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Tracheal (windpipe) Cancer

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    MeSH term: Tracheal Neoplasms
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Oliveira CM, Colaiácovo R, Araki O, et al.
The role of endoscopic ultrasound in the staging of tracheal neoplasm: a brief review.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2019; 65(5):589-591 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our case report shows the complexity of dealing with tracheal tumors, highlighting the importance of the method used for staging. In this report, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was crucial to identify the involvement of the esophageal muscular propria in a tracheal tumor and change the surgical planning of the case. Staging this kind of tumor represents a challenge for physicians. There is no evidence in the literature on which methods represent the gold standard for T staging.

Chowdhary RL, Chufal KS, Pahuja AK, et al.
Image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy (IG-VMAT) for unresectable ACC of the trachea: a feasible curative option.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
A middle-aged man presented with progressively worsening breathlessness and non-productive cough for the last 3 months. On examination, his breathing was stridulous and air entry was decreased bilaterally. He underwent emergency fibre-optic bronchoscopy, which revealed a tracheal growth causing luminal narrowing, and after tumour debulking, he improved symptomatically. Histopathological evaluation of the specimen revealed an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, and systemic evaluation revealed metastatic dissemination. Systemic molecular-targeted therapy was initiated (gefitinib and later imatinib mesylate) and continued for 5 years, in view of stable disease on periodic follow-up. He subsequently presented with breathlessness again, which was managed with an emergency tracheostomy. In view of stable systemic disease and local progression only, he received definitive radiotherapy with image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy, which resulted in a complete radiological response. The patient has been disease-free for the last 9 months.

Spinelli GP, Miele E, Prete AA, et al.
Combined surgery and radiotherapy as curative treatment for tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma: a case report.
J Med Case Rep. 2019; 13(1):52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea is a rare tumor, characterized by slow growth and low rate of local and distant metastasis. When achievable, complete surgical resection represents the optimal treatment approach, with the highest results in terms of overall survival. Radiation therapy is a reasonable alternative in cases of inoperable disease.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an 82-year-old white man affected by primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, treated with debulking surgery and radiotherapy on the residual disease. A three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was conducted. The total dose amounted to 70 Gy, administered in 35 fractions of 2 Gy. The medium doses given to the esophagus and lungs were 23 Gy and 4.2 Gy respectively. The maximum dose delivered to the spinal cord was 31 Gy with satisfactory results in terms of local control of the disease.
CONCLUSION: A combined approach of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy on the residual disease provided an excellent result in terms of disease control, quality of life, and overall survival in a patient with locally advanced tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Bouma W, Koning KJ, Suurmeijer AJH, et al.
Hybrid bronchoscopic and surgical resection of endotracheal angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma.
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019; 14(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a soft-tissue tumor that generally affects the extremities of children and young adults. AFH overlaps with primary pulmonary myxoid sarcoma (PPMS) and can occur in unusual locations.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 22-year-old female with AFH in the distal trachea. In addition to describing the challenge in making a correct diagnosis of AFH, we describe the first case of successful hybrid bronchoscopic and surgical resection of endotracheal AFH. A staged removal procedure was required to quickly secure the airway, allowing a lower-risk elective distal tracheal resection through a cervical approach for complete resection. A more conventional, but more invasive, more painful and cosmetically less satisfying thoracotomy was avoided.
CONCLUSIONS: A distal tracheal resection for AFH can be safely performed in young adults through a cervical approach with excellent follow-up results.

Hanif Khan A, Faisal M, Mohd Ali R, Abdul Rahaman JA
Resolution of asthmatic symptoms following successful endoscopic resection of tracheal mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare tumour of the trachea accounting for up to 0.2% of reported primary lung malignancy. We report a case of a 54-year-old man, ex-smoker, whose presentation mimicked adult onset asthma with cough and wheezing, which did not respond to conventional treatment. He had occasional haemoptysis and weight loss in which CT scan performed for malignancy screening showed a protruding mass in the distal trachea causing endobronchial obstruction. Bronchoscopic intervention was performed to relieve the obstruction that resulted in resolution of asthmatic symptoms. Histological diagnosis confirmed MEC. This case emphasised the importance of a high index of suspicion in an unusual presentation of a common disease and the pivotal role of bronchoscopic intervention in malignant central airway obstruction.

