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Soft Tissue Sarcomas

Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumours that may arise in any of the mesodermal tissues (muscles, tendons, vessels that carry blood or lymph, joints, and fat). Sarcomas are a diverse range of tumours, they are named after the type of soft tissue cell they arise from. Types of soft tissue sarcomas include; alveolar soft-part sarcoma, angiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma, mesenchymoma, schwannoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumours, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and other types. In terms of treatment these different sub-types are usually treated in the same way using a uniform soft tissue protocol.

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Information for Patients and the Public
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers
Latest Research Publications
Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Uterine Sarcoma
Kaposi Sarcoma
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Information Patients and the Public (16 links)

Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (19 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Lovasik BP, Wang VL, Point du Jour KS, et al.
Visceral Kaposi Sarcoma Presenting as Small Bowel Intussusception: A Rare Presentation and Call to Action.
Am Surg. 2019; 85(7):778-780 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surgical emergencies related to visceral involvement of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) are rare complications of the disease. In this report, we describe a case of visceral KS causing small bowel intussusception in a young, previously undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient. Southern surgeons should be particularly attentive to HIV/AIDS-related disease as a cause of surgical pathology, particularly in the southeast, and can play a significant advocacy role for improved access to HIV/AIDS diagnostic and treatment services.

Tsuji K, Ito A, Kurokawa S, et al.
Primary carcinosarcoma of the ureteropelvic junction associated with ureteral duplication: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(32):e16643 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary carcinosarcoma of the upper urinary tract is rare. Ureteral duplication is one of the most common urinary tract malformations. Additionally, the association between ureteral duplication and malignancy is unknown. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of malignant tumors diagnosed as carcinosarcoma with ureteral duplication have been reported. We herein report the case of a patient with carcinosarcoma of the ureteropelvic junction associated with incomplete ureteral duplication.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old Japanese woman presented with painless gross hematuria. She had a history of total hysterectomy and chemotherapy for endometrioid carcinoma 5 years before. She had no history of occupational chemical exposure.
DIAGNOSES: Radiographic imaging revealed right incomplete ureteral duplication, hydronephrosis, and a polypoid tumor in the ureteropelvic junction of the lower moiety of the right kidney. Urine cytology showed a small amount of degenerated atypical epithelial and nonepithelial cells. The transureteral biopsy specimen showed dysplastic urothelial cells and atypical myoid spindle cells. These findings were indefinite for malignancy.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent right nephroureterectomy. Pathological examination of the resected tumor showed a biphasic neoplasm composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. The sarcomatous component was immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, desmin, h-caldesmon, and α-SMA and negative for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), low molecular weight cytokeratin (CAM 5.2), EMA, E-cadherin, GATA3, uroplakin 2, and p63. Based on these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as carcinosarcoma.
OUTCOMES: The postoperative course was uneventful. No additional therapy was administered. The patient has remained alive without recurrence for 21 months since surgery.
LESSONS: Carcinosarcoma can arise from ureteral duplication. Although the majority of carcinosarcomas of the upper urinary tract are diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis, some can have a less aggressive course. Further studies are needed to determine the association between ureteral duplication and malignancy.

Khwaja R, Mantilla E, Fink K, Pan E
Adult Primary Peripheral PNET/Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4463-4465 [PubMed] Related Publications
This case report describes a patient with a rare occurrence of primary spinal intramedullary Ewing's sarcoma (ES) in the cervical and thoracic spine. The older age of disease occurrence, uncommon location in the cervical and thoracic spine, and EWSR1 gene fusion as the basis of diagnosis are unique features of this case. There is no clear protocol for treatment of primary extraskeletal ES of the spine, with controversy between evidence for pursuing surgery versus a combination of radiation and chemotherapy. Our patient was treated with temozolomide chemotherapy for recurrent metastatic disease of primary ES of the spine.

Giorgi C, Gasser UE, Lafont ME, et al.
Inhibition of Chemoresistance in Primary Tumor Cells by
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4101-4110 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite improvements in cancer therapy, life expectancy after tumor recurrence remains low. Relapsed cancer is characterized by drug resistance, often mediated through overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes. Camellia sinensis non fermentatum extract is known for its anticancer properties in several cancer cell lines and might improve cancer therapy outcome after tumor recurrence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and primary rhabdomyosarcoma MAST139 cells were used to test NPE® effects on cell viability in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. Cell viability was measured by the WST-1 assay and CV staining. Gene expression levels of chemotherapy-induced efflux pumps and their activity was assessed upon NPE® treatment by measuring doxorubicin retention through evaluation of the autofluorescence signal.
RESULTS: Administration of increasing doxorubicin concentrations triggered immediate adaptation to the drug, which was surprisingly overcome by the addition of NPE®. Investigating the mechanism of immediate adaptation, MDR1 gene overexpression was observed upon doxorubicin treatment. Although NPE® did not alter pump gene expression, it was able to reduce pump activity, thus allowing the chemotherapeutic agent to stay inside the cells to exert its full anticancer activity.
CONCLUSION: NPE® might improve chemotherapeutic treatment by re-sensitizing relapsed tumors to anticancer drugs. Fighting MDR represents the key to overcome tumor relapse and improve the overall survival of cancer patients.

