Gene Summary

Gene:STAT3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein is activated through phosphorylation in response to various cytokines and growth factors including IFNs, EGF, IL5, IL6, HGF, LIF and BMP2. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. The small GTPase Rac1 has been shown to bind and regulate the activity of this protein. PIAS3 protein is a specific inhibitor of this protein. Mutations in this gene are associated with infantile-onset multisystem autoimmune disease and hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: STAT3 (cancer-related)

Shen L, Zhang G, Lou Z, et al.
Cryptotanshinone enhances the effect of Arsenic trioxide in treating liver cancer cell by inducing apoptosis through downregulating phosphorylated- STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is approved for treating terminal-stage liver cancer in China. Cryptotanshinone (CT), a STAT3 inhibitor, has exhibited certain anti-tumor potency; however, the use of CT enhanced ATO for treating liver cancer has not been reported. Here we try to elucidate how CT could enhance the efficacy of ATO for treating liver cancer and its correlation to STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Cell viability of ATO combined with CT was assessed by (1)MTT assay. Cell apoptosis induced by ATO combined with CT was detected by Annexin V/PI staining and apoptosis-related proteins were detected by western blotting. STAT3-related proteins were analysis by western blotting analysis and Immunofluorescence assays. Efficacy evaluation of ATO combined with CT on xenograft was carried in nude mice and related proteins were analysis by Immunohistochemistry assays.
RESULTS: First we evaluated cell vitality, and our data indicated that the ATO combined with CT showed obvious growth inhibition of Bel-7404 cells compared to ATO or CT alone. Next we found that ATO combined with CT induced cell apoptosis in Bel-7404 cells and upregulated the activation of apoptosis-related proteins cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a time-dependent manner. Next, we found that ATO combined with CT not only inhibited the constitutive levels of phosphorylated-JAK2 and phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) but did so in a time-dependent manner. We also found that ATO combined with CT reversed the upregulated expression of phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) stimulated by interleukin-6 and downregulated STAT3 direct target genes and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, XIAP, and survivin but obviously upregulated the promoting apoptosis proteins Bak,.In vivo studies showed that ATO combined with CT decreased tumor growth. Tumors from ATO combined with CT-treated mice showed decreased levels of phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 but an increased level of pro-apoptotic protein Bax.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that CT could enhance the efficacy of ATO in treating liver cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of phosphorylated-STAT3 expression may play an important role in inducing apoptosis of Bel-7404 cells.

Shi D, Liang L, Zheng H, et al.
Silencing of long non-coding RNA SBDSP1 suppresses tumor growth and invasion in colorectal cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:355-361 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in tumor development and progression. This study was undertaken to examine the expression and biological functions of a novel lncRNA SBDSP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to measure the expression of SBDSP1 in CRC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of SBDSP1 via short hairpin RNA technology was performed to determine the roles of SBDSP1 in CRC cell growth, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion. The effect of SBDSP1 knockdown on tumorigenesis of CRC cells was investigated in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model. Western blot analysis was done to examine the involvement of signaling pathways in the action of SBDSP1. Notably, SBDSP1 was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cells relative to corresponding normal controls. Moreover, SBDSP1 expression was significantly greater in CRCs with nodal metastasis than in primary tumors (P=0.0259). Downregulation of SBDSP1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in SW480 and HCT116 cells, which was accompanied by suppression of Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 phosphorylation. SBDSP1-depleted cells showed a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and deregulation of p21 and cyclin D1. In vivo studies confirmed that SBDSP1 downregulation retarded the growth of HCT116 xenogaft tumors. Altogether, SBDSP1 plays an essential role in CRC cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis, largely through inactivation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, targeting SBDSP1 may have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of CRC.

Zhu D, Shen Z, Liu J, et al.
The ROS-mediated activation of STAT-3/VEGF signaling is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced angiogenesis in human breast cancer cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2016; 264:79-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females worldwide, and angiogenesis plays a crucial role in BC progression. 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator, which promotes the growth and metastasis of BC. Here, we further found that, 27HC improved the angiogenic ability of BC in a VEGF-dependent manner. For the molecular mechanisms, on one hand, as an estrogen-like factor, 27HC enhanced the expression of VEGF by the classical ERα/VEGF signaling in ER-positive BC cells; on the other hand, in both ER-positive and ER-negative BC cells, 27HC enhanced the generation of ROS, which in turn activated the STAT-3/VEGF signaling in an ER independent manner. Either blocking the generation of ROS or knockdown of STAT-3 attenuated the 27HC-induced autocrine of VEGF and angiogenesis. These findings not only suggested a mechanism whereby 27HC enhanced the angiogenesis, but also helped to recognize the 27HC as a novel potential harmful factor in BC, especially in the menopause patients.

