Head and neck cancers are malignancies arising in the upper aerodigestive tract (this includes: lip, tongue, salivary glands, mouth, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, nasal cavity, and larynx). Laryngeal (voice-box) cancer is the most frequent type, accounting for about a quarter of head and neck cancers.
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- Head and neck cancer
Cancer Research UK
CancerHelp information is examined by both expert and lay reviewers. Content is reviewed every 12 to 18 months. Further info.
- Head and neck cancers
Macmillan Cancer Support
Content is developed by a team of information development nurses and content editors, and reviewed by health professionals. Further info.
- Head and Neck Cancers
Regularly updated and reviewed. Further info.
- American Head and Neck Society
AHNS is a professional organisation, formed in 1998 to promote research and education in head and neck oncology. The Web site includes clinical practice guidelines, details of events, grants, and patient information.
- British Association of Head & Neck Oncologists
A multi-disciplinary society for healthcare professionals involved in the study and treatment of head and neck cancer, founded in 1967.
- British Association of Head and Neck Oncology Nurses
A national organisation founded to facilitate networking between nurses in the field of head and neck cancers, in order to share ideas and promote good practice. The web site includes practice guidelines and details of membership.
- Head and Neck Cancer Alliance
Head and Neck Cancer Alliance
Formerly the Yul Brynner Head and Neck Cancer Foundation, the Alliance Website includes 50 facts about Head and Neck Cancers, FAQs, and details of events.
- Head and Neck Cancers
National Cancer Institute
A Factsheet in the form of Questions and Answers.
HEAD and NECK Cancers Online Support Group
- International Federation of Head and Neck Oncologic Societies
A global organization established through cooperation of national and regional Societies and Organizations in the Specialty of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology with membership from national and regional multidisciplinary organizations, representing 65 countries.
- National Cancer Intelligence Network: Head and Neck Cancers
NCIN / Public Health England
A national hub, for which the lead cancer registry for Head and Neck is the Oxford Cancer Intelligence Unit.
- Oracle Cancer Trust
Oracle Cancer Trust
A UK charityfunding scientific and clinical research in head and neck cancers.
- Support for People with Oral and Head and Neck Cancer
SPOHNC is a self-help nonprofit organization involved supporting people with head and neck cancers and raising awareness of head and neck cancers.
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Xing M, Alzahrani AS, Carson KA, et al.Association between BRAF V600E mutation and mortality in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
JAMA. 2013; 309(14):1493-501 [PubMed
IMPORTANCE: BRAF V600E is a prominent oncogene in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but its role in PTC-related patient mortality has not been established.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and PTC-related mortality.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective study of 1849 patients (1411 women and 438 men) with a median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 34-58 years) and an overall median follow-up time of 33 months (interquartile range, 13-67 months) after initial treatment at 13 centers in 7 countries between 1978 and 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Patient deaths specifically caused by PTC.
RESULTS: Overall, mortality was 5.3% (45/845; 95% CI, 3.9%-7.1%) vs 1.1% (11/1004; 95% CI, 0.5%-2.0%) (P < .001) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients. Deaths per 1000 person-years in the analysis of all PTC were 12.87 (95% CI, 9.61-17.24) vs 2.52 (95% CI, 1.40-4.55) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients; the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.66 (95% CI, 1.30-5.43) after adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and medical center. Deaths per 1000 person-years in the analysis of the conventional variant of PTC were 11.80 (95% CI, 8.39-16.60) vs 2.25 (95% CI, 1.01-5.00) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients; the adjusted HR was 3.53 (95% CI, 1.25-9.98). When lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal invasion, and distant metastasis were also included in the model, the association of BRAF V600E with mortality for all PTC was no longer significant (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.53-2.76). A higher BRAF V600E-associated patient mortality was also observed in several clinicopathological subcategories, but statistical significance was lost with adjustment for patient age, sex, and medical center. For example, in patients with lymph node metastasis, the deaths per 1000 person-years were 26.26 (95% CI, 19.18-35.94) vs 5.93 (95% CI, 2.96-11.86) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients (unadjusted HR, 4.43 [95% CI, 2.06-9.51]; adjusted HR, 1.46 [95% CI, 0.62-3.47]). In patients with distant tumor metastasis, deaths per 1000 person-years were 87.72 (95% CI, 62.68-122.77) vs 32.28 (95% CI, 16.14-64.55) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients (unadjusted HR, 2.63 [95% CI, 1.21-5.72]; adjusted HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.27-2.62]).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this retrospective multicenter study, the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly associated with increased cancer-related mortality among patients with PTC. Because overall mortality in PTC is low and the association was not independent of tumor features, how to use BRAF V600E to manage mortality risk in patients with PTC is unclear. These findings support further investigation of the prognostic and therapeutic implications of BRAF V600E status in PTC.
Chandra SR, Shenoy RK, Karthikeyan, et al.Rare treatable limb girdle muscle disease.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2012; 60:62-5 [PubMed
We report two cases of Limb Girdle pattern of muscle weakness caused by hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid adenoma. It can be easily missed as early symptoms are non specific but once diagnosed it is easily treatable and complete recovery occurs over a period of time.
