TNFSF10; tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 10 (3q26)

Gene Summary

Gene:TNFSF10; tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 10
Aliases: TL2, APO2L, CD253, TRAIL, Apo-2L
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This protein preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed and tumor cells, but does not appear to kill normal cells although it is expressed at a significant level in most normal tissues. This protein binds to several members of TNF receptor superfamily including TNFRSF10A/TRAILR1, TNFRSF10B/TRAILR2, TNFRSF10C/TRAILR3, TNFRSF10D/TRAILR4, and possibly also to TNFRSF11B/OPG. The activity of this protein may be modulated by binding to the decoy receptors TNFRSF10C/TRAILR3, TNFRSF10D/TRAILR4, and TNFRSF11B/OPG that cannot induce apoptosis. The binding of this protein to its receptors has been shown to trigger the activation of MAPK8/JNK, caspase 8, and caspase 3. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 10
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Induction of apoptosis through DR3 and DR4/5 Death Receptors BIOCARTA
- Apoptosis KEGG
- Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction KEGG
- Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Related Links

Latest Publications: TNFSF10 (cancer-related)

Farooqi AA, Qureshi MZ, Rehman A, et al.
Prostate cancer: leading and misleading routes to TRAIL of death.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014; 27(5):1371-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a multifaceted disease that arises because of misrepresentation of linear and integrated signaling cascades that regulate gene network in normal and cancer cells. Programmed cell death is modulated by intracellular regulators within each cell and various lines of evidence suggest that there is under- expression and over-expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene subsets respectively. Apoptosis is a response to the cellular microenvironment, and the cell microenvironment can be regulated by multiple signaling cascades at a higher organizational level by suppressing survival signals notably at genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Unquestionably, drug-discovery approaches over the last decade aiming at neutralizing anti-apoptotic proteins, over-expressing pro-apoptotic proteins and enhancing the cell surface appearance of TRAIL receptors have revolutionized our current information about inducing and maximizing TRAIL mediated signaling in resistant prostate cancer phenotype. In this mini-review we outline outstanding developments in the field of prostate cancer that have played a role in understanding the underlying mechanisms that control TRAIL mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which may be helpful in the development of cancer therapies based on the apoptotic pathway.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

Ong M, Carreira S, Goodall J, et al.
Validation and utilisation of high-coverage next-generation sequencing to deliver the pharmacological audit trail.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(5):828-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Predictive biomarker development is a key challenge for novel cancer therapeutics. We explored the feasibility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to validate exploratory genomic biomarkers that impact phase I trial selection.
METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 158 patients with advanced solid tumours referred for phase I clinical trials at the Royal Marsden Hospital (October 2012 to March 2013). After fresh and/or archived tumour tissue were obtained, 93 patients remained candidates for phase I trials. Results from tumour sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq were cross-validated in 27 out of 93 patients on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (IT-PGM) blinded to results. MiSeq validation with Sequenom MassARRAY OncoCarta 1.0 (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was performed in a separate cohort.
RESULTS: We found 97% concordance of mutation calls by MiSeq and IT-PGM at a variant allele frequency ⩾13% and ⩾500 × depth coverage, and 91% concordance between MiSeq and Sequenom. Common 'actionable' mutations involved deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair (51%), RAS-RAF-MEK (35%), Wnt (26%), and PI3K-AKT-mTOR (24%) signalling. Out of 53, 29 (55%) patients participating in phase I trials were recommended based on identified actionable mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeted high-coverage NGS panels are a highly feasible single-centre technology well-suited to cross-platform validation, enrichment of trials with molecularly defined populations and hypothesis testing early in drug development.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Skender B, Hofmanová J, Slavík J, et al.
DHA-mediated enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells is associated with engagement of mitochondria and specific alterations in sphingolipid metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1841(9):1308-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oil, may exert cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effects on colon cancer cells when applied individually or in combination with some anticancer drugs. Here we demonstrate a selective ability of subtoxic doses of DHA to enhance antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of clinically useful cytokine TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand) in cancer but not normal human colon cells. DHA-mediated stimulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis was associated with extensive engagement of mitochondrial pathway (Bax/Bak activation, drop of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release), activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response (CHOP upregulation, changes in PERK level), decrease of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, cIAP1) levels and significant changes in sphingolipid metabolism (intracellular levels of ceramides, hexosyl ceramides, sphingomyelines, sphingosines; HPLC/MS/MS). Interestingly, we found significant differences in representation of various classes of ceramides (especially C16:0, C24:1) between the cancer and normal colon cells treated with DHA and TRAIL, and suggested their potential role in the regulation of the cell response to the drug combination. These study outcomes highlight the potential of DHA for a new combination therapy with TRAIL for selective elimination of colon cancer cells via simultaneous targeting of multiple steps in apoptotic pathways.

Related: Apoptosis Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer Signal Transduction DDIT3 gene BAK1

Lee JC, Lee WH, Min YJ, et al.
Development of TRAIL resistance by radiation-induced hypermethylation of DR4 CpG island in recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014; 88(5):1203-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using a previously established HN3 cell line from a laryngeal carcinoma patient, we generated a chronically irradiated HN3R isogenic cell line. Viability and apoptosis in HN3 and HN3R cells treated with TRAIL were analyzed with MTS and PI/annexin V-FITC assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to determine the underlying mechanism of TRAIL resistance. DR4 expression was semiquantitatively scored in a tissue microarray with 107 laryngeal cancer specimens. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing for DR4 were performed for genomic DNA isolated from each cell line.
RESULTS: HN3R cells were more resistant than HN3 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis because of significantly reduced levels of the DR4 receptor. The DR4 staining score in 37 salvage surgical specimens after radiation failure was lower in 70 surgical specimens without radiation treatment (3.03 ± 2.75 vs 5.46 ± 3.30, respectively; P<.001). HN3R cells had a methylated DR4 CpG island that was partially demethylated by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.
CONCLUSION: Epigenetic silencing of the TRAIL receptor by hypermethylation of a DR4 CpG island might be an underlying mechanism for TRAIL resistance in recurrent laryngeal carcinoma treated with radiation.