Majeed FA, Zafar U, Ali A, et al.
Emergency Tracheal Surgery for Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Rare Entity.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2018; 28(11):882-884 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary tumours of the trachea are rare. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) constitutes less than 1% of these tumours. They occasionally masquerade as asthma. We are presenting a case of a young female, who had been treated for 3 years as asthma. She presented in emergency with severe respiratory difficulty, stridor and decreasing saturation of 85% on room air. Two weeks back, she had a CT scan in a local hospital, but they did not notify the tracheal mass. Her clinical picture and CT scan helped us diagnose the case. She was treated in emergency with primary resection of tracheal mass and anastomosis. The tumor was diagnosed as ACC. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Continuity of the trachea was restored and adjuvant radiotherapy was given.

Amaza IP, Lee S, Sanchez R
Large endotracheal tumour presenting as severe COPD: flow-volume loop analysis, not always a straightforward diagnostic test.
BMJ Case Rep. 2018; 2018 [PubMed] Related Publications
The flow-volume loop (FVL) analysis is typically helpful in establishing the diagnosis of airway obstruction caused by endobronchial lesions. In this report, we describe a patient with emphysema and tobacco abuse who presented with chronic dry cough and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refractory to standard therapy. The initial FVL showed a relatively normal forced expiratory peak flow shape followed by a smooth flattening of the expiratory curve on spirometry, a pattern consistent with distal airway obstruction as seen in severe asthma or COPD. The patient was later found to have a large endotracheal mass. This atypical presentation, along with the unusual FVL, led to a significant delay in the diagnosis of the tracheal mass. A high level of suspicion is needed to diagnose variable intrathoracic airway obstruction in patients presenting with severe asthma or COPD who fail to improve with standard therapy.

Sharma PV, Jobanputra YB, Perdomo Miquel T, et al.
Primary intratracheal schwannoma resected during bronchoscopy using argon plasma coagulation.
BMJ Case Rep. 2018; 2018 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 63-year-old man presented with intermittent, progressively worsening dyspnoea associated with cough and blood-tinged sputum. Initial work-up showed left axis deviation on ECG, chest X-ray with an elevated left hemidiaphragm and a non-contrast CT chest that showed a multilobulated mass in the proximal trachea. Bronchoscopy showed a whitish-appearing lesion, which was then sampled and partially resected with pathology showing a schwannoma with no malignant cells. He felt partial relief post procedure; however, he presented a month later with similar symptoms of dyspnoea and a repeat CT scan showed enlargement of the mass in the same location. The patient underwent another flexible bronchoscopy and resection with argon plasma coagulation (APC)/electrocautery snare. APC/electrocautery is an effective interventional bronchoscopy technique that can be used to resect endoluminal lesions or extraluminal lesions that have infiltrated into the airway using flexible/rigid bronchoscopy. It is more cost-effective, safe, works well with vascular lesions and achieves excellent haemostasis as compared with Nd:YAG lasers.

Kubo T, Kurita T, Tashima H, et al.
Immediate tracheal reconstruction with forearm flap and bone graft.
Microsurgery. 2019; 39(1):46-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: "Window" resection of the trachea is sometimes performed to remove tumors invading the trachea. Here, we present a novel reconstructive procedure to this end.
METHODS: Eleven patients (mean age, 64 years; range, 46-80 years) were included. Primary diagnoses included thyroid cancer and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea. All defects were partial and located in the neck (mean width and length, 3/5 circle and 7.5 rings; range, 1/2-2/3 circle and 5-9 rings). Immediate 2-stage reconstruction was performed using a forearm flap and free bone graft. The bone graft was utilized as a supportive skeleton. A tracheostoma was left open for several months following the initial surgery, and then closed.
RESULTS: The mean flap size was 6.1 × 9.7 cm (range, 6-7 × 7-16 cm). Mean number of grafted bone strips and length were 1.6 (range, 1-3) and 6.1 cm (range, 4.5-7 cm). All flaps survived. Five patients developed complications in the neck, including surgical site infections (SSIs), recurrent nerve palsy, and lymphorrhea. Four patients developed donor site complications, including clavicular fracture and SSIs. Mean postoperative follow-up lasted 85 months (range, 11-149 months). Normal speech was restored in 9 patients. Stoma closure was abandoned in 2 patients, because 1 patient showed vocal cord fixation with advanced age and the other showed bone graft loss following SSI.
CONCLUSIONS: Creating a tracheostoma during the first operation prevents postoperative airway compromise. Our bone graft placement easily achieves tracheal rigidity. This procedure is simple and safe for tracheal window defect repair.

