Gene Summary

Gene:PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog
Aliases: BZS, DEC, CWS1, GLM2, MHAM, TEP1, MMAC1, PTEN1, 10q23del, PTENbeta
Summary:This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/PKB signaling pathway. The use of a non-canonical (CUG) upstream initiation site produces a longer isoform that initiates translation with a leucine, and is thought to be preferentially associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. This longer isoform may help regulate energy metabolism in the mitochondria. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 9. Alternative splicing and the use of multiple translation start codons results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

As tumours progress to more advanced stages, they tend to acquire an increasing number of genetic alterations. One common alteration seen in a range of different advanced cancers is mutation of the PTEN gene, a gene which is linked with cell regulation and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Mutations in the PTEN gene are documented in cancers of the breast, prostate, endometrium, ovary, colon, melanoma, glioblastoma. and lymphoma. Animal models have shown that the loss of just one copy of the PTEN gene is enough to interrupt cell signalling and begin the process of uncontrolled cell growth. However, the significance of PTEN alterations in carcinogenesis is controversial since aberrant transcripts of PTEN have also been identified in normal non-cancerous tissues.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (16)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerPTEN and Breast Cancer View Publications701
Prostate CancerPTEN and Prostate Cancer View Publications675
Endometrial CancerPTEN mutations in Endometrial Cancer
Mutations of the PTEN suppressor gene are the most frequent genetic abnormality in endometrial cancers. They occur in 40-80% of endometrioid carcinomas, which account for the majority of endometrial cancers. PTEN mutations have also been detected in the precancerous condition endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia.
View Publications585
Brain and CNS TumoursPTEN and Glioblastoma View Publications521
Astrocytoma, ChildhoodPTEN and Astrocytoma View Publications518
Lung CancerPTEN and Lung Cancer View Publications555
Cowden SyndromePTEN mutations in Cowdon Syndrome
Cowdon Syndrome is a hereditary disease characterised by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid abnormalities. People with the syndrome have an elevated risk of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and endometrial cancer.
View Publications346
Thyroid CancerPTEN and Thyroid Cancer View Publications176
Skin CancerPTEN and Skin Cancer View Publications150
Stomach CancerPTEN and Stomach Cancer View Publications136
Soft Tissue SarcomaPTEN and Soft Tissue Sarcoma View Publications122
-PTEN in Precancerous Conditions
PTEN mutations are implicated in a number of precancerous conditions. For example Mutter and colleagues (JNCI, 2000) found 16/29 (55%) of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (a precancerous condition) had PTEN mutations compared to 25/30 (83%) of endometrioid adenocarcinomas. They suggest that PTEN may be a useful immunohistochemical biomarker for premalignant disease. The precancers were characterised by mutation of only 1 PTEN allele while the adenocarcinomas showed reduced or complete loss of PTEN protein expression.
View Publications66
MesotheliomaPTEN expression in Mesothelioma View Publications24
Salivary Gland CancerPTEN and Salivary Gland Cancer View Publications26
Testicular CancerPTEN and Testicular Cancer View Publications16
Ewing's SarcomaPTEN Amplification in Ewing's Sarcoma?
In a genome-wide copy-number analysis of Ewing's sarcoma, Lynn et al (2013) found localized copy-number alterations of PTEN.
View Publications6

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTEN (cancer-related)

Chen H, Chong W, Teng C, et al.
The immune response-related mutational signatures and driver genes in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2348-2356 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has achieved remarkable clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but our understanding of biomarkers that predict the response to ICB remain obscure. Here we integrated somatic mutational profile and clinicopathologic information from 113 NSCLC patients treated by ICB (CTLA-4/PD-1). High tumor mutation burden (TMB) and neoantigen burden were identified significantly associated with improved efficacy in NSCLC immunotherapy. Furthermore, we identified apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) mutational signature was markedly associated with responding of ICB therapy (log-rank test, P = .001; odds ratio (OR), 0.18 [95% CI, 0.06-0.50], P < .001). The association with progression-free survival remained statistically significant after controlling for age, sex, histological type, smoking, PD-L1 expression, hypermutation, smoking signature and mismatch repair (MMR) (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.75], P = .010). Combined high TMB with APOBEC signature preferably predict immunotherapy responders in NSCLC cohort. The CIBERSORT algorithm revealed that high APOBEC mutational activity samples were associated with increased infiltration of CD4 memory activated T cells, CD8

