Osteogenic Sarcoma (osteosarcoma) is a bone forming cancer. It is the most frequent type of bone tumour and is most common between the ages of 15 to 25. Over 90% of tumours are located in the metaphysis (the growing ends of the bone), the most common sites are the bones around the knee which account for 80% of cases. Osteosarcomas vary greatly in radiological and pathological features and therefore needs careful diagnosis to differentiate this from other bone tumours. Most are high grade intramedullary osteosarcomas, about 5% are low grade lesions, some are secondary osteosarcomas (for example those caused by radiation therapy).
Figure 1. Radiograph showing an osteolytic and osteoblastic intra-medullary tumor characteristic of osteosarcoma. From Layfield J et al. Clin Med Pathol. 2008; 1: 55-59. Available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-3.0 license.
NHS Choices NHS Choices information is quality assured by experts and content is reviewed at least every 2 years. Further info. Overview of promary bone cancers in general, though does include some specific information about Osteosarcoma, Ewing's Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Spindle cell sarcoma.
Bone Cancer Research Trust Information is reviewed by a panel of scientific and clinical experts, patients, parents/ carers, Further info. BCRT became a registered the charity in 2006 and raises funds for research into primary bone cancer, and provides information and support for patients and their families. The Website includes information booklets, personal stories and a section for teenagers.
Bone Cancer Research Trust Information is reviewed by a panel of scientific and clinical experts, patients, parents/ carers, Further info. Overview of Osteosarcoma and the different types of the disease.
Mayo Clinic Dr. Carola Arndt discusses osteosarcoma which is one of the most common malignant tumors of bone in teenagers and young adults. She discusses diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of osteosarcoma. Also mentions the Children's Oncology group and EURAMOS study. Mentions the multi-disciplinary approach at Mayo Clinic.
Liddy Shriver Sarcoma Initiative Founded in 2003 the initiative aims improve the quality of life for people dealing with sarcomas around the world, raising awareness and research funds. It has an international panel of medical experts.
PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Osteosarcoma MeSH term: Osteosarcoma US National Library of Medicine PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.
Bonetumor.org A website by orthopedic surgeon Dr. Henry DeGroot, with contributions from numerous clinical colleagues. It includes numerous case studies, including radiology and pathology images, and information covering a comprehensive range of bone tumours.
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Fujiwara-Okada Y, Matsumoto Y, Fukushi J, et al. Y-box binding protein-1 regulates cell proliferation and is associated with clinical outcomes of osteosarcoma. Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(4):836-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/03/2014
BACKGROUND: Prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS) with distant metastasis and local recurrence is still poor. Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a multifunctional protein that can act as a regulator of transcription and translation and its high expression of YB-1 protein was observed in OS, however, the role of YB-1 in OS remains unclear. METHODS: Y-box binding protein-1 expression in OS cells was inhibited by specific small interfering RNAs to YB-1 (si-YB-1). The effects of si-YB-1 in cell proliferation and cell cycle transition in OS cells were analysed in vitro and in vivo. The association of nuclear expression of YB-1 and clinical prognosis was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Proliferation of OS cell was suppressed by si-YB-1 in vivo and in vitro. The expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin A were also decreased by si-YB-1. In addition, si-YB-1 induced G1/S arrest with decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin A in OS cell lines. Direct binding of YB-1 in OS cell lines was also observed. Finally, the nuclear expression of YB-1 was significantly related to the poorer overall survival in OS patients. CONCLUSION: Y-box binding protein-1 would regulate cell cycle progression at G1/S and tumour growth in human OS cells in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear expression of YB-1 was closely associated with the prognosis of OS, thus, YB-1 simultaneously could be a potent molecular target and prognostic biomarker for OS.
Brusić SK, Pusić M, Cvjetković N, et al. Osteosarcoma of the mastoid process following radiation therapy of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland--a case report. Coll Antropol. 2012; 36 Suppl 2:223-5 [PubMed]
Radiation therapy is frequently used method in treatment of the head and neck malignancies. Osteosarcoma is a rare complication of radiation therapy and usually occurs after a long latent period. We report the case of 75-year-old female with osteosarcoma of the mastoid process. Twelve years before presentation she received radiation therapy after total parotidectomy and radical neck dissection in treatment of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland. Diagnostic procedures included contrast-enhanced CT and MRI of the head and neck and HRCT of the temporal bone. The final diagnosis of the low grade osteosarcoma was confirmed by biopsy. Diagnostic criteria were fulfilled and the lesion was classified as a radiation induced osteosarcoma.
Ferrari S, Palmerini E, Fabbri N, et al. Osteosarcoma of the pelvis: a monoinstitutional experience in patients younger than 41 years. Tumori. 2012; 98(6):702-8 [PubMed]
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Information is scarce on systemic treatment of pelvic osteosarcoma because most chemotherapy protocols for osteosarcoma include patients with extremity tumors and aged up to 30-40 years. METHODS: Data on patients <41 years of age with high-grade pelvic osteosarcoma were prospectively collected. Patients received two chemotherapy protocols consisting of methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin (MAP) and standard-dose or high-dose ifosfamide. RESULTS: Forty patients between 11 and 36 years were included. The most frequent histological subtype was osteoblastic followed by chondroblastic (37.5%). Complete surgical remission was achieved in 65% of patients. Eighteen patients had MAP/standard-dose ifosfamide, 22 MAP/high-dose ifosfamide. Primary chemotherapy was given to 25 patients and 6 (24%) of them had a good histological response. Median follow-up was 32 months (range, 4-134). Five-year overall survival was 27.5%: 33% in localized and 0 in metastatic patients ( P = 0.02); 45% in patients with complete surgical remission and 0 for patients without complete surgical remission (P = 0.001). Local recurrence rate was 46%. In patients with complete surgical remission, 5-year overall survival was 32% with MAP/standard-dose ifosfamide and 59% with MAP/high-dose ifosfamide regimen (P = 0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Local control is the major issue in the treatment of pelvic osteosarcoma. Poor pathological response and high incidence of chondroblastic variant indicate different characteristics between pelvic and extremity osteosarcoma. Chemotherapy with MAP and high-dose ifosfamide might be beneficial in patients with pelvic osteosarcoma and warrants further investigation.