Higuchi T, Sugisawa N, Miyake K, et al.
Sorafenib and Palbociclib Combination Regresses a Cisplatinum-resistant Osteosarcoma in a PDOX Mouse Model.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4079-4084 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Recurrent osteosarcoma is a recalcitrant disease; therefore, an improved strategy is urgently needed to provide therapy. In order to develop a novel strategy for this disease, our lab has developed a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model for osteosarcoma. The combination of sorafenib (SFN) and palbociclib (PAL) was shown to be effective of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, whether this combination is efficacious on osteosarcoma has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the SFN and PAL combination on a cisplatinum (CDDP)-resistant osteosarcoma PDOX model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteosarcoma PDOX models were randomly divided into five treatment groups: untreated-control, CDDP, SFN, PAL and the combination of SFN and PAL.
RESULTS: Of these agents, the SFN-PAL combination significantly regressed tumor growth, and enhanced tumor necrosis with degenerative changes in the osteosarcoma PDOX.
CONCLUSION: The SFN-PAL combination is an effective treatment strategy for osteosarcoma and therefore holds promise for clinical efficacy.

Glorie N, Baert T, VAN DEN Bosch T, Coosemans AN
Circulating Protein Biomarkers to Differentiate Uterine Sarcomas from Leiomyomas.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):3981-3989 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine sarcomas are rare but very aggressive. Uterine myomas, on the other hand, are the most common benign tumors of the uterus. Currently there is no diagnostic technique available to distinguish them with certainty. This study aimed to summarize the published literature concerning protein-based biomarkers in the peripheral blood that can assist in this difficult differential diagnosis. In total, 48 articles, published between 1990 and 2017, were included. Most studies (n=37) concerned soft tissue sarcomas, while 11 discussed uterine sarcomas specifically. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukins (IL), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), lactate dehydrogenase, gangliosides (LDH) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) are the most studied proteins in soft tissue sarcomas, including uterine sarcomas. Future research on improving sarcoma diagnosis should include these proteins.

Fujiwara T, Medellin MR, Sambri A, et al.
Preoperative surgical risk stratification in osteosarcoma based on the proximity to the major vessels.
Bone Joint J. 2019; 101-B(8):1024-1031 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the risk of local recurrence and survival in patients with osteosarcoma based on the proximity of the tumour to the major vessels.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 226 patients with high-grade non-metastatic osteosarcoma in the limbs were investigated. Median age at diagnosis was 15 years (4 to 67) with the ratio of male to female patients being 1.5:1. The most common site of the tumour was the femur (n = 103) followed by tibia (n = 66). The vascular proximity was categorized based on the preoperative MRI after neoadjuvant chemotherapy into four types: type 1 > 5 mm; type 2 ≤ 5 mm, > 0 mm; type 3 attached; type 4 surrounded.
RESULTS: Limb salvage rate based on the proximity type was 92%, 88%, 51%, and 0% for types 1 to 4, respectively, and the overall survival at five years was 82%, 77%, 57%, and 67%, respectively (p < 0.001). Local recurrence rate in patients with limb-salvage surgery was 7%, 8%, and 22% for the types 1 to 3, respectively (p = 0.041), and local recurrence at the perivascular area was observed in 1% and 4% for type 2 and 3, respectively. The mean microscopic margin to the major vessels was 6.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.4 mm for types 1 to 3, respectively. In type 3, local recurrence-free survival with limb salvage was significantly poorer compared with amputation (p = 0.025), while the latter offered no overall survival benefit. In this group of patients, factors such as good response to chemotherapy or limited vascular attachment to less than half circumference or longitudinal 10 mm reduced the risk of local recurrence.
CONCLUSION: The proximity of osteosarcoma to major blood vessels is a poor prognostic factor for local control and survival. Amputation offers better local control for tumours attached to the blood vessels but does not improve survival. Limb salvage surgery offers similar local control if the tumour attachment to blood vessels is limited. Cite this article:

Pei Y, Yao Q, Li Y, et al.
microRNA-211 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration/invasion in human osteosarcoma via targeting EZRIN.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: In recent years, microRNA-211 (miR211) has been considered as a tumor suppressor in multiple malignancies. However, the function of miR211 in human osteosarcoma has not been explored intensively so far. In this study, the relationship between miR211 and EZRIN was analyzed in human osteosarcoma.
Methods: The expression levels of miR211 and EZRIN were measured in both human osteosarcoma cells and tissues. The direct regulatory relationship between miR211 and EZRIN was evaluated using dual-luciferase assay. The effect of miR211 and EZRIN overexpression on cell proliferation, migration/invasion, and apoptosis was detected.
Results: The expression of miR211 was obviously lower in osteosarcoma tissues than paracancerous tissues. EZRIN was identified as the direct target of miR211, and up-regulation of miR211 increased the percentage of cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell proliferation as well as cell migration/invasion via directly regulating EZRIN.
Conclusions: Our study indicated that miR211 has an important role in the development and progress of osteosarcoma, and it might become a novel target in the diagnosis and treatment of human osteosarcoma.

