Cancer of the Esophagus
The esophagus (UK spelling: oesophagus) is a long hollow muscular tube which connects the throat to the stomach. Esophageal cancer is a disease where malignant (cancerous) cells arise in the tissues of the esophagus. The most common symptom is difficulty in swallowing. It can also be associated with weight loss and sometimes pain or discomfort behind the breast bone or in the back - these symptoms should be checked by a doctor but not are sure signs of cancer. There are two main types of esophageal cancer (depending on how the cells appear under the microscope); approximately half are classed as "squamous cell carcinomas" and half as "adenocarcinomas". People with frequent gastric reflux leading to Barrett's Esophagus have an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer.
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers
Latest Research Publications
Molecular biology of Esophageal Cancer
Information Patients and the Public (14 links)
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (9 links)
- PubMed search for publications about Esophageal Cancer - Limit search to: [Reviews]
PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Esophageal Cancer
MeSH term: Esophageal Neoplasms
US National Library of Medicine
PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
High expression of Claudin-2 in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions is significantly associated with the bile salt receptors VDR and TGR5.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Claudin-2 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, containing EAC, high grade dysplasia (HGD), low grade dysplasia (LGD), Barrett's esophagus (BE), columnar cell metaplasia (CM), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and squamous epithelium (SE) cases. Intensity (0 to 3) and percentage were scored for each case. High expression was defined as 2-3 intensity in ≥ 10% of cells.
RESULTS: Claudin-2 was highly expressed in 77% EAC (86/111), 38% HGD (5/13), 61% LGD (17/28), 46% BE (18/39), 45% CM (29/65), 88% SCC (23/26), and 14% SE (11/76). It was significantly more highly-expressed in EAC, SCC and glandular lesions than in SE and more in EAC than in BE and CM. A significant association was found between Claudin-2 expression and VDR and TGR5 expression. No significant association was found between expression of Claudin-2 and age, gender, grade, stage, or patients' survival time in EAC and SCC.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that Claudin-2 expression is significantly associated with bile acid receptors VDR and TGR5 expression. Our studies identify a novel role of a tight junction protein in the development and progression of esophageal mucosal metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma.
Molecular biology of gastroesophageal cancers: opportunities and challenges.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2017; 15(1):75-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Potential Predictive Role of MicroRNAs in the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Esophageal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):403-412 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endoscopic imaging modalities for diagnosing invasion depth of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, and Ichushi databases to identify studies evaluating the use of endoscopic modalities for diagnosing invasion depth of superficial esophageal SCC. We excluded case reports, review articles, and studies in which the total number of patients or lesions was <10.
RESULTS: Fourteen studies fulfilled our criteria. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves showed that magnified endoscopy (ME) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) performed better than non-ME. ME was associated with high sensitivity and a very low (0.08) negative likelihood ratio (NLR), while EUS had high specificity and a very high (17.6) positive likelihood ratio (PLR) for the diagnosis of epithelial or lamina propria cancers. NLR <0.1 provided strong evidence to rule out disease, and PLR >10 provided strong evidence of a positive diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: EUS and ME perform better than non-ME for diagnosing invasion depth in SCC. ME has a low NLR and is a reliable modality for confirming deep invasion of cancer, while EUS has a high PLR and can reliably confirm that the cancer is limited to the surface. Effective use of these two modalities should be considered in patients with SCC.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews); number 42015024462 .
Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) is a useful prognostic indicator for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5886 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-196a as a Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cancer Invest. 2017; 35(2):78-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Postoperative fluid overload is a risk factor for adverse surgical outcome in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a retrospective study in 335 patients.
BMC Surg. 2017; 17(1):6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We retrospectively examined 335 patients who had undergone esophagectomy for esophageal cancer at the University Hospital Freiburg between 1996 and 2014 to investigate the relation between intra- and postoperative fluid management and postoperative morbidity after esophagectomy.
RESULTS: Perioperative morbidity was 75%, the in-hospital mortality 8%. A fluid balance above average on the operation day was strongly associated with a higher rate of postoperative mortality (21% vs 3%, p < 0.001) and morbidity (83% vs 66%, p = 0.001). Univariate analysis for risk factors for adverse surgical outcome (Clavien ≥ III) identified ASA-score (p = 0.002), smoking (p = 0.036), reconstruction by colonic interposition (p = 0.036), cervical anastomosis (p = 0.017), blood transfusion (p = 0.038) and total fluid balance on the operation day and on POD 4 (p = 0.001) as risk factors. Multivariate analysis confirmed only ASA-score (p = 0.001) and total fluid balance (p = 0.001) as independent predictors of adverse surgical outcome.