Fooanant S, Pattarasakulchai T, Tananuvat R, et al.Sinonasal papilloma in Chiang Mai University Hospital.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2013; 96(3):329-33 [PubMed
OBJECTIVE: To study sinonasal papilloma patients in terms of clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and complications.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective descriptive study was done. Sinonasalpapilloma data were gathered between 1999 and 2009. There were 63 available patients from the 82 cases.
RESULTS: There were nine cases of nasal papilloma (14.3%) and 54 of inverted papilloma (85.7%). The mean age of the inverted papilloma group was higher than the nasal papilloma group (54 +/- 12.97 years vs. 42.4 +/- 24.8 years). The most common symptom was unilateral nasal obstruction. There were three cases of synchronous malignancy in the inverted papilloma and two metachronous (9.3%). Thirty-nine patients (72%) could be followed-up for more than three months. Recurrence was more common in the inverted papilloma group than nasal papilloma (37% vs. 11.1%). The 50% recurrent time of the endoscopic group was 51 weeks and the external group was 14 weeks. The recurrence of the external approach group was 1.59 times the endoscopic group. Ten surgical complications were found in eight inverted papilloma patients (16%) and included three in the endoscopic and five in the external group. Most of them were minor They were hypoesthesia and epiphora.
CONCLUSION: Sinonasal inverted papilloma was common, able to recur and associated with malignancy. Though this was a limited retrospective study, it showed lower recurrence on the endoscopic approach. The life-long follow-up is needed in all cases.
Pushkarev VM, Kovzun OI, Pushkarev VV, Tronko MDBiochemical effects of combined action of gamma-irradiation and paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2013 Jan-Feb; 85(1):51-61 [PubMed
The aim of the paper was to describe the biochemical effects of Paclitaxel (Ptx), gamma-irradiation (IR) and their combination in undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells (ATC). IR activated common DNA damage-induced signaling and manifested certain mitogenic effect by inactivation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb). There was clear antagonism between Ptx and IR relative to cell cycle regulators--tumor suppressor p53, pRb, CHK2 and c-Abl as well as proapoptotic Bax expression, but combined action of both agents enhanced caspase-3 and, especially, caspase-8 activation. The Ptx at low (1-25 nM) concentrations caused noticeable radioprotective effect. Thus, in ATC cells the ionizing radiation and Ptx exhibited competitive effects upon phosphorylation of cell cycle controllers: p53, pRb, CHK2, cAbl and expression of Bax. At the same time, the combined effect of radiation and Ptx enhanced antiapoptotic Bcl-2 phosphorylation, caspases activation and survivin expression. The net effect of these events during the first 48-72 h of cells incubation can be considered as antiapoptotic--Ptx attenuated cytotoxic effect of IR.
Khan AA, Garg A, Dhawan S, et al.T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with colesional mucormycosis presenting as palatal perforation: a case report.
J Indian Med Assoc. 2012; 110(7):499-500 [PubMed
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is predominantly a disease of lymph nodes, but extranodal involvement is not very uncommon. Palatal involvement by NHL is rare. Mucormycosis is a devastating fungal infection commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals, including those with NHL, but it is affecting the same region has been reported very rarely. Simultaneous infiltration of hard palate by NHL and mucormycosis is extremely unusual. Herein we describe a patient who presented with palatal hole with histopathological examination revealing presence of lymphoma with colesional mucormycosis. The identification of mucor was vital because chemotherapy alone in the absence of antifungals would have had devastating consequences as the mortality of untreated mucormycosis is high.
Maiti PK, Ray A, Mitra TN, et al.The effect of honey on mucositis induced by chemoradiation in head and neck cancer.
J Indian Med Assoc. 2012; 110(7):453-6 [PubMed
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pure natural honey on radiation-induced mucositis. Fifty-five patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer requiring radiation to the oropharyngeal mucosal area were divided into two groups (study arm-28 and control arm-27) to receive either chemoradiation or chemoradiation plus topical application of honey. Patients were treated using a telecobalt machine at 2 Gy per day, five times a week up to a total dose of 66 Gy. in the study arm, patients were advised to take 20 ml of honey 15 minutes before, 15 minutes after and similar amount at bed time. Patients were evaluated every week for the development of radiation mucositis using the WHO grading system. There was significant reduction in the symptomatic grades 3 and 4 mucositis in honey-treated patients compared to controls ie, 18% versus 41% for grade 3 and 4% versus 22% for grade 4 mucositis. Seventy-one per cent of patients treated with topical honey showed no change or a positive gain in body weight. In the control group also 22% had no weight loss, though none showed weight gain. Furthermore, it didn't affect blood sugar level when initial fasting blood sugar level was < 150 mg%. Honey is a cheap, simple, easily available and effective agent in reducing radiation-induced mucositis. Within the limits of this study the results showed the application of natural honey is effective in managing radiation induced mucositis, which warrants further multicentric randomised trials to validate the findings.
Ghosh S, Sau S, Mitra S, et al.Palliation of dysphagia in advanced, metastatic or recurrent carcinoma oesophagus with high dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy--an eastern Indian experience of 35 cases.
