Ewing's sarcoma / Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNET) of bone is a type of cancer usually found in children and young adults. The peak incidence is between ages 10 and 20, it is less common in children under 5 or in adults over 30. Ewing's s can occur in any bone in the body; the most common sites are the pelvis, thigh, lower leg, upper arm, and rib. The tumour is composed of small round blue cells. Ewing's sarcoma can also arise in soft tissue (extra-skeletal); see Soft Tissue Sarcoma in this guide.
NHS Choices NHS Choices information is quality assured by experts and content is reviewed at least every 2 years. Further info. Overview of promary bone cancers in general, though does include some specific information about Osteosarcoma, Ewing's Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Spindle cell sarcoma. OsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma
Information is reviewed by a panel of scientific and clinical experts, patients, parents/ carers, Further info. BCRT became a registered the charity in 2006 and raises funds for research into primary bone cancer, and provides information and support for patients and their families. The Website includes information booklets, personal stories and a section for teenagers. Bone CancersOsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma
Cancer.Net Content is peer reviewed and Cancer.Net has an Editorial Board of experts and advocates. Content is reviewed annually or as needed. Further info. Detailed information across a number of sections
Mayo Clinic Dr. Carola Arndt discuuses Ewing's sarcoma and explains the evaluation and diagnosis as well as the general treatment plan. Dr. Arndt explains the importance of getting treatment by a multidisciplinary team.
Liddy Shriver Sarcoma Initiative A detailed article by medical experts including a description of Ewing's sarcoma, diagnosis and treatment. The site also includes some real patient stories and an overview of current research.
Founded in 2003 the initiative aims improve the quality of life for people dealing with sarcomas around the world, raising awareness and research funds. It has an international panel of medical experts. OsteosarcomaSoft Tissue SarcomasOsteosarcoma
Sarcoma, A glimpse at a rare cancer
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center expert David Loeb discusses rare and difficult cancer. Includes Ben's story and his diagnosis and treatment for Ewing's Sarcoma.
PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Ewing's Sarcoma MeSH term: Sarcoma, Ewing US National Library of Medicine PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.
A website by orthopedic surgeon Dr. Henry DeGroot, with contributions from numerous clinical colleagues. It includes numerous case studies, including radiology and pathology images, and information covering a comprehensive range of bone tumours. Bone CancersOsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Sasaki T, Onishi T, Yabana T, Hoshina A Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from the adrenal gland: a case report and literature review. Tumori. 2013 May-Jun; 99(3):e104-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma (ES)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arising from the adrenal gland. A 17-year-old Japanese woman presented with left upper abdominal pain and high fever. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 15 × 10 cm tumor replacing the adrenal gland. Preoperative diagnosis was an adrenocortical carcinoma. Resection of the tumor was performed. We obtained the final diagnosis of ES/PNET by immunohistochemical molecular study with positive staining for the MIC2 gene product (CD99) and a Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene rearrangement. Local recurrence was observed one month after the surgery. The patient was then treated with systemic chemotherapy and localized radiotherapy.
Aryee DN, Niedan S, Ban J, et al. Variability in functional p53 reactivation by PRIMA-1(Met)/APR-246 in Ewing sarcoma. Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(10):2696-704 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/11/2014 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Though p53 mutations are rare in ES, there is a strong indication that p53 mutant tumours form a particularly bad prognostic group. As such, novel treatment strategies are warranted that would specifically target and eradicate tumour cells containing mutant p53 in this subset of ES patients. METHODS: PRIMA-1(Met), also known as APR-246, is a small organic molecule that has been shown to restore tumour-suppressor function primarily to mutant p53 and also to induce cell death in various cancer types. In this study, we interrogated the ability of APR-246 to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumour growth in ES cells with different p53 mutations. RESULTS: APR-246 variably induced apoptosis, associated with Noxa, Puma or p21(WAF1) upregulation, in both mutant and wild-type p53 harbouring cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of APR-246 was markedly reduced in ES cell lines transfected with p53 siRNA. Three ES cell lines established from the same patient at different stages of the disease and two cell lines of different patients with identical p53 mutations all exhibited different sensitivities to APR-246, indicating cellular context dependency. Comparative transcriptome analysis on the three cell lines established from the same patient identified differential expression levels of several TP53 and apoptosis-associated genes such as APOL6, PENK, PCDH7 and MST4 in the APR-246-sensitive cell line relative to the less APR-246-sensitive cell lines. CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting the biological response of Ewing sarcoma cells to APR-246 exposure and shows gross variability in responses. Our study also proposes candidate genes whose expression might be associated with ES cells' sensitivity to APR-246. With APR-246 currently in early-phase clinical trials, our findings call for caution in considering it as a potential adjuvant to conventional ES-specific chemotherapeutics.