Jianwei Z, Enzhong B, Fan L, et al. Effects of Kruppel-like factor 6 on osteosarcoma cell biological behavior. Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(2):1097-105 [PubMed]
Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently downregulated in a number of human cancers, including osteosarcoma. However, the role of KLF6 in osteosarcoma remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of KLF6 on osteosarcoma cell biological behavior. First, the expression of KLF6 in osteosarcoma cell lines (MG63, SaOS-2, U2OS, and HOS) and a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19) was detected by Western blotting. Results showed that KLF6 displayed a significant downregulation in osteosarcoma cell lines (MG63, SaOS-2, U2OS, and HOS) compared with human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19). To investigate the role of KLF6 in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion, we generated human osteosarcoma MG63 cells in which KLF6 was either overexpressed or depleted. The MG63 cell viability, cycle, apoptosis, and invasive ability were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide staining, propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining, and Transwell invasion experiment, respectively. Results showed that the viability, proliferation, and invasive abilities were suppressed, and the apoptosis was enhanced in MG63 cells with overexpression of KLF6. The viability, proliferation, and invasive abilities were improved, and the apoptosis was inhibited in MG63 cells with knockdown of KLF6. At the same time, these molecules, including p21, bcl-2, and MMP-9, associated with the events about cell cycle, apoptosis, and invasion, were detected. Results showed that the expressions of bcl-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated, and the expressions of p21 were upregulated in the MG-63 cells with overexpression of KLF6. Taken together, our results suggested that KLF6 could inhibit proliferation and invasion, and facilitate apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, which might be a potential target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
Liu Y, Wang L, Wu Y, et al. Pterostilbene exerts antitumor activity against human osteosarcoma cells by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Toxicology. 2013; 304:120-31 [PubMed]
Osteosarcoma is a high-grade malignant bone tumor. Pterostilbene (PTE) is a natural, dimethylated analog of resveratrol with higher bioavailability. While PTE has been shown to have potent antitumor activity against various types of cancer, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PTE remain largely unknown. The Janus kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and immune development. In this study, we assessed the antitumor activity of PTE against human osteosarcoma cells and explored the role of JAK2/STAT3 and apoptosis-related signaling pathways on the activity of PTE. PTE treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of osteosarcoma cell viability. Additionally, PTE exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reductions in tumor cell adhesion, migration and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but also by increases in the apoptotic index, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several biochemical parameters. Furthermore, PTE treatment directly inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 at Tyr 1007 and the downstream activation of STAT3. PTE also down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes, including the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, leading to the up-regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins (Bax, Bak, cytosolic Cytochrome c, and cleaved Caspase3) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as p21 and p27. PTE, used in combination with a known JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor, AG490, further decreased the viability of osteosarcoma cells. Taken together, PTE is a potent inhibitor of osteosarcoma cell growth that targets the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. These data suggest that inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling is a novel mechanism of action for PTE during therapeutic intervention in osteosarcoma cancers.
Chou AJ, Gupta R, Bell MD, et al. Inhaled lipid cisplatin (ILC) in the treatment of patients with relapsed/progressive osteosarcoma metastatic to the lung. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(4):580-6 [PubMed]
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma treatment failure is most often from the inability to control metastatic disease in the lungs. Encapsulating cisplatin within lipid complexes and delivering the agent via inhalation targets lung metastases with minimal systemic exposure. An open-label, phase Ib/IIa study was performed to characterize the safety and efficacy of inhaled lipid cisplatin (ILC) in recurrent osteosarcoma patients who only had pulmonary metastases. PROCEDURE: ILC was administered via nebulizer every 2 weeks (=1 cycle). Response was evaluated radiographically every 2 cycles. Cisplatin levels were measured in patients. When possible, metastasectomy was undertaken in patients after 2 cycles. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were treated. No patients experienced hematologic toxicity, nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity. Nausea/vomiting (≥grade 3) was attributed to study drug in one patient. Respiratory symptoms were observed in 13/19 patients with only one patient experiencing a ≥grade 3 respiratory symptom (not related to study drug). Systemic cisplatin exposure was minimal. Eleven patients had bulky disease, and all progressed prior to cycle 7. Eight patients had all lesions ≤2 cm. One patient had a sustained partial response. An additional two patients had stable disease after 2 cycles, underwent metastasectomy, and remained free from pulmonary recurrence 1 year after initiation of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: ILC is well tolerated in heavily treated osteosarcoma patients and did not appear to have the typical toxicities associated with intravenous cisplatin. Three of eight patients with less bulky disease had sustained benefit. Further study of ILC is warranted.
