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PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog (10q23.3)

Gene Summary

Gene:PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog
Aliases: BZS, DEC, CWS1, GLM2, MHAM, TEP1, MMAC1, PTEN1, 10q23del
Location:10q23.3
Summary:This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/PKB signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN
HPRD
Source:NCBI
Updated:14 December, 2014

Gene
Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (101)

Pathways:

What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- CTCF BIOCARTA
- mTOR Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- PTEN dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis BIOCARTA
- Regulation of eIF4e and p70 S6 Kinase BIOCARTA
- Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor BIOCARTA
- Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is regulated via AKT/mTOR pathway BIOCARTA
- Focal adhesion KEGG
- Inositol phosphate metabolism KEGG
- Phosphatidylinositol signaling system KEGG
- Tight junction KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

As tumours progress to more advanced stages, they tend to acquire an increasing number of genetic alterations. One common alteration seen in a range of different advanced cancers is mutation of the PTEN gene, a gene which is linked with cell regulation and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Mutations in the PTEN gene are documented in cancers of the breast, prostate, endometrium, ovary, colon, melanoma, glioblastoma. and lymphoma. Animal models have shown that the loss of just one copy of the PTEN gene is enough to interrupt cell signalling and begin the process of uncontrolled cell growth. However, the significance of PTEN alterations in carcinogenesis is controversial since aberrant transcripts of PTEN have also been identified in normal non-cancerous tissues.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (15)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Endometrial CancerPTEN mutations in Endometrial Cancer
Mutations of the PTEN suppressor gene are the most frequent genetic abnormality in endometrial cancers. They occur in 40-80% of endometrioid carcinomas, which account for the majority of endometrial cancers. PTEN mutations have also been detected in the precancerous condition endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia.
View Publications422
Breast CancerPTEN and Breast Cancer View Publications394
Brain and CNS TumoursPTEN and Glioblastoma View Publications369
Astrocytoma, ChildhoodPTEN and Astrocytoma View Publications368
Prostate CancerPTEN and Prostate Cancer View Publications367
Lung CancerPTEN and Lung Cancer View Publications280
Thyroid CancerPTEN and Thyroid Cancer View Publications112
Skin CancerPTEN and Skin Cancer View Publications83
Stomach CancerPTEN and Stomach Cancer View Publications70
Soft Tissue SarcomaPTEN and Soft Tissue Sarcoma View Publications53
-PTEN in Precancerous Conditions
PTEN mutations are implicated in a number of precancerous conditions. For example Mutter and colleagues (JNCI, 2000) found 16/29 (55%) of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (a precancerous condition) had PTEN mutations compared to 25/30 (83%) of endometrioid adenocarcinomas. They suggest that PTEN may be a useful immunohistochemical biomarker for premalignant disease. The precancers were characterised by mutation of only 1 PTEN allele while the adenocarcinomas showed reduced or complete loss of PTEN protein expression.
View Publications52
MesotheliomaPTEN expression in Mesothelioma View Publications17
Salivary Gland CancerPTEN and Salivary Gland Cancer View Publications15
Testicular CancerPTEN and Testicular Cancer View Publications10
Ewing's SarcomaPTEN Amplification in Ewing's Sarcoma?
In a genome-wide copy-number analysis of Ewing's sarcoma, Lynn et al (2013) found localized copy-number alterations of PTEN.
View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: PTEN (cancer-related)

Xue W, Chen S, Yin H, et al.
CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver.
Nature. 2014; 514(7522):380-4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2015 Related Publications
The study of cancer genes in mouse models has traditionally relied on genetically-engineered strains made via transgenesis or gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Here we describe a new method of cancer model generation using the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) system in vivo in wild-type mice. We used hydrodynamic injection to deliver a CRISPR plasmid DNA expressing Cas9 and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to the liver that directly target the tumour suppressor genes Pten (ref. 5) and p53 (also known as TP53 and Trp53) (ref. 6), alone and in combination. CRISPR-mediated Pten mutation led to elevated Akt phosphorylation and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, phenocopying the effects of deletion of the gene using Cre-LoxP technology. Simultaneous targeting of Pten and p53 induced liver tumours that mimicked those caused by Cre-loxP-mediated deletion of Pten and p53. DNA sequencing of liver and tumour tissue revealed insertion or deletion mutations of the tumour suppressor genes, including bi-allelic mutations of both Pten and p53 in tumours. Furthermore, co-injection of Cas9 plasmids harbouring sgRNAs targeting the β-catenin gene and a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide donor carrying activating point mutations led to the generation of hepatocytes with nuclear localization of β-catenin. This study demonstrates the feasibility of direct mutation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new avenue for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics.

Related: Liver Cancer AKT1 CTNNB1 gene


Ozawa T, Riester M, Cheng YK, et al.
Most human non-GCIMP glioblastoma subtypes evolve from a common proneural-like precursor glioma.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(2):288-300 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/08/2015 Related Publications
To understand the relationships between the non-GCIMP glioblastoma (GBM) subgroups, we performed mathematical modeling to predict the temporal sequence of driver events during tumorigenesis. The most common order of evolutionary events is 1) chromosome (chr) 7 gain and chr10 loss, followed by 2) CDKN2A loss and/or TP53 mutation, and 3) alterations canonical for specific subtypes. We then developed a computational methodology to identify drivers of broad copy number changes, identifying PDGFA (chr7) and PTEN (chr10) as driving initial nondisjunction events. These predictions were validated using mouse modeling, showing that PDGFA is sufficient to induce proneural-like gliomas and that additional NF1 loss converts proneural to the mesenchymal subtype. Our findings suggest that most non-GCIMP mesenchymal GBMs arise as, and evolve from, a proneural-like precursor.