Sankar S, Tanner JM, Bell R, et al. A novel role for keratin 17 in coordinating oncogenic transformation and cellular adhesion in Ewing sarcoma. Mol Cell Biol. 2013; 33(22):4448-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2014 Related Publications
Oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma is caused by EWS/FLI, an aberrant transcription factor fusion oncogene. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) is a critical target gene activated by EWS/FLI, but the mechanism by which GLI1 contributes to the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma was unknown. In this work, we identify keratin 17 (KRT17) as a direct downstream target gene upregulated by GLI1. We demonstrate that KRT17 regulates cellular adhesion by activating AKT/PKB (protein kinase B) signaling. In addition, KRT17 is necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma and accounts for much of the GLI1-mediated transformation function but via a mechanism independent of AKT signaling. Taken together, our data reveal previously unknown molecular functions for a cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein, KRT17, in coordinating EWS/FLI- and GLI1-mediated oncogenic transformation and cellular adhesion in Ewing sarcoma.
Bazzocchi A, Bacci A, Serchi E, et al. Intradural extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma. Recurrence with acute clinical presentation and literature review. Neuroradiol J. 2013; 26(4):476-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The intradural extramedullary space is an extremely unusual site for the onset of Ewing's sarcoma. We describe a case of recurrence of intradural extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma and review the literature available on this topic.
Stoll G, Surdez D, Tirode F, et al. Systems biology of Ewing sarcoma: a network model of EWS-FLI1 effect on proliferation and apoptosis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41(19):8853-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2014 Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent pediatric bone tumor. In most of the patients, a chromosomal translocation leads to the expression of the EWS-FLI1 chimeric transcription factor that is the major oncogene in this pathology. Relative genetic simplicity of Ewing sarcoma makes it particularly attractive for studying cancer in a systemic manner. Silencing EWS-FLI1 induces cell cycle alteration and ultimately leads to apoptosis, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are unclear. In this study, a network linking EWS-FLI1 to cell cycle and apoptosis phenotypes was constructed through an original method of network reconstruction. Transcriptome time-series after EWS-FLI1 silencing were used to identify core modulated genes by an original scoring method based on fitting expression profile dynamics curves. Literature data mining was then used to connect these modulated genes into a network. The validity of a subpart of this network was assessed by siRNA/RT-QPCR experiments on four additional Ewing cell lines and confirmed most of the links. Based on the network and the transcriptome data, CUL1 was identified as a new potential target of EWS-FLI1. Altogether, using an original methodology of data integration, we provide the first version of EWS-FLI1 network model of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation.
Trizzino A, Ziino O, Parafioriti A, et al. Dramatic response to Cisplatin window therapy in a boy with advanced metastatic ewing sarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013; 35(6):478-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2014 Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common type of primary bone malignancy, and retains a high propensity to metastasize; the prognosis of patients with disseminated disease is very poor, with an event-free survival rate of <20%. Current multimodality treatment for ES consists of combined chemotherapy before and concurrent with surgery and local radiotherapy for the involved bone. Cisplatin is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of bone tumors in children, but is not currently used in ES. We describe a child with multifocal ES, treated with a phase II trial including a single-drug window therapy, which displayed a dramatic response to 2 courses of cisplatin and had a favorable outcome.
Berger M, Fagioli F, Abate M, et al. Unusual sites of Ewing sarcoma (ES): a retrospective multicenter 30-year experience of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) and Italian Sarcoma Group (ISG). Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(17):3658-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) and Italian Sarcoma Group (ISG) experience from 1980 to 2009 on 112 patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) occurring in unusual sites such as the craniofacial bones (CF), hands or feet (HF), or the mobile spine. These sites were grouped because their rarity as ES localisations. PATIENT AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients had CF ES (23%), 37 patients had HF ES (33%) and 49 patients had mobile spine ES (44%). A total of 26 patients presented with synchronous metastatic disease (23%). The local treatment with surgery and/or radiotherapy differed among ES sites. Systemic therapy was administrated according to the protocols in use over the years. RESULTS: From the data available, the histological/radiological response was higher for HF-patients even not statistical significant (good responders: CF 41%, HF 65% and mobile spine 39%, P = 0.NS) and the probability of achieving complete response was similar among the three sites (CF 87%, HF 83% and spine 74%, P = 0.44). Ten year overall survival (OS) was 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39-82), 63% (95% CI 37-89) and 64% (95% CI 49-79) for CF, HF or vertebral ES, respectively (P = NS). Ten year OS for non-metastatic patients was 60% (95% CI 36-83), 75% (95% CI 56-94) and 67% (95% CI 47-89) for CF, HF and mobile spine patients respectively (P = NS). Ten year OS was 45% (95% CI, 31-84) and 70% (95% CI, 61-85, [p = 0.01]) for metastatic and localised ES, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of successful treatment did not differ from ES of the extremities. Furthermore, our series confirm the poor prognosis for patients with metastatic disease. Our data do not strengthen the need for a specific protocol for unusual site ES.