Rao-Bindal K, Rao CK, Yu L, Kleinerman ES Expression of c-FLIP in pulmonary metastases in osteosarcoma patients and human xenografts. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60(4):575-9 [PubMed]
OBJECTIVE(S): We have previously shown that Fas expression inversely correlates with the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma (OS) to the lung. FasL is constitutively expressed in the lung microenvironment and eliminates Fas(+) OS cells leaving Fas(-) cells to form metastases. Absence of FasL in the lung epithelium or blocking the Fas-signaling pathway interfered with this clearance mechanism allowing Fas(+) cells to remain and form lung metastases. We also demonstrated that while the majority of patient OS lung metastases were Fas(-), 10-20% of the lesions contained Fas(+) cells, suggesting that these cells were not sensitive to FasL-induced apoptosis. The expression of c-FLIP, an inhibitor of the Fas pathway, has been associated with tumor development, progression, and resistance to chemotherapy. We therefore evaluated the expression of c-FLIP in OS patient tumor specimens and human xenograft lung metastases. METHODS: OS patient tissues, which included both primary and metastatic lesions, were evaluated for the expression of c-FLIP. In addition, tumors from human OS xenografts were examined for c-FLIP expression. RESULTS: c-FLIP expression was significantly higher in the lung metastases than in the primary tumors. CONCLUSION(S): c-FLIP may play an important role in the metastatic potential of OS to the lung. Inhibition of c-FLIP may be a future therapeutic target.
Nishio J, Iwasaki H, Takagi S, et al. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of the metatarsal bone: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis. Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(12):5429-35 [PubMed]
Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) is a very rare low-grade malignant neoplasm that is often confused with a variety of benign fibro-osseous lesions. It rarely involves the small tubular bones of the feet. We present an unusual case of LGCOS arising in the third metatarsal bone of a 16-year-old boy. The radiographic appearance was suggestive of a benign lesion. An open biopsy was performed and the initial diagnosis was fibrous dysplasia. The patient underwent curettage of the lesion and packing of the bony defect with a synthetic bone substitute. Histologically, the curetted specimens consisted of spindle cells admixed with irregular bony trabeculae and osteoid. The spindle cells were fairly uniform with mild atypia, and cellularity varied from low to high. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were focally-positive for cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and p53, but negative for murine double minute-2. The MIB-1 labeling index was 36.7% in the highest focus. Cytogenetic analysis exhibited the following clonal karyotypic abnormalities: 48,XY,del(6)(p11),add(8)(q24),add(12)(p11.2),+mar1,+mar-2. Spectral karyotyping demonstrated that marker chromosomes were composed mainly of chromosome 6. Metaphase-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed a high-level amplification of 6p12-p21 and gains of 8q21-q24, 10p15, 12q13-q15, and 16q23-q24. Based on these findings, the final diagnosis was revised to LGCOS and the patient was treated with an additional wide excision, followed by reconstruction with a free-vascularized osteocutaneous scapular flap. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient is well with no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Our case highlights the diagnostic difficulty of this tumor with limited tissue samples and the importance of immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic analyses in ambiguous cases.
Tzeng HE, Tsai CH, Chang ZL, et al. Interleukin-6 induces vascular endothelial growth factor expression and promotes angiogenesis through apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in human osteosarcoma. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013; 85(4):531-40 [PubMed]
Osteosarcoma is characterized by a high malignant and metastatic potential. Angiogenesis is essential for the caner metastasis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However, the relationship between IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human osteosarcoma is mostly unknown. Here we found that the IL-6 and VEGF expression was correlated with tumor stage and significantly higher than that in normal bone. Incubation of osteosarcoma cells with IL-6 increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression. Pretreatment of cells with IL-6R antibody reduced IL-6-mediated VEGF production. The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/p38/AP-1 pathway was activated after IL-6 treatment, and IL-6-induced VEGF expression was abolished by the specific inhibitor and siRNA of ASK1, p38, and AP-1 cascades. Importantly, knockdown IL-6 reduced VEGF expression and abolished osteosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-6 occurs through ASK1 and p38, which in turn activates AP-1, resulting in the activations of VEGF expression and contributing the angiogenesis of human osteosarcoma cells.
Tan ML, Friedhuber AM, Dass CR Co-nanoencapsulated doxorubicin and Dz13 control osteosarcoma progression in a murine model. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 65(1):35-43 [PubMed]
OBJECTIVES: Chitosan is a green (natural, abundant, biodegradable, biocompatible) biopolymer that can be formulated to encapsulate a variety of therapeutic compounds. This study aimed to investigate chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) as a means of improving delivery of the clinically used anti-cancer agent doxorubicin (Dox) and the preclinical lead compound Dz13 oligonucleotide together. METHODS: A novel chitosan NP system encapsulating Dox and Dz13 was designed, biophysically characterised and tested in a clinically relevant model of the metastasising bone tumour, osteosarcoma (OS). KEY FINDINGS: By careful alteration of the concentration of the individual components, a final formulation of Dz13-Dox NPs (DDNPs) was achieved, with high (>91%) loading of both compounds, which consisted of individual 50-nm particles forming aggregates as large as 500 nm, with a large positive ζ-potential. The DDNPs could be stored at various temperatures for a week without loss in activity but were prone to degradation in serum. DDNPs successfully inhibited OS tumour growth more effectively than treatment with NPs of Dz13 and Dox-chitosan, as well as Dox administered intraperitoneally. Apart from inhibiting tumour growth, DDNPs protected the affected bone from substantial destruction by aggressive tumour growth and reduced the incidence of metastasis to the lungs without causing adverse effects in mice. CONCLUSION: This NP is a promising formulation that could be useful for clinical management of OS.