Soyele OO, Effiom OA, Lawal AO, et al.
A multi-centre evaluation of malignant odontogenic tumours in Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 33:18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: odontogenic tumors originate from neoplastic transformation of the remnants of tooth forming apparatus. There are varying degrees of inductive interactions between odontogenic ectomesenchyme and epithelium during odontogenesis, leading to lesions that vary from benign to malignant. Malignant odontogenic tumours (MOTs) are very rare and are classified according to embryonic tissue of origin. Recently, there has been a few changes to the classification of MOTs according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) classification in 2017. This study aims to evaluate and reclassify MOTs, using a multi-centre approach in some major tertiary dental hospitals in Nigeria.
Methods: this study reviewed the clinicopathological data on 63 cases of MOT diagnosed over 25 years in five major tertiary dental hospitals in Nigeria. All MOT cases were reclassified according to the recent revision to the 2017 WHO classification of odontogenic tumours.
Results: from a total of 10,446 biopsies of oral and jaw lesions seen at the 5 study centres over the 25-year study period, 2199 (21.05%) cases were found to be odontogenic tumours (OTs), of which 63 were MOT. MOTs constituted 0.60% of the total biopsy cases and 2.86% of OTs. Odontogenic carcinomas presented with a mean age higher than odontogenic sarcomas. According to our 2017 WHO reclassification of MOTs, odontogenic carcinomas, ameloblastic carcinomas and primary intraosseous carcinomas were found to be the top three lesions, respectively. Carcinosarcomas were found to be extremely rare.
Conclusion: using a multi-centre approach is a robust way to reduce diagnostic challenges associated with rare maxillofacial lesions such as MOTs.

Aksu T, Gode S, Oz K, et al.
Rapidly Progressive Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Right Atrium: a Rare Case Report.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg. 2019; 34(3):372-376 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We are going to present a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the right atrium, which is a very rare entity. The patient had a right atrial mass, which prolapsed through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, causing functional tricuspid valve stenosis. The tumor was completely resected and the patient had an uneventful postoperative period. Histopathological examination reported malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The patient presented to the emergency department five weeks after discharge with dyspnea and palpitation. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed recurrent right atrial tumor mass. His clinical status has worsened, with syncope and acute renal failure. On the repeated echocardiography, suspected tumor recurrence was observed in left atrium, which probably caused systemic embolization. Considering the aggressive nature of the tumor and systemic involvement, our Heart Council decided to provide palliative treatment by nonsurgical management. His status deteriorated for the next few days and the patient succumbed to a cardiac arrest on the 4th day.

Cao L, Hong J, Wang Y, et al.
A primary splenic angiosarcoma hepatic metastasis after splenectomy and its genomic alteration profile.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(28):e16245 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary splenic angiosarcoma (PSA) is a rare mesenchymal malignancy of the splenic vascular origin often with a dismal prognosis. Genomic profile may provide evidence for the solution of therapy.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a case of a 51-year-old woman with splenectomy 4 years ago and the postoperative histopathology diagnosis revealed "splenic hemangioma" with spontaneous rupture. Two years after the operation, the patient's rechecked abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed multiple hepatic occupations.
DIAGNOSES: Pathological test suggested PSA hepatic metastasis.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and a pathological diagnosis of PSA was highly suspected in the hepatic biopsy. Four somatic alterations, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit (FOS), MCL1 apoptosis regulator (MCL1), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1) were detected in the tumor tissue using a Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The results prompted that the patient may get clinical benefit from using some agents for targeted therapy, Everolimus, Temsirolimus, or Copanlisib.
OUTCOMES: The patient refused targeted therapy. As a result, the patient passed away within 51 months after splenectomy.
LESSONS: PSA is an aggressive disease that often presented with a high propensity for metastasis and rupture hemorrhage. Some of these mutations were first discovered in PSA and these findings added new contents to the genomic mutation profile of PSA.

Mian A, Singal AK, Bakhshi S, et al.
Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism with Chemotherapy in a Case of Newly Diagnosed Osteosarcoma.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2019; 67(4):76-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 21-year old female, recently diagnosed with osteosarcoma of right humerus, presented to the emergency with history of fever, productive cough, chest pain and progressive respiratory distress for six days. Initial investigations suggested pneumonia but she did not respond to parenteral antibiotics. CT pulmonary angiogram revealed bilateral pulmonary artery embolism. Thrombolysis was performed using alteplase, which failed to improve the clinical condition. In view of underlying malignancy, a possibility of tumour-embolism was considered and she was started on chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. There was dramatic improvement in her respiratory symptoms after the first chemotherapy cycle, along with radiological resolution of the embolism. This case highlights the importance of suspecting tumour embolism in a known case of malignancy with respiratory distress.