Related: Apoptosis Azacitidine Cancer of the Larynx Laryngeal Cancer - Molecular Biology

Zhou K, Yan Y, Zhao S
Esophageal cancer-selective expression of TRAIL mediated by MREs of miR-143 and miR-122.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(6):5787-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common digestive system neoplasms and has a quite poor prognosis. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces the apoptosis in a wide range of cancer cells including esophageal cancers. However, TRAIL also activates apoptotic pathway in normal cells. To improve the specificity of TRAIL action, we employed the microRNA (miRNA) response elements (MREs) of miR-143 and miR-122 to restrict TRAIL expression mediated by an adenoviral vector (Ad-TRAIL-143-122) in esophageal cancer cells. The experiments showed that Ad-TRAIL-143-122 was able to highly express TRAIL in esophageal cancer cells, but not normal cells. The selective TRAIL expression also led to selective apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Ad-TRAIL-143-122 greatly reduced the viability of esophageal cancer cells without cytotoxicity to normal cells. In mice, Ad-TRAIL-143-122 suppressed the growth of esophageal cancer xenografts and protected liver from TRAIL-induced toxicity. In this study, we constructed a biologic vector that can express exogenous genes in a tumor-specific manner. This strategy can simultaneously treat cancer and prevent hepatoxicity and thus may be a promising way for esophageal cancer treatment.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer

Jazirehi AR, Kurdistani SK, Economou JS
Histone deacetylase inhibitor sensitizes apoptosis-resistant melanomas to cytotoxic human T lymphocytes through regulation of TRAIL/DR5 pathway.
J Immunol. 2014; 192(8):3981-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Modern immune therapies (PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 checkpoints blockade and adoptive cell transfer) have remarkably improved the response rates of metastatic melanoma. These modalities rely on the killing potential of CTL as proximal mediator of antimelanoma responses. Mechanisms of tumor resistance to and the predominant cytotoxic pathway(s) used by melanoma-reactive CTL are important outcome determinants. We hypothesized that downmodulation of death receptors (DRs) in addition to aberrant apoptotic signaling might confer resistance to death signals delivered by CTL. To test these two hypotheses, we used an in vitro model of MART CTL-resistant melanoma sublines. TCR-transgenic and patient-derived CTLs used the TRAIL cytotoxic pathway through DR5. Furthermore, recombinant human TRAIL and drozitumab (anti-DR5 agonistic mAb) were used to explicitly verify the contribution of the DR5/TRAIL pathway in killing melanomas. CTL resistance was due to DR5 downregulation and an inverted ratio of pro- to antiapoptotic molecules, both of which were reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxanic acid. Apoptosis negative (c-IAP-2 and Bcl-xL) and positive (DR5) regulators were potential incriminators partly regulating CTL sensitivity. These preclinical findings suggest that exposure to this chromatin remodeling drug of immune-resistant melanomas can skew toward an intracellular proapoptotic milieu, increase DR expression, and overcome acquired immune resistance.

Related: Apoptosis CASP3 Melanoma Signal Transduction

Yi L, Zongyuan Y, Cheng G, et al.
Quercetin enhances apoptotic effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in ovarian cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-death receptor 5 pathway.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(5):520-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown efficacy in a phase 2 clinical trial, development of resistance to TRAIL by tumor cells is a major roadblock. We investigated whether quercetin, a flavonoid, can sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL. Results indicate that quercetin sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL. The quercetin induced expression of death receptor DR5 but did not affect expression of DR4 in cancer cells. The induction of DR5 was mediated through activation of JNK and through upregulation of a transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP); as silencing of these signaling molecules abrogated the effect of quercetin. Upregulation of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS scavengers reduced the effect of quercetin on JNK activation, CHOP upregulation, DR induction, TRAIL sensitization, downregulated the expression of cell survival proteins and upregulated the proapoptotic proteins. Furthermore, quercetin enhances TRAIL mediated inhibition of tumor growth of human SKOV-3 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, CHOP and DR5. Overall, our data suggest that quercetin enhances apoptotic death of ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL through upregulation of CHOP-induced DR5 expression following ROS mediated endoplasmic reticulum-stress.

Related: Apoptosis CASP3 Ovarian Cancer DDIT3 gene

Mao L, Yang C, Li L, et al.
Replication-competent adenovirus expressing TRAIL synergistically potentiates the antitumor effect of gemcitabine in bladder cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(6):5937-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Replication-competent adenovirus armed with therapeutic tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene has been shown to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the synergistic antitumor effect of replication-competent adenovirus expressing TRAIL and the cytotoxic chemotherapy in bladder cancer remains to be determined. Bladder cancer T24 cells or mouse tumor xenografts were infected with replication-competent adenovirus armed with human TRAIL (ZD55-TRAIL) alone or in combination with gemcitabine. The mRNA and protein levels of TRAIL were determined by "Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction" and Western blotting, respectively. Cell viability was tested by CCK8 assay. Tumor growth in the mice was monitored every week by measuring tumor size. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC staining and TUNEL assay. We found that adenovirus ZD55-TRAIL efficiently replicated both in cultured bladder cancer T24 cells and T24 mouse tumor xenograft as demonstrated by the overexpression of TRAIL and E1A. Gemcitabine did not affect the expression of TRAIL. In cultured T24 cells, ZD55-TRAIL enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of gemcitabine, accompanied by increased apoptosis. Similarly, ZD55-TRAIL synergistically enhanced the antitumor effect and induction of apoptosis following gemcitabine treatment in mouse T24 xenografts. In conclusion, replicative adenovirus armed with TRAIL synergistically potentiates the antitumor effect of gemcitabine in human bladder cancer. Our study provides the basis for the development of ZD55-TRAIL in combination with conventional chemotherapy for the treatment of bladder cancer.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology Gemcitabine