Anninga JK, Picci P, Fiocco M, et al. Osteosarcoma of the hands and feet: a distinct clinico-pathological subgroup. Virchows Arch. 2013; 462(1):109-20 [PubMed]
Osteosarcomas of hands or feet are rare, and seemingly these cases differ in presentation and behavior compared to those in usual locations. The clinico-pathological presentation of patients with osteosarcomas of the hand or foot was studied and compared with published cases. Forty osteosarcomas were identified among 4,221 cases, representing 0.95 % of all osteosarcomas. Thirty of these were well documented. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 years (hands) and 36 years (feet) and male-female ratio was 1.2:1 and 2.0:1, respectively. In the hand, 62 % of the osteosarcomas presented in the metacarpals and 23 % in the phalanges, and only two cases occurred in the carpal bones. Distribution in the foot was tarsal bones 56 %, metatarsal bones 33 %, and phalanges 11 %.Of the cases in the hand 54 % were of high grade and of those in the foot 71 %. Survival of osteosarcomas of the hand or foot was 81 %. Only patients with high-grade osteosarcoma died of the disease. Histological grade was the only significant variable related to survival. High-grade osteosarcoma of the hand or feet should be treated similar to those in conventional sites. Osteosarcomas of hands or feet are rare and in a relative high proportion are of low grade. Survival in high-grade cases is comparable to that in conventional sites.
Carter CJ, Ward WG Osteosarcoma diagnostic delay associated with alendronate-induced pain relief. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2012; 21(3):165-9 [PubMed]
A 32-year-old man with a painful osteoblastic osteosarcoma of the right hip was initially diagnosed as having Paget's disease of bone. He was treated with alendronate for presumptive Paget's disease. The patient's bone pain was dramatically reduced by the administration of alendronate for 7 months. Following discontinuation of alendronate, his pain promptly recurred, culminating in a more thorough evaluation that led to the correct diagnosis. Despite chemotherapy, the patient succumbed to metastatic osteosarcoma. The main purpose of this publication is to report the potential for pain relief when an osteosarcoma is treated with bisphosphonate medication. Clinicians are advised not to consider an alendronate-associated pain reduction in an osteoblastic lesion as an indicator of an underlying benign process of bone. The evaluation of painful sclerotic bone lesions is briefly reviewed.
Yu M, Wan Y, Zou Q Reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in Chinese patients with osteosarcoma. Transl Res. 2013; 161(3):165-71 [PubMed]
A plethora of somatic mutations and germline variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been increasingly reported in numerous cancer entities including osteosarcoma. However, it remains largely unclear whether mtDNA copy number changes occur during the multistep process of osteosarcoma carcinogenesis. For this purpose, we determined quantitative mtDNA levels in 31 primary osteosarcoma specimens and 5 normal bone tissue samples using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Our data showed that the average mtDNA amount was significantly reduced in osteosarcoma tissues compared with normal bone controls. The copy number of mtDNA was statistically associated with tumor metastasis. There was an approximately 2-fold decrease of mtDNA quantity in tumors with metastasis than that in low-grade tumors without metastasis. Furthermore, change in mtDNA content was linked with somatic mutations in the D-loop regulatory region. Tumors carrying somatic D-loop mutations, at the polycytidine stretch between nucleotide positions 303 and 309 or close to the replication origin sites of the heavy strand, had significantly lowered mtDNA levels in comparison with those without mutations. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the first time that reduced mtDNA content may be critically implicated in the development and/or progression of osteosarcoma. Somatic D-loop mutation is likely one key factor among others leading to altered mtDNA amount in osteosarcoma.
Fayda M, Kebudi R, Dizdar Y, et al. Spontaneous pneumothorax in children with osteosarcoma: report of three cases and review of the literature. Acta Chir Belg. 2012 Sep-Oct; 112(5):378-81 [PubMed]
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of primary lung cancer or metastasis. It is estimated that < 1% of all cases of spontaneous pneumothorax are tumor-associated and metastatic osteogenic or soft-tissue sarcomas are associated most commonly with pneumothorax especially in the setting of cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this article, we report three pediatric cases with osteosarcoma that developed spontaneous pneumothorax during chemotherapy with a review of the literature. Two of them had lung metastasis at the time of the detection of pneumothorax and the remaining patient was found to have a bronchopleural fistula. SPx is an emergency situation and early diagnosis and management can improve prognosis and quality of life of the patient however the optimal management has yet to be determined.
Kresse SH, Rydbeck H, Skårn M, et al. Integrative analysis reveals relationships of genetic and epigenetic alterations in osteosarcoma. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e48262 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/03/2014
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression) using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30%) cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between DNA copy number, DNA methylation and mRNA expression in osteosarcomas, contributing to better understanding of osteosarcoma biology.
