarray-based analysis using published gene expression profiles. We found that SLC2A5, which encodes solute carrier family 2 member 5 (SLC2A5, previously termed GLUT5) that facilitates cell fructose uptake, was up-regulated in Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL (Ph+ALL). Microarray-based analyses also suggested that SLC2A5 expression was significantly down-regulated in childhood B-ALL with t(1;19) or 11q23 mutation. High SLC2A5 expression was found in patients who had disease recurrence within 3 years, early relapse, shortened complete remission duration and positive minimal residue disease (MRD) status after treatment. SLC2A5 overexpression at both the mRNA and protein level in Ph+ALL was confirmed in a validation cohort of childhood B-ALL. We also validated the correlation of SLC2A5 expression and MRD status. A mechanistic study using a human Ph+ALL cell line showed that BCR-ABL1 kinase might regulate SLC2A5 expression via MYC. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib and dasatinib repressed SLC2A5 expression and the cell uptake of fructose. Fructose protected the tumour cells from nutrition deficiency and drug-induced cell death. Overall, our findings showed that SLC2A5 was up-regulated in childhood Ph+ALL. SLC2A5 expression correlated with childhood B-ALL clinical factors, such as MRD status. Given that TKIs could inhibit SLC2A5 expression, repression of fructose utility after TKI treatment contributes to TKI-induced Ph+ALL cytotoxicity. Targeting SLC2A5 might be promising in B-ALL treatment, especially for Ph+ALL patients with high SLC2A5 expression.

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