Gunda V, Bucur O, Varnau J, et al.
Blocks to thyroid cancer cell apoptosis can be overcome by inhibition of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1104 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Current treatment for recurrent and aggressive/anaplastic thyroid cancers is ineffective. Novel targeted therapies aimed at the inhibition of the mutated oncoprotein BRAF(V600E) have shown promise in vivo and in vitro but do not result in cellular apoptosis. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in a tumor-selective manner by activating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Here, we show that a TRAIL-R2 agonist antibody, lexatumumab, induces apoptosis effectively in some thyroid cancer cell lines (HTh-7, TPC-1 and BCPAP), while more aggressive anaplastic cell lines (8505c and SW1736) show resistance. Treatment of the most resistant cell line, 8505c, using lexatumumab in combination with the BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, PLX4720, and the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, (triple-drug combination) sensitizes the cells by triggering both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in vitro as well as 8505c orthotopic thyroid tumors in vivo. A decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins, pAkt, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and c-FLIP, coupled with an increase in the activator proteins, Bax and Bim, results in an increase in the Bax to Bcl-xL ratio that appears to be critical for sensitization and subsequent apoptosis of these resistant cells. Our results suggest that targeting the death receptor pathway in thyroid cancer can be a promising strategy for inducing apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells, although combination with other kinase inhibitors may be needed in some of the more aggressive tumors initially resistant to apoptosis.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Apoptosis BRAF gene AKT1 Thyroid Cancer

Rai R, Sharma KL, Sharma S, et al.
Death receptor (DR4) haplotypes are associated with increased susceptibility of gallbladder carcinoma in north Indian population.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e90264 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Defective apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer development and progression. Death receptors (DR4, FAS) and their ligands (TRAIL, FASL) are thought to mediate the major extrinsic apoptotic pathway in the cell. SNPs in these genes may lead to defective apoptosis. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the association of functional SNPs of DR4 (rs20575, rs20576 and rs6557634), FAS (rs2234767) and FASL (rs763110) with gallbladder cancer (GBC) risk.
METHODS: This case-control study included 400 GBC and 246 healthy controls (HC). Genotyping was carried out by Taqman genotyping assays. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS ver16. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2.0, BIOSTAT, Englewood, NJ) to systematically summarize the possible association of SNP with cancer risk. Functional prediction of these variants was carried out using Bioinformatics tools (FAST-SNP, F-SNP). False discovery rate (FDR test) was used in multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: The DR4 C rs20575 A rs20576 A rs6557634, G rs20575 A rs20576 G rs6557634 and G rs20575 C rs20576 G rs6557634 haplotypes conferred two-fold increased risk for GBC. Among these, the DR4 C rs20575 A rs20576 A rs6557634 haplotype emerged as main factor influencing GBC susceptibility as the risk was not modulated by gender or gallstone stratification. Our meta-analysis results showed significant association of DR4 rs6557634 with overall cancer risk, GI cancers as well as in Caucasians. We didn't find any association of FAS and FASL SNPs with GBC susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS: The DR4 haplotype C rs20575 A rs20576 A rs6557634 represents an important factor accounting the patients susceptibility to GBC probably due to decreased apoptosis. However, additional well-designed studies with larger sample size focusing on different ethnicities are required to further validate the results.

Related: TNFRSF6 gene Apoptosis Gallbladder Cancer

Chanda D, Lee JH, Sawant A, et al.
Anterior gradient protein-2 is a regulator of cellular adhesion in prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89940 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Anterior Gradient Protein (AGR-2) is reported to be over-expressed in many epithelial cancers and promotes metastasis. A clear-cut mechanism for its observed function(s) has not been previously identified. We found significant upregulation of AGR-2 expression in a bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, following culturing in bone marrow-conditioned medium. Substantial AGR-2 expression was also confirmed in prostate cancer tissue specimens in patients with bone lesions. By developing stable clones of PC3 cells with varying levels of AGR-2 expression, we identified that abrogation of AGR-2 significantly reduced cellular attachment to fibronectin, collagen I, collagen IV, laminin I and fibrinogen. Loss of cellular adhesion was associated with sharp decrease in the expression of α4, α5, αV, β3 and β4 integrins. Failure to undergo apoptosis following detachment is a hallmark of epithelial cancer metastasis. The AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells showed higher resistance to Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis- inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis in vitro. This observation was also supported by significantly reduced Caspase-3 expression in AGR-2-silenced PC3 cells, which is a key effector of both extrinsic and intrinsic death signaling pathways. These data suggest that AGR-2 influence prostate cancer metastasis by regulation of cellular adhesion and apoptosis.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Min KJ, Seo BR, Bae YC, et al.
Antipsychotic agent thioridazine sensitizes renal carcinoma Caki cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of Akt signaling and downregulation of Mcl-1 and c-FLIP(L).
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1063 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Thioridazine has been known as an antipsychotic agent, but it also has anticancer activity. However, the effect of thioridazine on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) sensitization has not yet been studied. Here, we investigated the ability of thioridazine to sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Combined treatment with thioridazine and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in various human carcinoma cells, including renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231), and glioma (U251MG) cells, but not in normal mouse kidney cells (TMCK-1) and human normal mesangial cells. We found that thioridazine downregulated c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational level via an increase in proteasome activity. The overexpression of c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 overcame thioridazine plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We further observed that thioridazine inhibited the Akt signaling pathway. In contrast, although other phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt inhibitors (LY294002 and wortmannin) sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 expressions were not altered. Furthermore, thioridazine increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caki cells, and ROS scavengers (N-acetylcysteine, glutathione ethyl ester, and trolox) inhibited thioridazine plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis, as well as Akt inhibition and the downregulation of c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1. Collectively, our study demonstrates that thioridazine enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via the ROS-mediated inhibition of Akt signaling and the downregulation of c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 at the post-translational level.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer CASP8 Kidney Cancer AKT1 Signal Transduction MCL1