Albero-González R, Hernández-Llodrà S, Juanpere N, et al.
Immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair proteins (MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2) in prostate cancer: correlation with grade groups (WHO 2016) and ERG and PTEN status.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(2):223-231 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of DNA MMR genes in prostate cancer (PrCa) is controversial, as genetic alterations leading to microsatellite instability are incompletely defined in these tumors. ERG rearrangements and PTEN loss are concomitant events in PrCa. The aim of this study has been to analyze the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, ERG, and PTEN and their potential association with the grade group (GG) grading system (WHO 2016) and PSA recurrence in a series of 200 PrCa (PSMAR-Biobank, Barcelona, Spain). MSH2, MLH1, PMS2, and PTEN losses were documented in 8%, 5%, 2%, and 36.5%, respectively. ERG expression was found in 48%. MSH6 showed an increase of expression with respect to basal levels in 42.1% of the cases. A statistical association between MSH6 overexpression and GG5 was found (p = 0.0281). ERG-wild-type cases were associated with single MSH2 loss (p = 0.024), and MSH2 and/or MLH1 loss (p = 0.019). The percentage of cases with PTEN loss was 20.5% (8/39) in GG1, 37.6% (53/141) of clustered GG2 to 4, and 60% (12/20) of GG5 (chi-square test, p = 0.01). Thus, PTEN expression loss was statistically more frequent in the upper-grade tumors. PMS2 loss was an infrequent event, but it was statistically associated with shorter time to PSA recurrence (p = 0.011). These results suggest the existence of an alternative non-ERG pathway associated with MSH2 or MLH1 expression loss. MSH6 overexpression could be a marker of aggressiveness in PrCa. The IHC assessment of DNA MMR proteins, ERG and PTEN, could identify different altered PrCa pathways, which could aid patient stratification.

Liu YJ, Zhang K, Liu B, et al.
[Bmi-1-siRNA Regulates the Proliferation of K562 Leukemia Cells in vitro and in vivo by PTEN/pAKT Pathway].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 27(3):685-691 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Bmi-1 gene silence on the proliferation ability of K562 cells in vitro and in vivo, and to explore the relation of molecular mechanism between proliferation ability of K562 cells in vitro and in vivo with PTEN/pAKT signaling pathway.
METHODS: The Bmi-1 small interference RNA (siRNA) sequences were transfected into K562 cells for decreasing Bmi-1 expression. The effect of Bmi-1 siRNA on the proliferation of K562 cells in vitro and in vivo was detected by MTT method and colony-forming test, the effect of Bmi-1 siRNA on the tumorogenicity of K562 cells was observed by subcutaneous inoculation of K562 cells, LY294002 and Bpv treated K562 cells in nude mice, the expression of Bmi-1, PTEN and pAKT proteins were detected by Western blot.
RESULTS: The Bmi-1 siRNA could inhibit the proliferation activity, colony-forming and tumor-forming abilities of K562 cells. After the silence of Bmi-1 gene, the PTEN expression in Bmi-1 gene-silenced group was significantly enhanced. While the pAKT expression in Bmi-1 gene-silenced group was significantly reduced; after the K562 cells were treated with LY294002 (an inhibitor of pAKT), the pAKT expression colony-forming and tumor forming abilities were reduced in comparison with untreated K562 cells; after the K562-S1 cells were treated with Bpv (an inhibitor of PTEN), the PTEN expression decreased, while the pAKT expression, colony forming and tumor-forming abilities were restored.
CONCLUSION: The Bmi-1 gene possibly involves in regulation of K562 proliferation in vivo and in vitro, the effect of PTEN/pAKT signaling pathway maybe one of molecular mechanisms mediating this regulation.

Shen J, Xu J, Chen B, et al.
Elevated integrin α6 expression is involved in the occurrence and development of lung adenocarcinoma, and predicts a poor prognosis: a study based on immunohistochemical analysis and bioinformatics.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(7):1681-1693 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study integrin α6 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissue through comparison with matching adjacent non-cancerous tissues as well as elucidating the correlation between integrin α6 expression with the clinical parameters of lung adenocarcinoma. We also explore the signal pathways associated with integrin α6 up-regulation.
METHODS: The clinical data, cancer tissues, and adjacent non-cancerous tissues of 30 patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma were collected from Taizhou Hospital in Zhejiang Province, China, in 2010. The protein levels of integrin α6 were determined by immunohistochemistry methods. mRNA data of 85 lung adenocarcinoma tissues and 14 normal tissues as well as clinical results were collected from GEO30219. We also collected mRNA data of 533 lung adenocarcinoma tissues and 59 normal tissues as well as the clinical results of 522 patients with lung adenocarcinoma from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The differences in protein and mRNA levels in cancer tissues and non-cancerous tissues were analyzed, and we subsequently investigated the association between integrin α6 expression and key parameters indicating lung adenocarcinoma progression and overall survival rate. Additionally, the possible pathways involved in the up-regulation of integrin α6 were analyzed by GSEA.
RESULTS: The protein levels of integrin α6 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (p < 0.01), and were positively correlated with the grade and T stage of lung adenocarcinoma (p < 0.05). Patients with low integrin α6 protein levels had higher survival rates (p < 0.05). The analysis of gene chip data from the TCGA database also showed that the integrin α6 mRNA level was significantly correlated with T stage (p < 0.05), overall survival (OS) rate (p < 0.01), and disease-free survival (DFS) rate (p = 0.005). GSEA gene enrichment analysis identified a series of pathways that may be associated with integrin α6 up-regulation, including the AGR, PYK2, ECM, and PTEN pathways.
CONCLUSION: Integrin α6 plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of lung adenocarcinoma and may act as a prognostic predictor of lung adenocarcinoma in patients. Based on the results of the present study, integrin α6 may be a potential target gene for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.