J Indian Med Assoc. 2012; 110(7):449-52 [PubMed
Oesophageal cancer, a disease with high morbidity and mortality, has a relatively high incidence in eastern India, usually presenting at advanced stage. The main aim of treatment for majority of patients remains palliation of dysphagia, which can be effectively done by intraluminal brachytherapy with or without external radiotherapy. Between January 2006 to January 2010 a total of 35 patients with advanced/metastatic (24/35) or recurrent (11/35) oesophageal carcinoma were treated with intraluminal high dose rate (HDR) iridium192 source brachytherapy at Medical College Hospitals, Kolkata. Selection for palliative brachytherapy includes one or more of the following criteria: Lesion more than 5 cm long on imaging studies or upper GI endoscopy, Karnofsky performance status < or = 50%, Locoregional recurrence. Palliative external radiotherapy (20 Gy/5# or 30 Gy/10#) was given to 11 patients (31.42%) before brachytherapy. All patients treated with 2 fractions of high dose rate-intraluminal brachytherapy (HDR-ILRT) one week apart with 600 cGy per fraction at 1 cm off axis. Thirty-five patients were treated with palliative HDR-ILRT. Significant improvement in swallowing status was seen in 20 patients (57.14%) since just after treatment up to 7.5 months. However, 9 patients (25.71%) showed no improvement, and 6 patients (17.14%) showed no changes in dysphagia scoring. Only 3 patients developed ulceration and 2 developed fistula immediately after treatment and 5 patients developed stricture. Median dysphagia-free survival was 6 months. Median overall survival was 8 months. It is concluded that intraluminal brachytherapy is an effective method for palliation of dysphagia for reasonably prolonged period.
Nonaka CF, de Oliveira PT, de Medeiros AM, et al.Peripheral ameloblastoma in the maxillary gingiva: a case report.
N Y State Dent J. 2013; 79(1):37-40 [PubMed
Peripheral ameloblastoma is an uncommon, extraosseous counterpart of solid ameloblastoma, which occurs in the soft tissues overlying tooth-bearing areas or the alveolar mucosa of the mandible and maxilla. In this paper, the authors report a case of peripheral ameloblastoma located in the maxillary gingiva of a 54-year-old woman and review the literature regarding clinicopathological features, differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of peripheral ameloblastomas.
Cao CN, Luo JW, Xu GZ, et al.Management of nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013; 71(4):e203-9 [PubMed
PURPOSE: Nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinomas (NACCs) are rare. No clear consensus is available regarding clinical characteristics and management approaches. The aim of this study was to summarize the clinical characteristics and evaluate the management approaches of NACC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experience of 1 institution with this tumor and the outcomes of treatment were examined. The medical records of 36 patients with NACC at 1 institution from 1963 through 2006 were reviewed.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 65.8 months (1.8 to 245.2 mo), the 5- and 10-year overall survival, locoregional failure-free survival, and distant metastasis failure-free survival rates were 70.2% and 31.6%, 63.4% and 49.1%, and 65.0% and 59.6%, respectively. No significant differences were found in locoregional failure-free survival, distant metastasis failure-free survival, or overall survival rates between the group that received radiotherapy alone and the group that received combined modality therapy (radiotherapy plus surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy).
CONCLUSIONS: NACC is a malignancy with a generally favorable prognosis. Radiotherapy alone or a combined modality therapy (radiotherapy plus surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy) is effective in the treatment of NACC.
Yanling H, Yuhong Z, Wenwu H, et al.NQO1 C609T polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.
BMC Med Genet. 2013; 14:31 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article
BACKGROUND: Many studies have been carried out to test the hypothesis that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism might be associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, the results are poorly consistent, partly due to genetic or other sources of heterogeneity. To investigate the association between this polymorphism and the risk of esophageal cancer, a meta-analysis was performed.
METHODS: We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of association. The frequency of the putative risk allele in the controls was estimated by the inverse-variance method. Cochran's Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2) were used to check heterogeneity. Egger's test and an inverted funnel plot were used to assess the publication bias.
RESULTS: Our study included eight published case-control studies about the NQO1 C609T polymorphism and esophageal cancer, including a total of 1,217 esophageal cancer patients and 1,560 controls. Overall, a significant association was found between the NQO1 C609T variant and esophageal cancer under a recessive model (OR = 1.647; 95% CI = 1.233-2.200). Regarding histological type, more significant evidence was found for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.29-3.19) than esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.01-2.56) under a recessive model.
CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis suggests that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism considerably increases the risk of esophageal cancer.
Asgary S, Aminzadeh NUnilateral gingival enlargement in patient with neurofibromatosis type I.
N Y State Dent J. 2012; 78(6):50-3 [PubMed
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. It is a neurocutaneous disorder with two defined entities: (1) Peripheral type I (NF1), described by von Recklinghausen; and (2) central type II, affecting mainly the central nervous system. NF1, the more common type, is an autosomal dominant, inherited disease, characterized by neural and cutaneous manifestations, as well as skeletal, oral and jaw expressions. All oral tissues have been reported to be affected with this tumoral disorder. Gingival neurofibroma in NF1 is uncommon. Diagnosis of NF1 is based upon a series of clinical criteria. The purpose of this report is to present a case of NF1 with a unilateral gingival neurofibroma in the buccal attached gingiva of the lower left molars, along with a review of the literature. Because NF1 is among the most common genetic diseases and its oral manifestations are commonplace, dentists should be aware of its different characteristics.