Liu J, Edagawa M, Goshima H, et al.
Role of ATF3 in synergistic cancer cell killing by a combination of HDAC inhibitors and agonistic anti-DR5 antibody through ER stress in human colon cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(2):320-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are promising agents for cancer therapy. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for the efficacy of HDACIs have not yet to be fully elucidated. Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a transmembrane receptor containing death domain that triggers cell death upon binding to TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) or agonistic anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody, and the combination of TRAIL/agonistic anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody and agents that increase the expression of DR5 is expected as a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy. Here we report that six different HDACIs activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor PERK and eIF2α and induced the ATF4/ATF3/CHOP pathway in p53-deficient human colon cancer cells. This resulted in an increased expression of DR5 on the cell surface and sensitized cells to apoptosis by agonistic anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody. Stress response gene ATF3 was required for efficient DR5 induction by HDACIs, and DR5 reporter assay showed that ATF3 play crucial role for the HDACIs-induced activation of DR5 gene transcription. These provide important mechanistic insight into how HDACIs exhibit pro-apoptotic activity in clinical anti-cancer treatments when they are used in combination with other therapeutic strategies.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Apoptosis Signal Transduction DDIT3 gene TP53

Gasparini P, Fassan M, Cascione L, et al.
Androgen receptor status is a prognostic marker in non-basal triple negative breast cancers and determines novel therapeutic options.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88525 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors characterized by poor patient survival and lack of targeted therapeutics. Androgen receptor has been associated with triple negative breast cancer pathogenesis, but its role in the different subtypes has not been clearly defined. We examined androgen receptor protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 678 breast cancers, including 396 triple negative cancers. Fifty matched lymph node metastases were also examined. Association of expression status with clinical (race, survival) and pathological (basal, non-basal subtype, stage, grade) features was also evaluated. In 160 triple negative breast cancers, mRNA microarray expression profiling was performed, and differences according to androgen receptor status were analyzed. In triple negative cancers the percentage of androgen receptor positive cases was lower (24.8% vs 81.6% of non-triple negative cases), especially in African American women (16.7% vs 25.5% of cancers of white women). No significant difference in androgen receptor expression was observed in primary tumors vs matched metastatic lesions. Positive androgen receptor immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with tumor grade (p<0.01) and associated with better overall patient survival (p = 0.032) in the non-basal triple negative cancer group. In the microarray study, expression of three genes (HER4, TNFSF10, CDK6) showed significant deregulation in association with androgen receptor status; eg CDK6, a novel therapeutic target in triple negative cancers, showed significantly higher expression level in androgen receptor negative cases (p<0.01). These findings confirm the prognostic impact of androgen receptor expression in non-basal triple negative breast cancers, and suggest targeting of new androgen receptor-related molecular pathways in patients with these cancers.

Related: AR: androgen receptor

Lu J, Qin Q, Zhan LL, et al.
Association of four polymorphisms in the death receptor 4 gene with cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(6):5149-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
To date, no scientific consensus about the associations of DR4 C626G, A683C, A1322G, and G422A polymorphisms with cancer risk has been reached. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the associations. This meta-analysis involved 16 studies, of which 15 (4,261 cases and 4,598 controls) described C626G genotypes, 8 (2,898 cases and 3,135 controls) described A683C genotypes, 6 (1,564 cases and 1,673 controls) described A1322G genotypes, and 5 (584 cases and 607 controls) described A683C genotypes. We associated all the four polymorphisms with cancer risk. The C626G polymorphism was associated with slightly elevated cancer risk in recession model comparison [odds ratio (OR)=1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI)=1.00-1.26, P heterogeneity=0.425]. In the subgroup analysis by cancer type, significantly elevated cancer risks were found among groups with lung cancer for heterozygote comparison (OR=1.76, 95 % CI=1.00-3.09, P heterogeneity=0.863). The A1322G polymorphism was associated with significantly elevated cancer risk in the different models (heterozygote comparison: OR=1.21, 95 % CI=1.00-1.46, P heterogeneity=0.347; dominant model: OR=1.21, 95 % CI=1.01-1.46, P heterogeneity=0.189; allele model comparison for G allele vs. A allele: OR=1.17, 95 % CI=1.02-1.35, P heterogeneity=0.173). The A683C and G422A polymorphisms were not associated with cancer risk in all genetic models. The C626G and A1322G polymorphisms are associated with increased cancer risk, but the A683C polymorphism is rarely associated with cancer risk.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Polymorphisms