Inoue T, Hagiyama M, Enoki E, et al. Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a new osteoblastic cell adhesion molecule and a diagnostic marker for osteosarcoma. Life Sci. 2013; 92(1):91-9 [PubMed]
AIMS: An immunohistochemical screen for mouse embryos showed that cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), which is an immunoglobulin superfamily member, was expressed in developing bones. Here, we determined the cell types expressing CADM1 and examined its usefulness in the differential diagnosis of osteosarcoma. MAIN METHODS: Serial sections of murine developing mandibles were stained with anti-CADM1 antibody, by a coloring substrate reactive to alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a broad osteoblastic marker for preosteoblasts to osteoblasts, and by in situ hybridization for osteopontin (OPN), a marker for mature osteoblasts. CADM1 immunohistochemistry was also performed on human remodeling bones, osteosarcomas and other soft tissue tumors. KEY FINDINGS: CADM1 immunohistochemistry for the mandible revealed that morphologically identifiable osteoblasts expressed CADM1 on their plasma membranes, but neither osteocytes nor bone lining cells did. At the mandibular margin, not only OPN-positive cells but also OPN-negative, ALP-positive cells were CADM1-positive, whereas inside the mandible, OPN-positive cells were often CADM1-negative. Clear membranous staining was detected in the majority of osteosarcomas (46/57), whereas only 13% (6/46) of the other soft tissue tumors were CADM1-positive (P<0.001). SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that CADM1 was a novel osteoblastic adhesion molecule that is expressed transiently during osteoblastic maturation, and a useful diagnostic marker for osteosarcoma cells.
Rabah F, Al-Mashaikhi N, Beshlawi I, et al. Brain is not always the last fortress; osteosarcoma with large brain metastasis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013; 35(2):e91-3 [PubMed]
Osteosarcomas are the most common malignant primary bone tumors in children and adolescents. Brain metastases of osteosarcoma are very rare and carry a dismal prognosis. We report a case of chondroblastic osteosarcoma of right humerus presented with right frontal lobe metastasis in a 10-year-old girl with small pulmonary lesions.
Angstadt AY, Thayanithy V, Subramanian S, et al. A genome-wide approach to comparative oncology: high-resolution oligonucleotide aCGH of canine and human osteosarcoma pinpoints shared microaberrations. Cancer Genet. 2012; 205(11):572-87 [PubMed]
Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of human osteosarcoma (OS) has revealed the characteristically high degree of genomic reorganization that is the hallmark of this cancer. The extent of genomic disorder in OS has hindered identification of the genomic aberrations driving disease progression. With pathophysiological similarities to its human counterpart, canine OS represents an ideal model for comparison of conserved regions of genomic instability that may be disease-associated rather than genomic passengers. This study used high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization and a variety of informatics tools to aid in the identification of disease-associated genome-wide DNA copy number aberrations in canine and human OS. Our findings support and build upon the high level of cytogenetic complexity, through the identification of shared regions of microaberration (<500 kb) and functional analysis of possible orthologous OS-associated genes to pinpoint the cellular processes most commonly affected by aberration in human and canine OS. Aberrant regions contained previously reported genes such as CDC5L, MYC, RUNX2, and CDKN2A/CDKN2B, while expanding the gene of interest list to include ADAM15, CTC1, MEN1, CDK7, and others. Such regions of instability may thus have functional significance in the etiology of OS, the most common primary bone tumor in both species.
Kupeli S, Varan A, Akyuz C, et al. Maxillofacial osteosarcoma successfully treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy in a child. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012; 113(11):661-3 [PubMed]
Maxillofacial osteosarcoma constitutes a minor percentage of all the head and neck tumors. We describe a 10 year-old girl presenting with swelling and pain in left maxillary region and diagnosed as low grade osteosarcoma. The patient was operated and given a chemotherapy protocol consisted of Cisplatin and Doxorubicin. After six courses of chemotherapy the patient was in complete remission and she is well with no evidence of disease for five years. Since high local recurrence rates have been reported in craniofacial osteoarcoma and we know the deleterious side effects of radiation therapy in children, we believe that best management strategy for osteosarcomas in maxillofacial region in children is radical surgical excision and postoperative chemotherapy (Fig. 3, Ref. 11).
Namløs HM, Meza-Zepeda LA, Barøy T, et al. Modulation of the osteosarcoma expression phenotype by microRNAs. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e48086 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/03/2014
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common primary malignant tumors of bone and show multiple and complex genomic aberrations. miRNAs are non-coding RNAs capable of regulating gene expression at the post transcriptional level, and miRNAs and their target genes may represent novel therapeutic targets or biomarkers for osteosarcoma. In order to investigate the involvement of miRNAs in osteosarcoma development, global microarray analyses of a panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines was performed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 177 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in osteosarcoma cell lines relative to normal bone. Among these, miR-126/miR-126*, miR-142-3p, miR-150, miR-223, miR-486-5p and members of the miR-1/miR-133a, miR-144/miR-451, miR-195/miR-497 and miR-206/miR-133b clusters were found to be downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines. All miRNAs in the paralogous clusters miR-17-92, miR-106b-25 and miR-106a-92 were overexpressed. Furthermore, the upregulated miRNAs included miR-9/miR-9*, miR-21*, miR-31/miR-31*, miR-196a/miR-196b, miR-374a and members of the miR-29 and miR-130/301 families. The most interesting inversely correlated miRNA/mRNA pairs in osteosarcoma cell lines included miR-9/TGFBR2 and miR-29/p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K. PTEN mRNA correlated inversely with miR-92a and members of the miR-17 and miR-130/301 families. Expression profiles of selected miRNAs were confirmed in clinical samples. A set of miRNAs, miR-1, miR-18a, miR-18b, miR-19b, miR-31, miR-126, miR-142-3p, miR-133b, miR-144, miR-195, miR-223, miR-451 and miR-497 was identified with an intermediate expression level in osteosarcoma clinical samples compared to osteoblasts and bone, which may reflect the differentiation level of osteosarcoma relative to the undifferentiated osteoblast and fully differentiated normal bone. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides an integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA in osteosarcoma, and gives new insight into the complex genetic mechanisms of osteosarcoma development and progression.