Yang Y, Li H, Zhang F, et al. Clinical and biological significance of hepatoma-derived growth factor in Ewing's sarcoma. J Pathol. 2013; 231(3):323-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
We sought to investigate the clinicopathological significance and biological function of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in Ewing's sarcoma. Our results showed that HDGF expression is up-regulated in Ewing's sarcoma. Nuclear HDGF expression is significantly associated with tumour volume (p < 0.001), metastases at diagnosis (p < 0.001), low overall survival rate (p < 0.001) and low disease-free survival rate (p < 0.001). HDGF knock-down results in significant reduction of Ewing's sarcoma cell growth, proliferation and enhances tumourigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, HDGF knock-down causes cell cycle arrest and enhanced sensitization to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, recombinant HDGF promotes proliferation and colony formation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Ninety-eight candidate HDGF downstream genes were identified in Ewing's sarcoma cells using cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, we found that HDGF knock-down inhibited FLI1 expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that HDGF exhibits oncogenic properties and may be a novel prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma. Targeting HDGF might be a potential therapeutic strategy for Ewing's sarcoma.
De Visschere P, De Potter A, Claus F, et al. PNET/Ewing's sarcoma of the kidney: imaging findings in two cases. JBR-BTR. 2013 Mar-Apr; 96(2):75-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CT-imaging findings of primary renal PNET/Ewing's sarcoma in two patients were retrospectively assessed. A large renal mass with heterogenous contrast enhancement and necrotic and hemorrhagic areas were the predominant characteristics. In adolescents or young adults presenting with a large renal mass, PNET/Ewing's sarcoma may be included in the differential diagnosis.
Liebsch L, Kailayangiri S, Beck L, et al. Ewing sarcoma dissemination and response to T-cell therapy in mice assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(3):658-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/08/2014 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Novel treatment strategies in Ewing sarcoma include targeted cellular therapies. Preclinical in vivo models are needed that reflect their activity against systemic (micro)metastatic disease. METHODS: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) was used to monitor the engraftment and dissemination of human Ewing sarcoma xenografts in mice. In this model, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of T cells redirected against the Ewing sarcoma-associated antigen GD2 by chimeric receptor engineering. RESULTS: Of 18 mice receiving intravenous injections of VH-64 Ewing sarcoma cells, all developed disseminated tumour growth detectable by WB-MRI. All mice had lung tumours, and the majority had additional manifestations in the bone, soft tissues, and/or kidney. Sequential scans revealed in vivo growth of tumours. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background signal suppression effectively visualised Ewing sarcoma growth in extrapulmonary sites. Animals receiving GD2-targeted T-cell therapy had lower numbers of pulmonary tumours than controls, and the median volume of soft tissue tumours at first detection was lower, with a tumour growth delay over time. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging reliably visualises disseminated Ewing sarcoma growth in mice. GD2-retargeted T cells can noticeably delay tumour growth and reduce pulmonary Ewing sarcoma manifestations in this aggressive disease model.
Miller BJ, Lynch CF, Buckwalter JA Conditional survival is greater than overall survival at diagnosis in patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013; 471(11):3398-404 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2014 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Conditional survival is a measure of the risk of mortality given that a patient has survived a defined period of time. These estimates are clinically helpful, but have not been reported previously for osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We determined the conditional survival of patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma given survival of 1 or more years. METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program database to investigate cases of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma in patients younger than 40 years from 1973 to 2009. The SEER Program is managed by the National Cancer Institute and provides survival data gathered from population-based cancer registries. We used an actuarial life table analysis to determine any cancer cause-specific 5-year survival estimates conditional on 1 to 5 years of survival after diagnosis. We performed a similar analysis to determine 20-year survival from the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: The estimated 5-year survival improved each year after diagnosis. For local/regional osteosarcoma, the 5-year survival improved from 74.8% at baseline to 91.4% at 5 years-meaning that if a patient with localized osteosarcoma lives for 5 years, the chance of living for another 5 years is 91.4%. Similarly, the 5-year survivals for local/regional Ewing's sarcoma improved from 72.9% at baseline to 92.5% at 5 years, for metastatic osteosarcoma 35.5% at baseline to 85.4% at 5 years, and for metastatic Ewing's sarcoma 31.7% at baseline to 83.6% at 5 years. The likelihood of 20-year cause-specific survival from the time of diagnosis in osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma was almost 90% or greater after 10 years of survival, suggesting that while most patients will remain disease-free indefinitely, some experience cancer-related complications years after presumed eradication. CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year survival estimates of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma improve with each additional year of patient survival. Knowledge of a changing risk profile is useful in counseling patients with time. The presence of cause-specific mortality decades after treatment supports lifelong monitoring in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Risi E, Iacovelli R, Altavilla A, et al. Clinical and pathological features of primary neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the kidney. Urology. 2013; 82(2):382-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To collect and analyze clinical and pathological features of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing sarcoma (EWS), a rare tumor occurring most commonly in bone and soft tissues of young people, which rarely occurs as a primary renal neoplasm and exhibits highly aggressive biological behavior. METHODS: All cases of PNET/EWS published from 1975 to February 2012 were collected. When available, clinical and pathological data were extracted for each case. Survivals were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A total of 116 cases were found. All patients had clinical symptoms as first presentation of disease such as pain (54%), hematuria (29%), and bulky renal mass (28%). Sixty-six percent of patients had stage IV disease at diagnosis. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was 5.0 months (95% CI 2.4-7.6). The probability to be alive at 18 months was 60% and 85% for patients with metastatic disease (M1) or not (M0) at diagnosis, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 24 months (95% CI 4.5-15.1) in patients with M1 disease, whereas it was not reached in patients with M0 disease (P <.001). In patients with M0 disease, 50% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the 12-month OS was 93% compared to 75% of untreated patients (P = .092). In patients with M1 disease who underwent treatment, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 22.0 months (95% CI 17.9-26.1) with a clinical benefit in 74% of cases. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PNET/EWS is a rare aggressive tumor affecting principally young people, with a poor prognosis for patients with M1 disease; chemotherapy is an effective strategy in M1 disease and probably also in M0 disease.
