Ewing's sarcoma / Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNET) of bone is a type of cancer usually found in children and young adults. The peak incidence is between ages 10 and 20, it is less common in children under 5 or in adults over 30. Ewing's s can occur in any bone in the body; the most common sites are the pelvis, thigh, lower leg, upper arm, and rib. The tumour is composed of small round blue cells. Ewing's sarcoma can also arise in soft tissue (extra-skeletal); see Soft Tissue Sarcoma in this guide.
NHS Choices NHS Choices information is quality assured by experts and content is reviewed at least every 2 years. Further info. Overview of promary bone cancers in general, though does include some specific information about Osteosarcoma, Ewing's Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Spindle cell sarcoma. OsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma
Information is reviewed by a panel of scientific and clinical experts, patients, parents/ carers, Further info. BCRT became a registered the charity in 2006 and raises funds for research into primary bone cancer, and provides information and support for patients and their families. The Website includes information booklets, personal stories and a section for teenagers. Bone CancersOsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma
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Mayo Clinic Dr. Carola Arndt discuuses Ewing's sarcoma and explains the evaluation and diagnosis as well as the general treatment plan. Dr. Arndt explains the importance of getting treatment by a multidisciplinary team.
Liddy Shriver Sarcoma Initiative A detailed article by medical experts including a description of Ewing's sarcoma, diagnosis and treatment. The site also includes some real patient stories and an overview of current research.
Founded in 2003 the initiative aims improve the quality of life for people dealing with sarcomas around the world, raising awareness and research funds. It has an international panel of medical experts. OsteosarcomaSoft Tissue SarcomasOsteosarcoma
Sarcoma, A glimpse at a rare cancer
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center expert David Loeb discusses rare and difficult cancer. Includes Ben's story and his diagnosis and treatment for Ewing's Sarcoma.
PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Ewing's Sarcoma MeSH term: Sarcoma, Ewing US National Library of Medicine PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.
A website by orthopedic surgeon Dr. Henry DeGroot, with contributions from numerous clinical colleagues. It includes numerous case studies, including radiology and pathology images, and information covering a comprehensive range of bone tumours. Bone CancersOsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common type of primary bone malignancy, and retains a high propensity to metastasize; the prognosis of patients with disseminated disease is very poor, with an event-free survival rate of <20%. Current multimodality treatment for ES consists of combined chemotherapy before and concurrent with surgery and local radiotherapy for the involved bone. Cisplatin is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of bone tumors in children, but is not currently used in ES. We describe a child with multifocal ES, treated with a phase II trial including a single-drug window therapy, which displayed a dramatic response to 2 courses of cisplatin and had a favorable outcome.
De Visschere P, De Potter A, Claus F, et al. PNET/Ewing's sarcoma of the kidney: imaging findings in two cases. JBR-BTR. 2013 Mar-Apr; 96(2):75-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CT-imaging findings of primary renal PNET/Ewing's sarcoma in two patients were retrospectively assessed. A large renal mass with heterogenous contrast enhancement and necrotic and hemorrhagic areas were the predominant characteristics. In adolescents or young adults presenting with a large renal mass, PNET/Ewing's sarcoma may be included in the differential diagnosis.
Risi E, Iacovelli R, Altavilla A, et al. Clinical and pathological features of primary neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the kidney. Urology. 2013; 82(2):382-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To collect and analyze clinical and pathological features of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing sarcoma (EWS), a rare tumor occurring most commonly in bone and soft tissues of young people, which rarely occurs as a primary renal neoplasm and exhibits highly aggressive biological behavior. METHODS: All cases of PNET/EWS published from 1975 to February 2012 were collected. When available, clinical and pathological data were extracted for each case. Survivals were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A total of 116 cases were found. All patients had clinical symptoms as first presentation of disease such as pain (54%), hematuria (29%), and bulky renal mass (28%). Sixty-six percent of patients had stage IV disease at diagnosis. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was 5.0 months (95% CI 2.4-7.6). The probability to be alive at 18 months was 60% and 85% for patients with metastatic disease (M1) or not (M0) at diagnosis, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 24 months (95% CI 4.5-15.1) in patients with M1 disease, whereas it was not reached in patients with M0 disease (P <.001). In patients with M0 disease, 50% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the 12-month OS was 93% compared to 75% of untreated patients (P = .092). In patients with M1 disease who underwent treatment, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 22.0 months (95% CI 17.9-26.1) with a clinical benefit in 74% of cases. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PNET/EWS is a rare aggressive tumor affecting principally young people, with a poor prognosis for patients with M1 disease; chemotherapy is an effective strategy in M1 disease and probably also in M0 disease.