Related: Chromosome 10 Chromosome 7 PDGFB gene PDGFRA gene EGFR


Lázaro-Ibáñez E, Sanz-Garcia A, Visakorpi T, et al.
Different gDNA content in the subpopulations of prostate cancer extracellular vesicles: apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes.
Prostate. 2014; 74(14):1379-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane vesicles. EVs contain several RNAs such as mRNA, microRNAs, and ncRNAs, but less is known of their genomic DNA (gDNA) content. It is also unknown whether the DNA cargo is randomly sorted or if it is systematically packed into specific EV subpopulations. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different prostate cancer (PCa) cell-derived EV subpopulations (apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes) carry different gDNA fragments.
METHODS: EV subpopulations were isolated from three PCa cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3, and RC92a/hTERT) and the plasma of PCa patients and healthy donors, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and total protein content. gDNA fragments of different genes were detected by real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: We report that the concentration of EVs was higher in the cancer patients than in the healthy controls. EV subpopulations differed from each other in terms of total protein and DNA content. Analysis of gDNA fragments of MLH1, PTEN, and TP53 genes from the PCa cell-derived EV subpopulations showed that different EVs carried different gDNA content, which could even harbor specific mutations. Altogether, these results suggest that both nucleic acids and proteins are selectively and cell-dependently packed into the EV subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: EVs derived from PCa cell lines and human plasma samples contain double-stranded gDNA fragments which could be used to detect specific mutations, making EVs potential biomarkers for cancer diagnostics and prognostics.

Related: Apoptosis Prostate Cancer


Bailón E, Ugarte-Berzal E, Amigo-Jiménez I, et al.
Overexpression of progelatinase B/proMMP-9 affects migration regulatory pathways and impairs chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell homing to bone marrow and spleen.
J Leukoc Biol. 2014; 96(2):185-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study addresses the role of (pro)MMP-9 overexpression in CLL cell migration. We have used primary CLL cells and CLL-derived MEC-1 cells transfected with empty (mock cells) or proMMP-9-encoding (MMP-9 cells) lentiviral vectors. The constitutive (pro)MMP-9 expression in mock cells and primary CLL cells was similar, whereas in MMP-9 cells, expression resembled that of CLL cells incubated with proMMP-9. In xenograft models, in NOD/SCID mice, MMP-9-MEC-1 transfectants showed significantly reduced homing to bone marrow and spleen compared with mock cells. Likewise, incubation of primary CLL cells with proMMP-9, before injection into mice, inhibited their homing to these organs. This inhibition was specific, dose-dependent, and observed in all CLL tested, independently of prognostic markers or disease stage. Additionally, the MMP-9 catalytic activity was only partially involved, as the inactive mutant proMMP-9MutE had a partial effect. MMP-9 cells also showed impaired migration in vitro, which was reverted by reducing (pro)MMP-9 expression with siRNAs. CLL migration thus requires optimal (pro)MMP-9 expression levels, below or above which migration is hampered. Biochemical analysis of the (pro)MMP-9 effect indicated that MMP-9 cells or primary CLL cells incubated with proMMP-9 had reduced activation of migration regulatory molecules, including RhoAGTPase, Akt, ERK, and FAK. In contrast, p190RhoGAP (RhoA inhibitor) and PTEN (Akt/ERK/FAK inhibitor) were up-regulated in MMP-9 cells. Reduction of (pro)MMP-9 expression by siRNAs restored RhoA activity and diminished PTEN levels. Our results reveal a novel function for (pro)MMP-9 in modulating signaling pathways leading to CLL cell arrest. Therefore, local high (pro)MMP-9 expression may contribute to malignant cell retention in lymphoid organs and disease progression.

Related: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) CLL - Molecular Biology MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 AKT1 Signal Transduction


Li Z, Li J, Bi P, et al.
Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN causes a tumor-promoting metabolic state.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(19):3642-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/08/2015 Related Publications
One outcome of activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is increased aerobic glycolysis, but the upstream signaling events that regulate the PI3K pathway, and thus the Warburg effect, are elusive. Increasing evidence suggests that Plk1, a cell cycle regulator, is also involved in cellular events in addition to mitosis. To test whether Plk1 contributes to activation of the PI3K pathway, and thus aerobic glycolysis, we examined potential targets of Plk1 and identified PTEN as a Plk1 substrate. We hypothesize that Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN leads to its inactivation, activation of the PI3K pathway, and the Warburg effect. Our data show that overexpression of Plk1 leads to activation of the PI3K pathway and enhanced aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, inhibition of Plk1 causes markedly reduced glucose metabolism in mice. Mechanistically, we show that Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN and Nedd4-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PTEN, results in PTEN inactivation. Finally, we show that Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN promotes tumorigenesis in both its phosphatase-dependent and -independent pathways, revealing potentially new drug targets to arrest tumor cell growth.