CONCLUSION: Intra- and postoperative fluid overload is strongly associated with increased postoperative morbidity. Our results suggest restrictive intra- and especially postoperative fluid management to optimize the outcome after esophagectomy.
HER2 Testing and Clinical Decision Making in Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 146(6):647-669 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, to formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making.
DESIGN: The College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an expert panel to conduct a systematic review of the literature to develop an evidence-based guideline with recommendations for optimal HER2 testing in patients with GEA.
RESULTS: The panel is proposing 11 recommendations with strong agreement from the open-comment participants.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The panel recommends that tumor specimen(s) from all patients with advanced GEA, who are candidates for HER2-targeted therapy, should be assessed for HER2 status before the initiation of HER2-targeted therapy. Clinicians should offer combination chemotherapy and a HER2-targeted agent as initial therapy for all patients with HER2-positive advanced GEA. For pathologists, guidance is provided for morphologic selection of neoplastic tissue, testing algorithms, scoring methods, interpretation and reporting of results, and laboratory quality assurance.
CONCLUSIONS: This guideline provides specific recommendations for assessment of HER2 in patients with advanced GEA while addressing pertinent technical issues and clinical implications of the results.
Comparative evaluation of target volumes defined by deformable and rigid registration of diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT in primary esophageal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5528 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Twenty-five patients with EC sequentially underwent a diagnostic F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT scan and planning CT simulation. Only 19 patients with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ≥ 2.0 of the primary volume were available. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were delineated using CT and PET display settings. The PET/CT images were then registered with planning CT using MIM software. Subsequently, the PET and CT contours were propagated by RIR and DIR to planning CT. The properties of these volumes were compared.
RESULTS: When GTVCT delineated on CT of PET/CT after both RIR and DIR was compared with GTV contoured on planning CT, significant improvements using DIR were observed in the volume, displacements of the center of mass (COM) in the 3-dimensional (3D) direction, and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) (P = 0.003; 0.006; 0.014). Although similar improvements were not observed for the same comparison using DIR for propagated PET contours from diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT (P > 0.05), for DSC and displacements of COM in the 3D direction of PET contours, the DIR resulted in the improved volume of a large percentage of patients (73.7%; 68.45%; 63.2%) compared with RIR. For diagnostic CT-based contours or PET contours at SUV2.5 propagated by DIR with planning CT, the DSC and displacements of COM in 3D directions in the distal segment were significantly improved compared to the upper and middle segments (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: We observed a trend that deformable registration might improve the overlap for gross target volumes from diagnostic PET/CT to planning CT. The distal EC might benefit more from DIR.
Evaluation of the surgical apgar score in patients undergoing Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.
J Surg Oncol. 2017; 115(2):186-191 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We retrospectively examined 234 patients who successfully underwent Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from November 23, 2011 till November 23, 2014. Major complications were defined as Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa or higher within 30 days after surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess factors associated with major complications. Receiver operating characteristics were performed for determination of the predictive value of the Surgical Apgar Score scoring systems.
RESULTS: There were 64 (27.4%) patients with at least one major complication and 4 (1.7%) deaths. The original and modified versions of the Surgical Apgar Score were not associated with major complications and the scoring systems showed no significant predictive value when receiver operating characteristics were performed.
CONCLUSIONS: The original or modified versions of the Surgical Apgar Score could possibly be useful in some subgroups of esophagectomy patients, but should not be considered to have a general predictive value. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:186-191. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Intermittent pneumatic compression in combination with low-molecular weight heparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolic events in esophageal cancer surgery.
J Surg Oncol. 2017; 115(2):181-185 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: From a prospective database, all patients operated between 2010 and 2014 received IPC in addition to LMWH and were compared to a historical cohort of patients treated LMWH only (2004-2009).