Roundhill E, Burchill S Membrane expression of MRP-1, but not MRP-1 splicing or Pgp expression, predicts survival in patients with ESFT. Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(1):195-206 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/07/2014 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFTs) may respond to chemotherapy, although many patients experience subsequent disease recurrence and relapse. The survival of ESFT cells following chemotherapy has been attributed to the development of resistant disease, possibly through the expression of ABC transporter proteins. METHODS: MRP-1 and Pgp mRNA and protein expression in primary ESFTs was determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and alternative splicing of MRP-1 by RT-PCR. RESULTS: We observed MRP-1 protein expression in 92% (43 out of 47) of primary ESFTs, and cell membrane MRP-1 was highly predictive of both overall survival (P<0.0001) and event-free survival (P<0.0001). Alternative splicing of MRP-1 was detected in primary ESFTs, although the pattern of splicing variants was not predictive of patient outcome, with the exception of loss of exon 9 in six patients, which predicted relapse (P=0.041). Pgp protein was detected in 6% (38 out of 44) of primary ESFTs and was not associated with patient survival. CONCLUSION: For the first time we have established that cell membrane expression of MRP-1 or loss of exon 9 is predictive of outcome but not the number of splicing events or expression of Pgp, and both may be valuable factors for the stratification of patients for more intensive therapy.
Raciborska A, Bilska K, Drabko K, et al. Vincristine, irinotecan, and temozolomide in patients with relapsed and refractory Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(10):1621-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic, progressive or recurrent Ewing sarcoma (ES) have a dismal outcome. The combination of irinotecan and temozolomide has been proposed as an effective salvage regimen for some pediatric malignancies. Thus, we sought to evaluate this combination with vincristine for patients with relapsed and refractory ES. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with relapsed or refractory ES were treated with the combination of vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1), irinotecan (50 mg/m(2) /day i.v. days 1-5) and temozolomide (125 mg/m(2) /day p.o. days 1-5) (VIT) during the period 2008-2012. All toxicities were documented. RESULTS: A total of 91 cycles (median 4.1 cycles/patient) were administered. A complete response (CR) was achieved in five patients, partial response (PR) in seven patients, stable disease (SD) in three patients, and progression disease (PD) in seven patients, with an overall response rate of 68.1%. Median time to progression was 3.0 months (range 1.1-37.1 months). Five patients (22.7%) are alive with no evidence of disease with a median follow-up of 10.3 months (range 2.1-46.5); four of them received consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant after responding to VIT. Outcome was better for patients with relapsed ES compared with patients who progressed to initial therapy (estimated 2 year overall survival 36.4% vs. 0%, respectively). There were no significant toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: The shorter, 5-day VIT regimen is an active and well-tolerated regimen in refractory ES. This combination deserves further investigation in the upfront management of patients with metastatic disease.
Yang JC, Wexler LH, Meyers PA, et al. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with dose-painting for pediatric sarcomas with pulmonary metastases. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(10):1616-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We examined patterns of failure in pediatric patients with thoracic sarcoma and pulmonary metastases treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy with dose-painting (DP-IMRT). PROCEDURE: Eleven pediatric patients, five with Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) and six with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), with primary thoracic tumors and pulmonary metastases underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Eight patients also underwent surgery. Median time to RT was 21 (15-31) weeks. Nine patients received 45-50.4-Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions to the primary tumor (n = 3) or post-operative tumor bed (n = 6). Two patients ≤4 years received 12 Gy intraoperative radiation therapy and 30.6-36 Gy IMRT postoperatively to the tumor bed. All patients received 14-16.8 Gy in 0.54-0.88 Gy fractions to the whole lungs (n = 6) or hemithorax (n = 5) using dose-painting technique. A representative case was re-planned with IMRT plus standard AP/PA whole lung irradiation (WLI) for dosimetric comparison. RESULTS: With 27-month median follow-up, 3-year pulmonary relapse-free survival in all patients was 61%: 80% for RMS and 40% for ESFT. Five patients (4 ESFT and 1 RMS) experienced pulmonary relapse at median 16 (9-41) months. There were no local failures. Our representative case demonstrated more homogeneous target volume coverage of the whole lungs and decreased mean dose to esophagus (15%), heart (31%), spinal cord (15%), and liver (19%) with DP-IMRT. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of children with a primary thoracic tumor and pulmonary metastases poses a significant challenge. DP-IMRT is one solution to this technical problem. Initial data from this small series suggest DP-IMRT is feasible and produces superior sparing of critical normal tissues.
Zhang H, Maric I, DiPrima MJ, et al. Fibrocytes represent a novel MDSC subset circulating in patients with metastatic cancer. Blood. 2013; 122(7):1105-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
Fibrocytes are hematopoietic stem cell-derived fibroblast precursors that are implicated in chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expand in cancer-bearing hosts and contribute to tumor immune evasion. They are typically described as CD11b⁺HLA-DR⁻ in humans. We report abnormal expansions of CD11b⁺HLA-DR⁺ myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear fractions of subjects with metastatic pediatric sarcomas. Like classical fibrocytes, they display cell surface α smooth muscle actin, collagen I/V, and mediate angiogenesis. However, classical fibrocytes serve as antigen presenters and augment immune reactivity, whereas fibrocytes from cancer subjects suppressed anti-CD3-mediated T-cell proliferation, primarily via indoleamine oxidase (IDO). The degree of fibrocyte expansion observed in individual subjects directly correlated with the frequency of circulating GATA3⁺CD4⁺ cells (R = 0.80) and monocytes from healthy donors cultured with IL-4 differentiated into fibrocytes with the same phenotypic profile and immunosuppressive properties as those observed in patients with cancer. We thus describe a novel subset of cancer-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which bear the phenotypic and functional hallmarks of fibrocytes but mediate immune suppression. These cells are likely expanded in response to Th2 immune deviation and may contribute to tumor progression via both immune evasion and angiogenesis.
