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Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant cells arise in the bladder. Symptoms can include blood in the urine, pain during urination, increased frequency of passing urine, or feeling the need to urinate but with nothing coming out. The bulk of bladder cancers are histlogically classed as transitional cell carcinomas which arise in the uroepithelium (lining of the bladder). Other types include squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas. Treatment will depend on how far the tumour has invaded the surrounding tissues, and if it has spread to other parts of the body. World-wide about 260,000 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year.

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Molecular Biology of Bladder Cancer
Urinary System Cancers

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    MeSH term: Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
    International US National Library of Medicine
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Liu J, Liu C, Zhang X, et al.
Anticancer sulfonamide hybrids that inhibit bladder cancer cells growth and migration as tubulin polymerisation inhibitors.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2019; 34(1):1380-1387 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel sulfonamide-dithiocarbamate hybrids were designed and synthesised via the molecular hybridisation strategy. Among them, compound

Calò B, Sanguedolce F, Fortunato F, et al.
The impact of age on intravesical instillation of Bacille Calmette-Guerin treatment in patients with high-grade T1 bladder cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(31):e16223 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intravesical instillation of Bacille Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) is the standard adjuvant treatment for high-risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Since its mechanism of action is supposed to be linked to the immune system efficiency and senescence could negatively affect this efficiency, BCG efficacy in the elderly has been questioned. This study aimed to assess the impact of age on BCG efficacy and safety in patients with high-grade T1 bladder cancer (BC).Among 123 patients with high-grade T1 BCG scheduled for BCG treatment, 82 were <75 year-old (group A) and 41 were ≥75 year-old (group B). Follow-up: urine cytology and cystoscopy every 3 months for the first 2 years, every 6 months for the third year, and then yearly. Tumor recurrence was defined as pathological evidence of disease at the bladder biopsy; tumor progression was defined as pathological shift to muscle invasive disease at the bladder biopsy or the imaging techniques showing recurrent BC and distant metastasis likely related to it.The median follow-up was 65 months (range 11-152). Recurrence occurred in 35 patients, 19 (23.2%) in the group A and 16 (39%) in the group B. Progression occurred in 18 patients, 12 (14.6%) in the group A and 6 (14.6%) in the group B. Recurrence free rate was similar in both groups up to 2 years. The 5 years progression rate was almost the same in both groups A and B (85.9% vs 84.7%), whereas the 5 years cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 92.6% in the group A and 85.4% in the group B. Of the 18 patients with progression, 11 underwent cystectomy; 12 patients died because of their BC. Kaplan-Meier plots pointed out no difference in recurrence-free, progression-free, and CSS between the 2 groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups. Only 4 (3.3%) patients, 2 (2.4%) in the group A and 2 (4.8%) in the group B, experienced mild adverse reactions compatible with treatment.Elderly patients with high-grade T1 BC are not poorer candidates to BCG treatment, as they had similar benefit and adverse reactions than those aging ≥75 years.

Kitagawa K, Shigemura K, Sung SY, et al.
Possible correlation of sonic hedgehog signaling with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in muscle-invasive bladder cancer progression.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2261-2271 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in bladder cancer progression and invasion.
METHODS: We cultured three bladder cancer cell lines, muscle-invasive T24 and 5637, and non-muscle-invasive KK47, in the presence of a recombinant-Shh (r-Shh) protein or cyclopamine, a Shh signaling inhibitor, to investigate proliferation and expression of EMT markers. Wound-healing assays and transwell assay were performed to evaluate cell invasion and migration. Mice were then inoculated with bladder cancer cells and treated with cyclopamine. Mouse tumor samples were stained for Shh signaling and EMT markers.
RESULTS: R-Shh protein enhanced cell proliferation, whereas cyclopamine significantly suppressed cell proliferation, especially in invasive cancer (5637 and T24) (p < 0.05). R-Shh protein promoted EMT, suppressed E-cadherin and enhanced N-cadherin and vimentin and Gli1, an Shh downstream molecule, while cyclopamine blocked EMT, especially in 5637 and T24. Cyclopamine also inhibited cell invasion and migration in vitro. In the animal study, intraperitoneal injection of cyclopamine significantly suppressed tumor growth in 5637 and T24 in mice (p = 0.01 and p = 0.004, respectively) and slightly suppressing KK47 tumor growth (p = 0.298). Significant cyclopamine-induced suppression of Gli1 in 5637 and T24 mouse tumors (both p = 0.03) was seen, suggesting that muscle-invasive bladder cancer may be more dependent on Shh signaling than non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Shh signaling and EMT were especially enhanced in muscle-invasive bladder cancer progression and invasion, and suppressed by the inhibition of Shh signaling.

Akitake M, Yamaguchi A, Shiota M, et al.
Predictive Factors for Residual Cancer in Second Transurethral Resection for Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4325-4328 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The significance of second transurethral resection (TUR), and identification of predictive factors for residual cancer remain unrevealed. This study aimed to find residual cancer and up-staging rates, as well as predictive factors for residual cancer, in patients who undergo second TUR for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent second TURs for NMIBC between 2015 and 2017, were included in the study and their clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed for predictors of residual cancer.
RESULTS: Among 143 Japanese patients whose tumors were initially diagnosed as high-risk NMIBC, residual cancers detected at second TURs were, Tis: n=22 (15.4%), Ta: n=15 (10.5%) and T1: n=29 (20.3%). No patients showed up-staging from NMIBC to MIBC. The presence of carcinoma-in situ at initial TUR was an independent risk factor for any residual cancer (Tis, Ta and T1), non-flat residual cancer (Ta and T1), and flat residual cancer (Tis).
CONCLUSION: The presence of carcinoma-in situ is suggested to be an independent predictor of residual cancer. This may help guide decisions to perform second TUR.