Di Fiore R, Fanale D, Drago-Ferrante R, et al. Genetic and molecular characterization of the human osteosarcoma 3AB-OS cancer stem cell line: a possible model for studying osteosarcoma origin and stemness. J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(6):1189-201 [PubMed]
Finding new treatments targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) within a tumor seems to be critical to halt cancer and improve patient survival. Osteosarcoma is an aggressive tumor affecting adolescents, for which there is no second-line chemotherapy. Uncovering new molecular mechanisms underlying the development of osteosarcoma and origin of CSCs is crucial to identify new possible therapeutic strategies. Here, we aimed to characterize genetically and molecularly the human osteosarcoma 3AB-OS CSC line, previously selected from MG63 cells and which proved to have both in vitro and in vivo features of CSCs. Classic cytogenetic studies demonstrated that 3AB-OS cells have hypertriploid karyotype with 71-82 chromosomes. By comparing 3AB-OS CSCs to the parental cells, array CGH, Affymetrix microarray, and TaqMan® Human MicroRNA array analyses identified 49 copy number variations (CNV), 3,512 dysregulated genes and 189 differentially expressed miRNAs. Some of the chromosomal abnormalities and mRNA/miRNA expression profiles appeared to be congruent with those reported in human osteosarcomas. Bioinformatic analyses selected 196 genes and 46 anticorrelated miRNAs involved in carcinogenesis and stemness. For the first time, a predictive network is also described for two miRNA family (let-7/98 and miR-29a,b,c) and their anticorrelated mRNAs (MSTN, CCND2, Lin28B, MEST, HMGA2, and GHR), which may represent new biomarkers for osteosarcoma and may pave the way for the identification of new potential therapeutic targets.
Lim JS, Kim DH, Lee JA, et al. Young age at diagnosis, male sex, and decreased lean mass are risk factors of osteoporosis in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013; 35(1):54-60 [PubMed]
BACKGROUND: Long-term survival of children with osteosarcoma has increased, but most suffer from osteoporosis in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and identify the risk factors of osteoporosis. METHODS: Forty long-term survivors of osteosarcoma and 55 controls were enrolled. The mean age of the survivors was 21.8 ± 5.2 years. They were diagnosed at younger than 23 years of age (mean, 14.9 + 5.0 y). Bone mineral densities (BMD) and body compositions were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Nineteen (47.5%) subjects had osteoporosis and 12 (30.0%) had osteopenia. The regions affected by osteoporosis were: femur neck of osteosarcoma site (47.5%), unaffected femur neck (12.5%), lumbar spine (12.5%), and total body (15.0%). Twelve subjects (30.0%) had 14 episodes of fractures. The identified risk factors of osteoporosis were young age at diagnosis, male sex, and low lean mass. Subjects diagnosed before attainment of puberty (male ≤ 16 y, female ≤ 14 y) were found to have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis (37.5% vs. 10.0%, P < 0.01). Males had a higher prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis than females (86.4% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.01). Total lean mass was positively correlated with unaffected femur neck BMD. Regional lean mass in affected limb was significantly reduced along with affected femur neck BMD. CONCLUSIONS: In long-term survivors of osteosarcoma, prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture was higher than expected. Initial evaluation and regular follow-up of BMD should be performed in all osteosarcoma patients, especially in those who did not attain puberty, males, and those with a low lean mass.
Bao M, Cao Z, Yu D, et al. Columbamine suppresses the proliferation and neovascularization of metastatic osteosarcoma U2OS cells with low cytotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2012; 215(3):174-80 [PubMed]
Osteosarcoma is one of the most common malignant bone tumors in children and adolescents. Although extensive efforts have been made in anti-osteosarcoma therapy in recent decades, there are no effective low-toxicity drugs for treating patients with metastatic osteosarcoma. Hence, potent anti-metastatic osteosarcoma drugs are highly desired. In this study, we explored novel small molecular anti-metastatic osteosarcoma agents and found that columbamine (COL), an active component of the herb Coptis chinensis, inhibited the proliferation and neovascularization of metastatic osteosarcoma U2OS cells. COL effectively suppressed U2OS cell proliferation in vitro with an IC(50) of 21.31±0.38μM, with low cytotoxicity. Mechanistic studies revealed that COL induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition, which is associated with attenuating CDK6 gene expression and diminishing STAT3 phosphorylation. COL did not significantly promote U2OS cell apoptosis at any of the dosages tested. Additionally, COL inhibited U2OS cell-mediated neovascularization, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 expression and reduction of cell migration, adhesion, and invasion. Taken together, our data show that COL exerts anti-proliferative and anti-vasculogenic effects on metastatic human osteosarcoma U2OS cells with low toxicity. These results warrant further investigation of COL as a potential anti-osteosarcoma and anti-cancer drug.