Roundhill E, Burchill S Membrane expression of MRP-1, but not MRP-1 splicing or Pgp expression, predicts survival in patients with ESFT. Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(1):195-206 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/07/2014 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFTs) may respond to chemotherapy, although many patients experience subsequent disease recurrence and relapse. The survival of ESFT cells following chemotherapy has been attributed to the development of resistant disease, possibly through the expression of ABC transporter proteins. METHODS: MRP-1 and Pgp mRNA and protein expression in primary ESFTs was determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and alternative splicing of MRP-1 by RT-PCR. RESULTS: We observed MRP-1 protein expression in 92% (43 out of 47) of primary ESFTs, and cell membrane MRP-1 was highly predictive of both overall survival (P<0.0001) and event-free survival (P<0.0001). Alternative splicing of MRP-1 was detected in primary ESFTs, although the pattern of splicing variants was not predictive of patient outcome, with the exception of loss of exon 9 in six patients, which predicted relapse (P=0.041). Pgp protein was detected in 6% (38 out of 44) of primary ESFTs and was not associated with patient survival. CONCLUSION: For the first time we have established that cell membrane expression of MRP-1 or loss of exon 9 is predictive of outcome but not the number of splicing events or expression of Pgp, and both may be valuable factors for the stratification of patients for more intensive therapy.
Raciborska A, Bilska K, Drabko K, et al. Vincristine, irinotecan, and temozolomide in patients with relapsed and refractory Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(10):1621-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic, progressive or recurrent Ewing sarcoma (ES) have a dismal outcome. The combination of irinotecan and temozolomide has been proposed as an effective salvage regimen for some pediatric malignancies. Thus, we sought to evaluate this combination with vincristine for patients with relapsed and refractory ES. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with relapsed or refractory ES were treated with the combination of vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1), irinotecan (50 mg/m(2) /day i.v. days 1-5) and temozolomide (125 mg/m(2) /day p.o. days 1-5) (VIT) during the period 2008-2012. All toxicities were documented. RESULTS: A total of 91 cycles (median 4.1 cycles/patient) were administered. A complete response (CR) was achieved in five patients, partial response (PR) in seven patients, stable disease (SD) in three patients, and progression disease (PD) in seven patients, with an overall response rate of 68.1%. Median time to progression was 3.0 months (range 1.1-37.1 months). Five patients (22.7%) are alive with no evidence of disease with a median follow-up of 10.3 months (range 2.1-46.5); four of them received consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant after responding to VIT. Outcome was better for patients with relapsed ES compared with patients who progressed to initial therapy (estimated 2 year overall survival 36.4% vs. 0%, respectively). There were no significant toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: The shorter, 5-day VIT regimen is an active and well-tolerated regimen in refractory ES. This combination deserves further investigation in the upfront management of patients with metastatic disease.
Yang JC, Wexler LH, Meyers PA, et al. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with dose-painting for pediatric sarcomas with pulmonary metastases. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(10):1616-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We examined patterns of failure in pediatric patients with thoracic sarcoma and pulmonary metastases treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy with dose-painting (DP-IMRT). PROCEDURE: Eleven pediatric patients, five with Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) and six with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), with primary thoracic tumors and pulmonary metastases underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Eight patients also underwent surgery. Median time to RT was 21 (15-31) weeks. Nine patients received 45-50.4-Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions to the primary tumor (n = 3) or post-operative tumor bed (n = 6). Two patients ≤4 years received 12 Gy intraoperative radiation therapy and 30.6-36 Gy IMRT postoperatively to the tumor bed. All patients received 14-16.8 Gy in 0.54-0.88 Gy fractions to the whole lungs (n = 6) or hemithorax (n = 5) using dose-painting technique. A representative case was re-planned with IMRT plus standard AP/PA whole lung irradiation (WLI) for dosimetric comparison. RESULTS: With 27-month median follow-up, 3-year pulmonary relapse-free survival in all patients was 61%: 80% for RMS and 40% for ESFT. Five patients (4 ESFT and 1 RMS) experienced pulmonary relapse at median 16 (9-41) months. There were no local failures. Our representative case demonstrated more homogeneous target volume coverage of the whole lungs and decreased mean dose to esophagus (15%), heart (31%), spinal cord (15%), and liver (19%) with DP-IMRT. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of children with a primary thoracic tumor and pulmonary metastases poses a significant challenge. DP-IMRT is one solution to this technical problem. Initial data from this small series suggest DP-IMRT is feasible and produces superior sparing of critical normal tissues.