Lu M, Chen S, Zhou Q, et al.
Predicting recurrence of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (Ta-T1): A study based on 477 patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(28):e16426 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to determine clinical recrudescent risk factors of 477 patients with newly discovered nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (Ta-T1) in our hospital, and based on these factors, to establish a recurrence risk prediction model of each NMIBC patient.This study included 477 patients with newly discovered NMIBC (Ta-T1) from January 2012 to December 2016; all patients were treated surgically by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). The outcomes of patients were with or without recurrence within 2 years. The nomograms were based on Cox regression analyses, and the calibration curves were founded to evaluate the agreements of the predicted probability with the actual observed probability.Of the 477 patients with NMIBC, 392 were males (82.2%) and 85 were females (17.8%), with median age 64 years. Recurrence was identified in 327 cases (68.6%). The results showed that old age, female sex, smoking history, large size of tumor, multifocal tumors, high grade, and high stage are risk factors for NMIBC recurrence, whereas no significant association was seen between tumor location and recurrence in our study. Based on the results of Cox regression analyses, several independent risk factors, including smoking history, tumor size, multifocal, immediate infusion therapy, T stage, and tumor grade, were used to establish a nomogram to calculate the recurrence probability of each NMIBC patient, and the calibration curve displayed that this nomogram had a great value of prediction.Old age, female sex, smoking history, large size of tumor, multifocal tumors, high grade, and high stage are risk factors for NMIBC recurrence, whereas immediate infusion therapy is a protective factor. And a nomogram was established as a prediction model to calculate the recurrence probability of NMIBC patients.

Yang F, Zhou Q, Meng L, Xing N
IMP3 is a biomarker for non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder associated with an aggressive phenotype.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16009 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of urinary tract. The current study aimed to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) expression in the prognostic evaluation of non-muscle- invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out to examine IMP3 protein expression in specimens from 183 cases of non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, 20 cases of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma and 20 benign tissues adjacent to cancer tissue.The expression of IMP3 was not detected in the adjacent benign tissues. The expression intensity of IMP3 in muscle-invasive samples was significantly higher than that in non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma specimens (P = .008). IMP3 expression was significantly related with advanced tumor stage (P < .001), advanced tumor grade (P = .004), and tumor recurrence (P < .001) in non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that IMP3-positive patients had much lower disease-free (P < .001), progression-free (P = .002) and metastasis-free (P = .019) survival rates compared with those with IMP3-negative tumors. By multivariable Cox analysis, we also found that IMP3 expression in non-muscle- invasive urothelial carcinomas proved to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor of disease-free survival (HR: 2.52; 95% CI, 1.39-4.56; P = .002), progression- free survival (HR: 5.19; 95% CI, 1.54-17.46; P = .008) and metastasis-free survival (HR: 4.87; 95% CI, 1.08-22.02; P = .040).Our results demonstrate that the expression of IMP3 in non-muscle- invasive bladder cancer can serve as an independent predictor that will help recognize the subgroup of patients with a high ability to relapse, progress, and metastasize and who might get the maximum benefit from an early and more aggressive treatment strategy.

Chiang CH, Yeh CY, Chung JG, et al.
Amentoflavone Induces Apoptosis and Reduces Expression of Anti-apoptotic and Metastasis-associated Proteins in Bladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3641-3649 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Amentoflavone has been shown to be effective against a variety of cancer cells, but its role in bladder cancer remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate whether amentoflavone may induce toxicity effect of bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we evaluated amentoflavone effects in a human bladder cancer cell line TSGH8301 in vitro.
RESULTS: Amentoflavone caused significant cytotoxicity in TSGH8301 cells at a concentration as low as 200 μM. FAS/FASL-dependent extrinsic apoptosis and mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptosis were observed in amentoflavone-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of several proapoptotic proteins, such as FAS, FAS-ligand and BAX (B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X) were increased following amentoflavone treatment. Meanwhile, anti-apoptotic MCL-1 (myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (C-FLIP) protein levels were reduced. Additionally, angiogenesis and proliferation-related proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), urokinase-type plasminogen actvator (uPA) and cyclin D1 were diminished by amentoflavone.
CONCLUSION: Amentoflavone induced toxicity of bladder cancer by inhibiting tumor progression and inducing apoptosis signaling transduction.

Chen X
MiR-101 acts as a novel bio-marker in the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(26):e16051 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MiR-101 plays an important role in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to estimate diagnostic potential of serum miR-101 in bladder cancer.Serum level of miR-101 in 122 bladder cancer patients and 110 healthy volunteers was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The association between miR-101 expression and clinicopathological characteristic was analyzed via χ test. Then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate diagnostic value of serum miR-101 in bladder cancer.MiR-101 expression was statistically down-regulated in bladder cancer patients compared to healthy controls. MiR-101 expression was significantly associated with TNM stage (P = .019), pathological grade (P = .006) and lymph node metastasis (P = .010). ROC analysis suggested that miR-101 had high value in discriminating between bladder cancer patients and healthy individuals with an AUC value of 0.884. The cut-off value for serum miR-101 in bladder cancer diagnosis was 1.645, with a sensitivity of 82.0% and a specificity of 80.9%.MiR-101 is decreased in bladder cancer patients, and shows negative association with aggressive clinical characteristics. MiR-101 may serve as a bio-marker in diagnosing bladder cancer.