Reddy R, Woods TR, Allan RW, et al.
NUT (Nuclear Protein in Testis) Carcinoma: A Report of Two Cases With Different Histopathologic Features.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2019; 27(2):225-229 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUT (nuclear protein in testis) carcinoma (NC) is an aggressive carcinoma characterized by rearrangements of the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. Histologically, it is a poorly differentiated carcinoma composed of monotonous, medium-sized, round cells with scant amphophilic or eosinophilic cytoplasm. Foci of abrupt keratinization are often seen. In this report, we compare the morphology of 2 cases of NC. The first case shows characteristic features of uniform, round epithelioid cells admixed with foci of abrupt keratinization. The second case demonstrates nests of epithelioid-polygonal cells that appear to be loosely cribriform within a mucoid stroma. Although considered rare, the actual incidence of NC may be underestimated, as it is likely that many go undiagnosed because the morphology deviates from what is typical. Our report demonstrates that NC should always be considered in any case of an undifferentiated carcinoma and should not be excluded if typical histologic and immunohistochemical features of squamous differentiation are lacking.

Shamji FM, Inculet R
Management of Malignant Tracheoesophageal Fistula.
Thorac Surg Clin. 2018; 28(3):393-402 [PubMed] Related Publications
When a malignant fistula develops between esophagus and trachea, the underlying cancer is invariably incurable whether the primary site is in the esophagus or in the trachea. The frequent complication of this fistula is nonresolving aspiration pneumonia, either from ingestion or from backward flow of gastric contents into the esophagus. Pulmonary sepsis causes fatality in about 6 to 12 weeks if aspiration through the fistula is not treated quickly. The fistula develops in untreated esophageal cancer in approximately 5% to 15% of cases, lung cancer in less than 1% of cases, and tracheal cancer in 14.75% of cases.

Yamaguchi S, Morita M, Yamamoto M, et al.
Long-Term Outcome of Definitive Chemoradiotherapy and Induction Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Surgery for T4 Esophageal Cancer with Tracheobronchial Invasion.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2018; 25(11):3280-3287 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: T4 esophageal cancer (EC) that invades the trachea or bronchus often has poorer prognosis than other T4 ECs. We investigated the long-term results of definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) or induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery (iCRT-S) in patients with T4 EC with tracheobronchial invasion (TBI).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2003 to 2013, 71 patients with T4 EC with TBI were treated in our institution; 58 underwent dCRT, and 13 underwent iCRT-S. The long-term results associated with survival were retrospectively analyzed, and prognostic factors were examined by univariable and multivariable analysis.
RESULTS: The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival for all patients with T4 EC with TBI treated by dCRT or iCRT-S was 57, 29, and 19%, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that clinical lymph node (LN) metastasis and the treatment period were significant prognostic factors. Clinical LN positivity had significantly poorer prognosis than LN negativity. The treatment outcome in the later period was significantly better than that in the earlier period. In particular, the outcome after dCRT revealed significantly better prognosis in the later compared with the earlier period, whereas the outcome after iCRT-S did not show such a difference. With respect to treatment modality, no significant difference in survival was observed between dCRT and iCRT-S.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical LN negativity and later treatment period were significantly good prognostic factors for T4 EC with TBI. The recent improvements in dCRT outcomes may help to achieve survival comparable to that of iCRT-S.