Deng Q, Zhang Z, Feng X, et al.
TRAIL-secreting mesenchymal stem cells promote apoptosis in heat-shock-treated liver cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice.
Gene Ther. 2014; 21(3):317-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the top six leading causes of cancer-related death. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important means of treating liver cancer. Residual cancer after RFA is the most frequent cause of recurrence in cases of liver cancer. The main difference between residual cancer cells and ordinary liver cancer cells is that residual cancer cells experience heat shock. The secretable form of trimeric human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (stTRAIL) induces apoptosis in a variety of human cancers but not in normal tissues. It has shown potent cancer-selective killing activity and has drawn considerable attention as a possible cancer therapy. In the present work, the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy was evaluated in hepatocellular carcinoma subjected to RFA. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were isolated and transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding stTRAIL (stTRAIL-MSCs, T-MSCs). Cells treated with heat treatment at 43 °C for 45 min served as simulated residual cancer cells. After treatment with T-MSCs, apoptosis in heat-shock-treated liver cancer cells increased significantly, and caspase-3 was upregulated. When T-MSCs were subcutaneously injected into nude mice, they localized to the tumors and inhibited tumor growth, significantly increasing survival. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that BM-MSC can provide a steady source of stTRAIL and may be suitable for use in the prevention of the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after RFA with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

Related: Apoptosis

Kim SM, Woo JS, Jeong CH, et al.
Potential application of temozolomide in mesenchymal stem cell-based TRAIL gene therapy against malignant glioma.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014; 3(2):172-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Because the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively kills tumor cells, it is one of the most promising candidates for cancer treatment. TRAIL-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-TRAIL) provide targeted and prolonged delivery of TRAIL in glioma therapy. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL of glioma cells is a major problem to be overcome. We showed a potential therapy that used MSC-TRAIL combined with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ). The antitumor effects of the combination with MSC-TRAIL and TMZ on human glioma cells were determined by using an in vitro coculture system and an in vivo experimental xenografted mouse model. Intracellular signaling events that are responsible for the TMZ-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were also evaluated. Treatment of either TRAIL-sensitive or -resistant human glioma cells with TMZ and MSC-TRAIL resulted in a significant enhancement of apoptosis compared with the administration of each agent alone. We demonstrated that TMZ effectively increased the sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated upregulation of the death receptor 5 and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. Subsequently, this combined treatment resulted in a substantial increase in caspase activation. Furthermore, in vivo survival experiments and bioluminescence imaging analyses showed that treatment using MSC-TRAIL combined with TMZ had greater therapeutic efficacy than did single-agent treatments. These results suggest that the combination of clinically relevant TMZ and MSC-TRAIL is a potential therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of malignant gliomas.

Related: Apoptosis Dacarbazine Temozolomide

Gasparini C, Celeghini C, Monasta L, Zauli G
NF-κB pathways in hematological malignancies.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014; 71(11):2083-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nuclear factor κB or NF-κB transcription factor family plays a key role in several cellular functions, i.e. inflammation, apoptosis, cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, and innate and acquired immunity. The constitutive activation of NF-κB is typical of most malignancies and plays a major role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we describe NF-κB and its two pathways: the canonical pathway (RelA/p50) and the non-canonical pathway (RelB/p50 or RelB/p52). We then consider the role of the NF-κB subunits in the development and functional activity of B cells, T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, which are the targets of hematological malignancies. The relevance of the two pathways is described in normal B and T cells and in hematological malignancies, acute and chronic leukemias (ALL, AML, CLL, CML), B lymphomas (DLBCLs, Hodgkin's lymphoma), T lymphomas (ATLL, ALCL) and multiple myeloma. We describe the interaction of NF-κB with the apoptotic pathways induced by TRAIL and the transcription factor p53. Finally, we discuss therapeutic anti-tumoral approaches as mono-therapies or combination therapies aimed to block NF-κB activity and to induce apoptosis (PARAs and Nutlin-3).

Related: Haematological Malignancies & Realted Disorders Signal Transduction TP53

Yan C, Yang M, Li Z, et al.
Suppression of orthotopically implanted hepatocarcinoma in mice by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells with sTRAIL gene expression driven by AFP promoter.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(9):3035-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents in tumor therapy. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) resemble bone marrow-derived MSCs with respect to hepatic differentiation potential in injured livers in animals, while their hepatic differentiation under the hepatocarcinoma microenvironment is unclear. In this study, HUMSCs were isolated and transduced by lentiviral vectors coding the soluble human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) gene driven by alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter to investigate the therapeutic effects of these HUMSC against orthotopically implanted hepatocarcinoma in mice. We showed that HUMSCs can be transduced by lentivirus efficiently. HUMSCs developed cuboidal morphology, and expressed AFP and albumin in a two-step protocol. HUMSCs were capable of migrating to hepatocarcinoma in vitro as well as in vivo. In the orthotopical hepatocarcinoma microenvironment, the AFP promoter was activated during the early hepatic differentiation of HUMSCs. After intravenous injected, MSC.AFPILZ-sTRAIL expressed sTRAIL exclusively at the tumor site, and exhibited significant antitumor activity. This effect was stronger when in combination with 5-FU. The treatment was tolerated well in mice. Collectively, our results provide a potential strategy for targeted tumor therapy relying on the use of the tumor tropism and specific differentiation of HUMSCs as vehicles.