Zhang P, Lu X, Shi Z, et al.
miR-205-5p regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting PTEN via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in cisplatin-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Gene. 2019; 710:103-113 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) symbolizes the predominant program of advanced-stage cancer, it is critical in cancer progression, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. In this study, the metastatic properties of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells were evaluated by morphological examination, wound healing assay, migration and invasion assay. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to ascertain the expression of markers which were associated with EMT. The effects of miR-205-5p on invasion, migration, EMT and proliferation of NPC cells were evaluated and the molecular mechanisms of their interaction were explored. In this study, we manifested firstly that the expression of miR-205-5p in cisplatin-resistant NPC cell line HNE1/DDP was obviously up-regulated than that in its parental cell line HNE1. Then we analyzed the specific role of miR-205-5p through functional assays by transfecting specific mimics and inhibitors. The results indicated that low expression of miR-205-5p restrained EMT progression of HNE1/DDP cells. Further studies on the mechanism of miR-205-5p manifested that PTEN was a downstream candidate gene of miR-205-5p, down-regulated PTEN expression could counteract the effect of miR-205-5p inhibitors, and the regulation of EMT by miR-205-5p on HNE1/DDP cells depended on the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Overall, our results indicated that miR-205-5p was targeting PTEN to regulate EMT through the PI3K/AKT pathway. This study will supply a new treatment target for advanced NPC.

Wang X, Lyu J, Ji A, et al.
Jarid2 enhances the progression of bladder cancer through regulating PTEN/AKT signaling.
Life Sci. 2019; 230:162-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 2 (Jarid2) is an interacting component of PRC2 which catalyzes methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) and causes the downregulation of PTEN. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether Jarid2 could interact with H3K27me3 to regulate PTEN expression in bladder cancer.
MAIN METHODS: Jarid2 expression in bladder cancer tissues and cells were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR. CCK-8, flow cytometry, transwell chamber and in vivo xenograft assays were performed to assess cell growth, apoptosis, migration and tumorigenesis, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to assess the methylation of PTEN.
KEY FINDINGS: Jarid2 expression was increased in bladder cancer tissues and cells. Downregulation of Jarid2 with shRNA transfection obviously inhibited the proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis of bladder cancer T24 and HT-1376 cells and induced cell apoptosis. Jarid2 downregulation decreased the expression of p-AKT and increased PTEN expression. Besides, Jarid2 down-regulation repressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas knockdown of PTEN impaired this effect. Moreover, upregulation of Jarid2 increased the combination of PTEN promoter and H3K27me3, and 5-aza-CdR rescued it. Meanwhile, 5-aza-CdR administration abolished Jarid2 roles in the promotion of EMT process and AKT activation, as well as the reduction of PTEN expression.
SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the present study elaborated that Jarid2 facilitated the progression of bladder cancer through H3K27me3-mediated PTEN downregulation and AKT activation, which might provide a new mechanism for Jarid2 in promoting bladder cancer progression.

Shen WC, Lai YC, Li LH, et al.
Methylation and PTEN activation in dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells promotes osteogenesis and reduces oncogenesis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, traits distinguishing stem cells, have not been well characterized and compared in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental pulp (DP-MSCs) and bone marrow (BM-MSCs). Here, we report DP-MSCs exhibit increased osteogenic potential, possess decreased adipogenic potential, form dentin pulp-like complexes, and are resistant to oncogenic transformation when compared to BM-MSCs. Genome-wide RNA-seq and differential expression analysis reveal differences in adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation pathways, bone marrow neoplasm pathway, and PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Higher PTEN expression in DP-MSCs than in BM-MSCs is responsible for the lineage commitment and tumorigenesis differences in both cells. Additionally, the PTEN promoter in BM-MSCs exhibits higher DNA methylation levels and repressive mark H3K9Me2 enrichment when compared to DP-MSCs, which is mediated by increased DNMT3B and G9a expression, respectively. The study demonstrates how several epigenetic factors broadly affect lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, which should be considered when developing therapeutic uses of stem cells.

Chen B, Shen Z, Wu D, et al.
Glutathione Peroxidase 1 Promotes NSCLC Resistance to Cisplatin via ROS-Induced Activation of PI3K/AKT Pathway.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:7640547 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cytotoxicity is an important mechanism by which cisplatin kills tumor cells. Glutathione peroxidase family (GPXs) is an important member of antioxidant system which metabolizes intracellular ROS and maintains homeostasis of cells. Altered expressions of GPXs enzymes, especially GPX1, have been described in a variety of human cancers. However, their functional roles in cisplatin-based chemoresistance in human malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer have never been explored.
Methods: A panel of NSCLC cell lines were selected for this study. GPX1 expression was detected using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Cisplatin-induced cell killing was analyzed by CCK8 assay. Intracellular ROS levels were detected by fluorescence-based flow cytometry analysis. In vitro overexpression and knockdown of GPX1 expression were performed using GPX1 expression vector and siRNA approaches. Protein levels of PTEN, NF-
Results: GPX1 expression was upregulated in a subset of NSCLC cell lines resistant to cisplatin treatment. Expression vector-mediated forced overexpression of GPX1 significantly increased cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cell lines, whereas RNA inference-mediated downregulation of GPX1 could restore sensitivity to cisplatin. Overexpression of GPX1 significantly suppressed elevation of intracellular ROS and activation of AKT pathway when NSCLC cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of cisplatin. Activation of the AKT pathway inhibited proapoptotic cascade and subsequently led to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-
Conclusions: Our findings suggested that overexpression of GPX1 is a novel molecular mechanism for cisplatin-based chemoresistance in NSCLC. GPX1 overexpression blocks cisplatin-induced ROS intracellular accumulation, activates PI3K-AKT pathway by increased AKT phosphorylation, and further leads to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-