Related: Signal Transduction


Mason JM, Lin DC, Wei X, et al.
Functional characterization of CFI-400945, a Polo-like kinase 4 inhibitor, as a potential anticancer agent.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(2):163-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
PLK4 was identified as a promising therapeutic target through a systematic approach that combined RNAi screening with gene expression analysis in human breast cancers and cell lines. A drug discovery program culminated in CFI-400945, a potent and selective PLK4 inhibitor. Cancer cells treated with CFI-400945 exhibit effects consistent with PLK4 kinase inhibition, including dysregulated centriole duplication, mitotic defects, and cell death. Oral administration of CFI-400945 to mice bearing human cancer xenografts results in the significant inhibition of tumor growth at doses that are well tolerated. Increased antitumor activity in vivo was observed in PTEN-deficient compared to PTEN wild-type cancer xenografts. Our findings provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of CFI-400945 in patients with solid tumors, in particular those deficient in PTEN.

Related: Breast Cancer


Ryzhova MV, Shishkina LV, Zheludkova OG, et al.
[Comparative characteristics of genetic aberrations in glioblastomas in children and adults].
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko. 2014; 78(2):3-11; discussion 11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastomas in children and adults are a heterogeneous group of tumors that can be divided into at least three different subgroups: pediatric glioblastomas, IDH1-mutant glioblastomas in adults (the most favorable prognostic subtype), and IDH1-wild type glioblastomas in adults. According to the frequency of detected cytogenetic aberrations (amplification of the MYC/MYCN, EGFR and PDGRFA oncogenes, homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A gene, and deletion of the PTEN gene), pediatric glioblastomas bear analogy to the subgroup of IDH1-mutant glioblastomas in adults.


Wei B, Wang L, Zhao X, et al.
Co-mutated pathways analysis highlights the coordination mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(4):424-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mutation of cancer represents a high heterogeneity characteristic, setting a big obstacle in the mechanism study of it. In this study, we explored the distributions of mutated genes in pathways in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and constructed networks of co-mutated pathway pairs under the false discovery rate (FDR) control. By comparing the mutation frequencies, a total of 50 mutated genes were screened with the frequency > 3, and TP53, PTEN, and EGFR were the top 3 genes. By KEGG enrichment, 18 pathways of the mutation gene spectrum of GBM were enriched. These pathways were further studied to explore the coordination between pathways, co-mutated pathway pairs, such as mismatch repair/vascular smooth muscle contraction, mismatch repair/long-term depression, mismatch repair/dopaminergic synapse, and TGF-beta signaling pathway/retrograde endocannabinoid signaling pathway were enriched in the network under FDR < 0.01; and cell cycle/p53 signaling was a co-mutated pathway pairs in the network under FDR < 0.05. Meanwhile, the samples overlap levels of enriched pathways were calculated for further confirming of the co-mutated pathway model. By the co-mutated pathway analysis, the coordination mechanism of cancer can be explored, and it may provide basis for the pathogenesis and combined therapy study of cancer.

Related: Signal Transduction


Goschzik T, Gessi M, Denkhaus D, Pietsch T
PTEN mutations and activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in papillary tumors of the pineal region.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2014; 73(8):747-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) are recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification of CNS tumors. Papillary tumors of the pineal region frequently show loss of chromosome 10, but no studies have investigated possible target genes on this chromosome. Chromosome 10 harbors the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) gene, the inactivation of which, by mutation or epigenetic silencing, has been observed in different brain tumors, including high-grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated copy number changes by molecular inversion probe (MIP) analysis and the mutational status of PTEN in 13 PTPR by direct sequencing. MIP analysis of 5 PTPR showed chromosome 10 loss in all cases. In addition, there were losses of chromosomes 3, 14, 22, and X, and gains of whole chromosomes 8, 9, and 12 in more than 1 case. One case had a homozygous PTEN deletion; and 2 point mutations in exon 7 of PTEN (G251D and Q261stop) were found. Immunohistochemistry revealed decrease or loss of the PTEN protein and increased expression of p-Akt and p-S6. These results indicated that PTEN mutations and activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway may play a role in the biology of PTPR. This evidence may lead to the possible use of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors in therapy for patients with PTPR.

Related: MUC1 gene Signal Transduction


Seok JK, Lee SH, Kim MJ, Lee YM
MicroRNA-382 induced by HIF-1α is an angiogenic miR targeting the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(12):8062-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/08/2015 Related Publications
Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs) play important roles in the regulation of angiogenesis. In this study, we have characterized miR-382 upregulation by hypoxia and the functional relevance of miR-382 in tumor angiogenesis. miRs induced by hypoxia in MKN1 human gastric cancer cells were investigated using miRNA microarrays. We selected miR-382 and found that the expression of miR-382 was regulated by HIF-1α. Conditioned media (CM) from MKN1 cells transfected with a miR-382 inhibitor (antagomiR-382) under hypoxic conditions significantly decreased vascular endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Algorithmic programs (Target Scan, miRanda and cbio) predicted that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a target gene of miR-382. Deletion of miR382-binding sequences in the PTEN mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR) diminished the luciferase reporter activity. Subsequent study showed that the overexpression of miR-382 or antagomiR-382 down- or upregulated PTEN and its downstream target AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, indicating that PTEN is a functional target gene of miR-382. In addition, PTEN inhibited miR-382-induced in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis as well as VEGF secretion, and the inhibition of miR-382 expression reduced xenograft tumor growth and microvessel density in tumors. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-382 induced by hypoxia promotes angiogenesis and acts as an angiogenic oncogene by repressing PTEN.