Related: Fluorouracil Liver Cancer

Ashour AE, Abd-Allah AR, Korashy HM, et al.
Thymoquinone suppression of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth involves inhibition of IL-8 expression, elevated levels of TRAIL receptors, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 389(1-2):85-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common solid tumor worldwide. The chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) is overexpressed in HCC and is a potential target for therapy. Although the transcription factor NF-κB regulates IL-8 expression, and while thymoquinone (TQ; the most bioactive constituent of black seed oil) inhibits NF-κB activity, the precise mechanisms by which TQ regulates IL-8 and cancer cell growth remain to be clarified. Here, we report that TQ inhibited growth of HCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, caused G2M cell cycle arrest, and stimulated apoptosis. Apoptosis was substantiated by activation of caspase-3 and -9, as well as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. TQ treatments inhibited expression of NF-κB and suppressed IL-8 and its receptors. TQ treatments caused increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mRNAs of oxidative stress-related genes, NQO1 and HO-1. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with N-acetylcysteine, a scavenger of ROS, prevented TQ-induced cell death. TQ treatment stimulated mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS and TRAIL death receptors, and inhibited expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. TQ enhanced TRAIL-induced death of HepG2 cells, in part by up-regulating TRAIL death receptors, inhibiting NF-κB and IL-8 and stimulating apoptosis. Altogether, these findings provide insights into the pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of TQ-dependent suppression of HCC cell growth and underscore potential of this compound as anti-HCC drug.

Related: Apoptosis CASP3 Liver Cancer

Zhao X, Liu X, Su L
Parthenolide induces apoptosis via TNFRSF10B and PMAIP1 pathways in human lung cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Parthenolide (PTL) is a sesquiterpene lactone which can induce apoptosis in cancer cells and eradicate cancer stem cells such as leukemia stem cells, prostate tumor-initiating cells and so on. However, the mechanism remains largely unclear.
METHODS: Lung cancer cells were treated with parthenolide and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot analysis, and the cell survival was assayed by SRB and MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated by DNA flow cytometry analysis. TNFRSF10B, PMAIP1, ATF4 and DDIT3 genes were knocked down by siRNA technique. Apoptosis was evaluated by using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry analysis.
RESULTS: Parthenolide (PTL) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human lung cancer cells. Moreover, PTL treatment in NSCLC cells increases expression of TNFRSF10B/DR5 and PMAIP1/NOXA. Silencing of TNFRSF10B or PMAIP1 or overexpression of CFLAR /c-FLIP (long form) could protect cells from PTL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, PTL could increase the levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress hallmarks such as ERN1, HSPA5, p-EIF2A, ATF4 and DDIT3. Knockdown of ATF4 and DDIT3 abrogated PTL-induced apoptosis, which suggested that PTL induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. More importantly, we found that ATF4, DDIT3, TNFRSF10B and PMAIP1 were up-regulated more intensively, while CFLAR and MCL1 were down-regulated more dramatically by PTL in A549/shCDH1 cells than that in control cells, suggesting that PTL preferred to kill cancer stem cell-like cells by activating more intensive ER stress response in cancer stem cell-like cells.
CONCLUSION: We showed that parthenolide not only triggered extrinsic apoptosis by up-regulating TNFRSF10B and down-regulating CFLAR, but also induced intrinsic apoptosis through increasing the expression of PMAIP1 and decreasing the level of MCL1 in NSCLC cells. In addition, parthenolide triggered stronger ER stress response in cancer stem cell-like cells which leads to its preference in apoptotic induction. In summary, PTL induces apoptosis in NSCLC cells by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Related: Apoptosis CASP8 Lung Cancer Risk Factors and Prevention of Lung Cancer DDIT3 gene MCL1 TNFRSF10B

Jalving M, Heijink DM, Koornstra JJ, et al.
Regulation of TRAIL receptor expression by β-catenin in colorectal tumours.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1092-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumour-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is being investigated as a targeted cancer therapeutic and the expression of its pro-apoptotic receptors, DR4 and DR5, increases during colorectal carcinogenesis. This study investigated the role of β-catenin in the regulation of these receptors. In human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cell lines, downregulation of β-catenin resulted in lower total DR4 and DR5 protein levels. Similarly, cell membrane expression of DR4 and DR5 was reduced after downregulation of β-catenin in colon carcinoma cells, whereas induction of β-catenin in HeLa cells led to increased cell membrane expression of DR4 and DR5. Downregulation of β-catenin decreased the recombinant human TRAIL sensitivity of human colon carcinoma cells. Activation of the transcription factor T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4) is an important function of β-catenin. Dominant-negative TCF-4 overexpression, however, did not significantly affect TRAIL receptor expression or recombinant human TRAIL sensitivity. Human colorectal adenomas (N = 158) with aberrant (cytoplasmic and nuclear) β-catenin expression had a higher percentage of immunohistochemical DR4 and DR5 staining per tumour (mean: 73 and 88%, respectively) than those with membranous β-catenin staining only (mean: 50 and 70%, respectively, P < 0.01 for both). Furthermore, aberrant β-catenin staining co-localized with DR4 and DR5 expression in 92% of adenomas. In 53 human colorectal carcinomas, aberrant β-catenin expression was present in most cases and DR4/5 expression was largely homogenous. Similarly, in adenomas from APC(min) mice, cytoplasmic β-catenin staining co-localized with staining for the murine TRAIL death receptor. In conclusion, the gradual increase in TRAIL receptor expression during colorectal carcinogenesis is at least partially mediated through increased β-catenin expression, independently of TCF-4-signalling.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer CTNNB1 gene