Reddy S, Swamy R, Irugu DVK, Ramji KVV
Transtracheal endoscopic-assisted resection of a rare inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour in adult trachea: a case report.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2018; 38(2):170-173 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SUMMARY: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs) are rare and clinically benign in childhood, and malignant in adults. The aetiology of IMTs is not clear, and recent studies report it as true neoplasm rather than a reactive or inflammatory lesion. IMTs can involve any part of the body, but are usually common in lungs. These are rarely seen in adults and tracheal involvement is also rare in both adults and children. We describe an 18-year-old woman who presented with respiratory difficulty to the emergency department. On clinical examination, the patient had complete absence of breath sounds on the right side of the chest. CT of the chest and virtual bronchoscopy revealed a polypoidal soft tissue mass lesion involving the carina with occlusion of right main bronchus. Endoscopic-assisted resection was performed under general anaesthesia and the final pathological diagnosis was tracheal IMT.

Khan FW, Zahid I, Moeen S, Hasan SB
Tracheal chondrosarcoma and surgical management.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2019; 27(1):52-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is a cancer of cartilage cells, and despite being a common primary bone tumor, tracheal chondrosarcoma is rare with only 18 cases reported in the literature prior to mid-2016. A 60-year-old gentleman presented with progressively increasing cough, severe stridor, and production of phlegm for approximately 2 years. On admission to our tertiary care hospital, he developed complete obstructive apnea within an hour, and was intubated. A tracheal biopsy was performed, followed by resection. Histopathology confirmed chondrosarcoma of the trachea. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and is currently symptom-free on follow-up, with no signs of recurrence.

Xie M, Wei S, Wu X, et al.
Alterations of Notch pathway in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea and its impact on survival.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 121:41-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the trachea lacks of well-characterized molecular markers. There is currently no specific treatment for metastatic ACC of the trachea. This study aimed to identify genomic mutations of Notch pathway and investigate the efficacy of NOTCH inhibitor in ACC of the trachea.
METHODS: 73 Patients with ACC of the trachea at four institutions from 2008 to 2016 were identified. Analysis of hotspot mutations in cancer-related genes of Notch pathway was performed using next generation sequencing. Gene-expression and functional analyses were performed to study the mechanism of activation through mutation. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to predict overall survival (OS). Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were established and treated with NOTCH inhibitor Brontictuzumab.
RESULTS: Gain-of-function mutations of the NOTCH1 gene occurred in 12 (16.4%) tumors, leading to stabilization of the intracellular cleaved form of NOTCH1 (ICN1). NOTCH1 mutation was associated with increased NOTCH1 activation and its target gene HES1. Mutations in NOTCH2 (3/73), NOTCH4 (2/73), JAG1 (1/73) and FBXW7 (2/73) were also identified in 8 (11.0%) patients. A strong inverse correlation of expression was observed between FBXW7 and HES1. NOTCH1 mutation was associated with solid subtype (P = 0.02), younger age at diagnosis (P = 0.041) and shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.017). NOTCH1 mutation was not an independent prognostic factor in the presence of histologic subtype and resection margin. Brontictuzumab significantly reduced tumor growth in NOTCH1-mutated PDX.
CONCLUSION: NOTCH1 mutation is associated with activation of Notch pathway in ACC of the trachea. NOTCH1 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in patients with ACC of the trachea.

Maweni RM, Manikavasagar V, Sunderland N, Chaudhry S
Thoracic oesophageal cancer as a cause of stridor: a literature review.
BMJ Case Rep. 2018; 2018 [PubMed] Related Publications
An 83-year-old woman, with a background of treated squamous cell oesophageal cancer, presented with a 3-week history of stridor. Of note, the patient had no risk factors for oesophageal cancer other than age. Clinical examination was unremarkable apart from stridor. Laboratory investigations, including arterial blood gas on room air, were unremarkable. Radiological examination revealed a 4.5×3.5×3.6 cm mass involving the posterior trachea and invading the tracheal orifice. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy confirmed an extensive tumour arising from the lower oesophagus and invading the trachea, causing 90% airway obstruction for a 6 mm length ending 1.5 cm above the carina. Biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma with foci of squamous cell carcinoma. Unfortunately, the patient passed away 2 months after palliative tracheal stent placement.