Wygoda A, Rutkowski T, Ponikiewska D, et al. Ewing's sarcoma of the larynx. Effective treatment with organ preservation. Strahlenther Onkol. 2013; 189(7):586-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma arising in the head and neck region is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm. We describe the unusual case of a tumor originating in the larynx of a 68-year-old male with hoarseness and occasional aphonia. We report successful treatment with sequential chemo- and radiotherapy. Complete regression and larynx preservation with voice function recovery was achieved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this type of tumor in the larynx with cartilage invasion that documents the effectiveness of radiotherapy as an alternative to surgical management. At present, after 30 months of follow-up, the patient is free of tumor relapse and in very good condition.
Warren M, Weindel M, Ringrose J, et al. Integrated multimodal genetic testing of Ewing sarcoma--a single-institution experience. Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(10):2010-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignant small round cell tumor that arises in bone or soft tissue of adolescents and young adults. A characteristic molecular finding in ES is EWSR1 gene fusion with ETS (erythroblast transformation-specific) family genes including FLI1 (~90%) and ERG (>5%). Here we report our experience using integrated clinicopathologic, cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of 32 pediatric patients with ES diagnosed in a single institution between 2005 and 2011. Diagnostic EWSR1 rearrangements were detected in 30 (93.8%) of 32 patients. Cytogenetics detected t(11;22) (n = 14) and t(21;22) (n = 1) in 15 (46.9%) patients. FISH detected EWSR1 rearrangements in 27 (96.4%) of 28 patients tested. RT-PCR was positive in 27 (84.4%) of 32 patients, including 24 EWSR1-FLI1 and 3 EWSR1-ERG. RT-PCR defined breakpoints and fusion partners in 7 cases with EWSR1 rearrangements detected by FISH. Sanger sequencing further delineated breakpoints in 21 (77.8%) of 27 RT-PCR positive cases. In summary, conventional cytogenetic analysis provided a global view but had a lower detection rate and longer turnaround time than other methods. FISH is a rapid method and theoretically can detect all EWSR1 rearrangements, but it cannot identify all partners and is not completely specific for ES. RT-PCR and sequencing are more sensitive and useful in identifying fusion partners and refining breakpoints; however, these methods can be compromised by poor RNA preservation and primer design. In conclusion, an integrated approach that uses all methods capable of detecting EWSR1 rearrangements has value in the workup of suspected cases of ES.
Mendoza-Naranjo A, El-Naggar A, Wai DH, et al. ERBB4 confers metastatic capacity in Ewing sarcoma. EMBO Mol Med. 2013; 5(7):1019-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
Metastatic spread is the single-most powerful predictor of poor outcome in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Therefore targeting pathways that drive metastasis has tremendous potential to reduce the burden of disease in ES. We previously showed that activation of the ERBB4 tyrosine kinase suppresses anoikis, or detachment-induced cell death, and induces chemoresistance in ES cell lines in vitro. We now show that ERBB4 is transcriptionally overexpressed in ES cell lines derived from chemoresistant or metastatic ES tumours. ERBB4 activates the PI3K-Akt cascade and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and both pathways contribute to ERBB4-mediated activation of the Rac1 GTPase in vitro and in vivo. ERBB4 augments tumour invasion and metastasis in vivo, and these effects are blocked by ERBB4 knockdown. ERBB4 expression correlates significantly with reduced disease-free survival, and increased expression is observed in metastatic compared to primary patient-matched ES biopsies. Our findings identify a novel ERBB4-PI3K-Akt-FAK-Rac1 pathway associated with aggressive disease in ES. These results predict that therapeutic targeting of ERBB4, alone or in combination with cytotoxic agents, may suppress the metastatic phenotype in ES.
Machado I, López Guerrero JA, Navarro S, et al. Galectin-1 (GAL-1) expression is a useful tool to differentiate between small cell osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Virchows Arch. 2013; 462(6):665-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Galectin-1 (GAL-1) is frequently expressed in osteosarcomas. Although a valuable diagnostic marker to differentiate between chondroblastic osteosarcomas and conventional chondrosarcomas, it has not been tested in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs). We studied by immunohistochemistry GAL-1 expression in 43 osteosarcomas, 23 chondrosarcomas, and 217 genetically confirmed ESFTs using a tissue microarray. GAL-1 was expressed in 78 % of osteosarcomas, 33 % of chondrosarcomas, and 8 % of ESFTs. Osteoblastic and small cell osteosarcoma subtypes expressed GAL-1 in a high percentage of cells when compared with the other histological subtypes, whereas two chondroblastic osteosarcomas were negative. GAL-1 was mainly expressed in high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade III). ESFTs were rarely positive (8 %), and this was not related to the histological subtype nor to the clinical outcome. Although GAL-1 expression distinguishes chondroblastic osteosarcomas from conventional chondrosarcomas and is usually negative in conventional chondrosarcomas, the final diagnosis needs to incorporate histopathology since some chondroblastic osteosarcomas fail to express GAL-1, while high-grade chondrosarcomas are GAL-1 positive. Since GAL-1 is frequently expressed in osteogenic tumors, including small cell osteosarcoma, but rarely positive in ESFTs, its expression seems a valuable tool for distinguishing between these lesions. GAL-1 immunoexpression is not indicative of prognosis in ESFT.