Li JY, Huang WX, Zhou X, et al.
Numb inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition via RBP-Jκ-dependent Notch1/PTEN/FAK signaling pathway in tongue cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):391 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer has been estimated as the sixth most frequent solid cancer all over the world, in which tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common type of oral cancers. However, the mechanism of TSCC metastasizing to lymph node and distant sites has not been completely understood.
METHODS: In this study, RT-qPCR method was used to detect the mRNA level of Numb, PTEN and Notch1 genes, as well as EMT-associated genes. Western blot assay was utilized to detect protein level of these genes. In addition, we determined cell proliferation by MTT assay and employed transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay to probe the abilities of invasion and migration, respectively. To investigate the role of PTEN, its inhibitor VO-Ohpic trihydrate was used to treat SCC-4 and CAL27 cells.
RESULTS: We found that Numb expression was downregulated in SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells compared to NHOK cells. Instead, Notch1 level in SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells were higher than that in NHOK cells. Furthermore, the results showed that Numb overexpression significantly suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells via regulating Notch1 signaling and EMT-related genes expression. By contrast, we observed that RBP-Jκ knockdown had an inhibitory role in proliferation, migration and invasion of SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells. In cells with Numb overexpression or RBP-Jκ knockdown, p-FAK and EMT-related genes were remarkably regulated.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new mechanism of understanding the metastasis of TSCC and help develop therapeutic strategies for treating tongue cancer.

Ahmed ESA, Ahmed NH, Medhat AM, et al.
Mesenchymal stem cells targeting PI3K/AKT pathway in leukemic model.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(4):1010428319846803 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells have therapeutic properties that are related to their potentials for trans-differentiation, immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. This study was performed to analyze the role of mesenchymal stem cells as an alternative for cellular signaling growth factors involved in the pathogenesis of leukemogenesis in rats. Treatment of rats with 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene induced leukemogenesis appeared as a significant decrease in hematological parameters with concomitant significant increase in bone marrow oxidative and inflammatory indices (transforming growth factor beta and interleukin-6) in comparison with normal groups. On the contrary, Western immunoblotting showed a significant increase in the signaling growth factors: PI3K, AKT, mTOR proteins and a significant decrease in PTEN in 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene-treated group. In addition, a significant increase in the transcript levels of B cell lymphoma-2 protein gene in the 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group, while that of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor-4 and B cell lymphoma-2 protein associated x-protein were significantly downregulated compared to controls. Meanwhile, therapeutic mesenchymal stem cells treatment predict a significant improvement versus 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group through the modulation of growth factors that confront bone marrow dysplasia. In the same direction treatment of 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group with mesenchymal stem cells, it induced apoptosis and increased the homing efficacy to bone marrow. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem cells improve hematopoiesis and alleviate inflammation, and modulated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway contributed to experimental leukemogenesis.

Islam MA, Xu Y, Tao W, et al.
Restoration of tumour-growth suppression in vivo via systemic nanoparticle-mediated delivery of PTEN mRNA.
Nat Biomed Eng. 2018; 2(11):850-864 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a well-characterized tumour-suppressor gene that is lost or mutated in about half of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers and in many other human cancers. The restoration of functional PTEN as a treatment for prostate cancer has, however, proven difficult. Here, we show that PTEN messenger RNA (mRNA) can be reintroduced into PTEN-null prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo via its encapsulation in polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles coated with a polyethylene glycol shell. The nanoparticles are stable in serum, elicit low toxicity and enable high PTEN mRNA transfection in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, significant inhibition of tumour growth is achieved when delivered systemically in multiple mouse models of prostate cancer. We also show that the restoration of PTEN function in PTEN-null prostate cancer cells inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway and enhances apoptosis. Our findings provide proof-of-principle evidence of the restoration of mRNA-based tumour suppression in vivo.