Ahn JH, Chung JH, Shin KC, et al.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the trachea associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A case report and literature review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(20):e10727 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the trachea is a rare disease that has been shown to be associated with chronic antigenic stimulation. There have been few reports of MALT lymphoma of the trachea in association with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old patient visited with a 2-year history of dyspnea on exertion and productive cough, which had worsened 1 month ago.
DIAGNOSES: MALT lymphoma of the trachea associated with IPF.
INTERVENTIONS: After taking into consideration the age, poor performance status, and comorbidities of the patient and the extent of disease, we utilized an observational approach as a treatment strategy.
OUTCOMES: The patient is well without any evidence of progression for 12 months since the initial diagnosis.
LESSONS: We present a case of MALT lymphoma of the trachea associated with IPF. A common predisposing factor may exist for tracheal MALT lymphoma and IPF. As there are no randomized clinical trials focusing on tracheal MALT lymphoma, individualized treatment decision is important, and in some cases, simply monitoring the patient might be the most appropriate approach.

Falce K, Guy E, Hyman D, et al.
Bronchoscopic resection of a tracheobronchial leiomyoma in a pregnant patient.
Int J Obstet Anesth. 2018; 35:93-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Flexible bronchoscopy, therapeutic bronchoscopy and other procedures requiring anesthesia are generally avoided in pregnancy and postponed until after delivery if possible. We report a case of a parturient with an abnormal chest radiograph and mild obstructive symptoms of unknown etiology. At bronchoscopy, a tumor associated with post-obstructive suppuration was found and excised using electrocautery snare and cryotherapy, for restoration of airway patency. Coordination between pulmonary, obstetric, anesthesia, neonatology and thoracic surgery services was essential in ensuring success and the safety of the mother and fetus.

Pfeiffer M, Cohn JE, Pascasio JM, Chennupati SK
Treatment of an obstructive, recurrent, syncytial myoepithelioma of the trachea with tracheal resection and reconstruction.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018; 109:85-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myoepithelioma is a rare occurrence in the trachea and respiratory tract with only 11 cases reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female who was found to have an anterior tracheal mass causing near total obstruction of the airway on bronchoscopy. Characteristics of the mass were consistent with syncytial myoepithelioma. The patient experienced multiple recurrences requiring tracheal resection with end-to-end reanastomosis. To date there have not been any reported cases of myoepithelioma of the trachea in a child and no reports of syncytial myoepithelioma in the trachea or respiratory tract.

Guo L, Wang K, Zhu H, et al.
Treatment of primary tracheal glomus tumors: Two case reports and a literature review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(15):e0374 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Glomus tumors (GTs) are rare soft tissue neoplasms. Several treatment options have been reported for tracheal GTs including thoracotomy, bronchoscopic electrocautery, Nd: YAG laser, and cryotherapy. However, few studies have evaluated the ideal treatment for tracheal GTs.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-year old man who presented with cough, and expectoration for 1 month, and who had been diagnosed as having a tracheal neoplasm by cervical, and thoracic computed tomography (CT). The patient was a47 years old man. He was admitted to our hospital presenting with intermittent hemoptysis for 3 years. Thoracic CT revealed a round tumor on the right posterior tracheal wall.
DIAGNOSES: Both of them were diagnosed as benign GTs. Histopathology of the tumor showed clusters of round epithelioid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, and uniform round to ovoid nuclei surrounding dilated capillaries. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA).
INTERVENTIONS: The tracheal tumor of first patient was located at the level of C7-T1. Tumor resection was performed under fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The tracheal tumor in second patient was located in the lower trachea. Surgical tracheal resection and anastomosis were performed.
OUTCOMES: Both of them achieved good results and no recurrence was seen at the final follow-up LESSONS:: We recommend choosing the most appropriate approach to manage tracheal GTs based on patients' general condition, and tumor characteristics to obtain an excellent prognosis. Our 2 cases of tracheal GT were managed by different approaches, and both achieved good results.

Moores D, Mane P
Pathology of Primary Tracheobronchial Malignancies Other than Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas.
Thorac Surg Clin. 2018; 28(2):149-154 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most primary tracheal tumors are malignant. Malignancy of larynx and bronchi are much more likely than trachea. Tracheal tumors are most likely due to direct extension for surrounding tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma make up about two-thirds of adult primary tracheal tumors. Because of their predominantly local growth pattern, malignant salivary gland-type tumors show a better outcome than other histologic types.