Fleuren ED, Versleijen-Jonkers YM, Heskamp S, et al. The strength of small: improved targeting of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) with F(ab')₂-R1507 fragments in Ewing sarcomas. Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(13):2851-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate whether F(ab')₂-fragments of the monoclonal Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) antibody R1507 (F(ab')₂-R1507) can successfully target IGF-1R in Ewing sarcomas (ES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously implanted with IGF-1R-expressing human ES xenografts (EW-5 and EW-8) which previously showed heterogeneous or no uptake of indium-111-labelled R1507 IgG ((111)In-R1507), respectively. Mice were injected with (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 or (111)In-R1507 as a reference. Biodistribution and immuno-SPECT/computed tomography (CT) imaging studies were carried out 2, 4, 8 and 24 h post-injection (p.i.) for (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 and 24 h p.i. for (111)In-R1507. RESULTS: Biodistribution studies showed specific accumulation of (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 in EW-5 xenografts from t=2 h p.i. onwards (3.6 ± 0.2%ID/g at t = 24 h p.i.) and (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 immuno-SPECT showed almost homogeneous intratumoural distribution at t=24h p.i. Tumour-to-blood ratios of (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 were significantly higher than those of (111)In-R1507 at t=24 h p.i. (2.4 ± 0.4 versus 0.5 ± 0.1, respectively; p<0.05). More importantly, (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 also specifically accumulated in EW-8 tumours (3.7 ± 0.7%ID/g at t = 24 h p.i). In both EW-5 and EW-8 tumours, there was a good spatial correlation between IGF-1R expression and (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 tumour distribution. CONCLUSION: (111)In-F(ab')₂-R1507 fragments can successfully target IGF-1R in ES models and have superior tumour penetrating and IGF-1R-targeting properties as compared to (111)In-R1507. This suggests that anti-IGF-1R therapies in ES and other tumours may be improved by using smaller therapeutic compounds, although further in vivo studies addressing this topic are warranted.
Ramon AL, Bertrand JR, de Martimprey H, et al. siRNA associated with immunonanoparticles directed against cd99 antigen improves gene expression inhibition in vivo in Ewing's sarcoma. J Mol Recognit. 2013; 26(7):318-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma is a rare, mostly pediatric bone cancer that presents a chromosome abnormality called EWS/Fli-1, responsible for the development of the tumor. In vivo, tumor growth can be inhibited specifically by delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) associated with nanoparticles. The aim of the work was to design targeted nanoparticles against the cell membrane glycoprotein cd99, which is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma cells to improve siRNA delivery to tumor cells. Biotinylated poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were conceived as a platform to design targeted nanoparticles with biotinylated ligands and using the biotin-streptavidin coupling method. The targeted nanoparticles were validated in vivo for the targeted delivery of siRNA after systemic administration to mice bearing a tumor model of the Ewing's sarcoma. The expression of the gene responsible of Ewing's sarcoma was inhibited at 78% ± 6% by associating the siRNA with the cd99-targeted nanoparticles compared with an inhibition of only 41% ± 9% achieved with the nontargeted nanoparticles.
Dylla L, Jedlicka P Growth-promoting role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing sarcoma. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e63032 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been identified as potent regulators of both normal development and the hallmarks of cancer. Targeting of microRNAs has been shown to have preclinical promise, and select miR-based therapies are now in clinical trials. Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically aggressive pediatric cancer with little change in clinical outcomes despite improved chemotherapeutic regimens. There is a substantial need for new therapies to improve Ewing Sarcoma outcomes and to prevent chemotherapy-related secondary sequelae. Most Ewing Sarcoma tumors are driven by the EWS/Fli-1 fusion oncoprotein, acting as a gain-of-function transcription factor causing dysregulation of a variety of targets, including microRNAs. Our previous studies, and those of others, have identified upregulation of miRs belonging to the related miR-17~92a, miR-106b~25, and miR-106a~363 clusters in Ewing Sarcoma. However, the functional consequences of this have not been characterized, nor has miR blockade been explored as an anti-cancer strategy in Ewing Sarcoma. To simulate a potential therapeutic approach, we examined the effects of blockade of these clusters, and their component miRs. Using colony formation as a read-out, we find that blockade of selected individual cluster component miRs, using specific inhibitors, has little or no effect. Combinatorial inhibition using miR "sponge" methodology, on the other hand, is inhibitory to colony formation, with blockade of whole clusters generally more effective than blockade of miR families. We show that a miR-blocking sponge directed against the poorly characterized miR-106a~363 cluster is a particularly potent inhibitor of clonogenic growth in a subset of Ewing Sarcoma cell lines. We further identify upregulation of miR-15a as a downstream mechanism contributing to the miR-106a~363 sponge growth-inhibitory effect. Taken together, our studies provide support for a pro-oncogenic role of the miR-106a~363 cluster in Ewing Sarcoma, and identify miR-106a~363 blockade, as well as miR-15a replacement, as possible strategies for inhibition of Ewing Sarcoma growth.