Gong HB, Wu XJ, Pu XM, Kang XJ
Bioinformatics analysis of key biomarkers and pathways in KSHV infected endothelial cells.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16277 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an endothelial tumor etiologically related to Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. The aim of our study was to screen out candidate genes of KSHV infected endothelial cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by bioinformatics methods. Microarray datasets GSE16354 and GSE22522 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between endothelial cells and KSHV infected endothelial cells were identified. And then, functional enrichment analyses of gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed. After that, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) was used to investigate the potential protein-protein interaction (PPI) network between DEGs, Cytoscape software was used to visualize the interaction network of DEGs and to screen out the hub genes. A total of 113 DEGs and 11 hub genes were identified from the 2 datasets. GO enrichment analysis revealed that most of the DEGs were enrichen in regulation of cell proliferation, extracellular region part and sequence-specific DNA binding; KEGG pathway enrichments analysis displayed that DEGs were mostly enrichen in cell cycle, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, and Insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study identified a host of DEGs and hub genes in KSHV infected endothelial cells which may serve as potential key biomarkers and therapeutic targets, helping us to have a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of KS.

Song Y, Bruce AN, Fraker DL, Karakousis GC
Isolated limb perfusion and infusion in the treatment of melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma in the era of modern systemic therapies.
J Surg Oncol. 2019; 120(3):540-549 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) and infusion (ILI) are treatment modalities for unresectable melanoma in-transit metastases and extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We sought to characterize the national trend in their utilization in the context of novel melanoma therapies introduced in 2011.
METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample (2005-2014), patients with a primary diagnosis of limb melanoma or STS who underwent ILP/ILI were identified by diagnosis and procedure codes. Annual percent change (APC) in ILP/ILI procedures was determined.
RESULTS: From 2005 through 2014, 670 and 130 ILP/ILI procedures were performed for melanoma and STS, respectively. Mean age was 64 (SD 15) years for melanoma and 59 (SD 18) years for STS. Over time, procedures for melanoma decreased with an APC of -17 (P = .019). Comparing 2005-2010 and 2011-2014, the mean number of procedures for melanoma decreased from 91 to 32 per year (P = .007). In contrast, there was no change for STS (APC 6.5, P = .39; mean 11 and 16 per year in 2005-2010 and 2011-2014, respectively, P = .46).
CONCLUSIONS: ILI/ILP utilization has decreased for melanoma, but not for STS. Whether trends for ILP and ILI differed could not be determined. ILP/ILI remains an important option to consider for regional disease control.

Lee YJ, Chung JG, Chien YT, et al.
Suppression of ERK/NF-κB Activation Is Associated With Amentoflavone-Inhibited Osteosarcoma Progression
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3669-3675 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Amentoflavone has been implicated in reducing the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma (OS) cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to verify the antitumoral efficacy and the potential mechanism of amentoflavone osteosarcoma progression inhibition in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A U-2 OS osteosarcoma xenograft mouse model was used in this study. Mice were treated with a vehicle control or amentoflavone (100 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Tumor growth, signal transduction, and expression of tumor progression-associated proteins were evaluated using a digital caliper, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), animal computed tomography (CT), and ex vivo western blotting assay.
RESULTS: Amentoflavone significantly inhibits tumor growth and reduces protein levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 (Ser536), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and cyclin-D1 in osteosarcoma in vivo.
CONCLUSION: The inhibition of ERK/NF-κB activation is associated with amentoflavone-inhibited osteosarcoma progression in vivo.

Iwasaki J, Komori T, Nakagawa F, et al.
Schlafen11 Expression Is Associated With the Antitumor Activity of Trabectedin in Human Sarcoma Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3553-3563 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Trabectedin is a DNA-damaging agent and has been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) was identified as a dominant determinant of the response to DNA-damaging agents. The aim of the study was to clarify the association between SLFN11 expression and the antitumor activity of trabectedin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antitumor activity of trabectedin was evaluated under different expression levels of SLFN11 regulated by RNA interference and CRISPR-Cas9 systems, and the combined antitumor activity of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein kinase (ATR) inhibitor and trabectedin in sarcoma cell lines using in vitro a cell viability assay and in vivo xenograft models.
RESULTS: SLFN11-knockdown cell lines had a lower sensitivity to trabectedin, compared to parental cells. ATR inhibitor enhanced the antitumor activity of trabectedin in SLFN11-knockdown cells and in a SLFN11-knockout xenograft model.
CONCLUSION: SLFN11 expression might be a key factor in the antitumor activity of trabectedin.