Owens C, Abbott LS, Gupta AA Optimal management of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: recent developments in systemic therapy. Paediatr Drugs. 2013; 15(6):473-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is defined by cell surface expression of CD99 and a translocation involving EWS and an ETS partner. Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the benchmark of first- and second-line therapy, and although the majority of patients with localized disease are cured, almost one third of patients relapse or progress from their disease. Moreover, cure remains elusive in most patients who present with distant metastases. In recent years, the ESFT literature has been dominated by reports of attempts at modulating the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGFR). Unfortunately, three phase II studies examining inhibiting antibodies to IGFR-1 published disappointing results. Whether these results were due to failure to modulate the pathway or other limitations in study design and/or patient selection remain unclear. Other novel strategies currently being investigated in ESFT include tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.
Zhang H, Maric I, DiPrima MJ, et al. Fibrocytes represent a novel MDSC subset circulating in patients with metastatic cancer. Blood. 2013; 122(7):1105-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
Fibrocytes are hematopoietic stem cell-derived fibroblast precursors that are implicated in chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expand in cancer-bearing hosts and contribute to tumor immune evasion. They are typically described as CD11b⁺HLA-DR⁻ in humans. We report abnormal expansions of CD11b⁺HLA-DR⁺ myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear fractions of subjects with metastatic pediatric sarcomas. Like classical fibrocytes, they display cell surface α smooth muscle actin, collagen I/V, and mediate angiogenesis. However, classical fibrocytes serve as antigen presenters and augment immune reactivity, whereas fibrocytes from cancer subjects suppressed anti-CD3-mediated T-cell proliferation, primarily via indoleamine oxidase (IDO). The degree of fibrocyte expansion observed in individual subjects directly correlated with the frequency of circulating GATA3⁺CD4⁺ cells (R = 0.80) and monocytes from healthy donors cultured with IL-4 differentiated into fibrocytes with the same phenotypic profile and immunosuppressive properties as those observed in patients with cancer. We thus describe a novel subset of cancer-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which bear the phenotypic and functional hallmarks of fibrocytes but mediate immune suppression. These cells are likely expanded in response to Th2 immune deviation and may contribute to tumor progression via both immune evasion and angiogenesis.
Wygoda A, Rutkowski T, Ponikiewska D, et al. Ewing's sarcoma of the larynx. Effective treatment with organ preservation. Strahlenther Onkol. 2013; 189(7):586-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma arising in the head and neck region is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm. We describe the unusual case of a tumor originating in the larynx of a 68-year-old male with hoarseness and occasional aphonia. We report successful treatment with sequential chemo- and radiotherapy. Complete regression and larynx preservation with voice function recovery was achieved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this type of tumor in the larynx with cartilage invasion that documents the effectiveness of radiotherapy as an alternative to surgical management. At present, after 30 months of follow-up, the patient is free of tumor relapse and in very good condition.
Warren M, Weindel M, Ringrose J, et al. Integrated multimodal genetic testing of Ewing sarcoma--a single-institution experience. Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(10):2010-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignant small round cell tumor that arises in bone or soft tissue of adolescents and young adults. A characteristic molecular finding in ES is EWSR1 gene fusion with ETS (erythroblast transformation-specific) family genes including FLI1 (~90%) and ERG (>5%). Here we report our experience using integrated clinicopathologic, cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of 32 pediatric patients with ES diagnosed in a single institution between 2005 and 2011. Diagnostic EWSR1 rearrangements were detected in 30 (93.8%) of 32 patients. Cytogenetics detected t(11;22) (n = 14) and t(21;22) (n = 1) in 15 (46.9%) patients. FISH detected EWSR1 rearrangements in 27 (96.4%) of 28 patients tested. RT-PCR was positive in 27 (84.4%) of 32 patients, including 24 EWSR1-FLI1 and 3 EWSR1-ERG. RT-PCR defined breakpoints and fusion partners in 7 cases with EWSR1 rearrangements detected by FISH. Sanger sequencing further delineated breakpoints in 21 (77.8%) of 27 RT-PCR positive cases. In summary, conventional cytogenetic analysis provided a global view but had a lower detection rate and longer turnaround time than other methods. FISH is a rapid method and theoretically can detect all EWSR1 rearrangements, but it cannot identify all partners and is not completely specific for ES. RT-PCR and sequencing are more sensitive and useful in identifying fusion partners and refining breakpoints; however, these methods can be compromised by poor RNA preservation and primer design. In conclusion, an integrated approach that uses all methods capable of detecting EWSR1 rearrangements has value in the workup of suspected cases of ES.