Jin Z, Zhou S, Zhang Y, et al.
Lycorine induces cell death in MM by suppressing Janus Kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription via inducing the expression of SOCS1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1645-1653 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the use of novel anti-myeloma agents,nearly all patients will eventually relapse or become refractory to drug treatment. New and more effective drugs for multiple myeloma (MM) are urgently needed. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is important in the proliferation of myeloma cells.Lycorine,a natural alkaloid extracted from amaryllidaceae, has shown anti-tumor effects against a variety of solid tumors. However, its effects on MM remain unclear.In this study,we found that lycorine inhibited cellular viability and induced cell death in MM cell lines and primary myeloma cells which were derived from our four MM patients. The study showed that myeloma cells' cycle was being arrested under the G0/G1 phase followed by the lycorine treatment. Further mechanism analysis demonstrated that lycorine inhibited JAK2/STAT signaling through upregulation of SOCS1 in MM cells and patient MM cells.Importantly, we found that knockdown of HDAC8 resulted in increased expression of SOCS1. Collectively, our findings suggested lycorine acted as a potent novel histone deacetylase inhibitor and inhibited JAK2/STAT signaling through upregulation of SOCS1 in MM cells.

Wu K, Shen B, Jiang F, et al.
TRPP2 Enhances Metastasis by Regulating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(6):2203-2215 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Surgery and chemotherapy treatments of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HLSCC) may fail due to metastasis, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role. TRPP2, a nonselective cation channel, is expressed in various cell types and participates in many biological processes. Here, we show that TRPP2 enhanced metastasis by regulating EMT.
METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry, western blotting, Ca2+ imaging, transwell and wound healing assays to investigate TRPP2 expression levels in HLSCC tissue, and the role of TRPP2 in invasion and metastasis of a human laryngocarcinoma cell line (Hep2 cell).
RESULTS: We found that TRPP2 protein expression levels were significantly increased in HLSCC tissue; higher TRPP2 levels were associated with decreased patient survival time and degree of differentiation and advanced clinical stage. Knockdown of TRPP2 by transfection with TRPP2 siRNA markedly suppressed ATP-induced Ca2+ release, wound healing, and cell invasion in Hep2 cells. Moreover, TRPP2 siRNA significantly decreased vimentin expression but increased E-cadherin expression in Hep2 cells. In the EMT signalling pathway, TRPP2 siRNA significantly decreased Smad4, STAT3, SNAIL, SLUG and TWIST expression in Hep2 cells.
CONCLUSION: We revealed a previously unknown function of TRPP2 in cancer development and a TRPP2-dependent mechanism underlying laryngocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis. Our results suggest that TRPP2 may be used as a biomarker for evaluating patient prognosis and as a novel therapeutic target in HLSCC.

Fu Y, Xiong J
MicroRNA-124 enhances response to radiotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cells by targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.
Croat Med J. 2016; 57(5):457-464 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine whether microRNA (miR)-124 enhances the response to radiotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer cells by targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3).
METHODS: miR-29b expression was measured in 80 pairs of breast tumor samples and adjacent normal tissues collected between January 2013 and July 2014. Activity changes of 50 canonical signaling pathways upon miR-124 overexpression were determined using Cignal Signal Transduction Reporter Array. Target gene of miR-124 was determined using Targetscan and validated by Western blotting and dual-luciferase assay. Cell death rate was assessed by propidium iodide (PI)/Annexin V staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Stat3 and miR-124 expression was further measured in 10 relapsed (non-responder) and 10 recurrence-free HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: MiR-124 expression was down-regulated in HER2 positive breast cancers compared with normal tissues, and was negatively associated with tumor size. MiR-124 overexpression in HER2 positive breast cancer cell line SKBR3 significantly reduced the activity of Stat3 signaling pathway compared with control transfection (P<0.001). Bioinformatic prediction and function assay suggested that miR-124 directly targeted Stat3, which is a key regulator of HER2 expression. MiR-124 overexpression down-regulated Stat3 and potently enhanced cell death upon irradiation. Consistently, chemical inhibitor of Stat3 also sensitized HER2-positive breast cancer cells to irradiation. Moreover, increased Stat3 expression and reduced miR-124 expression were associated with a poor response to radiotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Weak miR-124 expression might enhance Stat3 expression and radiotherapy resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