Natarajan SK, Venneti S
Poly Combs the Immune System: PRC2 Loss in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors Can Dampen Immune Responses.
Cancer Res. 2019; 79(13):3172-3173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic modifications including altered DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) are central to the biology of several cancers. These modifications can regulate DNA accessibility and consequently, gene expression. In this issue, Wojcik and colleagues explore epigenetic drivers of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) harboring loss-of-function polycomb-repressive complex 2 mutations. They demonstrate alterations in specific histone PTMs and a global increase in DNA methylation. Notably, epigenetic alterations related with aberrant upregulation of proteins involved in immune evasion, which informed identification of potential therapeutic vulnerabilities. This study helps understand the complex biology of MPNSTs and may enable future therapeutic development.

Chen W, Lin Y
Nomograms predicting overall survival and cancer-specific survival in osteosarcoma patients (STROBE).
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(26):e16141 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to develop nomograms to predict long-term overall survival and cancer-specific survival of patients with osteosarcoma.We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses and set up nomograms predicting survival outcome using osteosarcoma patient data collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute (2004-2011, n = 1426). The patients were divided into a training cohort (2004-2008, n = 863) and a validation cohort (2009-2011, n = 563), and the mean follow-up was 55 months.In the training cohort, 304 patients (35.2%) died from osteosarcoma and 91 (10.5%) died from other causes. In the validation cohort, 155 patients (27.5%) died from osteosarcoma and (12.3%) died from other causes. Nomograms predicting overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were developed according to 6 clinicopathologic factors (age, tumor site, historic grade, surgery, AJCC T/N, and M), with concordance indexes (C-index) of 0.725 (OS) and 0.718 (CSS), respectively. The validation C-indexes were 0.775 and 0.742 for OS and CSS, respectively.Our results suggest that we have successfully developed highly accurate nomograms for predicting 5-year OS and CSS for osteosarcoma patients. These nomograms will help surgeons customize treatment and monitoring strategies for osteosarcoma patients.

Xu F, Song Y, Guo A
Anti-Apoptotic Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid in IL-1β-Induced Human Chondrosarcoma Cell Death through Involvement of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2019; 158(1):17-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive articular cartilage destruction and joint marginal osteophyte formation with different degrees of synovitis. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an unsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic functions. In this study, the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 was cultured in vitro, and an OA cell model was constructed with inflammatory factor IL-1β stimulation. After cells were treated with DHA, cell apoptosis was measured. Western blot assay was used to detect protein expression of apoptosis-related factors (Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway family members, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Our results show that IL-1β promotes the apoptosis of SW1353 cells, increases the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and activates the MAPK signaling pathway. In contrast, DHA inhibits the expression of IL-1β, inhibits IL-1β-induced cell apoptosis, and has a certain inhibitory effect on the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. When the MAPK signaling pathway is inhibited by its inhibitors, the effects of DHA on SW1353 cells are weakened. Thus, DHA enhances the apoptosis of SW1353 cells through the MAPK signaling pathway.

Chouliaras K, Senehi R, Ethun CG, et al.
Recurrence patterns after resection of retroperitoneal sarcomas: An eight-institution study from the US Sarcoma Collaborative.
J Surg Oncol. 2019; 120(3):340-347 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Resection of primary retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) has a high incidence of recurrence. This study aims to identify patterns of recurrence and its impact on overall survival.
METHODS: Adult patients with primary retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas who underwent resection in 2000-2016 at eight institutions of the US Sarcoma Collaborative were evaluated.
RESULTS: Four hundred and ninety-eight patients were analyzed, with 56.2% (280 of 498) having recurrences. There were 433 recurrences (1-8) in 280 patients with 126 (25.3%) being locoregional, 82 (16.5%) distant, and 72 (14.5%) both locoregional and distant. Multivariate analyses revealed the following: Patient age P = .0002), tumor grade (P = .02), local recurrence (P = .0003) and distant recurrence (P < .0001) were predictors of disease-specific survival. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate for patients who recurred vs not was 89.6% (standard error [SE] 1.9) vs 93.5% (1.8), 66.0% (3.2) vs 88.4% (2.6), and 51.8% (3.6) vs 83.9% (3.3), respectively, P < .0001. Median survival was 5.3 years for the recurrence vs 11.3+ years for the no recurrence group (P < .0001). Median survival from the time of recurrence was 2.5 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence after resection of RPS occurs in more than half of patients independently of resection status or perioperative chemotherapy and is equally distributed between locoregional and distant sites. Recurrence is primarily related to tumor biology and is associated with a significant decrease in overall survival.