Xia Y, Kang TW, Jung YD, et al.
Sulforaphane Inhibits Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Cells Proliferation through Suppression of HIF-1α-Mediated Glycolysis in Hypoxia.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019; 67(28):7844-7854 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer is the fourth common cancer among men and more than 70% of the bladder cancer is nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Because of its high recurrence rate, NMIBC brings to patients physical agony and high therapy costs to the patients' family and society. It is imperative to seek a natural compound to inhibit bladder cancer cell growth and prevent bladder cancer recurrence. Cell proliferation is one of the main features of solid tumor development, and the rapid tumor cell growth usually leads to hypoxia due to the low oxygen environment. In this study we found that sulforaphane, a natural chemical which was abundant in cruciferous vegetables, could suppress bladder cancer cells proliferation in hypoxia significantly stronger than in normoxia (

Blanca A, Sanchez-Gonzalez A, Requena MJ, et al.
Expression of miR-100 and miR-138 as prognostic biomarkers in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
APMIS. 2019; 127(8):545-553 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNA alterations are involved in bladder cancer tumorigenesis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential role of miR-100 and miR-138 as prognostic biomarkers in Ta/T1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We assessed a quantitative RT-PCR analysis of miR-100 and miR-138 in 50 bladder tumor samples (stage Ta/T1) and four healthy adjacent tissues. Western blot analysis was used to measure protein expression of FGFR3 and cyclin D3 in order to know whether these targets can be regulated by miR-100 and miR-138, respectively. The statistical analysis included non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis) and univariate survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Low expression of miR-138 characterized recurrent tumors (p = 0.043), and higher expression levels were associated with longer recurrence-free survival (p = 0.012). However, low miR-100 expression correlated with longer progression-free survival (marginal significance; p = 0.053) and cancer-specific overall survival (p = 0.006). Additionally, higher levels of miR-100 were associated with negative FGFR3 protein expression (p = 0.032) and higher levels of miR-138 were associated with positive cyclin D3 protein expression (p = 0.037). Our results support miR-138 and miR-100 as prognostic biomarkers in patients with NMIBC.

Kim SJ, You D, Jeong IG, et al.
Prognosis of carcinoma in situ according to the presence of papillary bladder tumors after bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):2131-2140 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed at determining the relationship between classification according to the papillary tumor pattern of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder and prognosis, as this has not yet been well established.
METHODS: This study comprised a consecutive cohort of 254 patients (primary CIS: 66 patients, stage Ta-CIS: 52 patients, and stage T1-CIS: 136 patients) with CIS-associated bladder cancer. We classified CIS according to the pathological pattern of papillary tumors and analyzed prognostic factors, including CIS classification, for progression. We evaluated progression using two endpoints: infiltrative tumors detected at stage T1 or higher or at stage T2 or higher. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy response was defined as no recurrence within 6 months.
RESULTS: Both the BCG immunotherapy response and CIS classification were significant prognostic factors for both the endpoints. Patients with CIS-associated stage Ta urinary bladder cancer had better prognosis for both the endpoints than those with stage T1 cancer or those with primary CIS. BCG immunotherapy response (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.007) were also significant prognostic factors for the progression of stage T2 or higher infiltrative tumors. The prognosis of patients with recurrent primary CIS (12/26, 46.2%) and T1-CIS (25/45, 55.6%) was poor for progression; distant metastasis occurred in approximately 40% of these patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider radical surgery for poor prognosis in patients with recurrent CIS-associated T1 cancer or primary CIS. The CIS classification according to the tumor pattern reflects the prognosis.

Kondo A, Sasaki T, Kitaguchi D, et al.
Resection of the urinary bladder for locally advanced colorectal cancer: a retrospective comparison of partial versus total cystectomy.
BMC Surg. 2019; 19(1):63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The postoperative and survival outcomes of patients with primary advanced colorectal cancer who undergo partial versus total cystectomy have not been adequately compared, as studies of this topic are rare and comprise relatively small cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of patients who underwent en bloc partial or total cystectomy for primary advanced colorectal cancer that was suspected of adhering to or invading the urinary bladder.
METHODS: The study included 90 patients who underwent various degrees of cystectomy between 1993 and 2013 to treat locally advanced primary colorectal cancer that was suspected of involving the urinary bladder. Patients in whom total cystectomy was performed solely because of prostate-invading lower rectal cancer were excluded. Data on patient characteristics and their short- and long-term outcomes were collected retrospectively to evaluate differences between partial cystectomy (the P group; n = 72) and total cystectomy (the T group; n = 18). Postoperative and oncologic outcomes were also analyzed.
RESULTS: The T group had significantly greater operating times than the P group (median, 572 vs. 346 min); blood loss volume was also greater in the T group (median, 3092 vs. 1112 mL). The postoperative overall complication rate was significantly greater in the T group than in the P group (94.4% vs. 51.4%). With a median follow-up duration of 62 months, local recurrences were observed in 22.2 and 6.9% of patients in the T and P groups, respectively. On multivariate Cox regression analyses using partial cystectomy as the reference, total cystectomy was independently associated with poorer local recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 4.0 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-15.0), relapse-free survival (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.9), and overall survival (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo en bloc total cystectomy for locally advanced colorectal cancers have worse postoperative and oncologic outcomes than those who undergo partial cystectomy.