Vesely DL
Heart Peptide Hormones: Adjunct and Primary Treatments of Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):5693-5700 [PubMed] Related Publications
Four heart hormones, namely atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP), vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide reduce up to 97% of cancer cells in vitro. These four cardiac hormones eliminate up to 80% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas, two-thirds of human breast carcinomas and up to 86% of human small-cell lung carcinomas growing in athymic mice. ANP given intravenously for 3 hours after 'curative' lung surgery as an adjunct to surgery results in a 2-year relapse-free survival of 91% compared to 75% for those treated with surgery alone. The anticancer mechanisms of action of these peptides involve binding to receptors on the cancer cells, followed by 95% inhibition of the conversion of inactive to active rat sarcoma-bound guanosine triphosphate (RAS)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases 1/2 (MEK 1/2) (98% inhibition)-extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) (96% inhibition) cascade in cancer cells. They are dual inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its VEGF2 receptor (up to 89%). They also inhibit MAPK9, i.e. c-JUN-N-terminal kinase 2. One of the downstream targets of VEGF is β-catenin, which these peptides inhibit by up to 88%. These four peptide hormones inhibit the Wingless-related integration site (WNT) pathway 68% and WNT secreted-Frizzled protein is reduced by up to 84%. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a final 'switch' that activates gene expression that leads to malignancy, is specifically reduced up to 88% by these peptides but they do not affect STAT1. There is crosstalk between the RAS-MEK 1/2-ERK 1/2 kinase cascade, VEGF, β-catenin, JNK, WNT, and STAT pathways and each of these pathways and their crosstalk is inhibited by these peptide hormones. They enter the nucleus of cancer cells where they inhibit the proto-oncogenes c-FOS (by up to 82%) and c-JUN (by up to 61%).
CONCLUSION: These multiple kinase inhibitors have both adjunct and primary anticancer effects.

Xu Y, Lv SX
The effect of JAK2 knockout on inhibition of liver tumor growth by inducing apoptosis, autophagy and anti-proliferation via STATs and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1202-1212 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, making it as the second most common cause for death from cancer globally. Though many studies before have explored a lot for liver cancer prevention and treatment, there are still a lot far from to know based on the molecular mechanisms. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) has been reported to play an essential role in the progression of apoptosis, autophagy and proliferation for cells. Therefore, we were aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which JAK2 performed its role in ameliorating liver cancer. JAK2 knockout liver cancer cell lines were involved for our experiments in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, and flow-cytometric analysis were used to determine the key signaling pathway regulated by JAK2 for liver cancer progression. Data here indicated that JAK2, indeed, expressed highly in cancer cell lines compared to the normal liver cells. And apoptosis and autophagy were found in JAK2 knockout liver cancer cells through activating Caspase-3, Cyclin-D1 and mTOR regulated by STAT3/5 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. And also, the liver cancer cells proliferation was inhibited. In addition, tumor size and weight were reduced by knockout of JAK2 in vivo experiments. These findings demonstrated that JAK2 and its down-streaming signaling pathways play a direct role in the progression of liver cancer possibly. To our knowledge, it was the first time to evaluate the role of JAK2 knockout in improving liver cancer from apoptosis, autophagy and proliferation, which could be a potential target for future therapeutic approach clinically.

Rabi T, Catapano CV
Aphanin, a triterpenoid from Amoora rohituka inhibits K-Ras mutant activity and STAT3 in pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12455-12464 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations of the K-Ras gene occur in over 90 % of pancreatic carcinomas, and to date, no targeted therapies exist for this genetically defined subset of cancers. STAT3 plays a critical role in KRAS-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target in this cancer. Therefore, finding novel and potential drugs to inhibit oncogenic K-Ras is a major challenge in cancer therapy. In an attempt to develop novel anti-KRAS mutant chemotherapeutics, we isolated three novel triterpenoids from Amoora rohituka stem and their chemical structures were characterized by extensive (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, Mass, IR spectroscopic studies and chemical transformations. Aphanin (3 alpha-angeloyloxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is one of the isolated novel triterpenoid compounds. We found aphanin exhibited antiproliferative effects, caused G0-G1 cell cycle arrest, inhibits K-Ras G12D mutant activity by decreased STAT3, p-STAT3, Akt, p-Akt, cyclin D1 and c-Myc expressions, and induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer HPAF-II (ΔKRAS (G12D) ) cells. The apoptosis proceeded through depletion of GSH with a concomitant increase in the reactive oxygen species production. The results of our study have important implications for the development of aphanin as potential novel agent for the treatment of K-Ras mutant pancreatic cancer, and STAT3-cMyc-cyclinD1 axis may serve as an important predictive biomarker for the therapeutic efficacy.

Peng J, Wang Q, Liu H, et al.
EPHA3 regulates the multidrug resistance of small cell lung cancer via the PI3K/BMX/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11959-11971 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). EPHA3 has been revealed to be the most frequently mutated Eph receptor gene in lung cancer with abnormal expression. Growing evidence indicates that the signaling proteins of EPHA3 downstream, including PI3K, BMX and STAT3, play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. To explore the possible role of EPHA3 in MDR, we assessed the influence of EPHA3 on chemoresistance, cell cycle, apoptosis, and tumor growth, as well as the relationship between EPHA3 and the expression of PI3K, BMX, and STAT3 in SCLC. We observed that overexpression of EPHA3 in SCLC cells decreased chemoresistance by increasing apoptosis and inducing G0/G1 arrest, accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of PI3K/BMX/STAT3 signaling pathway. Knockdown of EPHA3 expression generated a resistant phenotype of SCLC, as a result of decreased apoptosis and induced G2/M phase arrest. And re-expression of EPHA3 in these cells reversed the resistant phenotype. Meanwhile, increased phosphorylation of PI3K/BMX/STAT3 signaling pathway was observed in these cells with EPHA3 deficiency. Notably, both PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and BMX inhibitor (LFM-A13) impaired the chemoresistance enhanced by EPHA3 deficiency in SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, EPHA3 inhibited growth of SCLC cells in vivo and was correlated with longer overall survival of SCLC patients. Thus, we first provide the evidences that EPHA3 is involved in regulating the MDR of SCLC via PI3K/BMX/STAT3 signaling and may be a new therapeutic target in SCLC.