Ma Q, Gao Y, Xu P, et al.
Atorvastatin Inhibits Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulating PTEN/AKT Pathway via Promoting Ras Homolog Family Member B (RhoB).
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:3235021 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in women around the world. Atorvastatin (ATO) was found to be associated with a decreased risk of recurrence and mortality in cancer. But the exact mechanism of its carcinostatic effects is unclear. The expression level of Ras homolog family member B (RhoB) in breast cancer cells was found to be upregulated after being treated with ATO. Thus, we conjecture that altered expression of RhoB induced by ATO may be decisive for the migration and progression of breast cancer.
Methods: The effects of ATO on breast tumor cells
Results: ATO inhibits proliferation, invasion, EMT, and PTEN/AKT pathway and promotes apoptosis in breast tumor cells. In addition, ATO inhibits the volume and weight of breast tumor in tumor-bearing mice and upregulated RhoB in tumor tissues. The expression of RhoB in mRNA and protein level was upregulated in statin-treated breast cancer cells and downregulated in cancer tissues. Low expression of RhoB links with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer (HR = 0.74[0.66-0.83],
Conclusions: The exact mechanism of ATO's carcinostatic effects in breast cancer is related to downregulating PTEN/AKT pathway via promoting RhoB. Our study also demonstrates the potential applicability of RhoB as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Grodzik M, Szczepaniak J, Strojny-Cieslak B, et al.
Diamond Nanoparticles Downregulate Expression of
Molecules. 2019; 24(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that diamond nanoparticles (NDs) exhibited antiangiogenic and proapoptotic properties in vitro in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors in vivo. Moreover, NDs inhibited adhesion, leading to the suppression of migration and invasion of GBM. In the present study, we hypothesized that the NDs might also inhibit proliferation and cell cycle in glioma cells. Experiments were performed in vitro with the U87 and U118 lines of GBM cells, and for comparison, the Hs5 line of stromal cells (normal cells) after 24 h and 72 h of treatment. The analyses included cell morphology, cell death, viability, and cell cycle analysis, double timing assay, and gene expression (

Jiang Y, Liao HY, Yang QS, et al.
[Exploration of the Role of Tumor Suppressor Genes Foxo1 and PTEN in the Tumorigenesis of Mouse Natural Killer-Cell Lymphoma].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 27(2):439-444 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether tumor suppressor gene Foxo1 and PTEN play a critical role in the tumorigenesis of mouse natural killer-cell lymphoma.
METHODS: NKp46-iCre mice were crossed with mice carrying floxed Foxo1 alleles (Foxo1
RESULTS: The mouse model with NK cell-special Foxo1 and PTEN double knockout was established. Compared with control group (Foxo1
CONCLUSION: The simultaneous deletion of the Foxo1 and PTEN genes may not plays significant role in the tumorigenesis of mouse natural killer-cell lymphoma and NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance in vivo.

Yao SS, Han L, Tian ZB, et al.
Celastrol inhibits growth and metastasis of human gastric cancer cell MKN45 by down-regulating microRNA-21.
Phytother Res. 2019; 33(6):1706-1716 [PubMed] Related Publications
Celastrol could inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. However, effect(s) of celastrol on gastric cancer is not well studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of celastrol on human gastric cancer cell line MKN45 and the underlying mechanisms. We found that celastrol inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest (p < .05, p < .01, or p < .001). Under celastrol treatment, overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) increased cell viability, migration, and invasion and inhibited cell apoptosis compared with negative control (p < .05, p < .01, or p < .001). In addition, the phosphorylation of PTEN was significantly up-regulated, whereas PI3K, AKT, p65, and IκBα phosphorylation was statistically decreased by celastrol (p < .05 or p < .01) and then further reversed by miR-21 overexpression (p < .05 or p < .01). On the other side, miR-21 silence showed contrary results (p < .05) as relative to miR-21 overexpression. In conclusion, celastrol inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion and inactivates PTEN/PI3K/AKT and nuclear factor κB signaling pathways in MKN45 cells by down-regulating miR-21.

Chen J, Chen J, He F, et al.
Design of a Targeted Sequencing Assay to Detect Rare Mutations in Circulating Tumor DNA.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(4):264-269 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Qualitative and quantitative detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a liquid biopsy technology used for early cancer diagnosis. However, the plasma ctDNA content is extremely low, so it is difficult to detect somatic mutations of tumors using conventional sequencing methods. Target region sequencing (TRS) technology, through enrichment of the target genomic region followed by next generation sequencing, overcomes this challenge and has been widely used in ctDNA sequencing.
METHODS: We designed a ctDNA sequencing panel to capture 128 tumor genes, and tested the performance of the panel by running TRS for ctDNA of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patient and 12 breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: TRS using the new ctDNA panel at more than 500 × coverage depth achieved almost the same accuracy as traditional whole-exome sequencing (WES). PBRM1 p.L641V was detected in the plasma sample of the ccRCC patient with an allele frequency of 0.2%. The ctDNA of 12 breast cancer patients was sequenced at a depth of 500-fold, achieving 99.89% coverage; 34 genes were detected with mutations, including the drug target genes BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, APC, KDR, and NOTCH2.
CONCLUSIONS: This TRS new ctDNA panel can be used to detect mutations in cell-free DNA from multiple types of cancer.

Wang L, Yang G, Zhao D, et al.
CD103-positive CSC exosome promotes EMT of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: role of remote MiR-19b-3p.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is characterized by a highly metastatic potential. The stromal communication between stem cells and cancer cells critically influences metastatic dissemination of cancer cells.
METHODS: The effect of exosomes isolated from cancer stem cells (CSCs) of CCRCC patients on the progress of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lung metastasis of CCRCC cells were examined.
RESULTS: CSCs exosomes promoted proliferation of CCRCC cells and accelerated the progress of EMT. Bioactive miR-19b-3p transmitted to cancer cells by CSC exosomes induced EMT via repressing the expression of PTEN. CSCs exosomes derived from CCRCC patients with lung metastasis produced the strongest promoting effect on EMT. Notably, CD103
CONCLUSIONS: CSC exosomes transported miR-19b-3p into CCRCC cells and initiated EMT promoting metastasis. CD103