Zhang P, Zhang Y, Liu W, et al.
A Molecular Beacon Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanotag for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2019; 15(7):1589-1597 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current techniques responsible for bladder cancer diagnosis and monitoring are insensitive and invasive. Here, we report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanotag for the sensitive diagnosis of bladder cancer using urine samples as a noninvasive approach. The sea-urchin-like Au nanoclusters used in this work exhibit excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering ability with an enhancement factor of 3.44 × 10

Ma QY, Li SY, Li XZ, et al.
Long non-coding RNA DILC suppresses bladder cancer cells progression.
Gene. 2019; 710:193-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulative researches have demonstrated the critical functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the progression of malignant tumors, including bladder cancer (BC). Our previous studies showed that lnc-DILC was an important tumor suppressor gene in both liver cancer and colorectal cancer. However, the role of lnc-DILC in BC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we for first found that lnc-DILC was downregulated in human bladder cancer tissues. Lnc-DILC overexpression suppressed the proliferation, metastasis and expansion of bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs). Mechanically, lnc-DILC suppressed BC cells progression via STAT3 pathway. Special STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 diminished the discrepancy of growth, metastasis and self-renewal ability between lnc-DILC-overexpression BC cells and their control cells, which further confirmed that STAT3 was acquired for lnc-DILC-disrupted BC cell growth, metastasis and self-renewal. Taken together, our results suggest that lnc-DILC is a novel bladder tumor suppressor and indicate that lnc-DILC inhibits BC progression via inactivating STAT3 signaling.

Jacyna J, Wawrzyniak R, Balayssac S, et al.
Urinary metabolomic signature of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A multiplatform approach.
Talanta. 2019; 202:572-579 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BCa) is ninth amongst the most common types of cancer in the human population worldwide. The statistics of incidence and mortality of BCa are alarming and the currently applied diagnostic methods are still not sensitive enough. This leads to a large number of undiagnosed BCa cases, usually among patients in the early stages of the disease. Despite the fact that many risk factors of BCa have been recognized, the pathomechanism of development of bladder cancer has not been fully explained yet. Therefore, in the present study, multiplatform urinary metabolomics has been implemented in order to scrutinize potential diagnostic indicators of BCa that might help to explain its pathomechanism and be potentially useful in diagnosis and determination of stage of the disease. Urine samples collected from muscle-invasive high grade BCa patients (n = 24) and healthy volunteers (n = 24) were matched in terms of most common BCa risk factors i.e. gender, age, BMI and smoking status. They were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-TOF/MS) using RP and HILIC chromatography, gas chromatography hyphenated with triple quadruple mass spectrometry detection (GC-QqQ/MS) in scan mode, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (

Liu L, Wu SQ, Zhu X, et al.
Analysis of ceRNA network identifies prognostic circRNA biomarkers in bladder cancer.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer remains a very challenging disease to treat with the high rates of recurrence and progression associated with current therapies. Although the association between bladder cancer pathology and circRNAs remains undetermined, circRNAs signatures may be useful as prognostic and predictive factors and clinical tools for assessing disease state and outcome. This study investigates if these circRNAs can be used as biomarkers for bladder cancer diagnosis. Using bioinformatics method to analysis GEO databases (GSE37815, GSE39093, GSE97239, and GSE92675) for differentially expressed RNAs in bladder cancer and normal bladder tissues were screened from. The related volcanic maps and the interaction network maps of differentially expressed RNAs were drawn, and the mRNA-miRNA and miRNA-circRNA interaction were predicted to establish mRNA-miRNA-circRNA competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. The differential circRNAs related to prognosis of bladder cancer patients were screened based on the influence of miRNA interacting with the circRNA above on survival rate. The expression of miRNA (hsa-mir-214), circRNA (hsa_circ_0076704, hsa_circ_0081963, hsa_circ_0001361) in bladder cancer tissues, adjacent tissues, bladder cancer cells and normal bladder epithelial cells were validated by qRT-PCR. Kaplan Meier curve analysis confirmed the relationship between circRNA (hsa_circ_0076704) and overall survival and prognosis of bladder cancer patients. Through database screening and analysis, we found 19231 differentially expressed genes, 847 differentially expressed miRNAs, 7282 differentially expressed circRNAs. The establishment of ceRNA network consisted of 28 DERNAs (differentially- expressed RNAs), 12 Demi-RNAs and 12 DEcircRNAs. Further prognostic analysis showed that circRNA interacted miRNA hsa-miR-106b, hsa-miR-145 and hsa-miR-214 were associated with overall survival in patients with bladder cancer (P < 0.05). Among them, hsa_circ_0076704, hsa_circ_0081963 and hsa_circ_0001361 are potential circRNA related to OS in bladder cancer and expressed in bladder cancer. The expression of hsa-mir-214 was contrary. Further Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed that hsa_circ_0076704 had significant prognostic value (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hsa_circ_0076704 is independent prognostic factor for bladder cancer.