Pei J, Zhao X, Patchefsky AS, et al.
Clinical application of RNA sequencing in sarcoma diagnosis: An institutional experience.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(25):e16031 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accurate diagnoses of sarcoma are sometimes challenging on conventional histomorphology and immunophenotype. Many specific genetic aberrations including chromosomal translocations have been identified in various sarcomas, which can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Next-generation sequencing-based RNA sequencing can screen multiple sarcoma-specific chromosome translocations/fusion genes in 1 test, which is especially useful for sarcoma without obvious differentiation. In this report, we utilized RNA sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens to investigate the possibility of diagnosing sarcomas by identifying disease-specific fusion genes. Targeted RNA sequencing was performed on 6 sarcoma cases. The expected genetic alterations (clear cell sarcoma/EWSR1-ATF1, Ewing sarcoma/EWSR1-FLI1, myxoid liposarcoma/DDIT3-FUS) in four cases were detected and confirmed by secondary tests. Interestingly, three SS18 fusion genes (SS18-SSX2B, SS18-SSX2, and SS18-SSX4) were identified in a synovial sarcoma case. A rare fusion gene (EWSR1-PATZ1) was identified in a morphologically challenging case; which enabled us to establish the diagnosis of low grade glioneural tumor. In conclusion, RNA sequencing on FFPE specimen is a reliable method in establishing the diagnosis of sarcoma in daily practice.

Chrisinger JSA, Al-Zaid T, Keung EZ, et al.
The degree of sclerosis is associated with prognosis in well-differentiated liposarcoma of the retroperitoneum.
J Surg Oncol. 2019; 120(3):382-388 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDL) are often partly composed of sclerotic tissue, however, the amount varies widely between tumors, and its prognostic significance is unknown. We hypothesized that tumors with more sclerosis would behave more aggressively.
METHODS: Primary retroperitoneal WDL from 29 patients resected at our institution with follow-up were histologically evaluated by soft tissue pathologists blinded to outcome. Tumors with ≥ 10% sclerosis were designated "sclerotic" while tumors with < 10% sclerosis were designated as "minimally sclerotic". Cellular and dedifferentiated tumors were excluded. Clinical parameters and radiologic assessments on computed tomography (CT) were recorded.
RESULTS: Histological evaluation identified 13 minimally sclerotic WDL and 16 sclerotic WDL. Median follow-up was 9 years (range, 3-20). Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) and median overall survival (OS) were 6.16 and 13.9 years, respectively. Compared with patients with sclerotic WDL, those with minimally sclerotic WDL had superior RFS (HR = 0.17 [95% CI, 0.06-0.53], P = .002) and OS (log-rank test, P = .002). Sclerotic WDL exhibited higher Houndsfield Units than minimally sclerotic WDL (26 vs 1, P = .040).
CONCLUSIONS: Minimally sclerotic WDL were associated with more favorable outcome compared with sclerotic tumors. Assessment of sclerosis in WDL is likely a useful prognostic marker.

Zhao DY, Zhang WL, Cui Y, et al.
Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral body: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(24):e15905 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONAL: The occurrence of Ewing's sarcoma in the vertebral body of elderly women is extremely rare, and the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the spine with secondary surgical repair after wrong diagnosis and treatment has not been reported. We report a case involving primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral body in an elderly female. Owing to its rarity and controversial issues, we report a case report to discuss its clinical features, treatments, radiological, and histological characteristics.
PATIENT CONCERNS: The elderly female patient came to see us with the manifestation of total paralysis of both lower limbs. The patient with a vertebral compression fracture as the primary manifestation was misdiagnosed in another hospital. The patient underwent inappropriate surgical treatment and was transferred to our hospital for diagnosis and second-stage surgery.
DIAGNOSES: The postoperative pathological examination and immunohistochemical examination in our hospital confirmed: Ewing's sarcoma; Surgical history at other hospitals suggests: after Bone cement injection.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent a T6 and T8 laminectomy and T5/6-T9 pedicle screw fixation.
OUTCOMES: Reexamination 1 month after the surgery showed that the tumor had been partially resected, the spinal cord compression was relieved, the tumor did not grow further, and the patient's lower limb physical ability, tactile sense, algesia and temperature sense recovered slightly.
LESSONS: For patients with ewing's tumor in the spinal canal with symptoms of spinal cord compression, even if the patients with poor results after a unadvisable operation, it is still necessary to be actively in spinal cord compression by surgery. The differential diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma and compression fractures is very important. For patients with vertebral tumors, special attention should be taken during vertebroplasty for bone cement leakage caused by excessive bone cement injection and increased local pressure. And some experience with imaging and laboratory findings.