Geng L, Li X, Zhou X, et al.
WP1066 exhibits antitumor efficacy in nasal‑type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma cells through downregulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2868-2874 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (nasal NKTCL) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm with poor prognosis, and its incidence is higher in Asia than in Western countries. Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is related to numerous malignancies. However, the involvement of STAT3 in the pathogenesis of nasal NKTCL is poorly understood. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that 21/28 (75.0%) nasal NKTCL tissues harbored constitutively expression of phospho‑STAT3 (p‑STAT3) which was positively correlated with the Ki‑67 levels (P﹤0.05). Immunofluorescence (IF) also detected p‑STAT3 expression in SNK6 cells (NKTCL cell line). Furthermore, WP1066 (a novel selective STAT3 inhibitor) was able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of SNK6 cells. Moreover, western blot analysis and RT‑PCR demonstrated that WP1066 downregulated the protein and mRNA expressions of the pro‑survival molecules (including c‑Myc, cyclin D1, and Bcl‑2) in SNK6 cells. These results suggested that STAT3 activation represents a potential target in nasal NKTCL. WP1066 may be a promising agent in antitumor therapy against nasal NKTCL.

Zhu C, Zhou R, Zhou Q, et al.
microRNA-539 suppresses tumor growth and tumorigenesis and overcomes arsenic trioxide resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Life Sci. 2016; 166:34-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a critical role in tumor growth and progression. In this study, we sought to explore the expression and biological roles of miR-539 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
MAIN METHODS: The expression of miR-539 in human HCC tissues and cell lines was examined. The effects of miR-539 overexpression on cell growth, tumorigenicity, arsenic trioxide resistance of HCC cells were determined. The signaling pathways involved in the action of miR-539 in HCC were also investigated.
KEY FINDINGS: miR-539 was downregulated in HCC tissues and cells, relative to corresponding controls. Overexpression of miR-539 inhibited HCC cell viability and colony formation in vitro and impaired tumorigenesis of HCC cells in vivo. Transfection with miR-539 mimic significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which was coupled with reduced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and decreased phosphorylation of Stat3. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of Stat3 partially blocked miR-539-mediated apoptosis. Enforced expression of miR-539 resensitized arsenic trioxide-resistant HCC cells to arsenic trioxide. Intratumoral delivery of miR-539 mimic significantly retarded the growth of xenograft tumors from arsenic trioxide-resistant HCC cells by about 35%, compared to delivery of control miRNA (P<0.05). In combination with arsenic trioxide, miR-539 mimic yielded about 80% decrease in tumor burden.
SIGNIFICANCE: miR-539 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC and reexpression of this miRNA offers a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease.