Magers MJ, Kaimakliotis HZ, Barboza MP, et al.
Clinicopathological characteristics of ypT0N0 urothelial carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cystectomy.
J Clin Pathol. 2019; 72(8):550-553 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To describe a large tertiary care academic centre's experience with patients who achieve a complete pathological response (ie, ypT0N0) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and radical cystectomy (RC) with emphasis on morphological features present in the RC and clinical outcome.
METHODS: 41 patients with ypT0N0 disease following transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), NAC and RC with available clinical follow-up information were analysed. Slides from all RCs were reviewed to confirm pathological stage and assess for morphological parameters (eg, foreign body giant cell reaction, dystrophic calcification, scar and fat necrosis).
RESULTS: With median follow-up of 32.8 months, the recurrence-free survival at 1 and 5 years was 97.4% and 93.5%, while the overall survival at 3 and 5 years was 94.2% and 88.6%, respectively. No patients died of urothelial carcinoma. Stage assigned at TURBT was 1 pTa (2%), 1 pT1 (2%), 38 pT2 (93%) and 1 pT3a (2%). 17 TURBTs demonstrated variant histology, with the majority of these being squamous (65%). The most common morphological features present at RC were scar (100%), foreign body giant cell reaction (80%), chronic inflammation within lamina propria (68%) and dystrophic calcifications (39%). Other morphological features were less common or absent.
CONCLUSION: ypT0N0 disease at RC portends an excellent prognosis, regardless of stage or variant histology in the TURBT; scar, foreign body giant cell reaction, chronic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications are often present.

Yoshida K, Tsuda M, Matsumoto R, et al.
Exosomes containing ErbB2/CRK induce vascular growth in premetastatic niches and promote metastasis of bladder cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2119-2132 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Locally advanced and metastatic invasive bladder cancer (BC) has a poor prognosis, and no advanced therapies beyond cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy have been developed. Therefore, it is an urgent issue to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of tumor progression and metastasis of invasive BC for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we clarified a novel role of exosomes containing ErbB2 and CRK in a formation of premetastatic niches and subsequent metastases. CRK adaptors were overexpressed in invasive UM-UC-3 BC cells. In an orthotopic xenograft model, metastases to lung, liver, and bone of UM-UC-3 cells were completely abolished by CRK elimination. Mass spectrometry analysis identified that ErbB2 was contained in UM-UC-3-derived exosomes in a CRK-dependent manner; the exosomes significantly increased proliferation and invasion properties of low-grade 5637 BC cells and HUVECs through FAK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. In athymic mice educated with UM-UC-3-derived exosomes, i.v. implanted UM-UC-3 cells were trapped with surrounding PKH67-labeled exosomes in lung and led to development of lung metastasis with disordered vascular proliferation. In contrast, exosomes derived from CRK-depleted BC cells failed to induce these malignant features. Taken together, we showed that CRK adaptors elevated the expression of ErbB2/3 in BC cells, and these tyrosine kinase/adaptor units were transferred from host BC cells to metastatic recipient cells by exosomes, leading to vascular leakiness and proliferation and contributing to the formation of distant metastasis. Thus, CRK intervention with ErbB2/3 blockade might be a potent therapeutic strategy for patients with ErbB2 overexpressing advanced and metastatic BC.

Pietilä M, Sahgal P, Peuhu E, et al.
SORLA regulates endosomal trafficking and oncogenic fitness of HER2.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an oncogene targeted by several kinase inhibitors and therapeutic antibodies. While the endosomal trafficking of many other receptor tyrosine kinases is known to regulate their oncogenic signalling, the prevailing view on HER2 is that this receptor is predominantly retained on the cell surface. Here, we find that sortilin-related receptor 1 (SORLA; SORL1) co-precipitates with HER2 in cancer cells and regulates HER2 subcellular distribution by promoting recycling of the endosomal receptor back to the plasma membrane. SORLA protein levels in cancer cell lines and bladder cancers correlates with HER2 levels. Depletion of SORLA triggers HER2 targeting to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments and impairs HER2-driven signalling and in vivo tumour growth. SORLA silencing also disrupts normal lysosome function and sensitizes anti-HER2 therapy sensitive and resistant cancer cells to lysosome-targeting cationic amphiphilic drugs. These findings reveal potentially important SORLA-dependent endosomal trafficking-linked vulnerabilities in HER2-driven cancers.

Kripnerova M, Parmar HS, Pesta M, et al.
Urothelial Cancer Stem Cell Heterogeneity.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019; 1139:127-151 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma is a tumor type featuring pronounced intertumoral heterogeneity and a high mutational and epigenetic load. The two major histopathological urothelial carcinoma types - the non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma - markedly differ in terms of their respective typical mutational profiles and also by their probable cells of origin, that is, a urothelial basal cell for muscle-invasive carcinomas and a urothelial intermediate cell for at least a large part of non-muscle-invasive carcinomas. Both non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas can be further classified into discrete intrinsic subtypes based on their typical transcriptomic profiles. Urothelial carcinogenesis shows a number of parallels to a urothelial regenerative response. Both of these processes seem to be dominated by specific stem cell populations. In the last years, the nature and location of urothelial stem cell(s) have been subject to many controversies, which now seem to be settled down, favoring the existence of a largely single urothelial stem cell type located among basal cells. Basal cell markers have also been amply used to identify urothelial carcinoma stem cells, especially in muscle-invasive disease, but they proved useful even in some non-muscle-invasive tumors. Analyses on molecular nature of urothelial carcinoma stem cells performed till now point to their great heterogeneity, both during the tumor development and upon intertumoral comparison, sexual dimorphism providing a special example of the latter. Moreover, urothelial cancer stem cells are endowed with intrinsic plasticity, whereby they can modulate their stemness in relation to other tumor-related traits, especially motility and invasiveness. Such transitional modulations suggest underlying epigenetic mechanisms and, even within this context, inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity becomes apparent. Multiple molecular aspects of urothelial cancer stem cell biology markedly influence therapeutic response, implying their knowledge as a prerequisite to improved therapies of this disease. At the same time, the notion of urothelial cancer stem cell heterogeneity implies that this therapeutic benefit would be most probably and most efficiently achieved within the context of individualized antitumor therapy.