Related: HIF1A Angiogenesis and Cancer AKT1 Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Jour G, Scarborough JD, Jones RL, et al.
Molecular profiling of soft tissue sarcomas using next-generation sequencing: a pilot study toward precision therapeutics.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(8):1563-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can provide in-depth detection of numerous gene alterations. To date, there are very few reports describing the use of this technique in soft tissue sarcomas. Herein, we aim to test the utility of NGS in identifying targetable mutations in these tumors. NGS was performed using a clinically validated multiplexed gene sequencing panel interrogating the full coding sequence of 194 cancer-related genes. A custom bioinformatics pipeline was developed to detect all classes of mutations directly from the NGS data, including single-nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions, copy number variation, and complex structural variations. Twenty-five soft tissue sarcomas were analyzed; 18 of these patients had metastatic disease and 7 primary locally advanced tumors. Targetable mutations for which clinical trials are available were identified in 60% of the cases. MAP2K4, AURKA, AURKB, and c-MYC amplification were recurrent events in leiomyosarcomas. Frequent non-targetable variants included copy losses of the TP53 (24%), PTEN (16%), and CDKN2A (20%). Additional frameshift mutations, deletion mutations, and single-nucleotide variants involving numerous genes, including RB1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, PDGFRB, EPHA5, KDM6A, NF1, and FLT4 genes, were also identified. NGS is useful in identifying targetable mutations in soft tissue sarcomas that can serve as a rationale for inclusion of patients with advanced disease in ongoing clinical trials and allow for better risk stratification.

Related: Soft Tissue Sarcomas


Mendes RD, Sarmento LM, Canté-Barrett K, et al.
PTEN microdeletions in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia are caused by illegitimate RAG-mediated recombination events.
Blood. 2014; 124(4):567-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-inactivating mutations and/or deletions are an independent risk factor for relapse of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients treated on Dutch Childhood Oncology Group or German Cooperative Study Group for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia protocols. Some monoallelic mutated or PTEN wild-type patients lack PTEN protein, implying that additional PTEN inactivation mechanisms exist. We show that PTEN is inactivated by small deletions affecting a few exons in 8% of pediatric T-ALL patients. These microdeletions were clonal in 3% and subclonal in 5% of patients. Conserved deletion breakpoints are flanked by cryptic recombination signal sequences (cRSSs) and frequently have non-template-derived nucleotides inserted in between breakpoints, pointing to an illegitimate RAG recombination-driven activity. Identified cRSSs drive RAG-dependent recombination in a reporter system as efficiently as bona fide RSSs that flank gene segments of the T-cell receptor locus. Remarkably, equivalent microdeletions were detected in thymocytes of healthy individuals. Microdeletions strongly associate with the TALLMO subtype characterized by TAL1 or LMO2 rearrangements. Primary and secondary xenotransplantation of TAL1-rearranged leukemia allowed development of leukemic subclones with newly acquired PTEN microdeletions. Ongoing RAG activity may therefore actively contribute to the acquisition of preleukemic hits, clonal diversification, and disease progression.

Related: LMO2 gene TAL1 gene


Guan B, Rahmanto YS, Wu RC, et al.
Roles of deletion of Arid1a, a tumor suppressor, in mouse ovarian tumorigenesis.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The chromatin remodeling gene, ARID1A, has been implied as a tumor suppressor, and its somatic inactivating mutations occur in a wide variety of human cancers, most frequently in ovarian and uterine endometrioid and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Tumors with ARID1A mutations also frequently harbor PTEN or PIK3CA mutations, suggesting their collaboration in tumorigenesis. Here, we used a conditional knockout mouse model in which Arid1a and Pten were deleted either individually or in combination in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium. After 6 months, 59.1% of mice with Arid1a and Pten double knockout developed ovarian endometrioid or undifferentiated carcinoma, whereas the remaining mice showed hyperplasia of ovarian surface epithelium. In contrast, 52 mice with homozygous or heterozygous deletion in either Arid1a or Pten did not develop ovarian lesions. These results demonstrate that inactivation of Arid1a alone is insufficient for tumor initiation but it requires additional genetic alteration(s) such as Pten deletion to drive tumorigenesis.

Related: Ovarian Cancer


Silva FC, Lisboa BC, Figueiredo MC, et al.
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2014; 15:55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1).
METHODS: Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes.
RESULTS: The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria for HBOC and negative for BRCA1/2 genes should be tested for the TP53 R337H variant. Furthermore, the presence of genomic structural rearrangement resulting in CNVs in other genes that predispose breast cancer in conjunction with BRCA2 point mutations demonstrated a highly complex genetic etiology in Brazilian breast cancer families.