Heidarian E, Keloushadi M, Ghatreh-Samani K, Valipour P
The reduction of IL-6 gene expression, pAKT, pERK1/2, pSTAT3 signaling pathways and invasion activity by gallic acid in prostate cancer PC3 cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:264-269 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers among men. Progression of prostate cancer is associated with an increase in cellular level of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound which can inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GA treatment on cell viability, proliferation, invasion, IL-6 gene expression, IL-6 secretion, cellular levels of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins in human prostate cancer PC3 cells. PC3 cells viability after treatment with GA (0-120μM) was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of IL-6 was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cellular concentration of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting technic. PC3 cells invasion was assessed by invasion assay test. Treatment with GA caused a significant decrease in cell viability, proliferation, invasion, cellular levels of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins after 48h in a dose-dependent manner. The level of IL-6 and its gene expression decreased significantly in PC3 cells treated with GA. Our results show that IL-6 down-regulation and decreased IL-6 protein level in PC3 cells by GA resulted in diminishing of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins which lead to the reduction of the cell survival, proliferation, and invasion in PC3 cells. Therefore, it seems that GA can be considered an anticancer agent in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Shen W, Yuan Y, Zhao M, et al.
Novel long non-coding RNA GACAT3 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation through the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14895-14902 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in cancer occurrence and development. We previously demonstrated that lncRNA gastric cancer-associated transcript 3 (GACAT3) was positively correlated with TNM stages, tumor size, and distant metastasis of patients with gastric cancer. However, the role of GACAT3 in gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, to investigate its function, we synthesized small interference RNAs (siRNAs) against GACTA3 and developed a GACAT3 overexpression vector (pcDNA3-GACAT3), respectively. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of GACAT3 significantly decreased cell proliferation of the gastric cancer HGC-27 cells, in which GACAT3 is overexpressed. Furthermore, GACAT3 overexpression in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells promoted cell growth. Moreover, GACAT3 expression in HGC-27 cells was greatly upregulated by IL-6 treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of STAT3 decreased GACAT3 expression even in the presence of IL-6. These results demonstrated that as a downstream target of the IL6/STAT3 signaling, lncRNA GACAT3 promotes gastric cancer cell growth suggesting that GACAT3 is an inflammatory response gene and may be served as a valuable potential target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Gill BS, Kumar S, Navgeet
Evaluating anti-oxidant potential of ganoderic acid A in STAT 3 pathway in prostate cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2016; 43(12):1411-1422 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evaluating anti-oxidant potential of Ganoderic acid A in STAT 3 pathway in Prostate cancer. Molecular docking and ADMET activities of different isoforms of ganoderic acid on STAT 3 pathway were performed by Maestro 9.6 (Schrödinger Inc). The ganoderic acid A is best-docked among isoforms which analyses the expression level of antioxidant and STAT 3 pathway in PC-3 cells. The receptor-based molecular docking reveals the best binding interaction of SH2 domain of STAT3 and ganoderic acid A with GScore (-6.134), kcal/mol, Lipophilic EvdW (-1.83), Electro (-1.1), Glide emodel (-31.857), H bond (1.98), MM-GBSA (-69.555). The molecular docking QikProp analyzed the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/T). The ganoderic acid A is best-docked among isoforms which downregulates the expression of STAT 3 in PC-3 cells. Moreover, ganoderic acid A inhibits proliferation, viability, ROS, DPPH, and analyzed the expression of SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3 by Real time PCR in a PC-3 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking revealed the mechanistic binding of Ganoderic acid A in STAT3 signaling, which inhibits the proliferation, viability, and ROS in PC-3 cells.

Fan Y, Qian X, Zhang C
U/G SNP rs111904020 in 3'UTR of STAT3 regulated by miR-214 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma development in Chinese population.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14629-14635 [PubMed] Related Publications
STAT3 is an oncogene which mainly capable of regulating various biological characters by its transcriptional factor features driving thousands of genes. However, its upstream noncoding RNA-related regulations still remain unknown. In this study, we focused on the microRNA (miRNA)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' unstranslated region (UTR) of STAT3 to investigate the further relationship of the SNPs with miRNAs among Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that patients suffering from HBV infection indicated to be the susceptible population by comparing with controls. Besides, SNP rs111904020 (U/G) in STAT3, 3'UTR was involved in the occurrence of HCC by acting as tumor promoter factors. SNP rs111904020 (U/G) could be regulated by miR-214 which caused an upregulation of STAT3. Furthermore, the carriers of G genotype was related to high expression of STAT3, and larger tumor size as well as high probability of metastasis. Moreover, the SNP of U/G was associated with poor survival and high reoccurrence of HCC with a 5-year follow-up study. In conclusion, our findings have shown that the SNP rs111904020 (U/G) in STAT3 3'UTR acted as promotion factors in the HCC development through disrupting the regulatory role of miR-214 in STAT3 expression.

Mansell JP, Cooke M, Read M, et al.
Chitinase 3-like 1 expression by human (MG63) osteoblasts in response to lysophosphatidic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
Biochimie. 2016 Sep-Oct; 128-129:193-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chitinase 3-like 1, otherwise known as YKL-40, is a secreted glycoprotein purported to have a role in extracellular matrix metabolism. The first mammalian cell type found to express YKL-40 was the human osteosarcoma-derived osteoblast, MG63. In that first study the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D), stimulated YKL-40 expression, thereby indicating that a vital factor for skeletal health promoted YKL-40 synthesis by bone forming cells. However, when these MG63 cells were exposed to 1,25D they were also exposed to serum, a rich source of the pleiotropic lipid mediator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Given that 1,25D is now known to co-operate with selected growth factors, including LPA, to influence human osteoblast differentiation we hypothesised that 1,25D and LPA may work together to stimulate osteoblast YKL-40 expression. Herein we report that 1,25D and LPA synergistically promote YKL-40 expression by MG63 cells. Inhibitors targeting AP1, MEK, Sp1 and STAT3 blunted the expression of both alkaline phosphatase and YKL-40 by MG63 cells in response to co-stimulation with 1,25D and LPA. Other ligands of the vitamin D receptor also co-operated with LPA in driving YKL-40 mobilisation. Collectively our findings highlight another important role of 1,25D and LPA in the regulation of human osteoblast function.