Hertrampf K, Wiltfang J, Katalinic A, et al.Recent trends in incidence and mortality of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany.
Community Dent Health. 2012; 29(4):268-73 [PubMed
OBJECTIVE: Oral and pharyngeal cancer is still a serious public health problem with more than 10,000 new cases every year in Germany, more than 4,000 patients die of this tumour each year. Aim of the project was a detailed analysis on incidence and mortality rates by age, gender and tumour sites in Northern Germany.
METHODS: The data on incidence and mortality rates from the population-based Cancer Registry of Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany were evaluated by age, gender and tumour sites from 2000 to 2006.
RESULTS: Some 3,127 new cases of oral and pharyngeal cancer (72% men, 28% women) were registered. About half of all cases were aged 60-79 years. The incidence trends for 40-59 years described a slight decrease. Trends for pharyngeal cancer showed the highest incidence rates for both genders in those aged 60-79. This detailed analysis with subgroups showed interesting differences and revealed considerable variations, especially compared to the increasing trends in several European countries.
CONCLUSIONS: These population-based data of Schleswig-Holstein showed interesting differences in the trends for incidence and mortality rates for age groups and tumour sites within the state and compared to the national German data and revealed noticeable different trends compared to several European countries. This population-based information informs effective cancer control.
Moyes LH, McCaffer CJ, Carter RC, et al.Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a predictor of complications in oesophagogastric cancer surgery.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2013; 95(2):125-30 [PubMed
INTRODUCTION: An anaerobic threshold (AT) of <11 ml/min/kg can identify patients at high risk of cardiopulmonary complications after major surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in predicting cardiopulmonary complications in high risk patients undergoing oesophagogastric cancer resection.
METHODS: Between March 2008 and October 2010, 108 patients (83 men, 25 women) with a median age of 66 years (range: 38-84 years) underwent CPET before potentially curative resections for oesophagogastric cancers. Measured CPET variables included AT and maximum oxygen uptake at peak exercise (VO2 peak). Outcome measures were length of high dependency unit stay, length of hospital stay, unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and postoperative morbidity and mortality.
RESULTS: The mean AT and VO2 peak were 10.8 ml/min/kg (standard deviation [SD]: 2.8 ml/min/kg, range: 4.6-19.3 ml/min/kg) and 15.2 ml/min/kg (SD: 5.3 ml/min/kg, range: 5.4-33.3 ml/min/kg) respectively; 57 patients (55%) had an AT of <11 ml/min/kg and 26 (12%) had an AT of <9 ml/min/kg. Postoperative complications occurred in 57 patients (29 cardiopulmonary [28%] and 28 non-cardiopulmonary [27%]). Four patients (4%) died in hospital and 21 (20%) required an unplanned ICU admission. Cardiopulmonary complications occurred in 42% of patients with an AT of <9 ml/min/kg compared with 29% of patients with an AT of ≥9 ml/min/kg but <11 ml/min/kg and 20% of patients with an AT of ≥11 ml/min/kg (p = 0.04). There was a trend that those with an AT of <11 ml/min/kg and a low VO2 peak had a higher rate of unplanned ICU admission.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown a correlation between AT and the development of cardiopulmonary complications although the discriminatory ability was low.
Gómez-Ramírez J, Tagarro D, Bravo JM, et al.Preoperative parathyroid harpoon localisation: a new technique helpful in reoperative patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2013; 95(2):e25-6 [PubMed
Surgery for persistent primary hyperparathyroidism remains a major challenge for surgeons and these reoperative procedures require an experienced parathyroid surgeon. The goal of reoperative surgery is to excise the abnormal parathyroid gland(s) and limit exploration to help minimise the potential complications. At least two positive and concordant localising studies should be available before reoperation because the technical difficulties in these cases make an exact localisation necessary before surgery. We describe the placement of a metallic harpoon under ultrasonography guidance as a safe, simple and inexpensive technique for localisation of the enlarged gland prior to conservative surgery.
Stassen L, Khosa AD, Israr MThe value of the 'buccal pad of fat' in the reconstruction of oral defects following removal of intraoral tumours--a clinical assessment.
Ir Med J. 2013; 106(1):13-5 [PubMed
The buccal pad of fat (BPF) is an important structure found in the orofacial region of humans. It is larger in infants and gradually becomes smaller in adults. We present twenty seven (27) cases with an average age of 60 years, with a variety of pathological lesions in which we have used the BPF to reconstruct the defects following resection of tumours. Twenty (74%) patients were diagnosed with Squamous Cell Carcinma. The commonest surgical sites were the soft palate and maxilla (46%). A clinical analysis of the value of BPF in reconstruction was made by using assessment criteria, mouth opening, cosmesis, fistula formation, approved by the ethical committee of the Hospital. Our findings show that the BPF is an excellent pedicled graft for the reconstruction of defects up to 10x5.5x1.1 cm in size. The donor site had no morbidity in terms of fuctions including, mouth opening (normal), masticatory movement, deglution, motor / sensory loss and patients were unaffected cosmetically (no temporal hollwing). There was no abnormal finding e.g. fistula, Frey's syndrome, speech and movement of the soft palate was unaffected. Salivary function was not affected (parotid duct). Speech outcomes were normal. We used a pre-surgery constructed blow--down soft or a preformed acrylic plate to support the fat pad in 13 (50%) patients, secured with mini screws. The use of a splint to support and protect the flap allowed early feeding.