Related: CHEK2 CGH BRCA1 BRCA2 TP53


Im E, Jung J, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH
Disruption of Pten speeds onset and increases severity of spontaneous colitis in Il10(-/-) mice.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 147(3):667-679.e10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset ulcerative colitis, which is considered severe colonic inflammation that develops in infants and young children, can be caused by alterations in interleukin (IL)-10 signaling, although other factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We investigated whether loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), which regulates many important cell functions such as cell proliferation, cell survival, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, contributes to the development of colitis in Il10(-/-) mice.
METHODS: We generated Il10(-/-) mice (in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJBir background strains) with disruption of Pten in the intestinal epithelium (Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice) and Ints(ΔCont);Il10(-/-) (control) mice. Colon tissues were collected and histological, transmission electron microscopy, and gene expression analysis were performed. Fecal microbiota samples were analyzed by sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. We disrupted Tlr4 in Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice. Lipopolysaccharide signaling via TLR4 was blocked by treating mice with polymyxin B.
RESULTS: Il10(-/-) mice developed colitis when they were 6 to 7 months old, whereas Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice developed severe colitis and colon tumors by the time they were 36 days old. Within 3 months of birth, 80% of Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice developed severe colitis and colonic malignancy, whereas none of the Ints(ΔCont);Il10(-/-) mice had these phenotypes. Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice had alterations in fecal microbiota compared with controls, such as increased proportions of Bacteroides species, which are gram negative. Disruption of Tlr4 or treating Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice with polymyxin B delayed the development of colitis and reduced disease severity.
CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of Pten in the intestinal epithelium of Il10(-/-) mice speeds the onset and increases the severity of colitis. Fecal microbiota from Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice have increased proportions of Bacteroides species. Development of colitis is delayed and reduced by blocking TLR4 signaling. Ints(ΔPten/ΔPten);Il10(-/-) mice may be studied as a model for early-onset ulcerative colitis and used to identify new therapeutic targets.

Related: IL10 Signal Transduction


Mezey G, Treszl A, Schally AV, et al.
Prognosis in human glioblastoma based on expression of ligand growth hormone-releasing hormone, pituitary-type growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, its splicing variant receptors, EGF receptor and PTEN genes.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(10):1641-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent brain tumor. Despite recent improvement in therapeutic strategies, the prognosis of GB remains poor. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) may act as a growth factor; antagonists of GHRH have been successfully applied for experimental treatment of different types of tumors. The expression profile of GHRH receptor, its main splice variant SV1 and GHRH have not been investigated in human GB tissue samples.
METHODS: We examined the expression of GHRH, full-length pituitary-type GHRH receptor (pGHRHR), its functional splice variant SV1 and non-functional SV2 by RT-PCR in 23 human GB specimens. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN) expression levels were also evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. Correlations between clinico-pathological parameters and gene expressions were analyzed.
RESULTS: Expression of GHRH was found to be positive in 61.9 % of samples. pGHRH receptor was not expressed in our sample set, while SV1 could be detected in 17.4 % and SV2 in 8.6 % of the GB tissues. In 65.2 and 78.3 % of samples, significant EGFR over-expression or PTEN under-representation could be detected, respectively. In 47.8 % of cases, EGFR up-regulation and PTEN down-regulation occurred together. Survival was significantly poorer in tumors lacking GHRH expression. This worse prognosis in GHRH negative group remained significant even if SV1 was also expressed.
CONCLUSION: Our study shows that GHRH and SV1 genes expressed in human GB samples and their expression patterns are associated with poorer prognosis.

Related: EGFR


Lang Y, Xu S, Ma J, et al.
MicroRNA-429 induces tumorigenesis of human non-small cell lung cancer cells and targets multiple tumor suppressor genes.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(1):154-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death globally. MicroRNAs are evolutionally conserved small noncoding RNAs that are critical for the regulation of gene expression. Aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-429 are often upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with normal lung tissues, and its expression level is also increased in NSCLC cell lines compared with normal lung cells. Overexpression of miR-429 in A549 NSCLC cells significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas inhibition of miR-429 inhibits these effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-429 down-regulates PTEN, RASSF8 and TIMP2 expression by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of these target genes. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-429 plays an important role in promoting the proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells and is a potential target for NSCLC therapy.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer


Nagy E, Gajjar KB, Patel II, et al.
MGMT promoter hypermethylation and K-RAS, PTEN and TP53 mutations in tamoxifen-exposed and non-exposed endometrial cancer cases.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(12):2874-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen has anti-oestrogenic and anti-tumour activity in the breast, but is oestrogenic and carcinogenic in the endometrium. It can induce experimental tumours by both hormonal and DNA-damaging mechanisms, but its carcinogenic mode of action in human endometrium remains unclear.
METHODS: We investigated whether an epigenetic mechanism, involving promoter hypermethylation of the gene for the DNA repair enzyme MGMT (O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase), was associated with K-RAS, TP53 and PTEN mutations in endometrial tumours from women treated with tamoxifen (TAM, n=30) or unexposed to the drug (EC, n=38).
RESULTS: There were significant (P<0.05) differences in tumour grade between the TAM and EC groups, with more favourable morphology in the latter. K-RAS mutations, predominantly G>A, occurred in small numbers in both groups. TP53 mutations were of mainly A>G, C>T and indel modifications in both groups, but more frequent in TAM cases. PTEN mutations dominated in EC tumours and were of the type that has large impact on protein function, such as indel or nonsense mutations. These observations alongside the mutational spectrum in PTEN suggest that the malignancies arise from different backgrounds, hence pointing to an effect of tamoxifen. Both groups displayed MGMT promoter hypermethylation. This coincided with mutations more frequently in the TAM (78%) than in the EC (50%) group, even though there were significantly (P<0.05) fewer mutations and methylations in TAM cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the difference in coincidence did not reach significance with the current sample size, the findings suggest that epigenetic processes may play a role in the way tamoxifen induces endometrial cancer.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer TP53