Henninger B, Glodny B, Rudisch A, et al. Ewing sarcoma versus osteomyelitis: differential diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiol. 2013; 42(8):1097-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To find and evaluate characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns for the differentiation between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 28 consecutive patients referred to our department for MRI (1.5 T) of an unclear bone lesion with clinical symptoms suggestive of Ewing sarcoma or osteomyelitis. MRI scans were re-evaluated by two experienced radiologists, typical MR imaging features were documented and a diagnostic decision between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis was made. Statistical significance of the association between MRI features and the biopsy-based diagnosis was assessed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The most clear-cut pattern for determining the correct diagnosis was the presence of a sharp and defined margin of the bone lesion, which was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, but in none of the patients with osteomyelitis (P < 0.0001). Contrast enhancing soft tissue was present in all cases with Ewing sarcoma and absent in 4 patients with osteomyelitis (P = 0.0103). Cortical destruction was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, 4 patients with osteomyelitis did not present any cortical reaction (P = 0.0103). Cystic or necrotic areas were identified in 13 patients with Ewing sarcoma and in 1 patient with osteomyelitis (P = 0.004). Interobserver reliability was very good (kappa = 1) in Ewing sarcoma and moderate (kappa = 0.6) in patients with osteomyelitis. CONCLUSIONS: A sharp and defined margin, optimally visualized on T1-weighted images in comparison to short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images, is the most significant feature of Ewing sarcoma in differentiating from osteomyelitis.
Mendoza-Naranjo A, El-Naggar A, Wai DH, et al. ERBB4 confers metastatic capacity in Ewing sarcoma. EMBO Mol Med. 2013; 5(7):1019-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
Metastatic spread is the single-most powerful predictor of poor outcome in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Therefore targeting pathways that drive metastasis has tremendous potential to reduce the burden of disease in ES. We previously showed that activation of the ERBB4 tyrosine kinase suppresses anoikis, or detachment-induced cell death, and induces chemoresistance in ES cell lines in vitro. We now show that ERBB4 is transcriptionally overexpressed in ES cell lines derived from chemoresistant or metastatic ES tumours. ERBB4 activates the PI3K-Akt cascade and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and both pathways contribute to ERBB4-mediated activation of the Rac1 GTPase in vitro and in vivo. ERBB4 augments tumour invasion and metastasis in vivo, and these effects are blocked by ERBB4 knockdown. ERBB4 expression correlates significantly with reduced disease-free survival, and increased expression is observed in metastatic compared to primary patient-matched ES biopsies. Our findings identify a novel ERBB4-PI3K-Akt-FAK-Rac1 pathway associated with aggressive disease in ES. These results predict that therapeutic targeting of ERBB4, alone or in combination with cytotoxic agents, may suppress the metastatic phenotype in ES.
Machado I, López Guerrero JA, Navarro S, et al. Galectin-1 (GAL-1) expression is a useful tool to differentiate between small cell osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Virchows Arch. 2013; 462(6):665-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Galectin-1 (GAL-1) is frequently expressed in osteosarcomas. Although a valuable diagnostic marker to differentiate between chondroblastic osteosarcomas and conventional chondrosarcomas, it has not been tested in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs). We studied by immunohistochemistry GAL-1 expression in 43 osteosarcomas, 23 chondrosarcomas, and 217 genetically confirmed ESFTs using a tissue microarray. GAL-1 was expressed in 78 % of osteosarcomas, 33 % of chondrosarcomas, and 8 % of ESFTs. Osteoblastic and small cell osteosarcoma subtypes expressed GAL-1 in a high percentage of cells when compared with the other histological subtypes, whereas two chondroblastic osteosarcomas were negative. GAL-1 was mainly expressed in high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade III). ESFTs were rarely positive (8 %), and this was not related to the histological subtype nor to the clinical outcome. Although GAL-1 expression distinguishes chondroblastic osteosarcomas from conventional chondrosarcomas and is usually negative in conventional chondrosarcomas, the final diagnosis needs to incorporate histopathology since some chondroblastic osteosarcomas fail to express GAL-1, while high-grade chondrosarcomas are GAL-1 positive. Since GAL-1 is frequently expressed in osteogenic tumors, including small cell osteosarcoma, but rarely positive in ESFTs, its expression seems a valuable tool for distinguishing between these lesions. GAL-1 immunoexpression is not indicative of prognosis in ESFT.