Kim BH, Yi EH, Ye SK
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as a therapeutic target for cancer and the tumor microenvironment.
Arch Pharm Res. 2016; 39(8):1085-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a cytoplasmic transcription factor that modulates the transcription of a variety of genes to regulate important biological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, angiogenesis, and immune response. Constitutive activation of STAT3 is important in oncogenic signaling and occurs at high frequency in human cancers, including diverse solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Moreover, it is associated with a poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment has recently been recognized as a key condition for cancer progression, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance by activation of STAT3 signaling. Therefore, understanding the biology associated with STAT3-mediated signaling cascades in the tumor microenvironment may offer the therapeutic potential to treat human cancers. This review presents an overview of the critical roles of STAT3 in the tumor microenvironment related to cancer biology and discusses recent advancements in the development of anticancer drugs that therapeutically inhibit STAT3 signaling cascades.

Chen L, Zhang F, Sheng XG, et al.
MicroRNA-106a regulates phosphatase and tensin homologue expression and promotes the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2135-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of malignant gynecological tumor-related mortality among women. The treatment of ovarian cancer patients continues to be challenging. MicroRNA‑106a (miR‑106a) is widely expressed in diverse human tumors. In the present study, we investigated the biological and pathological roles of miR-106a in ovarian cancers. We found that miR-106a expression was significantly increased in primary ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cells compared with the level in normal tissues. Ectopic expression of an miR-106a inhibitor attenuated ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion. miR-106a promoted the growth and invasion of SKOV3 cells by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Furthermore, the present study revealed that IL-6 inhibited miR-106a expression by activating STAT3. Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-human IL-6R antibody, that competitively inhibits IL-6/IL-6R signaling, did not inhibit the proliferation and invasion of SKOV3 cells. In conclusion, our studies revealed that miR-106a was significantly increased in the ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Downregulation of the expression of miR-106a inhibited cell growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. Together, the present study suggests that miR‑106a acts as an oncogene in ovarian cancers.

Liu S, Hu C, Wang Y, et al.
miR-124 inhibits proliferation and invasion of human retinoblastoma cells by targeting STAT3.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2398-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
A growing body of evidence suggests that microRNA-124 (miR-124) functions as tumor-suppressor, and involves in tumor initiation, development and metastasis in major classes of human cancers; however, the biological role and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-124 in retinoblastoma (RB) remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the biological activity and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-124 in human retinoblastoma. In the present study, our results demonstrated the downregulation of miR-124 in RB tissues and RB cell lines compared with normal retinal tissues. The ectopic expression of miR-124 in the RB cell lines (Y79 and SO-RB50) suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was identified as a new target of miR-124, and overexpression of miR-124 decreased STAT3 expression on mRNA level and protein level in human RB cells. We also found that STAT3 mRNA expression was upregulated and inversely correlated with miR-124 expression in the RB tissues (r=-0.683; P<0.001). Restoration of the expression of STAT3 rescues the effects induced by miR-124 in RB cells. The findings of the present study suggested that miR-124 functioned as tumor suppressor in RB, at least in part, by targeting STAT3, and that it could serve as a potential candidate for RB therapeutics.

Lei K, Du W, Lin S, et al.
3B, a novel photosensitizer, inhibits glycolysis and inflammation via miR-155-5p and breaks the JAK/STAT3/SOCS1 feedback loop in human breast cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 82:141-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Compared to normal cells, most cancer cells produce ATP by glycolysis under aerobic conditions rather than via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). This study is intended to determine whether 3B, a novel photosensitizer, can inhibit glycolysis and inflammation in breast cancer cells. We showed that 3B had the ability to repress glucose consumption as well as the generation of ATP, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase. 3B-PDT not only inhibited the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 but also affected the JAK-STAT3 inflammatory pathway in vitro. The present study showed that 3B featured a significant inhibitory effect on the expression of microRNA-155-5p and SOCS1 might serve as a target gene. In vivo studies revealed that 3B inhibited tumor growth and exhibited almost no side effects. Therefore, through the anti-glycolytic effect and breakage of the JAK/STAT3/SOCS1 feedback loop via miR-155-5p, 3B may potentially serve as a potential therapeutic agent against breast cancer.