Yang TS, Yang XH, Chen X, et al.
MicroRNA-106b in cancer-associated fibroblasts from gastric cancer promotes cell migration and invasion by targeting PTEN.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(13):2162-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is well established that the interaction between cancer cells and microenvironment has a critical role in tumor development, but the roles of miRNAs in this interaction are rarely known. Here, we have shown that miR-106b is up-regulated in cancer associated fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts established from patients with gastric cancer, the expression level of miR-106b is associated with poor prognosis of patients, and CAFs with down-regulated miR-106b could significantly inhibit gastric cancer cell migration and invasion by targeting PTEN. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-106b might be a novel candidate target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Montales MT, Melnyk SB, Simmen FA, Simmen RC
Maternal metabolic perturbations elicited by high-fat diet promote Wnt-1-induced mammary tumor risk in adult female offspring via long-term effects on mammary and systemic phenotypes.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(9):2102-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Many adult chronic diseases are thought to be influenced during early life by maternal nutrition; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Obesity-related diseases may be due partly to high fat consumption. Herein, we evaluated mammary tumor risk in female mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic (Tg) offspring exposed to high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) (45% and 17% kcal from fat, respectively) during gestation and lactation, with CD provided to progeny at weaning. In Tg offspring, maternal HFD exposure increased mammary tumor incidence and decreased tumor latency without affecting tumor volume. Tumor risk was associated with higher tumor necrosis factor-α and insulin and altered oxidative stress biomarkers in sera and with early changes in mammary expression of genes linked to tumor promotion [interleukin 6 (Il6)] or inhibition [phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)]. Corresponding wild-type progeny exposed to maternal HFD displayed accelerated mammary development, higher mammary adiposity, increased insulin resistance and early changes in Pten, Bcl2 and Il6, than CD-exposed offspring. Dams-fed HFD showed higher serum glucose and oxidative stress biomarkers but comparable adiposity compared with CD-fed counterparts. In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, sera from maternal HFD-exposed Tg offspring elicited changes in PTEN, BCL2 and IL6 gene expression, mimicking in vivo exposure; increased cell viability and mammosphere formation and induced measures [insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2] of insulin sensitivity. Serum effects on IRS-1 were recapitulated by exogenous insulin and the PTEN-specific inhibitor SF1670. Hyperinsulinemia and PTEN loss-of-function may thus, couple maternal HFD exposure to enhanced insulin sensitivity via increased mammary IRS-1 expression in progeny, to promote breast cancer risk.


Oshrine BR, Olsen MN, Heneghan M, et al.
Acquired isochromosome 12p, somatic TP53 and PTEN mutations, and a germline ATM variant in an adolescent male with concurrent acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and mediastinal germ cell tumor.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(4):153-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous reports have described an association between hematologic malignancies (HMs) and extragonadal germ cell tumor (GCT). Most patients have been adolescent males with mediastinal nonseminomatous GCT. Although a variety of HMs have been reported, there is a striking predilection toward acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Shared cytogenetic anomalies--particularly isochromosome 12p [i(12p)]--have suggested common clonal origins to the tumors. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy presenting with AMKL and a synchronous mediastinal GCT, with the characteristic i(12p) in both neoplasms. The common clonal origin of the AMKL and GCT was further confirmed with massively parallel sequencing, which identified somatic TP53 and PTEN mutations, as well as a rare germline ATM variant. Although these represent commonly mutated genes in cancer, this combination of mutations is not typically associated with either GCT or AMKL, suggesting that these tumors may represent unique biologic entities when they co-occur.

Related: Chromosome 12 FISH Germ Cell Tumors TP53


Brugarolas J
Molecular genetics of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(18):1968-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/06/2015 Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma of clear-cell type (ccRCC) is an enigmatic tumor type, characterized by frequent inactivation of the VHL gene (infrequently mutated in other tumor types), responsiveness to angiogenesis inhibitors, and resistance to both chemotherapy and conventional radiation therapy. ccRCC tumors exhibit substantial mutation heterogeneity. Recent studies using massively parallel sequencing technologies have implicated several novel driver genes. In VHL wild-type tumors, mutations were discovered in TCEB1, which encodes Elongin C, a protein that binds to VHL and is required for its function. Several additional tumor suppressor genes have been identified near the VHL gene, within a region that is frequently deleted in ccRCC on chromosome 3p: SETD2, BAP1, and PBRM1. Mutations in BAP1 and PBRM1 are largely mutually exclusive and are associated with different tumor biology and patient outcomes. In addition, the mTORC1 pathway is deregulated by mutations in MTOR, TSC1, PIK3CA, and PTEN in approximately 20% of ccRCCs. Mutations in TSC1, and possibly other genes, may predict for sensitivity to mTORC1 inhibitors. These discoveries provide insight into ccRCC development and set the foundation for the first molecular genetic classification of the disease, paving the way for subtype-specific therapies.