Murphey MD, Senchak LT, Mambalam PK, et al. From the radiologic pathology archives: ewing sarcoma family of tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2013; 33(3):803-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors includes osseous Ewing sarcoma, extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and Askin tumor. They share a karyotype abnormality with translocation involving chromosomes 11 and 22. Histologically, these lesions demonstrate crowded sheets of small round blue cells. Imaging features of osseous Ewing sarcoma often suggest the diagnosis, with aggressive long-bone destruction in the metadiaphysis of an adolescent or young adult and an associated soft-tissue mass. Focal areas of cortical destruction are frequent, allowing continuity between the intraosseous and extraosseous components. This continuity is also commonly seen as subtle channels extending through the cortex at computed tomography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a finding that reflects the underlying pathologic appearance. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma commonly demonstrates a nonspecific radiologic appearance of a large soft-tissue mass affecting the paraspinal region or lower extremity. Askin tumor represents extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma involving the chest wall. Imaging typically reveals a large pleural-based mass and associated pleural effusion. Treatment of these tumors is usually a combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection, which may be supplemented with radiation therapy. Imaging, particularly MR, is also vital to evaluate response to neoadjuvant therapy, direct surgical resection, and detect local recurrence or metastatic disease.
Fleuren ED, Versleijen-Jonkers YM, Heskamp S, et al. The strength of small: improved targeting of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) with F(ab')₂-R1507 fragments in Ewing sarcomas. Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(13):2851-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate whether F(ab')₂-fragments of the monoclonal Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) antibody R1507 (F(ab')₂-R1507) can successfully target IGF-1R in Ewing sarcomas (ES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously implanted with IGF-1R-expressing human ES xenografts (EW-5 and EW-8) which previously showed heterogeneous or no uptake of indium-111-labelled R1507 IgG ((111)In-R1507), respectively. Mice were injected with (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 or (111)In-R1507 as a reference. Biodistribution and immuno-SPECT/computed tomography (CT) imaging studies were carried out 2, 4, 8 and 24 h post-injection (p.i.) for (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 and 24 h p.i. for (111)In-R1507. RESULTS: Biodistribution studies showed specific accumulation of (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 in EW-5 xenografts from t=2 h p.i. onwards (3.6 ± 0.2%ID/g at t = 24 h p.i.) and (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 immuno-SPECT showed almost homogeneous intratumoural distribution at t=24h p.i. Tumour-to-blood ratios of (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 were significantly higher than those of (111)In-R1507 at t=24 h p.i. (2.4 ± 0.4 versus 0.5 ± 0.1, respectively; p<0.05). More importantly, (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 also specifically accumulated in EW-8 tumours (3.7 ± 0.7%ID/g at t = 24 h p.i). In both EW-5 and EW-8 tumours, there was a good spatial correlation between IGF-1R expression and (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 tumour distribution. CONCLUSION: (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 fragments can successfully target IGF-1R in ES models and have superior tumour penetrating and IGF-1R-targeting properties as compared to (111)In-R1507. This suggests that anti-IGF-1R therapies in ES and other tumours may be improved by using smaller therapeutic compounds, although further in vivo studies addressing this topic are warranted.
Ramon AL, Bertrand JR, de Martimprey H, et al. siRNA associated with immunonanoparticles directed against cd99 antigen improves gene expression inhibition in vivo in Ewing's sarcoma. J Mol Recognit. 2013; 26(7):318-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma is a rare, mostly pediatric bone cancer that presents a chromosome abnormality called EWS/Fli-1, responsible for the development of the tumor. In vivo, tumor growth can be inhibited specifically by delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) associated with nanoparticles. The aim of the work was to design targeted nanoparticles against the cell membrane glycoprotein cd99, which is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma cells to improve siRNA delivery to tumor cells. Biotinylated poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were conceived as a platform to design targeted nanoparticles with biotinylated ligands and using the biotin-streptavidin coupling method. The targeted nanoparticles were validated in vivo for the targeted delivery of siRNA after systemic administration to mice bearing a tumor model of the Ewing's sarcoma. The expression of the gene responsible of Ewing's sarcoma was inhibited at 78% ± 6% by associating the siRNA with the cd99-targeted nanoparticles compared with an inhibition of only 41% ± 9% achieved with the nontargeted nanoparticles.
Tsutsumi S, Yasumoto Y, Manabe A, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of primary spinal extradural Ewing's sarcoma: case report and literature review. Clin Neuroradiol. 2013; 23(2):81-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Primary spinal extradural Ewing's sarcoma (PSEES) or primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is uncommon. The present study summarizes the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of PSEES. METHODS: Literature search from 1994 to 2012 with our representative case presentation. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients, 12 males and 9 females, aged 3 weeks to 44 years, were identified. The thoracic spine was most frequently affected, followed by the cervical, cervicothoracic, and thoracolumbar spine. Superior-inferior extension of lesions was three vertebral levels in 7, two in 7, five in 4, four in 1, one in 1 and unknown in 1. PSEESs appeared isointense in 9 cases, hypointense in 2, hyperintense in 1, and no description in 9 on T1-weighted imaging, while hyperintense in 6, hypointense in 3, heterogeneous in 1, and no description in 11 on T2-weighted imaging. Varying enhancement was noted in 13 cases (62 %), with no description of contrast study in the other 8 cases. Dumbbell-shaped configuration of PSEES was found in 5 cases, foraminal widening in 4, and erosions or scalloping of the adjacent vertebral bodies in 4. CONCLUSION: The MR imaging appearance of PSEESs is indistinguishable from other tumors. PSEES should be assumed as the differential diagnosis of spinal extradural tumors in pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients, and prompt surgical exploration should be performed.