Zhang W, Qian JX, Yi HL, et al. The microRNA-29 plays a central role in osteosarcoma pathogenesis and progression. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2012 Jul-Aug; 46(4):622-7 [PubMed]
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer, with a peak incidence in the early childhood. The relationship between microRNAs (miRNAs) and cancer development attracted more and more attention over the last few years. Members of the miRNA-29 family, including miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, and miRNA-29c were shown to participate in the development of rhabdomyosarcoma and hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, it has been demonstrated miRNA-29a and miRNA-29b expression levels to be downregulated in most of the osteosarcoma tissues (23 from 30). Besides, miRNA-29a displayed ability to induce apoptosis in both U2OS and SAOS-2 osteoblastic cells. While miRNA-29 members induced apoptosis through p53 gene activation, the effect of miRNA-29a on osteoblastic cells was independent on p53 expression level. Moreover, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were earlier demonstrated to be the direct targets of miRNA-29 in many types of cancer tissues and cancers. In both U2OS and SAOS-2 osteoblastic cell types, overexpression of miRNA-29a also downregulated Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, while silencing of miRNA-29a increased their expression. In addition, enhanced expression of miRNA-29a increased the expression of two tumor suppressor genes, E2F1 and E2F3. In summary, data obtained highlight the role of miRNA-29a in the regulation of osteoblastic cell apoptosis by silencing Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and inducing E2F1 and E2F3 expression.
Sathiyamoorthy S, Ali SZ Osteoblastic osteosarcoma: cytomorphologic characteristics and differential diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration. Acta Cytol. 2012; 56(5):481-6 [PubMed]
OBJECTIVES: To review cytomorphologic characteristics of osteoblastic osteosarcoma (OOS), a variant of osteosarcoma, on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and correlate them with histopathologic features and clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of the cytopathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital revealed 22 cases of OOS on FNA in 20 patients (16 primary, 5 recurrent and 1 metastatic OOS). RESULTS: There were 11 males and 9 females (male:female ratio 4:3) aged from 5 to 48 years (mean 17.1). Anatomic locations were: femur (7), humerus (3), tibia (4), fibula (1), iliac crest (1), pubis (1), sacrum (1), mandible (1) and soft tissue of the thigh (3). All except 1 presented with progressive pain and/or swelling. Sizes of the lesions ranged from 2.3 to 34 cm (mean 9.2). Initial FNA diagnoses were high-grade malignant neoplasm (5), osteosarcoma, non-conventional osteosarcoma (12) and OOS (5). Cytomorphologic characteristics were: moderate-high cellularity, discohesive/single cells, small tissue fragments, immature osteoid, bi-/multinucleated giant cells, plasmacytoid cells with basophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei and macronucleoli. Cases with high-grade histology displayed pleomorphism and mitoses. CONCLUSIONS: OOS has a better prognosis than other osteosarcoma variants. The differential diagnosis of OOS includes reactive bone lesions, osteoblastoma, malignant sarcoma with an osteoid component and other osteosarcoma variants. A definitive diagnosis can be made on FNA with clinical and radiological correlation, thus facilitating immediate therapy.
Nathan SS, Healey JH Demographic determinants of survival in osteosarcoma. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2012; 41(9):390-9 [PubMed]
INTRODUCTION: Osteosarcoma treatment has experienced a renaissance in the last 3 decades with the institution of multimodality treatment involving multiagent chemotherapy and surgery. Yet globally, treatment success has stagnated at about 70% survival at 5 years in most single institution series. We performed survival analyses on 2 national databases in 2 countries and compared these with corresponding institution specific survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with the diagnostic code of non-metastatic intramedullary osteosarcoma in the long bones of the upper and lower limbs less than 30 years of age were selected from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database to ensure uniformity with respect to disease and treatment. We studied the factors: ethnicity, gender, age, grade, histology, size, site, surgery, compartmentalisation, number of primaries and venue of treatment for their contribution to survival. In addition, the data were stratified into 3 decades (seventies, eighties and nineties) to account for variations due to the evolution of treatment paradigms and imaging modalities. RESULTS: Institution-specific survival was predictably better than national survival in the 4 databases. One thousand patients were selected from the SEER database. Oriental descent, state-specific treatment, female gender, treatment in the nineties, low-grade disease, intra-compartmental disease, small size, wide resections as opposed to forequarter or hindquarter amputations, and single primaries were good prognostic factors on univariate analysis as well as multivariate analysis (P <0.05). Survival was better in the more affluent states (P <0.05). Males were affected at an older age than females (P = 0.004). Blacks tended to have larger tumours although their overall survival was similar to whites. Orientals were more likely to be treated in the nineties with wide resections for smaller tumours and were located around states associated with good treatment. Orientals in Singapore and the United States had the same survival (P = 0.45). Survival in Orientals in Singapore was not significantly different from other races. The standard of healthcare for osteosarcoma varies greatly across the United States but is uniform in Singapore. Hence the observed differences in the United States were likely due to socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSION: This analysis confirms the importance of a number of prognostic variables in osteosarcoma and suggests the possibility of an ethnic and economic bias for good survival.