Maziak DE
Biology of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Tracheobronchial Tree and Principles of Management.
Thorac Surg Clin. 2018; 28(2):145-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea is a rare tumor. The mainstay of treatment remains surgical resection, even in the presence of positive margins or metastatic disease. Perineural involvement commonly causes positive margins and should not deter from resection. Knowledge of releasing maneuvers is essential for surgical success. Long-term follow-up is required with patients presenting late and surviving with recurrent disease for years.

Rehman S, Lovvorn HN, Rickman OB, et al.
Unique application of awake tracheoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound in the management of tracheal mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Head Neck. 2018; 40(6):E58-E61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the trachea is a rare pediatric malignancy that presents unique challenges in diagnosis, operative management, and surveillance.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a 17-year-old girl with primary tracheal mucoepidermoid carcinoma presenting in acute respiratory distress due to near-total occlusion of the tracheal airway. An algorithmic approach to preoperative planning was developed to evaluate and remove the tumor endoscopically without compromising oxygenation. After initial palliative resection, endobronchial ultrasound was uniquely applied to evaluate depth of tumor invasion, and subsequent tracheal resection with primary anastomosis was performed as curative treatment.
CONCLUSION: Removal of distal tracheal masses can be performed safely with the implementation of an algorithmic approach to tumor visualization and resection. Endobronchial ultrasound can be used to evaluate the extent of tumor invasion and plan for definitive resection.

Mori M, Detterbeck FC
Rare case of radiation-induced primary tracheal carcinoma.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018; 66(9):549-551 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary carcinoma of the trachea is an exceeding rare entity. We present a case of radiation-induced primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea in a young woman. The case highlights a diagnostic challenge of this atypical disease entity.

Hung WH, Chen HC, Huang CL, Wang BY
Thoracoscopic Tracheal Resection and Reconstruction With Single-Incision Method.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2018; 106(1):e45-e47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tracheal resection and reconstruction are traditionally approached with a right lateral thoracotomy or a median sternotomy. The thoracoscopic approach is usually applied in lung resection surgery in most hospitals but seldom used in tracheal resection. Three or more incisions are usually created during a thoracoscopic tracheal resection. We prescribed a method of single-incision thoracoscopic tracheal resection and reconstruction in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the right tracheal wall.

Zhang X, Su L, Ran YG, et al.
Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the trachea: A case report and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(3):e9594 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs) are rare solitary soft tissue tumors characterized by monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. Most lesions occur in the head and neck, but primary tracheal lesions are very rare.
PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we describe a case of tracheal EMP discovered in a 48-year-old man who presented with a history of progressive dyspnea.
DIAGNOSES: Computed tomography (CT) revealed a well-defined nodular mass in the posterior wall of trachea without signs of invasion of the tracheal walls. Then, a reddish mass occluding approximately 90% of the trachea was evidenced by bronchoscopic examination.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy to achieve better local control.
OUTCOMES: After the surgery, there was immediate symptomatic relief. There was no recurrence or metastasis during a 6-month follow-up.
LESSONS: This study presents a rare case of tracheal EMP occluding approximately 90% of the lumen that was successfully managed by surgery followed by radiotherapy.