Suh JD, Ramakrishnan VR, Chi JJ, et al.Outcomes and complications of endoscopic approaches for malignancies of the paranasal sinuses and anterior skull base.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013; 122(1):54-9 [PubMed
OBJECTIVES: Malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses are traditionally approached by a variety of external incisions. Recent advances in endoscopic endonasal surgery have allowed for some of these tumors to be treated endoscopically. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes and complications of the endoscopic approach in a series of patients with paranasal sinus malignancies.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients with sinonasal or skull base malignancies treated with endoscopic or endoscopic-assisted resections at a tertiary care institution from 2002 to 2010. Patient data were collected on symptoms, tumor type, operative technique, and postoperative course. Baseline risk factors, overall and disease-free survival data, and surgical outcomes were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: Of the total 49 patients, 36 (73%) underwent an endoscopic approach and 13 (27%) underwent endoscopic-assisted approaches. Sarcomas (9 cases) were the most common tumor type, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (8), adenocarcinoma (8), and melanoma (7). The mean follow-up time for all patients was 3.58 years (range, 1.1 to 8.8 years). Surgical complications were more frequent with open approaches than with endoscopic approaches (23.1% versus 5.6%; p = 0.11). Medical complications were significantly more common with open approaches (38.5% versus 8.3%; p = 0.02). The disease-specific mortality rate was 8% (4 of 49). The local tumor recurrence rate was 16% (8 of 49). The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 86.8% in the endoscopic group and 67.7% in the open group (p = 0.047); however, the patients in the endoscopic group had lower T stages (p = 0.0068) and lower ASA scores (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic approaches to the sinuses and skull base have become progressively more sophisticated with advances in skull base reconstruction, advances in surgical technique, and improvements in technology. This study demonstrates the relative safety and utility of the endoscopic approach for sinonasal and skull base malignancies. In carefully selected patients, endoscopic approaches demonstrate survival rates comparable to those of traditional surgery, and fewer perioperative complications. With appropriate planning and careful surgical decision-making, endoscopic surgery shows promise as a minimally invasive alternative in the treatment of sinonasal malignancies.
Unlü S, Ozdemir S, Sümer S, et al.Investigation of DNA damage by the alkaline comet assay in 131I-treated thyroid cancer patients.
Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2013; 35(1):36-40 [PubMed
OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible applicability of comet assay in the evaluation of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. The alkaline comet assay or single-cell gel electrophoresis has been used as a standard method for measuring and analyzing DNA damage.
STUDY DESIGN: Peripheral blood samples were collected from papillary thyroid cancer patients who received 131I by oral administration. Blood samples were taken just before the treatment, on the first day of treatment, and 1 week posttreatment. To determine the radiation-induced DNA damage, alkaline comet assay was performed.
RESULTS: It was found that significantly high levels of DNA damage occurred in first day samples when compared to control samples according to tail moment measurements. Also, a decrease in the level of damage was observed in the 1-week samples.
CONCLUSION: Our observations and data confirmed that treatment with 131I for papilloma thyroid cancer can cause DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes, and the comet assay seemed suitable to assess the effect of radioactive iodine for the patients.
Mweempwa A, Prasad J, Islam SA rare neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
N Z Med J. 2013; 126(1369):75-8 [PubMed
Burkitt's lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare malignancy. We present a case of a 58-year-old female who developed a rapid enlargement of her thyroid gland. Core biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma. The tumour resolved after three cycles of chemotherapy. This case report emphasises the importance of considering lymphoma when dealing with thyroid nodules and goitres, as its management is different from that of other thyroid pathologies and delaying treatment has an impact on prognosis.
Eliyas S, Al-Khayatt A, Porter RW, Briggs PDental extractions prior to radiotherapy to the jaws for reducing post-radiotherapy dental complications.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 2:CD008857 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy as part of head and neck cancer treatment leaves patients requiring much dental rehabilitation in a compromised environment that is difficult for the patient and the dental team to manage.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of maintaining the patient's natural dentition during radiotherapy in comparison to extracting teeth before radiotherapy in areas that are difficult to access by the patient and the dentist, should reduction in mouth opening occur after radiotherapy to the jaws.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 22 November 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 22 November 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 22 November 2012), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 22 November 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 22 November 2012) and reference lists of articles. We advertised for currently ongoing studies via the Cochrane Oral Health Group website and the Cochrane Oral Health Group Twitter feed.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing extraction of teeth prior to radiotherapy with leaving teeth in situ during radiotherapy to the jaws.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed the results of the searches for inclusion in the review.
MAIN RESULTS: No randomised controlled trials were found.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no randomised controlled trials to assess the effect of extracting teeth prior to radiotherapy compared to leaving teeth in the mouth during radiotherapy to the jaws.