Hang X, Zhu S, Di H, et al.
NEDD4 Depletion Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth via Targeting PTEN.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(2):768-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4 (NEDD4) plays an important role in tumor cell growth, yet its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. This study is to establish NEDD4 as a prognostic biomarker by which the survival of HCC patients can be predicted and to reveal the role of NEDD4 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth.
METHODS: The expression of NEDD4 in 219 HCC specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Postoperative overall survival and time to recurrence were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The roles of NEDD4 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion were determined.
RESULTS: The patients with low NEDD4 expression tumors had an average cumulative survival of 64.9 ± 6.5 months during follow-up while the patients with high NEDD4 expression tumors had an average cumulative survival of 20.3 ± 15.8 months. NEDD4 silencing inhibited Huh7 cell proliferation and altered cell cytoskeletal assembly, and NEDD4 depletion furthermore seemed to suppress cell migration and invasion. A possible molecular mechanism for the observed effects might be that NEDD4 silence led to an increase in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) expression, which in turn resulted in the inactivation of STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that NEDD4 may participate in the HCC progression and may therefore be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Yang A, Fan H, Zhao Y, et al.
Huaier aqueous extract inhibits proliferation and metastasis of tuberous sclerosis complex cell models through downregulation of JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1491-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with formation of benign tumors in many different organs. It has attracted increasing attention from researchers to search for therapeutic drugs for TSC patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become an important source for finding antitumor drugs. Trametes robiniophila Μurr. (Huaier) is a kind of officinal fungi in China and has been applied in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. A large number of clinical applications have revealed that Huaier has good antitumor effect. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Huaier aqueous extract on two TSC cell models, including inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and anti-metastasis. We demonstrated that Huaier aqueous extract inhibited JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, based on the low toxicity and the multi-targets of Huaier treatment, Huaier may be a promising therapeutic drug for TSC.

Xu W, Xu B, Yao Y, et al.
RNA interference against TRIM29 inhibits migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1411-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Tripartite motif-containing 29 (TRIM29) is a member of TRIM proteins family, which plays diverse physiological and pathological roles in humans. Recent studies found that TRIM29 expressed highly in CRC and promoted cell growth in vitro. However, its function in the metastasis of CRC has not been studied. In the present study, we confirmed the previous report that TRIM29 was upregulated in CRC tissues and high levels of TRIM29 expression were associated with poor overall survival of patients. Moreover, TRIM29 knockdown significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation via notably inducing cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Silencing of TRIM29 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion ability of CRC cells. The protein levels of apoptosis‑, migration‑ and invasion‑related proteins were also changed after TRIM29 knockdown. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 were clearly reduced in TRIM29 knockdown cells, indicating a possible mechanism underlying its effects on colorectal carcinogenesis. Collectively, TRIM29 may exert oncogenic effects in CRC cells via regulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

Sinnberg T, Makino E, Krueger MA, et al.
A Nexus Consisting of Beta-Catenin and Stat3 Attenuates BRAF Inhibitor Efficacy and Mediates Acquired Resistance to Vemurafenib.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 8:132-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acquired resistance to second generation BRAF inhibitors (BRAFis), like vemurafenib is limiting the benefits of long term targeted therapy for patients with malignant melanomas that harbor BRAF V600 mutations. Since many resistance mechanisms have been described, most of them causing a hyperactivation of the MAPK- or PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, one potential strategy to overcome BRAFi resistance in melanoma cells would be to target important common signaling nodes. Known factors that cause secondary resistance include the overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), alternative splicing of BRAF or the occurrence of novel mutations in MEK1 or NRAS. In this study we show that β-catenin is stabilized and translocated to the nucleus in approximately half of the melanomas that were analyzed and which developed secondary resistance towards BRAFi. We further demonstrate that β-catenin is involved in the mediation of resistance towards vemurafenib in vitro and in vivo. Unexpectedly, β-catenin acts mainly independent of the TCF/LEF dependent canonical Wnt-signaling pathway in resistance development, which partly explains previous contradictory results about the role of β-catenin in melanoma progression and therapy resistance. We further demonstrate that β-catenin interacts with Stat3 after chronic vemurafenib treatment and both together cooperate in the acquisition and maintenance of resistance towards BRAFi.

Veneroni S, Dugo M, Daidone MG, et al.
Applicability of Under Vacuum Fresh Tissue Sealing and Cooling to Omics Analysis of Tumor Tissues.
Biopreserv Biobank. 2016; 14(6):480-490 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Biobanks of frozen human normal and malignant tissues represent a valuable source for "omics" analysis in translational cancer research and molecular pathology. However, the success of molecular and cellular analysis strongly relies on the collection, handling, storage procedures, and quality control of fresh human tissue samples.
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether under vacuum storage (UVS) effectively preserves tissues during the time between surgery and storage for "omics" analyses.
DESIGN: Normal and matched tumor specimens, obtained from 16 breast, colon, or lung cancer patients and 5 independent mesenchymal tumors, were dissected within 20 minutes from surgical excision and divided in three to five aliquots; for each tissue sample, one aliquot was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen (defined as baseline or T0 samples), and the other portions were sealed into plastic bags and kept at 4°C for 1, 24, 48, or 72 hours under vacuum and then frozen. The tissue and molecular preservation under vacuum was evaluated over time in terms of histomorphology, transcription (Illumina microarrays), protein (surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry and Western blot), and metabolic profile (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy).
RESULTS: Tissue morphology, Mib-1, and vimentin immunostaining were preserved over time without signs of tissue degradation. Principal variance component analysis showed that time of storage had a minimal effect on gene expression or the proteome, but affected the preservation of some metabolites to a greater extent. UVS did not impact the RNA and protein integrity or specific phosphorylation sites on mTOR and STAT3. Measurement of metabolites revealed pronounced changes after 1 hour of storage.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that UVS can preserve tissue specimens for histological, transcriptomic, and proteomic examinations up to 48 hours and possibly longer, whereas it has limitations for metabolomic applications.