Kubatka P, Uramova S, Kello M, et al.
Anticancer Activities of
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Naturally-occurring mixtures of phytochemicals present in plant foods are proposed to possess tumor-suppressive activities. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the antitumor effects of

Ahmed KI, Govardhan HB, Roy M, et al.
Cell-free circulating tumor DNA in patients with high-grade glioma as diagnostic biomarker - A guide to future directive.
Indian J Cancer. 2019 Jan-Mar; 56(1):65-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Owing to the aggressive nature of high-grade gliomas (HGGs), its early diagnosis holds the key to a favorable prognosis. Currently, tissue biopsy is the gold standard to verify HGG's initial diagnosis and can be challenging due to its invasive nature. In this study, our objective was a noninvasive panel for timely detection of HGG and its progression using cell-free circulating tumor DNA (cfTDNA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with HGG were tested with a 50-gene tumor panel. cfTDNA isolated from serum was checked for single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) or copy number alterations using targeted next-generation sequencing, with further validation of results by checking respective formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues for the same genetic alterations.
RESULTS: About 88.8% of the patients were detected with HGG-associated cfTDNA. Around 25% patients were detected with one, 25% patients had three, 25% patients had four, and 12.5% patients each had five and six genetic alterations. About 12 of 50 genes were detected in the serum samples. The SNVs detected included TP53 in 87.5% of patients; PIK3CA and EGFR in 50% of patients; PTEN in 37.5%; KIT and VHL in each 25% of patients; and RB1, NF2, MET, ATRX, CDK2A, and CTNNB1 each in 8.3%-16.6%. On combining EGFR, KIT, PTEN, PIK3CA, TP53, and VHL genes (Govardhan Diagnostic Genetic Module for high-grade glioma), at least one of the genetic alterations was found in 100% of patients.
Conclusion: These findings illustrate that cfTDNA is easily demonstrable and can be used as a surrogate to tissue biopsy in brain tumor.

Djuzenova CS, Fiedler V, Memmel S, et al.
Differential effects of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 on migration and radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):299 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most tumor cells show aberrantly activated Akt which leads to increased cell survival and resistance to cancer radiotherapy. Therefore, targeting Akt can be a promising strategy for radiosensitization. Here, we explore the impact of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 alone and in combination with the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor PI-103 on the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. In addition, we examine migration of drug-treated cells.
METHODS: Using single-cell tracking and wound healing migration tests, colony-forming assay, Western blotting, flow cytometry and electrorotation we examined the effects of MK-2206 and PI-103 and/or irradiation on the migration, radiation sensitivity, expression of several marker proteins, DNA damage, cell cycle progression and the plasma membrane properties in two glioblastoma (DK-MG and SNB19) cell lines, previously shown to differ markedly in their migratory behavior and response to PI3K/mTOR inhibition.
RESULTS: We found that MK-2206 strongly reduces the migration of DK-MG but only moderately reduces the migration of SNB19 cells. Surprisingly, MK-2206 did not cause radiosensitization, but even increased colony-forming ability after irradiation. Moreover, MK-2206 did not enhance the radiosensitizing effect of PI-103. The results appear to contradict the strong depletion of p-Akt in MK-2206-treated cells. Possible reasons for the radioresistance of MK-2206-treated cells could be unaltered or in case of SNB19 cells even increased levels of p-mTOR and p-S6, as compared to the reduced expression of these proteins in PI-103-treated samples. We also found that MK-2206 did not enhance IR-induced DNA damage, neither did it cause cell cycle distortion, nor apoptosis nor excessive autophagy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides proof that MK-2206 can effectively inhibit the expression of Akt in two glioblastoma cell lines. However, due to an aberrant activation of mTOR in response to Akt inhibition in PTEN mutated cells, the therapeutic window needs to be carefully defined, or a combination of Akt and mTOR inhibitors should be considered.

Cui C, Li S, Wu D
Znhit1 inhibits breast cancer by up-regulating PTEN to deactivate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
Life Sci. 2019; 224:204-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer, ranking sixth as the cause of death among females in China. Zinc finger HIT-type containing 1 (Znhit1) is a pivotal factor for inhibition of gene mutation and cell proliferation. Due to the unknown function of Znhit1 in cancers, we aimed to explore the role of Znhit1 in BC as well as the underlying mechanisms.
MAIN METHODS: Znhit1 expression in clinical specimens and cell lines of BC was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis. Then, the effects of Znhit1 overexpression on cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of BC cells as well as in vivo tumor growth were assessed. The interactions among Znhit1, PTEN and the downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Finally, the role of Znhit1 in prognosis was analyzed in clinical specimens.
KEY FINDINGS: Znhit1 was down-regulated in BC cell lines and clinical specimens. Znhit1 overexpression induced apoptosis and repressed proliferation and invasion of BC cells. Moreover, Znhit1 overexpression induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 stage. In vivo data showed that Znhit1 overexpression inhibited BC tumor growth in mice. Further experiments showed Znhit1 affected BC through up-regulating PTEN, along with inactivation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We finally proved that high expression of Znhit1 indicated improved prognosis.
SIGNIFICANCE: Znhit1 overexpression inhibited BC tumorigenesis possibly through PTEN-mediated inactivation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Additionally, high expression of Znhit1 indicated improved prognosis.