Hynes S, Narasimhan K, Courtemanche DJ, Arneja JSComplicated infantile hemangioma of the lip: outcomes of early versus late resection.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013; 131(3):373e-9e [PubMed
BACKGROUND: Lip hemangiomas have traditionally been approached with expectant management. However, intervention is warranted for associated complications, including facial disfigurement, feeding difficulties, speech impairment, and psychosocial manifestations. The authors evaluated outcomes of complicated lip hemangiomas resected during the proliferative as compared with the involutional phase.
METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with complicated lip hemangiomas managed with resection in the proliferative or involutional phase from 2005 to 2011 was performed. A transverse elliptical vermilion-mucosal resection technique was used. Review parameters included demographics, lesion size and location, growth phase, hemangioma-related complications, and preoperative management (corticosteroid or pulsed dye laser). Evaluated outcomes included surgical complications, recurrence, and patient- and surgeon-reported aesthetics.
RESULTS: Twenty-one patients underwent surgical resection of a lip hemangioma (10 proliferative and 11 involutional), with a mean follow-up of 21.4 and 23.3 months, respectively. The two groups were comparable with respect to lesion size and location. Patients in the involutional group experienced higher rates of hemangioma-related complications (bleeding, 45 percent versus 10 percent; speech impairment, 82 percent versus 0 percent; feeding difficulties, 82 percent versus 20 percent; and psychosocial issues, 100 percent versus 80 percent). There were no postoperative aesthetic concerns. One recurrence in the proliferative group was treated with reresection. Speech therapy was required for 82 percent of patients in the involutional group.
CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection is efficacious treatment for hemangiomas of the lip and yields acceptable aesthetic results during both the proliferative and involutional phases. Resection in the proliferative phase should be considered to prevent complications associated with delayed treatment.
Fakhrian K, Oechsner M, Kampfer S, et al.Advanced techniques in neoadjuvant radiotherapy allow dose escalation without increased dose to the organs at risk : Planning study in esophageal carcinoma.
Strahlenther Onkol. 2013; 189(4):293-300 [PubMed
PURPOSE: The goal of this work was to investigate the potential of advanced radiation techniques in dose escalation in the radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma.
METHODS: A total of 15 locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC) patients were selected for the present study. For all 15 patients, we created a 3D conformal RT plan (3D-45) with 45 Gy in fractions of 1.8 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV1), which we usually use to employ in the neoadjuvant treatment of LAEC. Additionally, a 3D boost (as in the primary RT of LAEC) was calculated with 9 Gy in fractions of 1.8 Gy to the boost volume (PTV2) (Dmean) to a total dose of 54 Gy (3D-54 Gy), which we routinely use for the definitive treatment of LAEC. Three plans with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) were then calculated for each patient: sliding window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT-SIB), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT-SIB), and helical tomotherapy (HT-SIB). For the SIB plans, the requirement was that 95 % of the PTV1 receive ≥ 100 % of the prescription dose (45 Gy in fractions of 1.8 Gy, D95) and the PTV2 was dose escalated to 52.5 Gy in fractions of 2.1 Gy (D95).
RESULTS: The median PTV2 dose for 3D-45, 3D-54, HT-SIB, VMAT-SIB, and IMRT-SIB was 45, 55, 54, 56, and 55 Gy, respectively. Therefore, the dose to PTV2 in the SIB plans was comparable to the 3D-54 plan. The lung dose in the SIB plans was in the range of the standard 3D-45, which is applied for neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The mean lung dose for the same plans was 13, 15, 12, 12, and 13 Gy, respectively. The V5 lung volumes were 71, 74, 79, 75, and 73 %, respectively. The V20 lung volumes were 20, 25, 16, 18, and 19 %, respectively.
CONCLUSION: New treatment planning techniques enable higher doses to be delivered for neoadjuvant radiotherapy of LAEC without a significant increase in the delivered dose to the organs at risk. Clinical investigations are warranted to study the clinical safety and feasibility of applying higher doses through advanced techniques in the neoadjuvant treatment of LAEC.
Mizumoto M, Hashii H, Senarita M, et al.Proton beam therapy for malignancy in Bloom syndrome.
Strahlenther Onkol. 2013; 189(4):335-8 [PubMed
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bloom syndrome is a DNA repair disorder that is hypersensitive to radiotherapy. We describe the first case in which proton beam therapy (PBT) was used in a patient with Bloom syndrome to treat oropharyngeal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patient was a 32-year-old woman with Bloom syndrome who was diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer staged as T2N2bM0 poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The primary tumor was located on the right tongue base and extended to the right lateral pharyngeal wall. Several right upper region lymph nodes were positive for metastases.
RESULTS: We selected PBT in anticipation of dose reduction to normal tissue. The clinical target volume was defined as the area of the primary tumor and lymph node metastases plus an 8-mm margin. After treatment with 36 GyE (Gray equivalent) in 20 fractions (4-5 fractions per week), dietary intake was decreased by mucositis and intravenous hyperalimentation was started. Termination of treatment for 2.5 weeks was required to relieve mucositis. Administration of 59.4 GyE in 33 fractions markedly reduced the size of the primary tumor, but also caused moderate mucositis that required termination of PBT. One month later, lung metastases and breast cancer developed and the patient died 9 months after PBT. At this time the reduction in size of the primary tumor was maintained without severe late toxicity.