Hu H, Luo ML, Desmedt C, et al.
Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 9:148-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A human gene expression signature for MECs infected with EBV, termed EBVness, was associated with high grade, estrogen-receptor-negative status, p53 mutation and poor survival. In 11/33 EBVness-positive tumors, EBV-DNA was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the viral LMP1 and BXLF2 genes. In an analysis of the TCGA breast cancer data EBVness correlated with the presence of the APOBEC mutational signature. We conclude that a contribution of EBV to breast cancer etiology is plausible, through a mechanism in which EBV infection predisposes mammary epithelial cells to malignant transformation, but is no longer required once malignant transformation has occurred.

Andreasen S, Heegaard S, Grauslund M, Homøe P
The interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway in pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2016; 94(8):798-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common tumour of the lacrimal gland, but very little is known about its biology. It has a tendency to recur and an ability to transform into the high-grade malignancy carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca-ex-PA), which is also largely unexplored. In this study, we examine the expression of the interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 (IL-6/JAK/STAT3) pathway components in PA and ca-ex-PA.
METHODS: Sixteen PAs and two ca-ex-PAs were examined with immunohistochemistry. Seven PAs were subjected to microdissection and subsequent qPCR.
RESULTS: The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway was overexpressed in PA compared to normal lacrimal gland. Overexpression of phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1) and cyclin D1 was significantly overexpressed in ductal cells compared with myoepithelial cells in PA. A shift from p-JAK1 to p-JAK2 and p-Tyk2 overexpression was seen between PA and ca-ex-PA, combined with a high p-STAT3 expression in the latter.
CONCLUSION: The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway is overexpressed in PA, and this overexpression was even more pronounced in ca-ex-PA, with a shift in the JAKs mediating STAT3 phosphorylation. Future studies are needed to clarify whether PA and ca-ex-PA could be treated with targeted therapy directed against components of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway.

Liang Y, Chen Q, Du W, et al.
Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Gene 3 (EBI3) Blocking Leads to Induce Antitumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Suppress Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer by Bidirectional Reciprocal-Regulation STAT3 Signaling Pathway.
Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016:3214105 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) is a member of the interleukin-12 (IL-12) family structural subunit and can form a heterodimer with IL-27p28 and IL-12p35 subunit to build IL-27 and IL-35, respectively. However, IL-27 stimulates whereas IL-35 inhibits antitumor T cell responses. To date, little is known about the role of EBI3 in tumor microenvironment. In this study, firstly we assessed EBI3, IL-27p28, IL-12p35, gp130, and p-STAT3 expression with clinicopathological parameters of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues; then we evaluated the antitumor T cell responses and tumor growth with a EBI3 blocking peptide. We found that elevated EBI3 may be associated with IL-12p35, gp130, and p-STAT3 to promote CRC progression. EBI3 blocking peptide promoted antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response by inducing Granzyme B, IFN-γ production, and p-STAT3 expression and inhibited CRC cell proliferation and tumor growth to associate with suppressing gp130 and p-STAT3 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that EBI3 may mediate a bidirectional reciprocal-regulation STAT3 signaling pathway to assist the tumor escape immune surveillance in CRC.

Assawasuparerk K, Rawangchue T, Phonarknguen R
Scabraside D Derived from Sea Cucumber Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Metastasis via iNOS and STAT-3 Expression in Human Cholangiocarcinoma Xenografts.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):2151-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Scabraside D, a sulfated triterpene glycoside, was extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. It shows anti-proliferation in many of cancer cell lines, but the function and mechanisms of action of scabraside D in human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) have not previously determined. In this study, we investigated the activity of scabraside D on HuCCA cell apoptosis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis in a nude mouse model. Scabraside D induced signs of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and DNA fragmentation on TUNEL assays, while effectively decreasing expression of BCl-2 but increasing caspase-3 gene level expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that scabraside D significantly reduced lymphatic vessel density (LVD). Moreover, scabraside D treatment significantly decreased VEGF-C, MMP-9 and uPA gene expression, which play important roles in the lymphangiogenesis and invasion of cancer cells in metastasis processes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that scabraside D significantly decreased iNOS and STAT-3 gene expression. This study demonstrated that scabraside D plays a role in activation of HuCCA tumor apoptosis and inhibition of lymphangiogenesis, invasion and metastasis through decreasing BCl-2, MMP-9, uPA and VEGF-C and increasing caspase-3 expression by suppression of iNOS and STAT-3 expression. Therefore, scabraside D could be a promising candidate for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

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