Ghate K, Amir E, Kuksis M, et al.
PD-L1 expression and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma treated with checkpoint inhibitors: A meta-analysis.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2019; 76:51-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Five checkpoint inhibitors have been approved as 1st line (cisplatin-ineligible) or 2nd line therapies for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. As only about 30% of patients respond, the need for a biomarker for patient selection exists.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if PD-L1 expression is a prognostic factor of objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS) in patients with urothelial carcinoma being treated with checkpoint inhibitors.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search of PubMed and major conference proceedings identified trials of PD-L1 inhibitors as first- or second-line therapies for metastatic bladder cancer. Odds ratios (OR) for ORR and OS compared PD-L1 positive and PD-L1 negative patients. Data were weighted and pooled in a meta-analysis, and subgroup analyses compared PD-L1 status cut-offs.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Ten studies comprising 2755 patients were identified, of which 2030 patients (74%) received immune checkpoint inhibitors. Eight studies were eligible for ORR analysis (1530 patients) and five studies for OS (829 patients). PD-L1 patients had a significantly higher ORR than PD-L1 negative patients (1.82, 95%CI 1.18-2.77; p = 0.007). Weighted mean OS was 11.5 months (range 8.7-15.9 months). PD-L1 status was not prognostic for 12 month OS (OR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.47-1.40; p = 0.45).
CONCLUSION: In patients treated with PD-L1 inhibitors for metastatic urothelial carcinoma, PD-L1 status is prognostic for ORR but not OS. Our findings warrant additional investigation.
PATIENT SUMMARY: Five immunotherapy drugs are approved for bladder cancer therapy. PD-L1 expression predicts higher ORR but not OS. More data is needed to identify the patient population most benefitted by immunotherapy.

Wang X, Lyu J, Ji A, et al.
Jarid2 enhances the progression of bladder cancer through regulating PTEN/AKT signaling.
Life Sci. 2019; 230:162-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 2 (Jarid2) is an interacting component of PRC2 which catalyzes methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) and causes the downregulation of PTEN. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether Jarid2 could interact with H3K27me3 to regulate PTEN expression in bladder cancer.
MAIN METHODS: Jarid2 expression in bladder cancer tissues and cells were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR. CCK-8, flow cytometry, transwell chamber and in vivo xenograft assays were performed to assess cell growth, apoptosis, migration and tumorigenesis, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to assess the methylation of PTEN.
KEY FINDINGS: Jarid2 expression was increased in bladder cancer tissues and cells. Downregulation of Jarid2 with shRNA transfection obviously inhibited the proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis of bladder cancer T24 and HT-1376 cells and induced cell apoptosis. Jarid2 downregulation decreased the expression of p-AKT and increased PTEN expression. Besides, Jarid2 down-regulation repressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas knockdown of PTEN impaired this effect. Moreover, upregulation of Jarid2 increased the combination of PTEN promoter and H3K27me3, and 5-aza-CdR rescued it. Meanwhile, 5-aza-CdR administration abolished Jarid2 roles in the promotion of EMT process and AKT activation, as well as the reduction of PTEN expression.
SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the present study elaborated that Jarid2 facilitated the progression of bladder cancer through H3K27me3-mediated PTEN downregulation and AKT activation, which might provide a new mechanism for Jarid2 in promoting bladder cancer progression.

Qiu S, Deng L, Liao X, et al.
Tumor-associated macrophages promote bladder tumor growth through PI3K/AKT signal induced by collagen.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2110-2118 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor microenvironment is associated with various tumor progressions, including cancer metastasis, immunosuppression, and tumor sustained growth. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are considered an indispensable component of the tumor microenvironment, participating in the progression of tumor microenvironment remodeling and creating various compounds to regulate tumor activities. This study aims to observe enriched TAMs in tumor tissues during bladder cancer development, which markedly facilitated the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and promoted tumor growth in vivo. We determined that TAMs regulate tumor sustained growth by secreting type I collagen, which can activate the prosurvival integrin α2β1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, traditional chemotherapeutic drugs combined with integrin α2β1 inhibitor showed intensive anticancer effects, revealing an innovative approach in clinical bladder cancer treatment.