Shinjo K, Yamashita Y, Yamamoto E, et al.
Expression of chromobox homolog 7 (CBX7) is associated with poor prognosis in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma via TRAIL-induced apoptotic pathway regulation.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(2):308-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary (OCCA), in particular, has a relatively poor prognosis among the ovarian cancer subtypes because of its high chemoresistance. Chromobox (CBX) 7 is a polycomb repressive complex 1 component that prolongs the lifespan of normal human cells by downregulating the INK4a/ARF expression which promotes cell-cycle progression. However, recent reports studying the relationship between CBX7 expression and patient survival have differed regarding the tumor cell origins, and the precise role of CBX7 in human carcinomas remains obscure. In this study, we analyzed CBX7 expression by immunohistochemistry in 81 OCCA patients and evaluated its association with their clinical outcomes. Both the overall and progression-free survival rates of the CBX7-positive patients were significantly shorter than those of the CBX7-negative patients (p < 0.05). CBX7 knockdown experiments using two OCCA cell lines, TOV21G and KOC-7C, revealed that cell viability was significantly reduced compared to the control cells (p < 0.001). Expression microarray analysis revealed that apoptosis-related genes, particularly tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), were significantly upregulated in CBX7 knockdown cells (p < 0.01). We further confirmed that CBX7 knockdown resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the OCCA cells. Thus, in this study, we showed for the first time that CBX7 was associated with a decreased OCCA prognosis. We also successfully demonstrated that the TRAIL pathway is a novel target for CBX7 expression modulation in these cells, and therapeutic agents utilizing the TRAIL pathway may be particularly effective for targeted OCCA therapy.

Related: Apoptosis FISH Ovarian Cancer Signal Transduction

Di Fiore R, Marcatti M, Drago-Ferrante R, et al.
Mutant p53 gain of function can be at the root of dedifferentiation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells into 3AB-OS cancer stem cells.
Bone. 2014; 60:198-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a highly metastatic tumor affecting adolescents, for which there is no second-line chemotherapy. As suggested for most tumors, its capability to overgrow is probably driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs), and finding new targets to kill CSCs may be critical for improving patient survival. TP53 is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in cancers and mutant p53 protein (mutp53) can acquire gain of function (GOF) strongly contributing to malignancy. Studies thus far have not shown p53-GOF in osteosarcoma. Here, we investigated TP53 gene status/role in 3AB-OS cells-a highly aggressive CSC line previously selected from human osteosarcoma MG63 cells-to evaluate its involvement in promoting proliferation, invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis and stemness. By RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization, DNA sequence, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses, we have shown that-in comparison with parental MG63 cells where TP53 gene is hypermethylated, rearranged and in single copy-in 3AB-OS cells, TP53 is unmethylated, rearranged and in multiple copies, and mutp53 (p53-R248W/P72R) is post-translationally modified and with nuclear localization. p53-R248W/P72R-knockdown by short-interfering RNA reduced the growth and replication rate of 3AB-OS cells, markedly increasing cell cycle inhibitor levels and sensitized 3AB-OS cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation; moreover, it strongly decreased the levels of stemness and invasiveness genes. We have also found that the ectopic expression of p53-R248W/P72R in MG63 cells promoted cancer stem-like features, as high proliferation rate, sphere formation, clonogenic growth, high migration and invasive ability; furthermore, it strongly increased the levels of stemness proteins. Overall, the findings suggest the involvement of p53-R248W/P72R at the origin of the aberrant characters of the 3AB-OS cells with the hypothesis that its GOF can be at the root of the dedifferentiation of MG63 cells into CSCs.

Related: Apoptosis Osteosarcoma TP53

Gatti L, Cossa G, Tinelli S, et al.
Improved apoptotic cell death in drug-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-based treatment.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014; 348(3):360-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since response to platinum-based therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is poor, the present study was designed to rationally identify novel drug combinations in cell models including the A549 cell line and the cisplatin-resistant subline A549/Pt, characterized by reduced sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and by upregulation of efflux transporters of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Given the molecular features of these cells, we focused on compounds triggering apoptosis through different mechanisms, such as the mitochondria-targeting drug arsenic trioxide and the phenanthridine analog sanguinarine, which induce apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. Sanguinarine, not recognized by ABC transporters, could overcome cisplatin resistance and, when used in combination with arsenic trioxide, was synergistic in A549 and A549/Pt cells. The arsenic trioxide/sanguinarine cotreatment upregulated genes implicated in apoptosis activation through the extrinsic pathway. Drug combination experiments indicated that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) treatment improved arsenic trioxide/sanguinarine efficacy, a feature associated with a striking apoptosis induction, particularly in the cisplatin-resistant variant. Thus, a synergistic interaction between sanguinarine and arsenic trioxide could be obtained independent of relative cell sensitivity to arsenic trioxide, and an enhanced apoptosis induction could be achieved in combination with TRAIL through modulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Antitumor activity studies supported the interest of drug combinations including TRAIL in NSCLC, indicating that drug-resistant NSCLC cells can efficiently be killed by the combination of proapoptotic agents. Our results suggest that the molecular changes occurring in treated cells may be exploited to rationally hit surviving cells.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cisplatin Lung Cancer

Zhu H, Huang M, Ren D, et al.
The synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:293874 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member which has been under intense focus because of its remarkable ability to induce apoptosis in malignant human cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. However, many cancer cells remain resistant to TRAIL. In this study, we had investigated the synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil (5-Fu) and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells and explored the potential mechanisms. Cell viability was analyzed by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the synergistic effects were evaluated by Jin's formula and confirmed by both morphological changes under inverted microscope and flow cytometry. The expression of TRAIL-R1 (death receptor 4, DR4), TRAIL-R2 (DR5), TRAIL-R3 (decoy receptor, DcR1), TRAIL-R4 (DcR2), procaspase-3, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 was detected by western blotting. Our results showed that there were significant synergistic effects of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant AGS cells, and this effect was supposed to be mediated by decreasing DcR2 expression and increasing DR5 expression. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were both activated. The data suggest that combined treatment of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL can be an effective therapeutic approach for gastric adenocarcinoma.