Vahabi M, Pulito C, Sacconi A, et al.
miR-96-5p targets PTEN expression affecting radio-chemosensitivity of HNSCC cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):141 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth leading cancer worldwide. They are typically characterized by a high incidence of local recurrence, which is the most common cause of death in HNSCC patients. TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HNSCC and patients carrying TP53 mutations are associated with a higher probability to develop local recurrence. MiRNAs, which are among the mediators of the oncogenic activity of mt-p53 protein, emerge as an appealing tool for screening, diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. We previously identified a signature of 12 miRNAs whose aberrant expression associated with TP53 mutations and was prognostic for HNSCC. Among them miR-96-5p emerges as an oncogenic miRNAs with prognostic significance in HNSCC.
METHODS: To evaluate the oncogenic role of miR-96-5p in a tumoral context, we performed colony formation, cell migration and cell viability assays in two HNSCC cell lines transfected for miR-96-5p mimic or inhibitor and treated with or without radio/chemo-therapy. In addition, to identify genes positively and negatively correlated to miR-96-5p expression in HNSCC, we analyzed the correlation between gene expression and miR-96-5p level in the subset of TCGA HNSCC tumors carrying missense TP53 mutations by Spearman and Pearson correlation. To finally identify targets of miR-96-5p, we used in silico analysis and the luciferase reporter assay to confirm PTEN as direct target.
RESULTS: Our data showed that overexpression of miR-96-5p led to increased cell migration and radio-resistance, chemotherapy resistance in HNSCC cells. In agreement with these results, among the most statistically significant pathways in which miR-96-5p is involved, are focal Adhesion, extracellular matrix organization and PI3K-Akt-mTOR-signaling pathway. As a direct target of miR-96-5p, we identified PTEN, the main negative regulator of PI3K-Akt signalling pathway activation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a new mechanism of chemo/radio-resistance insurgence in HNSCC cells and support the possibility that miR-96-5p expression could be used as a novel promising biomarker to predict radiotherapy response and local recurrence development in HNSCC patients. In addition, the identification of pathways in which miR-96-5p is involved could contribute to develop new therapeutic strategies to overcome radio-resistance.

Hong Z, Wu G, Xiang ZD, et al.
KDM5C is transcriptionally regulated by BRD4 and promotes castration-resistance prostate cancer cell proliferation by repressing PTEN.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 114:108793 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and it is almost incurable once it has developed into castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the mechanisms underlying the oncogenesis of PCa and CRPC remain elusive. Lysine-specific histone demethylase 5C (KDM5C) is an important member of lysine demethylase family and has recently been found highly expressed in multiple cancer types. In this study, we reported that KDM5C was highly expressed in PCa and CRPC specimens, and the high expression promoted CRPC cell proliferation through repressing phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene epigenetically. Moreover, KDM5C was transcriptionally upregulated by bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), and knockdown KDM5C sensitized the therapeutic effects of CRPC cells to the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibitor. Taken together, our study uncovers that the BRD4-KDM5C-PTEN may be a new oncogenic pathway in CRPC development, and KDM5C is a critical protein and could be an ideal target for CRPC treatment in this oncogenic pathway.

Zeng S, Liu S, Feng J, et al.
Upregulation of lncRNA AB073614 functions as a predictor of epithelial ovarian cancer prognosis and promotes tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(4):421-428 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS: Upregulation of lncRNA AB073614 is found in some cancer types and involved in tumor development and progression including ovarian cancer. However, the clinical value and functional role of lncRNA AB073614 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) still needed to be investigated.
METHODS: We examined lncRNA AB073614 expression using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 75 paired of EOC tissue samples and adjacent normal tissues. Association of lncRNA AB073614 expression with overall survival (OS) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with OS were assessed in EOC patients. After lncRNA AB073614 knockdown using siRNAs, the cell viability and cell colony forming assays were performed. Western blot analysis was used to assess relative protein expression.
RESULTS: In present study, we demonstrated that lncRNA AB073614 was significantly upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues in patients. Higher lncRNA AB073614 expression significantly associated with tumor size, lymph node invasion, FIGO stage, and shorter OS rate of EOC patients. Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis results showed that higher lncRNA AB0736141 was identified as an independent risk factor of OS in EOC patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that lncRNA AB0736141 knockdown suppressed EOC cell proliferation ability and cell colony formation in vitro. In vivo, we showed that AB0736141 knockdown suppressed tumor growth. We also revealed that lncRNA AB0736141 knockdown inhibited the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in EOC.
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, these results indicated that LncRNA AB073614 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and potential target of treatment for EOC.