Wagner L, Turpin B, Nagarajan R, et al. Pilot study of vincristine, oral irinotecan, and temozolomide (VOIT regimen) combined with bevacizumab in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors or brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(9):1447-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The combination of vincristine, oral irinotecan, and temozolomide (VOIT regimen) has shown antitumor activity in a pediatric Phase I trial. To further potentiate synergy, we assessed the safety and feasibility of adding bevacizumab to VOIT for children and young adults with recurrent tumors. METHODS: Patients received vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2) on day 1), oral irinotecan (90 mg/m(2) on days 1-5), temozolomide (100-150 mg/m(2) on days 1-5), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg on day 1) in 3-week cycles, which were repeated for up to six cycles. Cefixime prophylaxis was used to reduce irinotecan-associated diarrhea. RESULTS: Thirteen patients received 36 total cycles. Six of the first 10 patients required dose reductions due to toxicity during the first cycle (n = 3) or subsequent cycles (n = 3), and these grade 3 side effects included prolonged nausea, dehydration, anorexia, neuropathy, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, as well as prolonged grade 4 neutropenia. After reducing daily temozolomide to 100 mg/m(2) , three additional patients tolerated therapy well without the need for dose reductions. Toxicities attributed to bevacizumab were limited to grade 1 epistaxis (1) and grade 2 proteinuria (1). Tumor responses were seen in both patients with Ewing sarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing temozolomide from 150 to 100 mg/m(2) /day improved tolerability, and treatment with this lower temozolomide dose was feasible and convenient as outpatient therapy. Although responses were seen in Ewing sarcoma, the benefit of adding bevacizumab remains unclear.
Pahl JH, Ruslan SE, Kwappenberg KM, et al. Antibody-dependent cell lysis by NK cells is preserved after sarcoma-induced inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013; 62(7):1235-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells are susceptible to IL15-induced or antibody-mediated cytolytic activity of NK cells in short-term cytotoxicity assays. When encountering the tumor environment in vivo, NK cells may be in contact with tumor cells for a prolonged time period. We explored whether a prolonged interaction with sarcoma cells can modulate the activation and cytotoxic activity of NK cells. The 40 h coculture of NK cells with sarcoma cells reversibly interfered with the IL15-induced expression of NKG2D, DNAM-1 and NKp30 and inhibited the cytolytic activity of NK cells. The inhibitory effects on receptor expression required physical contact between NK cells and sarcoma cells and were independent of TGF-β. Five days pre-incubation of NK cells with IL15 prevented the down-regulation of NKG2D and cytolytic activity in subsequent cocultures with sarcoma cells. NK cell FcγRIIIa/CD16 receptor expression and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity were not affected after the coculture. Inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity was directly linked to the down-regulation of the respective NK cell-activating receptors. Our data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of sarcoma cells on the cytolytic activity of NK cells do not affect the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and can be prevented by pre-activation of NK cells with IL15. Thus, the combination of cytokine-activated NK cells and monoclonal antibody therapy may be required to improve tumor targeting and NK cell functionality in the tumor environment.
Ganjoo KN, Patel S The treatment outcome for adult patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Curr Oncol Rep. 2013; 15(4):372-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy in children, but is extremely rare in adults. The outcome of patients with localized disease has improved over the past decades due to better combination chemotherapies, and better methods of local control. Unfortunately, patients with metastatic disease have a very poor outcome with current antineoplastic therapies. In this article, we will review the primary treatment for adult patients with Ewing's sarcoma, both for localized and metastatic disease. The prognostic factors in adult patients with EWS will also be reviewed.
Brown HF, Unger C, Whitehouse A Potential of herpesvirus saimiri-based vectors to reprogram a somatic Ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell line. J Virol. 2013; 87(12):7127-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) infects a range of human cell types with high efficiency. Upon infection, the viral genome can persist as high-copy-number, circular, nonintegrated episomes that segregate to progeny cells upon division. This allows HVS-based vectors to stably transduce a dividing cell population and provide sustained transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the HVS episome is able to persist and provide prolonged transgene expression during in vitro differentiation of mouse and human hemopoietic progenitor cells. Together, these properties are advantageous for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, whereby stem cell-like cells are generated from adult somatic cells by exogenous expression of specific reprogramming factors. Here we assess the potential of HVS-based vectors for the generation of induced pluripotent cancer stem-like cells (iPCs). We demonstrate that HVS-based exogenous delivery of Oct4, Nanog, and Lin28 can reprogram the Ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell line A673 to produce stem cell-like colonies that can grow under feeder-free stem cell culture conditions. Further analysis of the HVS-derived putative iPCs showed some degree of reprogramming into a stem cell-like state. Specifically, the putative iPCs had a number of embryonic stem cell characteristics, staining positive for alkaline phosphatase and SSEA4, in addition to expressing elevated levels of pluripotent marker genes involved in proliferation and self-renewal. However, differentiation trials suggest that although the HVS-derived putative iPCs are capable of differentiation toward the ectodermal lineage, they do not exhibit pluripotency. Therefore, they are hereby termed induced multipotent cancer cells.