Related: Kidney Cancer VHL BAP1 gene


Miething C, Scuoppo C, Bosbach B, et al.
PTEN action in leukaemia dictated by the tissue microenvironment.
Nature. 2014; 510(7505):402-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/12/2014 Related Publications
PTEN encodes a lipid phosphatase that is underexpressed in many cancers owing to deletions, mutations or gene silencing. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate, thereby opposing the activity of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases that mediate growth- and survival-factor signalling through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase effectors such as AKT and mTOR. To determine whether continued PTEN inactivation is required to maintain malignancy, here we generate an RNA interference-based transgenic mouse model that allows tetracycline-dependent regulation of PTEN in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Postnatal Pten knockdown in the haematopoietic compartment produced highly disseminated T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Notably, reactivation of PTEN mainly reduced T-cell leukaemia dissemination but had little effect on tumour load in haematopoietic organs. Leukaemia infiltration into the intestine was dependent on CCR9 G-protein-coupled receptor signalling, which was amplified by PTEN loss. Our results suggest that in the absence of PTEN, G-protein-coupled receptors may have an unanticipated role in driving tumour growth and invasion in an unsupportive environment. They further reveal that the role of PTEN loss in tumour maintenance is not invariant and can be influenced by the tissue microenvironment, thereby producing a form of intratumoral heterogeneity that is independent of cancer genotype.

Related: Leukemia Signal Transduction


Xu C, Fillmore CM, Koyama S, et al.
Loss of Lkb1 and Pten leads to lung squamous cell carcinoma with elevated PD-L1 expression.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(5):590-604 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 19/12/2014 Related Publications
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a deadly disease for which current treatments are inadequate. We demonstrate that biallelic inactivation of Lkb1 and Pten in the mouse lung leads to SCC that recapitulates the histology, gene expression, and microenvironment found in human disease. Lkb1;Pten null (LP) tumors expressed the squamous markers KRT5, p63 and SOX2, and transcriptionally resembled the basal subtype of human SCC. In contrast to mouse adenocarcinomas, the LP tumors contained immune populations enriched for tumor-associated neutrophils. SCA1(+)NGFR(+) fractions were enriched for tumor-propagating cells (TPCs) that could serially transplant the disease in orthotopic assays. TPCs in the LP model and NGFR(+) cells in human SCCs highly expressed Pd-ligand-1 (PD-L1), suggesting a mechanism of immune escape for TPCs.

Related: Lung Cancer


Grupp K, Ospina-Klinck D, Tsourlakis MC, et al.
NY-ESO-1 expression is tightly linked to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2014; 74(10):1012-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NY-ESO-1 has been suggested as therapeutic cancer vaccine in prostate cancer. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship of NY-ESO-1 with tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, and molecular subgroups in hormone-naive prostate cancers.
METHODS: NY-ESO-1 immunohistochemistry was analyzed on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancer samples. Results were compared to clinically follow-up data, ERG status, and deletions on PTEN, 3p13, 5q21, and 6q15.
RESULTS: NY-ESO-1 expression was absent in benign prostate glands. In prostate cancer, NY-ESO-1 positivity was found 8.8% of our 8,761 interpretable tumors including 5.8% with weak, 2.5% with moderate, and 0.5% with strong expression. There was a threefold higher rate of NY-ESO-1 expression in ERG fusion positive tumors than in ERG negative cancers (P < 0.0001). There was a significant association with early PSA recurrence, which was largely limited to ERG positive cancers. Within the ERG positive subgroup, high NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with early biochemical recurrence (P = 0.0002) and high Gleason grade (P < 0.0001). In ERG negative cancers, NY-ESO-1 expression was also linked to PTEN (P = 0.0012) and 6q15 deletions (P = 0.0005).
CONCLUSIONS: Our observations indicate a tight link of NY-ESO-1 expression to ERG activation and (to a lesser extent) PTEN- and 6q15-deletions in prostate cancer. The impact of these interactions on the likelihood of response to immunotherapy is unclear. The prognostic impact of NY-ESO-1 expression is little and not independent of histologic variables.

Related: Prostate Cancer CTAG1B (CTAG, NY-ESO-1) ERG gene


Bai W, Chen Y, Yang J, et al.
Aberrant miRNA profiles associated with chronic benzene poisoning.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 96(3):426-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, miRNA profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic benzene poisoning patients and health controls matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the Exiqon miRNA PCR ARRAY and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. Totally, 6 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-205, miR-10b, let-7d, miR-185 and miR-423-5p-2) and 7 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-543, hsa-miR-130a, miR-27b,miR-223, miR-142-5p and miR-320b) were found in chronic benzene poisoning group compared to health controls (P ≤ 0.05). By integrating miRNA and mRNA expression data, these differential miRNAs were mainly involved in regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, axon guidance, regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, nervous system development, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. Further, pathway analysis indicated that SMAD4, PLCB1, NFAT5, GNAI2, PTEN, VEGFA, BCL2, CTNNB1 and CCND1 were key target genes of differential miRNAs which were implicated in Adherens junction, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, tight junction and Pathways in cancer. In conclusion, the aberrant miRNAs might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction MADH4