CONCLUSION: We obtained almost complete response for a radiosensitive patient with a deficiency of DNA repair, indicating the excellent dose concentration of proton beam therapy.
Peshev ZV, Borisov BB, Genova SN, Danev VHParathyroid carcinoma of the mediastinum.
Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2012 Oct-Dec; 54(4):80-3 [PubMed
Parathyroid carcinoma accounts for about 4% of all diseases of the parathyroid glands. It usually presents as a tumor mass in the neck region. Mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma has been reported very rarely. The present paper reports an ectopic parathyroid carcinoma in the anterior mediastinum in a 54-year male that failed to be recognized antemortem. The markedly elevated serum calcium levels were repeatedly put down to laboratory errors, and the clinical features of primary hyperparathyroidism were misjudged and managed only symptomatically. The terminal cardiogenic shock was associated with myocardial infarction. Coronary plastic surgery was carried out and a stent was placed. The postmortem examination found a solid elastic tumor mass (4 cm) firmly encapsulated in the upper half of the anterior mediastinum having trabecular structure, mild nuclear and cellular polymorphism, single irregular mitoses and an area of necrosis. The mass invaded the capsule and the surrounding adipose tissue, there were tumor emboli found in the lymph and blood vessels. Immunohistochemical study showed diffuse expression of low molecular weight cytokeratin, chromogranin A and synaptophysin, and more than 20% of the tumor cells were Ki-67 positive. Glycogen granules were found in their cytoplasm. There were clearly seen metastatic calcifications in the intramural coronary vessels, the cardiomyocytes, the kidneys and the lungs. The present case report contributes considerably to the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia.
Nugent B, Lewis S, O'Sullivan JMEnteral feeding methods for nutritional management in patients with head and neck cancers being treated with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 1:CD007904 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 3, 2010.For many patients with head and neck cancer, oral nutrition will not provide adequate nourishment during treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy due to the acute toxicity of treatment, obstruction caused by the tumour, or both. The optimal method of enteral feeding for this patient group has yet to be established.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of different enteral feeding methods used in the nutritional management of patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy using the clinical outcomes, nutritional status, quality of life and rates of complications.
SEARCH METHODS: Our extensive search included the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and ISI Web of Science. The date of the most recent search was 13 February 2012.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing one method of enteral feeding with another, e.g. nasogastric (NG) or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding, for adult patients with a diagnosis of head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data using standardised forms. We contacted study authors for additional information.
MAIN RESULTS: One randomised controlled trial met the criteria for inclusion in this review. No further studies were identified when we updated the searches in 2012.Patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer, being treated with chemoradiotherapy, were randomised to PEG or NG feeding. In total only 33 patients were eligible for analysis as the trial was terminated early due to poor accrual. A high degree of bias was identified in the study.Weight loss was greater for the NG group at six weeks post-treatment than for the PEG group (P = 0.001). At six months post-treatment, however, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the two groups. Anthropometric measurements recorded six weeks post-treatment demonstrated lower triceps skin fold thickness for the NG group compared to the PEG group (P = 0.03). No statistically significant difference was found between the two different enteral feeding techniques in relation to complication rates or patient satisfaction. The duration of PEG feeding was significantly longer than for the NG group (P = 0.0006). In addition, the study calculated the cost of PEG feeding to be 10 times greater than that of NG, though this was not found to be significant. There was no difference in the treatment received by the two groups. However, four PEG fed patients and two NG fed patients required unscheduled treatment breaks of a median of two and six days respectively.We identified no studies of enteral feeding involving any form of radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) feeding or comparing prophylactic PEG versus PEG for inclusion in the review.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding for patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. Further trials of the two methods of enteral feeding, incorporating larger sample sizes, are required.
North DLUptake of ¹³¹I in households of thyroid cancer patients.
Health Phys. 2013; 104(4):434-6 [PubMed
Fifty persons and pets living with thyroid cancer patients who were treated with large administered activities of I have been surveyed to ascertain their uptake of radioiodine from the domestic environment. All patients had been hospitalized for one night after the therapeutic administration, and the thyroids of the cohabitants were assayed 3-10 d after the patients returned home. Seven of the assays were positive for I in the thyroid gland. The transmitted quantities absorbed by the cohabitants were all less than 10 of the patients' burdens at discharge.
Avram AM, Fig LM, Frey KA, et al.Preablation 131-I scans with SPECT/CT in postoperative thyroid cancer patients: what is the impact on staging?
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(3):1163-71 [PubMed
CONTEXT: The utility of preablation radioiodine scans for the management of differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of preablation Iodine 131 (131-I) planar with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT; diagnostic [Dx] scans) to differentiated thyroid cancer staging.
DESIGN: Prospective sequential series at university clinic.
METHODS: Using American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging, seventh edition 320 patients post-total thyroidectomy were initially staged based on clinical and pathology data (pTN) and then restaged after imaging (TNM). The impact of Dx scans with SPECT/CT on N and M scores, and TNM stage, was assessed in younger, age <45 years, n = 138 (43%), and older, age ≥ 45 years, n = 182 (57%) patients, with subgroup analysis for T1a and T1b tumors.