Qureshi SS, Kembhavi S, Vora T, et al. Prognostic factors in primary nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma of the rib in children and young adults. J Pediatr Surg. 2013; 48(4):764-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The rarity of Ewing sarcoma of rib has resulted in paucity of data, particularly on the prognostic factors and pattern of relapses. We analyzed the recurrences in patients with primary nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma of the rib and examined prognostic factors of poor outcome. METHODS: From January 2004 to January 2011, 37 patients were treated. After induction chemotherapy, complete (from costal cartilage to vertebra) or partial excision of involved rib with or without adjacent ribs was performed. Postoperative radiotherapy was administered for positive margins, poor response to chemotherapy, and large primary tumors with significant soft tissue component at presentation. RESULTS: Disease relapsed in 16 patients: at the local site (n = 5), both local and distant (n = 2), and distant site only (n = 9). The projected 5-year cause-specific, relapse-free survival and local control were 50%, 44%, and 72%. Poor response to chemotherapy (>5% residual tumor) and resection of adjacent lung parenchyma (a surrogate for tumor extension) were adverse prognostic factors for relapse-free survival in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Relapses occurred more often at distant sites and had a poor outcome. In this study, poor histologic response to chemotherapy (P = .04) and the infiltration of adjacent lung parenchyma (P = .01) are adverse prognostic factors.
Avnet S, Di Pompo G, Lemma S, et al. V-ATPase is a candidate therapeutic target for Ewing sarcoma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1832(8):1105-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Suppression of oxidative phosphorylation combined with enhanced aerobic glycolysis and the resulting increased generation of protons are common features of several types of cancer. An efficient mechanism to escape cell death resulting from intracellular acidification is proton pump activation. In Ewing sarcoma (ES), although the tumor-associated chimeric gene EWS-FLI1 is known to induce the accumulation of hypoxia-induced transcription factor HIF-1α, derangements in metabolic pathways have been neglected so far as candidate pathogenetic mechanisms. In this paper, we observed that ES cells simultaneously activate mitochondrial respiration and high levels of glycolysis. Moreover, although the most effective detoxification mechanism of proton intracellular storage is lysosomal compartmentalization, ES cells show a poorly represented lysosomal compartment, but a high sensitivity to the anti-lysosomal agent bafilomycin A1, targeting the V-ATPase proton pump. We therefore investigated the role of V-ATPase in the acidification activity of ES cells. ES cells with the highest GAPDH and V-ATPase expression also showed the highest acidification rate. Moreover, the localization of V-ATPase was both on the vacuolar and the plasma membrane of all ES cell lines. The acidic extracellular pH that we reproduced in vitro promoted high invasion ability and clonogenic efficiency. Finally, targeting V-ATPase with siRNA and omeprazole treatments, we obtained a significant selective reduction of tumor cell number. In summary, glycolytic activity and activation of V-ATPase are crucial mechanisms of survival of ES cells and can be considered as promising selective targets for the treatment of this tumor.
Fong EL, Lamhamedi-Cherradi SE, Burdett E, et al. Modeling Ewing sarcoma tumors in vitro with 3D scaffolds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(16):6500-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
The pronounced biological influence of the tumor microenvironment on cancer progression and metastasis has gained increased recognition over the past decade, yet most preclinical antineoplastic drug testing is still reliant on conventional 2D cell culture systems. Although monolayer cultures recapitulate some of the phenotypic traits observed clinically, they are limited in their ability to model the full range of microenvironmental cues, such as ones elicited by 3D cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. To address these shortcomings, we established an ex vivo 3D Ewing sarcoma model that closely mimics the morphology, growth kinetics, and protein expression profile of human tumors. We observed that Ewing sarcoma cells cultured in porous 3D electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds not only were more resistant to traditional cytotoxic drugs than were cells in 2D monolayer culture but also exhibited remarkable differences in the expression pattern of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. This 3D model of the bone microenvironment may have broad applicability for mechanistic studies of bone sarcomas and exhibits the potential to augment preclinical evaluation of antineoplastic drug candidates for these malignancies.
Lim SH, Lee JY, Lee JY, et al. Unusual presentation of Ewing sarcoma in the adrenal gland: a secondary malignancy from a survivor of Burkitt lymphoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013; 43(6):676-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The occurrence of Ewing sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is an extremely rare event in long-term cancer survivors. In addition, the occurrence of Ewing sarcoma in the adrenal gland is highly unusual. In this case report, we treated a 20-year-old male patient with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, dexamethasone, and methotrexate and cytarabine chemotherapy following a diagnosis of Stage IV Burkitt lymphoma. Following complete remission, he had been maintained for 2 years without evidence of disease. However, a regular follow-up computed tomography scan found a left adrenal gland mass and a biopsy revealed positive membrane-localized mic-2 expression (CD99) and the presence of the translocation of the EWSR1 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Ewing sarcoma occurring in the adrenal gland of a patient who was treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, dexamethasone/methotrexate and cytarabine chemotherapy for Burkitt lymphoma.