Taghipour Zahir S, Heidarymeybodi Z, AleSaeidi S
Prognostic Factors and Survival Time in Patients with Small Bowel Tumors: A Retrospective Observational Study.
Int J Surg Oncol. 2019; 2019:2912361 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study examines survival time in patients with small bowel tumors and determines its contributing factors. In this retrospective analytical study, the medical records of 106 patients with small bowel cancer (from 2006 to 2011) were investigated. The patients' data were extracted, including age, gender, clinical presentation, location of tumor, histological type, grade of tumor, site of metastasis, and type of treatment. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to estimate the overall survival time and the Log-rank test to compare the survival curves. The Cox regression was also used to evaluate the effect of the confounding variables on survival time. This study was conducted on 106 patients with a median age of 60 years (Min: 7, Max: 87). The tumor types included adenocarcinoma (n=78, 73.6%), MALToma (n=22, 20.8%), neuroendocrine tumors (n=4, 3.8%), and sarcoma (n=2. 1.8%). Grade 3 adenocarcinomas had a significantly lower survival time (HR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.46-2.86; P=.001). Combined therapy (chemotherapy and surgery) vs. single-therapy (only surgery) had no significant effects on the survival of the patients with MALToma (5 vs. 3 months, 95% CI: 1.89-5.26; P=.06). There were no significant differences between the survival time in adenocarcinoma and MALToma (12 vs. 20 months, 95% CI: 6.24-24.76; P=.49). Tumor grade was the only independent prognostic factor that affected survival in adenocarcinoma. The patients diagnosed with MALToma in the study also had a poor prognosis, and the type of treatment had no significant effect on their survival.

Malinka T, Nebrig M, Klein F, et al.
Analysis of outcomes and predictors of long-term survival following resection for retroperitoneal sarcoma.
BMC Surg. 2019; 19(1):61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) include a heterogeneous group of rare malignant tumours, and various treatment algorithms are still controversially discussed until today. The present study aimed to examine postoperative and long-term outcomes after resection of primary RPS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological data of patients who underwent resection of primary RPS between 2005 and 2015 were assessed, and predictors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were identified.
RESULTS: Sixty-one patients underwent resection for primary RPS. Postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 31 and 3%, respectively. After a median follow-up time of 74 months, 5-year OS and DFS rates were 58 and 34%, respectively. Histologic high grade (5-year OS: G1: 92% vs. G2: 54% vs. G3: 43%, P = 0.030) was significantly associated with diminished OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. When assessing DFS, histologic high grade (5-year DFS: G1: 63% vs. G2: 24% vs. G3: 22%, P = 0.013), positive surgical resection margins (5-year DFS: R0: 53% vs. R1: 10% vs. R2: 0%, P = 0.014), and vascular involvement (5-year DFS: yes: 33% vs no: 39%, P = 0.001), were significantly associated with inferior DFS in univariate and multivariate analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: High-grade tumours indicated poor OS, while vascular involvement, positive surgical resection margins, and histologic grade are the most important predictors of DFS. Although multimodal treatment strategies are progressively established, surgical resection remains the mainstay in the majority of patients with RPS, even in cases with vascular involvement.

Taskin OC, Akkas G, Memis B, et al.
Sarcomatoid carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathologic characteristics.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(1):59-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sarcomatoid carcinomas recently came into the spotlight through genetic profiling studies and also as a distinct model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The literature on sarcomatoid carcinomas of gallbladder is limited. In this study, 656 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were reviewed. Eleven (1.7%) with a sarcomatoid component were identified and analyzed in comparison with ordinary GBC (O-GBC). Patients included 9 females and 2 males (F/M = 4.5 vs. 3.9) with a mean age-at-diagnosis of 71 (vs. 64). The median tumor size was 4.6 cm (vs. 2.5; P = 0.01). Nine patients (84%) presented with advanced stage (pT3/4) tumor (vs. 48%). An adenocarcinoma component constituting 1-75% of the tumor was present in nine, and eight had surface dysplasia/CIS; either in situ or invasive carcinoma was present in all cases. An intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasm was identified in one. Seven showed pleomorphic-sarcomatoid pattern, and four showed subtle/bland elongated spindle cells. Three had an angiosarcomatoid pattern. Two had heterologous elements. One showed few osteoclast-like giant cells, only adjacent to osteoid. Immunohistochemically, vimentin, was positive in six of six; P53 expression was > 60% in six of six, keratins in six of seven, and p63 in two of six. Actin, desmin, and S100 were negative. The median Ki67 index was 40%. In the follow-up, one died peri-operatively, eight died of disease within 3 to 8 months (vs. 26 months median survival for O-GBC), and two were alive at 9 and 15 months. The behavior overall was worse than ordinary adenocarcinomas in general but was not different when grade and stage were matched. In summary, sarcomatoid component is identified in < 2% of GBC. Unlike sarcomatoid carcinomas in the remainder of pancreatobiliary tract, these are seldom of the "osteoclastic" type and patients present with large/advanced stage tumors. Limited data suggests that these tumors are aggressive with rapid mortality unlike pancreatic osteoclastic ones which often have indolent behavior.