Dylla L, Jedlicka P Growth-promoting role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing sarcoma. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e63032 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been identified as potent regulators of both normal development and the hallmarks of cancer. Targeting of microRNAs has been shown to have preclinical promise, and select miR-based therapies are now in clinical trials. Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically aggressive pediatric cancer with little change in clinical outcomes despite improved chemotherapeutic regimens. There is a substantial need for new therapies to improve Ewing Sarcoma outcomes and to prevent chemotherapy-related secondary sequelae. Most Ewing Sarcoma tumors are driven by the EWS/Fli-1 fusion oncoprotein, acting as a gain-of-function transcription factor causing dysregulation of a variety of targets, including microRNAs. Our previous studies, and those of others, have identified upregulation of miRs belonging to the related miR-17~92a, miR-106b~25, and miR-106a~363 clusters in Ewing Sarcoma. However, the functional consequences of this have not been characterized, nor has miR blockade been explored as an anti-cancer strategy in Ewing Sarcoma. To simulate a potential therapeutic approach, we examined the effects of blockade of these clusters, and their component miRs. Using colony formation as a read-out, we find that blockade of selected individual cluster component miRs, using specific inhibitors, has little or no effect. Combinatorial inhibition using miR "sponge" methodology, on the other hand, is inhibitory to colony formation, with blockade of whole clusters generally more effective than blockade of miR families. We show that a miR-blocking sponge directed against the poorly characterized miR-106a~363 cluster is a particularly potent inhibitor of clonogenic growth in a subset of Ewing Sarcoma cell lines. We further identify upregulation of miR-15a as a downstream mechanism contributing to the miR-106a~363 sponge growth-inhibitory effect. Taken together, our studies provide support for a pro-oncogenic role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing Sarcoma, and identify miR-106a~363 blockade, as well as miR-15a replacement, as possible strategies for inhibition of Ewing Sarcoma growth.
Wagner L, Turpin B, Nagarajan R, et al. Pilot study of vincristine, oral irinotecan, and temozolomide (VOIT regimen) combined with bevacizumab in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors or brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(9):1447-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The combination of vincristine, oral irinotecan, and temozolomide (VOIT regimen) has shown antitumor activity in a pediatric Phase I trial. To further potentiate synergy, we assessed the safety and feasibility of adding bevacizumab to VOIT for children and young adults with recurrent tumors. METHODS: Patients received vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2) on day 1), oral irinotecan (90 mg/m(2) on days 1-5), temozolomide (100-150 mg/m(2) on days 1-5), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg on day 1) in 3-week cycles, which were repeated for up to six cycles. Cefixime prophylaxis was used to reduce irinotecan-associated diarrhea. RESULTS: Thirteen patients received 36 total cycles. Six of the first 10 patients required dose reductions due to toxicity during the first cycle (n = 3) or subsequent cycles (n = 3), and these grade 3 side effects included prolonged nausea, dehydration, anorexia, neuropathy, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, as well as prolonged grade 4 neutropenia. After reducing daily temozolomide to 100 mg/m(2) , three additional patients tolerated therapy well without the need for dose reductions. Toxicities attributed to bevacizumab were limited to grade 1 epistaxis (1) and grade 2 proteinuria (1). Tumor responses were seen in both patients with Ewing sarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing temozolomide from 150 to 100 mg/m(2) /day improved tolerability, and treatment with this lower temozolomide dose was feasible and convenient as outpatient therapy. Although responses were seen in Ewing sarcoma, the benefit of adding bevacizumab remains unclear.
Lynn M, Wang Y, Slater J, et al. High-resolution genome-wide copy-number analyses identify localized copy-number alterations in Ewing sarcoma. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2013; 22(2):76-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma family tumors are aggressive sarcomas of childhood and adolescence with continuing poor outcomes. Decades of research on the characteristics of the often solitary-known oncogenic-genomic aberration in Ewing sarcoma family tumors, namely a TET-ETS fusion, have provided little advancement in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma or treatment thereof. In this study, the high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism technology was used to identify additional/secondary copy-number alterations (CNAs) in Ewing sarcoma that might elucidate the aggressive biology of this sarcoma. We compared paired constitutional and tumor DNA samples. Commonly known genomic alterations including gain of 1q and chromosome 8 were the most frequently detected changes in this study. In addition, deletions and loss of heterozygosity were identified in 10q, 11p, and 17p. Furthermore, tumor-specific CNAs were identified not only in genes previously known to be of interest, including CDKN2A, but also in genes not previously associated with Ewing sarcoma, including SOX6 and PTEN. Selected array-based findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical studies, or sequencing. The results highlight an unexpected level of cytogenetic complexity associated with several of the samples, 2 of which contained TP53 mutations. In summary, our high-resolution genome-wide copy-number data identify several novel CNAs associated with Ewing sarcoma, which are promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies in this aggressive sarcoma.