Related: Apoptosis Fluorouracil Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer TNFRSF10B

Wu P, Cheng YW, Wang JY, et al.
Inhibition of MEK sensitizes gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(2):136-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which has long been believed to be highly selective in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, has turned out to be a molecule that induces a far more diverse range of effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not ERK1/2 pathway is involved in antitumor effects of TRAIL on gastric cancer cells. In addition to activate the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway, TRAIL also triggered the activation of ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling by MEK inhibitor U0126 promoted cell death via increased activation of caspases, drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and downregulation of XIAP, cIAP2 and Mcl-1. These results indicate that TRAIL-induced rapid activation of ERK1/2 may be a survival mechanism to struggle against TRAIL assault at the early stage, and inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling can sensitize gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Related: Apoptosis Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer BIRC3 gene MCL1

Yang H, Chen X, Wang X, et al.
Inhibition of PP2A activity confers a TRAIL-sensitive phenotype during malignant transformation.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(2):217-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent because it induces apoptosis in the majority of human cancer cells but spares the normal cells. To determine the mechanistic nature of how normal cells acquire a TRAIL-sensitive phenotype during the process of malignant transformation, an experimental cell system was developed by sequential introduction of human telomerase reverse transcriptase and SV40 T antigens (large and small) into normal human prostatic epithelial cells (PrEC). This model system demonstrated that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), either by SV40 small T antigen, okadaic acid, Calyculin A, or PP2A catalytic subunit siRNA, sensitized normal human PrEC and immortalized cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, sensitization occurred during the premalignant period of tumorigenesis and PP2A exerted its antiapoptotic activity by negatively regulating c-Fos/AP-1. In addition, low-dose okadaic acid treatment sensitized TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to TRAIL, suggesting that PP2A inhibitors could be used as an enhancer of apoptosis induced by TRAIL or TRAIL-like agents. These data indicate that downregulation of PP2A activity is a critical step for normal cells to acquire a TRAIL-sensitive phenotype during tumorigenesis and that the level of PP2A activity may foretell cellular sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
IMPLICATIONS: Inhibition of PP2A is a key determinant in acquiring TRAIL sensitivity during tumorigenesis, with c-Fos/AP-1 as an essential mediator.

Related: Apoptosis TERT

Huo W, Jin N, Fan L, Wang W
MiRNA regulation of TRAIL expression exerts selective cytotoxicity to prostate carcinoma cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 388(1-2):123-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer for men and among the leading cancer-related causes. Many evidences have shown that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) potently induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and thus, is a promising biologic agent for prostate carcinoma therapy. However, TRAIL expression mediated by the current vectors lacks tumor specificity, thereby exerting cytotoxicity to normal cells. To solve this problem, we inserted miRNA response elements (MREs), miR-143 and miR-145, expression levels of which were reduced in prostate carcinoma, as well as that of miR-122, which is specifically expressed in hepatic cells, into adenoviral vectors to control TRAIL expression (Ad-TRAIL-M3). qPCR data confirmed that miR-143, miR-145, and miR-122 levels were all decreased in prostate carcinoma cell lines and prostate cancer samples from patients. Luciferase assays showed that MREs-regulated luciferase expression was potently suppressed in normal cells, but not in prostate cancer cells. Ad-TRAIL-M3, which expresses TRAIL in a MREs-regulated manner, produced high level of TRAIL and suppressed the survival of prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, while Ad-TRAIL-M3 had no TRAIL expression in normal cells and thus exerted no cytotoxicity to them. The studies on PC-3 tumor xenograft in mice further confirmed that Ad-TRAIL-M3 was able to inhibit the growth of tumors and possessed high biosafety. In conclusion, we successfully generated an adenoviral vector that expresses TRAIL in miRNA-regulated mechanism. This miRNA-based gene therapy may be promising for prostate carcinoma treatment.

Related: Apoptosis CASP3 Prostate Cancer

Sonnemann J, Marx C, Becker S, et al.
p53-dependent and p53-independent anticancer effects of different histone deacetylase inhibitors.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(3):656-67 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising antineoplastic agents, but their precise mechanisms of actions are not well understood. In particular, the relevance of p53 for HDACi-induced effects has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the anticancer effects of four structurally distinct HDACi, vorinostat, entinostat, apicidin and valproic acid, using isogenic HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines differing in p53 status.
METHODS: Effects were assessed by MTT assay, flow-cytometric analyses of propidium iodide uptake, mitochondrial depolarisation and cell-cycle distribution, as well as by gene expression profiling.
RESULTS: Vorinostat was equally effective in p53 wild-type and null cells, whereas entinostat was less effective in p53 null cells. Histone deacetylase inhibitors treatment suppressed the expression of MDM2 and increased the abundance of p53. Combination treatments showed that vorinostat enhanced the cytotoxic activity of TRAIL and bortezomib, independent of the cellular p53 status. Investigations into the effects of an inhibitor of the sirtuin class of HDAC, tenovin-1, revealed that tenovin-1-mediated cell death hinged on p53.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that vorinostat activates p53, but does not require p53 for inducing its anticancer action. Yet they also demonstrate that entinostat-induced cytotoxic effects partially depend on p53, indicating that different HDACi have a different requirement for p53.

Related: MDM2 gene TP53


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TNFSF10, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/TNFSF10.htm Accessed: date

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