Kikuchi Y, Kishimoto T, Ota S, et al. Adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor of soft tissue associated with the vagus nerve: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(5):772-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor (EFT) is a rare subset of EFTs showing mixed features of Ewing sarcoma and adamantinoma of the long bones. All currently reported cases of the adamantinoma-like type have been associated with bone. Recently, a unique type of EFT was reported showing complex epithelial differentiation associated with the vagus nerve. Here we describe another unique type of EFT arising in the soft tissue of the neck associated with the vagus nerve. An 11-year-old girl presented to our hospital with a neck tumor on her right side. Surgical resection was performed, and histopathologic examination demonstrated a high-grade malignant neoplasm. The tumor was composed of sheets of small round proliferating cells, basaloid tumor nests with marked squamous differentiation, biphasic growth pattern with epithelioid tumor nests, and spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed diffuse expression of CD99 and FLI-1. In addition, small round cells and basaloid/squamoid components were immunoreactive for AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, high-molecular weight keratin, p63, and p40 (ΔNp63). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing analysis revealed that the tumor harbored a t(11;22) translocation, involving EWSR1 and FLI-1, which are characteristic of EFTs. According to these findings, our case has characteristics of both a subset of adamantinoma-like EFT and EFT with complex epithelial differentiation. We suggest that EFT with complex epithelial differentiation is in a common spectrum with the adamantinoma-like type and that adamantinoma-like EFTs can arise in soft tissue, leading to difficulty in differential diagnosis with malignant epithelial tumors.
Crompton BD, Carlton AL, Thorner AR, et al. High-throughput tyrosine kinase activity profiling identifies FAK as a candidate therapeutic target in Ewing sarcoma. Cancer Res. 2013; 73(9):2873-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Limited progress has been made in the treatment of advanced-stage pediatric solid tumors despite the accelerated pace of cancer discovery over the last decade. Tyrosine kinase inhibition is one tractable therapeutic modality for treating human malignancy. However, little is known about the kinases critical to the development or maintenance of many pediatric solid tumors such as Ewing sarcoma. Using a fluorescent, bead-based technology to profile activated tyrosine kinases, we identified focal adhesion kinase (FAK, PTK2) as a candidate target in Ewing sarcoma. FAK is a tyrosine kinase critical for cellular adhesion, growth, and survival. As such, it is a compelling target for cancer-based therapy. In this study, we have shown that FAK is highly phosphorylated in primary Ewing sarcoma tumor samples and that downregulation of FAK by short hairpin RNA and treatment with a FAK-selective kinase inhibitor, PF-562271, impaired growth and colony formation in Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Moreover, treatment of Ewing sarcoma cell lines with PF-562271 induced apoptosis and led to downregulation of AKT/mTOR and CAS activity. Finally, we showed that small-molecule inhibition of FAK attenuated Ewing sarcoma tumor growth in vivo. With FAK inhibitors currently in early-phase clinical trials for adult malignancies, these findings may bear immediate relevance to patients with Ewing sarcoma.
Wiles ET, Lui-Sargent B, Bell R, Lessnick SL BCL11B is up-regulated by EWS/FLI and contributes to the transformed phenotype in Ewing sarcoma. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e59369 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/08/2014 Related Publications
The EWS/FLI translocation product is the causative oncogene in Ewing sarcoma and acts as an aberrant transcription factor. EWS/FLI dysregulates gene expression during tumorigenesis by abnormally activating or repressing genes. The expression levels of thousands of genes are affected in Ewing sarcoma, however, it is unknown which of these genes contribute to the transformed phenotype. Here we characterize BCL11B as an up-regulated EWS/FLI target that is necessary for the maintenance of transformation in patient derived Ewing sarcoma cells lines. BCL11B, a zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a transcriptional repressor in Ewing's sarcoma and contributes to the EWS/FLI repressed gene signature. BCL11B repressive activity is mediated by the NuRD co-repressor complex. We further demonstrate that re-expression of SPRY1, a repressed target of BCL11B, limits the transformation capacity of Ewing sarcoma cells. These data define a new pathway downstream of EWS/FLI required for oncogenic maintenance in Ewing sarcoma.