Dimachkieh AL, Dobbie A, Olson DR, et al.
Tracheal paraganglioma presenting as stridor in a pediatric patient, case report and literature review.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018; 107:145-149 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To review tracheal paragangliomas and describe the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, operative management, and histologic findings of a pediatric patient who presented with stridor refractory to traditional asthma therapy.
METHODS: Chart review of an 8-year-old male who presented to a tertiary care pediatric hospital and literature review of tracheal paragangliomas.
RESULTS: We present the case of an 8-year-old male who presented with new-onset of wheezing and dyspnea on exertion. He was given a new diagnosis of asthma and treated with bronchodilators that failed to improve his symptoms, which progressed over 3 months until he presented urgently with biphasic stridor. Bedside flexible laryngoscopy failed to reveal an etiology. Computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated 17 × 12 × 16 mm exophytic mass arising from the posterior membranous trachea with extension of the mass to the border of the thyroid gland and separate from the esophagus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) angiography confirmed vascular supply from the right thyrocervical trunk and inferior thyroid artery. Rigid microlaryngoscopy revealed a friable vascular polypoid mass 2 cm distal to the vocal folds with 75% obstruction of the airway from which a small biopsy was taken. Pathology confirmed paraganglioma with neuroendocrine cells arranged in "zellballen" architecture and strong immunopositivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin in the neuroendocrine cells and S100 immunopositivity in the sustentacular cells. The patient underwent complete open resection of the tumor including three tracheal rings with primary anastomosis. Final pathology confirmed paraganglioma and negative margins. Genetic screening revealed a succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C (SDHC) germline mutation, confirming hereditary paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma syndrome. He remains well at 3 month follow up without dyspnea or stridor.
CONCLUSION: Tracheal paragangliomas are exceptionally rare, with 12 reported cases. This is the only pediatric case reported. In pediatric patients with persistent airway complaints, subglottic and tracheal masses and obstruction should be considered. Due to the vascularity and endotracheal component of tracheal paragangliomas, a detailed surgical plan should consider embolization, endotracheal laser photocoagulation and electrocautery, and open surgical resection. Additionally, pediatric patients benefit from a multidisciplinary approach including radiology, endocrinology, and genetic counseling.

Thomet C, Modarressi A, Rüegg EM, et al.
Long-Segment Tracheal Reconstruction With Free Radial Forearm Flap Reinforced by Rib Cartilage.
Ann Plast Surg. 2018; 80(5):525-528 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long-segment tracheal reconstruction remains a challenge. The ideal tracheal substitute should be an epithelialized tube to prevent stenosis and sufficiently rigid to maintain airflow patency. An autologous technique using a radial forearm free flap reinforced by rib cartilage has been recently described for tracheal reconstruction. We report here two cases of complex tracheal reconstruction with a modification of this technique, which consists of the creation of two independent skin paddles to allow the reconstruction of the trachea and a second adjacent defect (eg, cervical skin, esophagus). Airway patency was achieved with no stenosis, prolonged stenting, fistula, or necrosis after 26 and 44 months, respectively. We suggest that the satisfactory outcome obtained with this modified technique is a valuable option for tracheal and adjacent defect reconstruction without the need for a second flap.

Sasikumar A, Joy A, Pillai MRA, et al.
Rare Case of Intratracheal Metastasis Detected on 68Ga-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT Scan in a Case of Thyroglobulin Elevated Negative Iodine Scan Syndrome.
Clin Nucl Med. 2018; 43(4):282-283 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 64-year-old woman underwent completion thyroidectomy with upper tracheal ring resection and right-sided neck dissection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid infiltrating the trachea and was given I radioiodine treatment. Three years later, she presented with hemoptysis. On evaluation, she had increased serum thyroglobulin and negative iodine scan (TENIS). F-FDG PET/CT scan did not identify any site of disease. One year later, Ga-PSMA scan done revealed a moderate focal tracer-avid intratracheal soft tissue; biopsy revealed it to be metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. This case kindles the possibility of using Ga-PSMA PET/CT to reveal occult disease in cases of TENIS.

Zhang Y, Xin J, Ma Y, et al.
Use of Univent tube for intermittent lung isolation during thoracoscopic mediastinal tracheal resection and reconstruction: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(50):e8945 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea primary is a rare neoplasm and commonly misdiagnosed. Lung isolation during surgery and ventilation pose a tremendous challenge to anesthesiologists.
PATIENT CONCERNS: The authors describe a novel technique of lung isolation and ventilation with a Univent tube during thoracoscopic mediastinal tracheal resection and reconstruction in a female patient.
DIAGNOSES: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma, nonsmall cell carcinoma.
INTERVENTIONS: In this case, tracheal resection and reconstruction were performed. A bronchial blocker of the Univent tube was used as a guide to manipulate the depth of endotracheal tube.
OUTCOMES: The intermittent 1-lung ventilation was established successfully. The patient recovered uneventfully and discharged after 10 days.
LESSONS: The advantages of approach include a stable airway management without occupying the contracted space of thoracoscope and no potential risk of trapping or barotraumas.

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