Posthumadeboer J, van Egmond PW, Helder MN, et al. Targeting JNK-interacting-protein-1 (JIP1) sensitises osteosarcoma to doxorubicin. Oncotarget. 2012; 3(10):1169-81 [PubMed]
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents. Despite aggressive therapy, survival outcomes remain unsatisfactory, especially for patients with metastatic disease or patients with a poor chemotherapy response. Chemoresistance contributes to treatment failure. To increase the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy, essential survival pathways should be targeted concomitantly. Here, we performed a loss-of-function siRNA screen of the human kinome in SaOS-2 cells to identify critical survival kinases after doxorubicin treatment. Gene silencing of JNK-interacting-protein-1 (JIP1) elicited the most potent sensitisation to doxorubicin. This candidate was further explored as potential target for chemosensitisation in OS. A panel of OS cell lines and human primary osteoblasts was examined for sensitisation to doxorubicin using small molecule JIP1-inhibitor BI-78D3. JIP1 expression and JIP1-inhibitor effects on JNK-signalling were investigated by Western blot analysis. JIP1 expression in human OS tumours was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue micro arrays. BI-78D3 blocked JNK-signalling and sensitised three out of four tested OS cell lines, but not healthy osteoblasts, to treatment with doxorubicin. Combination treatment increased the induction of apoptosis. JIP1 was found to be expressed in two-thirds of human primary OS tissue samples. Patients with JIP1 positive tumours showed a trend to inferior overall survival. Collectively, JIP1 appears a clinically relevant novel target in OS to enhance the efficacy of doxorubicin treatment by means of RNA interference or pharmacological inhibition.
Mavrogenis AF, Rossi G, Palmerini E, et al. Palliative treatments for advanced osteosarcoma. J BUON. 2012 Jul-Sep; 17(3):436-45 [PubMed]
Advances in diagnostic imaging, interventional radiology, chemotherapy and surgery greatly improved the outcome of patients with osteosarcoma, and made limb salvage possible without compromising survival. In these patients, the prognosis is influenced by the site and resectability of the tumor, prior malignancy, and histological response to preoperative chemotherapy. Unfortunately, the progress has not been as significant in the treatment of advanced osteosarcoma, namely metastatic, recurrent and unresectable tumor. Yet, although advanced and forecasting a dismal prognosis, advanced osteosarcoma is not necessarily untreatable. Aggressive local and medical treatments, including surgical removal of primary and/or metastatic disease are currently available; however, yet, most treatments aim at palliation. Palliative local treatments including isolated limb perfusion, radiation therapy, embolization, chemoembolization, thermal ablation and cryoablation, all have an important role for these patients. The aim of palliative treatments is to achieve a mild response by offering the least discomfort to the patient with the minimum possible complications, and possibly increase of survival.
Nakajima K, Yanagawa T, Watanabe H, Takagishi K Hyperthermia reduces migration of osteosarcoma by suppression of autocrine motility factor. Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(6):1953-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/03/2014
Autocrine motility factor (AMF) plays an important role in the development of metastasis by regulating tumor cell motility. The expression of AMF is associated with metastasis in malignant musculoskeletal tumors including osteosarcoma. Recent studies indicated that hyperthermia contributes to the improvement of the prognosis of patients with soft tissue sarcomas; however, few reports have evaluated the impact of hyperthermia on tumor cell motility, which is an important factor of metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperthermia with or without heat shock protein (HSP) inhibitors on the motility and AMF expression in an osteosarcoma cell line. Hyperthermia was carried out at 41˚C for 24 h. According to microarray results, HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma cells under hyperthermia. The intracellular, secreted AMF, mRNA of AMF and cell motility were evaluated by western blotting, ELISA, RT-PCR, wound healing and phagokinetic track assays, respectively. The protein secretion and mRNA levels of AMF and tumor cell motility were significantly decreased by hyperthermia. Of note, the downregulated AMF expression and motility were recovered by the addition of an HSP27 inhibitor. By contrast, the HSP90 and HSP70/72/105 inhibitors had no effect on AMF expression and motility downregulated by hyperthermia. In conclusion, hyperthermia reduced AMF expression and tumor cell motility via HSP27 and may therefore be applied as osteosarcoma treatment.
Rastogi S, Kumar R, Sankineani SR, et al. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor as a tumour marker in osteosarcoma: a prospective study. Int Orthop. 2012; 36(11):2315-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2013
PURPOSE: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with primary localised osteosarcoma. METHODS: Serum VEGF levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood samples collected prechemotherapy, postchemotherapy, and postsurgery in 40 patients with histologically proven primary osteosarcoma. Comparison was made between serum VEGF level of healthy controls (n = 10) and prechemotherapy patient sera to evaluate its diagnostic potential. Serum VEGF levels of patients with and without metastasis were compared. Immunohistochemical staining was done to establish the correlation between serum and tissue VEGF expression. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used for survival analysis RESULTS: No significant relationship was observed between serum VEGF levels and age, gender, tumour size, local recurrence or histopathological subtypes of osteosarcoma. We observed significantly raised mean serum VEGF in patient sera compared with healthy controls (p = 0.001). Significant fall in mean serum VEGF level was observed following chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Patients who developed metastases had significantly higher serum VEGF levels compared with the nonmetastatic group (P = 0.001). Serum VEGF levels correlated well with VEGF expression in tissues. CONCLUSION: Serum VEGF levels might prove to be of diagnostic, predictive and prognostic value in patients with primary osteosarcoma, although further studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up is needed to support the hypothesis.
This page last updated: 22nd May 2013 Displaying links verified within last 2 weeks at time of update.