Burden S, Billson HA, Lal S, et al.
Perioperative nutrition for the treatment of bladder cancer by radical cystectomy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019; 5:CD010127 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy (RC) is the primary surgical treatment for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. This major operation is typically associated with an extended hospital stay, a prolonged recovery period and potentially major complications. Nutritional interventions are beneficial in some people with other types of cancer and may be of value in this setting too.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of perioperative nutrition in people undergoing radical cystectomy for the treatment of bladder cancer.
SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search using multiple databases (Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL), trials registries, other sources of grey literature, and conference proceedings published up to 22 February 2019, with no restrictions on the language or status of publication.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults undergoing RC for bladder cancer. The intervention was any perioperative nutrition support.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and the quality of evidence using GRADE. Primary outcomes were postoperative complications at 90 days and length of hospital stay. The secondary outcome was mortality up to 90 days after surgery. When 90-day outcome data were not available, we reported 30-day data.
MAIN RESULTS: The search identified eight trials including 500 participants. Six trials were conducted in the USA and two in Europe.1. Parenteral nutrition (PN) versus oral nutrition: based on one study with 157 participants, PN may increase postoperative complications within 30 days (risk ratio (RR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.82; low-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of evidence for serious study limitations (unclear risk of selection, performance and selective reporting bias) and serious imprecision. This corresponds to 198 more complications per 1000 participants (95% CI 35 more to 405 more). Length of hospital stay may be similar (mean difference (MD) 0.5 days higher, CI not reported; low-quality evidence).2. Immuno-enhancing nutrition versus standard nutrition: based on one study including 29 participants, immuno-enhancing nutrition may reduce 90-day postoperative complications (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.23; low-quality evidence). These findings correspond to 322 fewer complications per 1000 participants (95% CI 429 fewer to 107 more). Length of hospital stay may be similar (MD 0.20 days, 95% CI 1.69 lower to 2.09 higher; low-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of evidence of both outcomes for very serious imprecision.3. Preoperative oral nutritional support versus normal diet: based on one study including 28 participants, we are very uncertain if preoperative oral supplements reduces postoperative complications. We downgraded quality for serious study limitations (unclear risk of selection, performance, attrition and selective reporting bias) and very serious imprecision. The study did not report on length of hospital stay.4. Early postoperative feeding versus standard postoperative management: based on one study with 102 participants, early postoperative feeding may increase postoperative complications (very low-quality evidence) but we are very uncertain of this finding. We downgraded the quality of evidence for serious study limitations (unclear risk of selection and performance bias) and very serious imprecision. Length of hospital stay may be similar (MD 0.95 days less, CI not reported; low-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of evidence for serious study limitations (unclear risk of selection and performance bias) and serious imprecision.5. Amino acid with dextrose versus dextrose: based on two studies with 104 participants, we are very uncertain whether amino acids reduce postoperative complications (very low-quality evidence). We are also very uncertain whether length of hospital stay is similar (very low-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of evidence for both outcomes for serious study limitations (unclear and high risk of selection bias; unclear risk of performance, detection and selective reporting bias), serious indirectness related to the patient population and very serious imprecision.6. Branch chain amino acids versus dextrose only: based on one study including 19 participants, we are very uncertain whether complication rates are similar (very low-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of evidence for serious study limitations (unclear risk of selection, performance, detection, attrition and selective reporting bias), serious indirectness related to the patient population and very serious imprecision. The study did not report on length of hospital stay.7. Perioperative oral nutritional supplements versus oral multivitamin and mineral supplement: based on one study with 61 participants, oral supplements compared to a multivitamin and mineral supplement may slightly decrease postoperative complications (low-quality evidence). These findings correspond to 135 fewer occurrences per 1000 participants (95% CI 256 fewer to 65 more). Length of hospital stay may be similar (low-quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of evidence of both outcomes for study limitations and imprecision.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on few, small and dated studies, with serious methodological limitations, we found limited evidence for a benefit of perioperative nutrition interventions. We rated the quality of evidence as low or very low, which underscores the urgent need for high-quality research studies to better inform nutritional support interventions for people undergoing surgery for bladder cancer.

Shen T, Yang L, Zhang Z, et al.
KIF20A Affects the Prognosis of Bladder Cancer by Promoting the Proliferation and Metastasis of Bladder Cancer Cells.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:4863182 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: To investigate the expression of kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A) in bladder cancer, the effect of KIF20A on the proliferation and metastasis of bladder cancer cells, and the effect of KIF20A expression on the prognosis of bladder cancer patients.
Methods: Bladder cancer tissue and its adjacent tissues were collected from tumour patients. The mRNA and protein expression levels of KIF20A in the tissue samples were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to identify the expression and distribution of KIF20A proteins in the tissue samples. The relationship between the KIF20A expression and the clinical pathology of bladder cancer was analysed. The effect of the differential expression of KIF20A on the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer was analysed by the TCGA database. The plasmid was transfected into the bladder cell lines T24 and 5637 to construct two stable cell lines with knocked down KIF20A. The effect of KIF20A expression on the proliferation and invasion of T24 and 5637 bladder cells was explored in vitro using the abovementioned stable cell lines. The effect of the KIF20A expression on the proliferation of bladder cancer cells was evaluated by a mouse xenograft model.
Results: The expression of KIF20A was significantly higher in the bladder cancer tissues than in the adjacent control tissues. The expression of KIF20A was significantly associated with the degree of pathological differentiation of bladder cancer. Patients with a higher expression of KIF20A had a higher tumour grade and a more advanced stage. The mean survival of patients with a high KIF20A expression was significantly lower than the mean survival of patients with a low KIF20A expression. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that the knockdown of KIF20A significantly inhibited T24 and 5637 cell proliferation and invasion. The in vivo experiments showed that the knockdown of KIF20A significantly inhibited the proliferation of the bladder tumours.
Conclusion: KIF20A promotes the proliferation and metastasis of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer patients with a high KIF20A expression have a worse tumour differentiation and a poor prognosis. KIF20A may become an independent factor that affects the prognosis of bladder cancer patients and a therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

Nakamura Y, Miyata Y, Takehara K, et al.
The Pathological Significance and Prognostic Roles of Thrombospondin-1, and -2, and 4N1K-peptide in Bladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2317-2324 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Thrombospondins (TSPs) play a role as inhibitors of angiogenesis under various pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pathological significance and prognostic role of the 4N1K-peptide (KRFYVVMWKK), which is derived from TSP-1 and -2, in bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred and six bladder cancer tissues were examined for expression of TSP-1, TSP-2, and 4N1K-peptide by immunohistochemistry. Cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 immunoreactivity were also examined.
RESULTS: Expression of TSP-2 and 4N1K-peptide was negatively associated with T stage, metastasis, and grade. TSP-2 expression was negatively associated with cancer cell proliferation and MMP-9 expression, whereas 4N1K-peptide was significantly associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis, and MMP-9 expression. Multivariate analysis showed that 4N1K-peptide expression was a significant predictor of metastasis (hazard ratio=3.90, p=0.002).
CONCLUSION: TSP-2 and 4N1K peptide played important roles in malignant aggressiveness and progression of bladder cancer via complex mechanisms involving cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and MMP-9.