Miller IV, Raposo G, Welsch U, et al. First identification of Ewing's sarcoma-derived extracellular vesicles and exploration of their biological and potential diagnostic implications. Biol Cell. 2013; 105(7):289-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Exosomes are small RNA- and protein-containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are thought to mediate hetero- and homotypic intercellular communication between normal and malignant cells.Tumour-derived exosomes are believed to promote re-programming of the tumour-associated stroma to favour tumour growth and metastasis. Currently, exosomes have been intensively studied in carcinomas. However, little is known about their existence and possible role in sarcomas. RESULTS: Here, we report on the identification of vesicles with exosomal features derived from Ewing's sarcoma(ES), the second most common soft-tissue or bone cancer in children and adolescents. ES cell line-derived EV shave been isolated by ultracentrifugation and analysed by flow-cytometric assessment of the exosome-associated proteins CD63 and CD81 as well as by electron microscopy. They proved to contain ES-specific transcripts including EWS-FLI1, which were suitable for the sensitive detection of ES cell line-derived exosomes by qRT-PCRin a pre-clinical model for patient plasma. Microarray analysis of ES cell line-derived exosomes revealed that they share a common transcriptional signature potentially involved in G-protein-coupled signalling, neurotransmitter signalling and stemness. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results imply that ES-derived exosomes could eventually serve as biomarkers for minimal residual disease diagnostics in peripheral blood and prompt further investigation of their potential biological role in modification of the ES-associated microenvironment
Nestheide S, Bridge JA, Barnes M, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of epigenetic modification reveals targets of aberrant promoter methylation in Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(9):1437-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (ES), a highly aggressive tumor of children and young adults, is characterized most commonly by an 11;22 chromosomal translocation that fuses EWSR1 located at 22q12 with FLI1, coding for a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. Although genetic changes in ES have been extensively researched, our understanding of the role of epigenetic modifications in this neoplasm is limited. PROCEDURE: In an effort to improve our knowledge in the role of epigenetic changes in ES we evaluated the in vitro antineoplastic effect of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and identified epigenetically silenced genes by pharmacologic unmasking of DNA methylation coupled with genome-wide expression profiling. RESULTS: Comparisons between untreated and 5-Aza-dC treated ES cell lines (n = 5) identified 208 probe sets with at least twofold difference in expression (P ≤ 0.05). The 208 probe sets represented 145 upregulated and 31 down-regulated genes. Of the 145 genes upregulated after 5-Aza-dC treatment, four: were further characterized. ACRC, CLU, MEST, and NNAT were found to be hypermethylated and transcriptionally down-regulated in ES cell lines. Further studies revealed that ACRC, CLU, MEST, and NNAT were often hypermethylated in primary ES tumors. Transfection-mediated reexpression of ACRC, CLU, MEST, and NNAT in ES cell lines resulted in decreased growth in culture. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated epigenetically modified genes in ES cell lines and primary tumors and suggested that epigenetic dysregulation may contribute to disease pathogenesis in ES.
Kebudi R, Cakir FB, Gorgun O, et al. A modified protocol with vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide for recurrent/progressive ewing sarcoma family tumors. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013; 30(3):170-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Topotecan has recently been used in the treatment of pediatric cancer. We evaluated our experience with the modified combination of vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide (VTC) given in 3 days, in children with recurrent Ewing sarcoma. METHOD: Children received vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2)/1st day), cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)/day × 2 days) + mesna, and topotecan (1 mg/m(2)/day × 3 days) every 21 days. RESULT: A total of 118 courses of VTC were given to 13 patients. One patient received VTC both at first and at second relapse. Thus, 14 relapse episodes in 13 patients were evaluated. After three courses of VTC chemotherapy (CT), two achieved complete response (CR), five achieved partial response, thus an objective response was attained in 7/14 (50%) episodes. Two patients had stable disease and two patients progressed. In three episodes, CR was achieved by surgery before CT. One of them had a second relapse and attained CR with VTC. Median time from diagnosis to relapse was 23 months (5-45 months). Site of relapse was local in four patients, and metastatic in 10 episodes of nine patients. Seven patients are alive, three with no evidence of disease and four alive with disease; six have died of disease. Local treatment was used in 11 episodes. The toxicity of the VTC combination was limited mainly to the hematopoietic system. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the modified VTC protocol in 3 days every 3 weeks seems to be effective and tolerable in children and adolescents with recurrent/progressive Ewing sarcoma.
Haga A, Ogawara Y, Kubota D, et al. Interactomic approach for evaluating nucleophosmin-binding proteins as biomarkers for Ewing's sarcoma. Electrophoresis. 2013; 34(11):1670-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a novel prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma. To evaluate the prognostic utility of NPM, we conducted an interactomic approach to characterize the NPM protein complex in Ewing's sarcoma cells. A gene suppression assay revealed that NPM promoted cell proliferation and the invasive properties of Ewing's sarcoma cells. FLAG-tag-based affinity purification coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 106 proteins in the NPM protein complex. The functional classification suggested that the NPM complex participates in critical biological events, including ribosome biogenesis, regulation of transcription and translation, and protein folding, that are mediated by these proteins. In addition to JAK1, a candidate prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma, the NPM complex, includes 11 proteins known as prognostic biomarkers for other malignancies. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles of 32 patients with Ewing's sarcoma revealed that 6 of 106 were significantly and independently associated with survival period. These observations suggest a functional role as well as prognostic value of these NPM complex proteins in Ewing's sarcoma. Further, our study suggests the potential applications of interactomics in conjunction with meta-analysis for biomarker discovery.