RESULTS: In younger patients Dx scans detected distant metastases in 5 of 138 patients (4%), and nodal metastases in 61 of 138 patients (44%), including unsuspected nodal metastases in 24 of 63 (38%) patients initially assigned pathologic (p) N0 or pNx. In older patients distant metastases were detected in 18 of 182 patients (10%), and nodal metastases in 51 of 182 patients (28%), including unsuspected nodal metastases in 26 of 108 (24%) patients initially assigned pN0 or pNx. Dx scans detected distant metastases in 2 of 49 (4%) T1a, and 3 of 67 (4.5%) T1b patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Dx scans detected regional metastases in 35% of patients, and distant metastases in 8% of patients. Information acquired with Dx scans changed staging in 4% of younger, and 25% of older patients. Preablation scans with SPECT/CT contribute to staging of thyroid cancer. Identification of regional and distant metastases prior to radioiodine therapy has significant potential to alter patient management.
Xing MMolecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of thyroid cancer.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2013; 13(3):184-99 [PubMed
Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. There has been exciting progress in understanding its molecular pathogenesis in recent years, as best exemplified by the elucidation of the fundamental role of several major signalling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these pathways, such as mutation, gene copy-number gain and aberrant gene methylation. Many of these molecular alterations represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer, which provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer.
Perri F, Muto P, Argenone A, et al.Induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and capecitabine, followed by combined cetuximab and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a phase I-II study.
Oncology. 2013; 84(4):251-4 [PubMed
Objectives: To replace 5-fluorouracil with capecitabine within a trial of induction chemotherapy followed by cetuximab plus radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced (LA) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Also, to replace cisplatin with cetuximab after induction chemotherapy. Methods: Docetaxel and cisplatin were given at 75 mg/m(2), while capecitabine was initially given at 500 mg/m(2) twice a day and subsequently escalated. The maximum tolerated dose was used for the phase II study. Results: Seven patients were enrolled. At dose level 1, two dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the first 4 patients (grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 diarrhea). In both patients, capecitabine was withdrawn and toxicities resolved. Dose escalation was halted and a lower capecitabine dose (750 mg/m(2) daily) was selected. Two complete responses and five partial responses were observed after induction chemotherapy. Four patients were evaluable for response after cetuximab-RT (3 complete response and 1 partial response). Conclusion: Combined chemoradiotherapy is still the gold standard in LA SCCHN and no studies currently support the use of early induction chemotherapy. Our study did not contribute toward addressing this issue since it was discontinued early because of toxicity.
Durmaz E, Barsal E, Parlak M, et al.Intrathyroidal ectopic thymic tissue may mimic thyroid cancer: a case report.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 25(9-10):997-1000 [PubMed
Ectopic intrathyroidal thymus tissue that may be present as a thyroid nodule is rarely reported. We present a case of a 4-year-old boy with a solitary thyroid nodule. Real-time thyroid ultrasound showed a calcified nodule in the right lobe. Complete blood count, serum calcitonin, and thyroglobulin concentration were normal and antithyroid antibodies were negative. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy was revealed as inadequate for cytological examination. During his follow-up, nodular enlargement was found, and the patient was subjected to surgical total excision of the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Pathological examination showed an ectopic intrathyroidal thymus tissue. In childhood, ectopic intrathyroidal thymus tissue can present as an enlarging microcalcified thyroid nodule that may mimic thyroid cancer and may grow during follow-up.
Löfdahl HE, Lu Y, Lagergren P, Lagergren JRisk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma after antireflux surgery.
Ann Surg. 2013; 257(4):579-82 [PubMed
OBJECTIVES: Gastroesophageal reflux is the main risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, but there is no strong support for any cancer-protective effect after antireflux surgery. We hypothesized that recurrent reflux or high exposure to other established risk factors, that is, obesity and tobacco smoking, are overrepresented among patients who despite antireflux surgery develop esophageal adenocarcinoma.
DESIGN: A population-based case-control study was nested within an antireflux surgery cohort from the Swedish Patient Register between 1965 and 2006. Cases were patients who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma more than 5 years after antireflux surgery, whereas randomly selected controls were matched to the cases regarding age, sex, and calendar year of the antireflux surgery. Study exposures among cases and controls were collected through review of medical records. Data on cancer were assessed through the Swedish Cancer Register. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable conditional logistic regression, adjusted for recurrent reflux, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, and type of antireflux surgery.
RESULTS: From 14,102 patients in the total antireflux surgery cohort, 55 cases and 240 controls were included. Patients who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma were 3 times more likely to have recurrent reflux after their antireflux surgery, compared with those who had not (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.3). There were no statistically significant differences in risk when comparing BMI of 30 kg/m or more with BMI of less than 25 kg/m (OR: 1.6, CI: 0.8-3.5), ever smokers with never smokers (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7-2.8), or total fundoplication with partial fundoplication (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3-1.3).
CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence of reflux might explain the lack of protective effect of antireflux surgery regarding risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.
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