Ma JY, Hu G, Liu Q
Prognostic Significance of the Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio in Bladder Cancer Undergoing Radical Cystectomy: A Meta-Analysis of 5638 Individuals.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:7593560 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: A growing number of studies have explored the association between the pretreatment lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and survival outcomes in various cancers. However, its prognostic significance on bladder cancer remains inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment LMR in bladder cancer.
Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CNKI databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies. A meta-analysis of overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), or cancer-specific survival (CSS) clinicopathological features was conducted.
Results: Nine studies containing 5,638 cancer patients were analyzed in this meta-analysis. Patients with high LMR tended to have favourable OS (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50-0.80,
Conclusion: Pretreatment LMR might be a useful predictor of survival outcomes in patients with bladder cancer.

Lee YC, Kurtova AV, Xiao J, et al.
Collagen-rich airway smooth muscle cells are a metastatic niche for tumor colonization in the lung.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastases account for the majority of cancer deaths. While certain steps of the metastatic cascade are well characterized, identification of targets to block this process remains a challenge. Host factors determining metastatic colonization to secondary organs are particularly important for exploration, as those might be shared among different cancer types. Here, we showed that bladder tumor cells expressing the collagen receptor, CD167a, responded to collagen I stimulation at the primary tumor to promote local invasion and utilized the same receptor to preferentially colonize at airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs)-a rich source of collagen III in lung. Morphologically, COL3-CD167a-driven metastatic foci are uniquely distinct from typical lung alveolar metastatic lesions and exhibited activation of the CD167a-HSP90-Stat3 axis. Importantly, metastatic lung colonization could be abrogated using an investigational drug that attenuates Stat3 activity, implicating this seed-and-soil interaction as a therapeutic target for eliminating lung metastasis.

Hori S, Miyake M, Onishi S, et al.
Evaluation of pro‑ and anti‑tumor effects induced by three colony‑stimulating factors, G‑CSF, GM‑CSF and M‑CSF, in bladder cancer cells: Is G‑CSF a friend of bladder cancer cells?
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):2237-2249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytotoxic chemotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, this treatment can cause transient and prolonged neutropenia, which can result in fatal infection. Three recombinant human colony‑stimulating factors (CSFs), granulocyte CSF (G‑CSF), granulocyte‑macrophage CSF (GM‑CSF), and macrophage CSF (M‑CSF), are currently available to reduce the duration and degree of neutropenia. The present study investigated the pro‑ and anti‑tumor effects of these three CSFs and the changes in molecular profiles. Xenograft tumors in athymic mice were generated by subcutaneously inoculating the human bladder cancer cell lines MGH‑U3 and UM‑UC‑3. A total of 2 weeks after cell inoculation, mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, G‑CSF, GM‑CSF and M‑CSF) and treated thrice a week for 2 weeks. Tumor growth during monitoring and tumor weight at the time of euthanization were significantly higher in mice treated with G‑CSF and lower in mice treated with GM‑CSF compared with the control mice. Tumors were examined by immunostaining with antibodies against proteins associated tumor proliferation (Ki‑67), angiogenesis [CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)], anti‑immunity (CD204) and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT; E‑cadherin). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of M2 macrophages and EMT were promoted by G‑CSF, whereas lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of M2 macrophages were inhibited by GM‑CSF. Treatment‑associated changes in serum pro‑ and anti‑tumoral cytokines and chemokines were evaluated by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)‑based arrays. In the ELISA for serum, the levels of cytokines associated with angiogenesis (interleukin‑6 and VEGF), and EMT (transforming growth factor‑β1 and ‑β2) were elevated in mice treated with G‑CSF. Treatment with GM‑CSF and M‑CSF also affected the level of these cytokines characteristically. The current results indicate that administration of exogenous G‑CSF to patients with bladder cancer promotes tumor growth through promotion of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of M2 macrophages and enhancement of EMT through the modulation of the tumor microenvironment.

Tsujino T, Sugito N, Taniguchi K, et al.
MicroRNA-143/Musashi-2/KRAS cascade contributes positively to carcinogenesis in human bladder cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2189-2199 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has been well established that microRNA (miR)-143 is downregulated in human bladder cancer (BC). Recent precision medicine has shown that mutations in BC are frequently observed in FGFR3, RAS and PIK3CA genes, all of which correlate with RAS signaling networks. We have previously shown that miR-143 suppresses cell growth by inhibiting RAS signaling networks in several cancers including BC. In the present study, we showed that synthetic miR-143 negatively regulated the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) in BC cell lines. MSI2 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability of certain mRNAs and their translation by binding to the target sequences of the mRNAs. Of note, the present study clarified that MSI2 positively regulated KRAS expression through directly binding to the target sequence of KRAS mRNA and promoting its translation, thus contributing to the maintenance of KRAS expression. Thus, miR-143 silenced KRAS and MSI2, which further downregulated KRAS expression through perturbation of the MSI2/KRAS cascade.

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