Xiong Y, Zhang YY, Wu YY, et al.
Correlation of over-expressions of miR-21 and Notch-1 in human colorectal cancer with clinical stages.
Life Sci. 2014; 106(1-2):19-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of the study was to identify expressions of Notch-1, microRNA-21 (miR-21), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in colorectal cancer (CRC), and to explore their relationship with clinical stages and metastatic status of CRC.
MAIN METHODS: 102 CRC patients were enrolled and clinical data were analyzed. Expressions of Notch-1 and miR-21 in CRC and adjacent non-tumor tissues of these patients were measured by real time-PCR. Protein expressions of Notch-1 and PTEN of 12 paired tissues were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The correlations between gene expressions in different clinical stages as well as metastatic status were evaluated by linear regression.
KEY FINDINGS: Notch-1 was over-expressed in 86.27% (88/102) CRC tissues, particularly in advanced stages, while miR-21 expression was increased to 74.51% (76/102) in CRC tissues compared with matched adjacent non-tumor tissues. The expressions of Notch-1 and miR-21 were positively correlated with CRC development, especially in advanced-stages (r(2)=0.3839, p<0.01). Expressions of PTEN were significantly down-regulated in CRC tissues and negatively correlated with expressions of Notch-1 (r(2)=0.5207, p<0.01) and miR-21 (r(2)=0.6996, p<0.01).
SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the crosstalk between Notch-1 and miR-21 is involved in CRC development through degradation of PTEN.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer miR-21 NOTCH1 gene


Olar A, He D, Florentin D, et al.
Biologic correlates and significance of axonogenesis in prostate cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(7):1358-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-related axonogenesis and neurogenesis are recently described biologic phenomena. Our previously published data showed that nerve density and the number of neurons in the parasympathetic ganglia are increased in prostate cancer (PCa) and associated with aggressive disease. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 640 radical prostatectomy specimens with PCa. Anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) antibodies were used to identify and quantify nerve density. Protein expression was objectively analyzed using deconvolution imaging, image segmentation, and image analysis. Data were correlated with clinicopathological variables and tissue biomarkers available in our database. Nerve density, as measured by PGP 9.5 expression, had a weak but significant positive correlation with the lymph node status (ρ = 0.106; P = .0275). By Cox univariate analysis, PGP 9.5 was a predictor of time to biochemical recurrence, but not on multivariate analysis. Increased nerve density correlated with increased proliferation of PCa cells. It also correlated with expression of proteins involved in survival pathways (Phosphorylated alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, NFκB, GSK-2, PIM-2, c-Myc, SKP-2, SRF, P27n, PTEN), with increased levels of hormonal regulation elements (androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α), and coregulators and repressors (SRC-1, SRC-2, AIB-1, DAX). Axonogenesis is a recently described phenomenon of paramount importance in the biology of PCa. Although the degree of axonogenesis is predictive of aggressive behavior in PCa, it does not add to the information present in current models on multivariate analysis. We present data that corroborate that axonogenesis is involved in biologic processes such as proliferation of PCa, through activation of survival pathways and interaction with hormonal regulation.

Related: Prostate Cancer


Chua CE, Chan SN, Tang BL
Non-cell autonomous or secretory tumor suppression.
J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(10):1346-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many malignancies result from deletions or loss-of-function mutations in one or more tumor suppressor genes, the products of which curb unrestrained growth or induce cell death in those with dysregulated proliferative capacities. Most tumor suppressors act in a cell autonomous manner, and only very few proteins are shown to exert a non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor function on other cells. Examples of these include members of the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family and the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-related proteins. Very recent findings have, however, considerably expanded our appreciation of non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor functions. Broadly, this may occur in two ways. Intracellular tumor suppressor proteins within cells could in principle inhibit aberrant growth of neighboring cells by conditioning an antitumor microenvironment through secreted factors. This is demonstrated by an apparent non-cell autonomous tumor suppressing property of p53. On the other hand, a tumor suppressor produced by a cell may be secreted extracellularly, and taken up by another cell with its activity intact. Intriguingly, this has been recently shown to occur for the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by both conventional and unconventional modes of secretion. These recent findings would aid the development of therapeutic strategies that seek to reinstate tumor suppression activity in therapeutically recalcitrant tumor cells, which have lost it in the first place.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Signal Transduction


Muniyan S, Ingersoll MA, Batra SK, Lin MF
Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase, a PTEN-functional homologue in prostate epithelia, functions as a prostate-specific tumor suppressor.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1846(1):88-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a vital role in the progression of human cancers. Nevertheless, those ubiquitous TSGs have been shown with limited roles in various stages of diverse carcinogenesis. Investigation on identifying unique TSG, especially for early stage of carcinogenesis, is imperative. As such, the search for organ-specific TSGs has emerged as a major strategy in cancer research. Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence in solid tumors in US males. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) is a prostate-specific differentiation antigen. Despite intensive studies over the past several decades on PAcP as a PCa biomarker, the role of cPAcP as a PCa-specific tumor suppressor has only recently been emerged and validated. The mechanism underlying the pivotal role of cPAcP as a prostate-specific TSG is, in part, due to its function as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) as well as a phosphoinositide phosphatase (PIP), an apparent functional homologue to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in PCa cells. This review is focused on discussing the function of this authentic prostate-specific tumor suppressor and the mechanism behind the loss of cPAcP expression leading to prostate carcinogenesis. We review other phosphatases' roles as TSGs which regulate oncogenic PI3K signaling in PCa and discuss the functional similarity between cPAcP and PTEN in prostate carcinogenesis.

Related: Prostate Cancer ACPP


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. PTEN, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/PTEN.htm Accessed: date

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