Lenze F, Pohlig F, Knebel C, et al.
Psychosocial Distress in Follow-up Care - Results of a Tablet-based Routine Screening in 202 Patients With Sarcoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):3159-3165 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with sarcoma are particularly vulnerable to psychosocial distress. The aim of this study was to collect preliminary data on the prevalence of psychosocial distress in such patients during follow-up care and identify risk factors associated with higher psycho-oncological stress levels.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study retrospectively enrolled 202 patients with bone or soft-tissue sarcomas who underwent routine psychosocial distress screening during their follow-up care. All patients were screened using an electronic cancer-specific questionnaire.
RESULTS: Females and patients who underwent radiotherapy were more distressed. Psychosocial distress levels were markedly higher in the early postoperative phase, but approximately one-third of patients showed high psychosocial distress levels even more than 2 years postoperatively.
CONCLUSION: The results underscore the importance of routine psychosocial distress screenings in patients with sarcoma, which should be performed throughout the follow-up period.

Desai KB, Mella D, Pan E
An Adult Patient With Rare Primary Intracranial Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):3067-3070 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a rare case of primary intracranial alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) in the right temporal lobe of a 51-year-old male. ARMS is one of 3 histological subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma that most commonly presents in older children and younger adults. To our knowledge, there have been no prior published reports of primary intracranial ARMS in adults. Known cases of intracranial ARMS in adults are due to central nervous system (CNS) metastases from the head and neck and extremities. Diagnostic workup did not reveal any primary source outside the CNS. Given that risk factors for ARMS have not been studied in adults, it is difficult to ascertain what aspects of this patient's clinical history may have contributed to his diagnosis. Interestingly, he had prior history of traumatic brain injury requiring evacuation of a right fronto-temporal intraparenchymal hematoma.

Mühlhofer HML, Lenze U, Gersing A, et al.
Prognostic Factors and Outcomes for Patients With Myxofibrosarcoma: A 13-Year Retrospective Evaluation.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2985-2992 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas are rare entities that are divided into approximately 50 histological subtypes. Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) represents approximately 20% of all soft-tissue sarcomas, especially in elderly patients in their sixth to eighth decades of life. The treatment for soft-tissue sarcomas varies from primary surgical resection to neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with MFS, taking into account gender, tumour grade, state of the resection margin, local recurrence, use of radiotherapy, presence of metastases and blood levels of haemoglobin and C-reactive protein in a retrospective, single-centre analysis with a minimum follow-up period of 60 months (range=60-156 months).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 34 patients (male/female=20/14). Tumour localization, tumour grade, tumour margins, local recurrence, the use of radiotherapy, the presence of metastasis, and the blood levels of haemoglobin and C-reactive protein preoperatively and during follow-up were evaluated.
RESULTS: MFS constituted the most common high-grade sarcoma (G2/G3, 79.4%) in our cohort and was generally located in a lower limb (73.6%). Negative margins (R0) were detected in 67.6% of patients after surgical resection, and local recurrence occurred in 23.5% of all patients after a mean disease-free period of 19.4 months. Both parameters exerted no significant influence on survival. Radiotherapy was performed in a neoadjuvant or an adjuvant setting in 50% of patients (eight neoadjuvant, nine adjuvant). Metastasis occurred after a mean of 20.4 months in 38.2% of the patients. Higher C-reactive protein levels showed a trend towards being associated with worse survival, but the association was not significant (p=0.084); haemoglobin level had no influence on the survival rate (p=0.426). Tumour grade and metastasis were significant prognostic factors of survival (log-rank test p=0.041 and p=0.00007). Ten patients (29.4%) died due to MFS during our follow-up period.
CONCLUSION: The tumour grade and metastasis of MFS are independently associated with disease-specific survival, whereas negative surgical margins, local recurrence and blood levels of C-reactive protein and haemoglobin were not significant prognostic factors. The understanding of the molecular biological patterns that result in the metastasis of these tumours will help develop better treatment plans in the future.

Jerez S, Araya H, Hevia D, et al.
Extracellular vesicles from osteosarcoma cell lines contain miRNAs associated with cell adhesion and apoptosis.
Gene. 2019; 710:246-257 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor during childhood and adolescence. Several reports have presented data on serum biomarkers for osteosarcoma, but few reports have analyzed circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we used next generation miRNA sequencing to examine miRNAs isolated from microvesicle-depleted extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from six different human osteosarcoma or osteoblastic cell lines with different degrees of metastatic potential (i.e., SAOS2, MG63, HOS, 143B, U2OS and hFOB1.19). EVs from each cell line contain on average ~300 miRNAs, and ~70 of these miRNAs are present at very high levels (i.e., >1000 reads per million). The most prominent miRNAs are miR-21-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p and 181a-5p, which are enriched between 3 and 100 fold and relatively abundant in EVs derived from metastatic SAOS2 cells compared to non-metastatic MG63 cells. Gene ontology analysis of predicted targets reveals that miRNAs present in EVs may regulate the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cell lines by potentially inhibiting a network of genes (e.g., MAPK1, NRAS, FRS2, PRCKE, BCL2 and QKI) involved in apoptosis and/or cell adhesion. Our data indicate that osteosarcoma cell lines may selectively package miRNAs as molecular cargo of EVs that could function as paracrine agents to modulate the tumor micro-environment.

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