Sun B, Zhang J, Liu M, Guan L
Alkannin inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via regulation of miR-92a.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 114:108782 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of alkannin on HCC cells growth, migration and invasion.
METHODS: Huh7 and Hep3B2.1-7 cells were treated with alkannin. Expression of miR-92a in cell was altered by transfection with miR-92a-mimic (miR-92a-M) or miR-92a-inhibitor (miR-92a-I). Cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8, BrdU assay, flow cytometry, and transwell assay, respectively. The expression of miR-92a was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of proteins associated with proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis was measured by Western blot.
RESULTS: Alkannin decreased cell viability and proliferation, executed cell apoptosis, and inhibited the migration and invasion of Huh7 and Hep3B2.1-7 cells. Alkannin negatively regulated the expression of miR-92a, and transfection with miR-92a-M impeded alkannin's anti-tumor functions. PTEN and TP53INP1 were found to be target genes of miR-92a. Alkannin inhibited PTEN-dependent PI3K/AKT pathway. Furthermore, the biological effects of miR-92a-I in alkannin treated cells were eliminated by PTEN silencing.
CONCLUSION: Alkannin exerted anti-tumor activities by downregulation of miR-92a. This process might be executed by inactivating PTEN/PI3K/AKT signal pathways through the binding effects of miR-92a on PTEN.

Gong ZH, Zhou F, Shi C, et al.
miRNA-221 promotes cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma progression by targeting PTEN.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is a common type of skin malignancy. MicroRNA-221 (miRNA-221) is a critical non-coding RNA in tumor initiation and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-221 in the development of CSCC remain unknown. This study investigated the expression of miRNA-221 in CSCC and its potential tumor biological functions.
Methods: MTT assay, colony assay, PCR, and Western blot were adopted.
Results: In this study, miRNA-221 expression was significantly higher in CSCC tissues and cell lines than in normal tissues and cells (
Conclusions: Taken together, the obtained results indicated that miR-221 plays an oncogenic function in CSCC by targeting PTEN and further suggest that miR-221 may be a potential target for CSCC diagnosis and treatment.

Du S, Hu W, Zhao Y, et al.
Long non-coding RNA MAGI2-AS3 inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion via sponging microRNA-374a.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(3):269-277 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein-coding transcripts that play important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Our study aimed to explore the role of lncRNA MAGI2-AS3 in breast cancer metastatic progression. In the present study, our results showed that MAGI2-AS3 can inhibit the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In addition, an increase in MAGI2-AS3 can inhibit microRNA-374a (miR-374a) expression in breast cancer cells. Bioinformatic analysis predicted the correlation between MAGI2-AS3 and miR-374a. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was found to be an novel mRNA target of miR-374a. MAGI2-AS3 upregulation inhibited breast cancer metastatic progression by decreasing miR-374a and enhancing PTEN expression. Together, our data revealed that lncRNA MAGI2-AS3 is involved in breast cancer cell progression by regulating the miR-374a-PTEN axis. These findings offer new insight into treatment strategies for breast cancer.

Yuan J, Su Z, Gu W, et al.
MiR-19b and miR-20a suppress apoptosis, promote proliferation and induce tumorigenicity of multiple myeloma cells by targeting PTEN.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(3):279-289 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common hematological malignancy that is often associated with osteolytic lesions, anemia and renal impairment. Deregulation of miRNA has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MM. It was found in our study that miR-19b and miR-20a as members of crucial oncogene miR-17-92 cluster were differentially expressed between patients with MM and normal controls by genechip microarray, and this result was further confirmed in sera of patients with MM by qRT-PCR. The functional effect of miR-19b/20a was analyzed and results showed that miR-19b/20a promoted cell proliferation and migration, inhibited cell apoptosis and altered cell cycle in MM cells. PTEN protein expression was reduced after transfection of miR-19b/20a, suggesting that PTEN was a direct target of miR-19b/20a. In addition, over-expression of miR-19b/20a reversed the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effect of PTEN in MM cells. Finally, our in vivo experiment demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated delivery of miR-20a promoted tumor growth in murine xenograft model of MM, which provide evidence that miR-20a inhibitor exerts therapeutic activity in preclinical models and supports a framework for the development of miR-19b/20a-based treatment strategies for MM patients.

Mamidi TKK, Wu J, Hicks C
Integrating germline and somatic variation information using genomic data for the discovery of biomarkers in prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. High-throughput genotyping has enabled discovery of germline genetic susceptibility variants (herein referred to as germline mutations) associated with an increased risk of developing PCa. However, germline mutation information has not been leveraged and integrated with information on acquired somatic mutations to link genetic susceptibility to tumorigenesis. The objective of this exploratory study was to address this knowledge gap.
METHODS: Germline mutations and associated gene information were derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reports. Somatic mutation and gene expression data were derived from 495 tumors and 52 normal control samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We integrated germline and somatic mutation information using gene expression data. We performed enrichment analysis to discover molecular networks and biological pathways enriched for germline and somatic mutations.
RESULTS: We discovered a signature of 124 genes containing both germline and somatic mutations. Enrichment analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways enriched for germline and somatic mutations, including, the PDGF, P53, MYC, IGF-1, PTEN and Androgen receptor signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: Integrative genomic analysis links genetic susceptibility to tumorigenesis in PCa and establishes putative functional bridges between the germline and somatic variation, and the biological pathways they control.

Gabrielli AP, Manzardo AM, Butler MG
GeneAnalytics Pathways and Profiling of Shared Autism and Cancer Genes.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent research revealed that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and cancer may share common genetic architecture, with evidence first reported with the

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