RESULTS: Of the 313 included patients, 195 (62%) received IPC. Patients with IPC received neoadjuvant chemoradiation more often (45% vs. 3%, P < 0.001), whereas, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was equally distributed (31% vs. 34%, P = 0.631). There were no differences with regard to surgical approach, operative time, blood loss, and ICU stay. Patients treated without IPC had a longer hospital stay (18 vs. 15 days, P = 0.014). Overall, 12 clinical VTE's occurred in 11 patients, which consisted of two deep venous thromboses and 10 pulmonary embolisms. In the group of patients, who received IPC 1.5% developed a symptomatic VTE compared to 6.8% in patients without IPC (OR = 0.215; 95% CI = 0.06-0.83). Multivariate analysis identified IPC as the only independent prognostic factor correlated with a reduction in postoperative VTE's (OR = 0.225; 95% CI = 0.06-0.88).
CONCLUSION: The addition of IPC in patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer was associated with a reduction in symptomatic VTE's. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:181-185. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anesthesia of Torek's operation: the first successful resection of a cancer in the thoracic esophagus-an abridged translation of an essay in Japanese.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017; 65(2):80-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
A systematic review and network meta-analysis of neoadjuvant therapy combined with surgery for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Surg. 2017; 38:41-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We identified 15 randomized controlled trials that compared any of the following 4 therapeutic measures: surgery alone (S), preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery (CTS), preoperative radiotherapy followed by surgery (RTS), and preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery (CRTS). The main outcomes were 5-year survival, rate of radical resection, operative mortality and postoperative complications.
RESULTS: Network meta-analysis showed that CRTS was associated with improved survival as compared with S (OR = 1.50 [95% CI 1.21 to 1.97]) and decreased occurrence of complications as compared with RTS (OR = 0.50 [95% CI 0.22 to 0.99]). Direct evidence revealed CRTS associated with improved survival (OR = 1.61 [95% CI 1.01 to 2.57]) and radical resection (OR = 4.01 [95% CI 1.66 to 9.69]) as compared with S. In terms of radical resection, CTS was more effective than S (OR = 1.73 [95% CI 1.09 to 2.76]). Findings for CTS and RTS did not differ for 5-year survival, operative mortality and postoperative complications.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, CRTS might be the best choice for resectable ESCC because it could increase the radical resection rate and lower the occurrence of complications, thereby prolonging survival time.
NFAT1 promotes cell motility through MMP-3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86:541-546 [PubMed] Related Publications
KIF11 Is Required for Spheroid Formation by Oesophageal and Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):47-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of KIF11 in 105 ESCC and 100 CRC cases was determined using immunohistochemistry. RNA interference was used to inhibit KIF11 expression in ESCC and CRC cell lines.
RESULTS: In total, 61 out of 105 (58%) ESCC and 62 out of 100 (62%) CRC cases were positive for KIF11. Expression of KIF11 was not associated with any clinicopathological characteristics. Both the number and size of spheres produced by from TE-5 ESCC cells and DLD-1 CRC cells were significantly reduced upon KIF11 siRNA transfection compared to negative control siRNA transfection.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that KIF11 plays an important role in CSCs of ESCC and CRC.
Current Status and Future Prospects for Esophageal Cancer Treatment.
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017; 23(1):1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognostic influence of body mass index, resting energy expenditure and fasting blood glucose on postoperative patients with esophageal cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2016; 16(1):142 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Three hundred and six esophageal cancer patients who underwent esophagectomy were observed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics, postoperative complications and survival analysis were compared among different BMI, REE and FBG groups.
RESULTS: There were significant linear relationships between REE, BMI and FBG indices, patients with low BMI tended to have low REE (p < 0.001) and low FBG (p = 0.003). No significant difference was found in case of mortality and postoperative complications among different groups. Low BMI (X (2) = 6.141, p = 0.046), REE (X (2) = 6.630, p = 0.010) and FBG (X (2) = 5.379, p = 0.020) were related to poor survival. FBG ≤90 mg/dL was independently associated with poor survival (HR = 0.695; 95 % CI 0.489-0.987, p = 0.042). BMI and REE came to be stronger prognostic factors on lymph node-negative patients and proved to be independent prognostic indicators (HR = 0.540; 95 % CI 0.304-0.959, p = 0.035 and HR = 0.457; 95 % CI 0.216-0.967, p = 0.041, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: BMI, REE and FBG are important prognostic factors in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy and preoperative evaluation of these indices help to determine the prognosis in these patients.
Alpha-fetoprotein-producing esophageal adenocarcinoma: a mimicker of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin J Gastroenterol. 2017; 10(1):7-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinical outcomes of elderly patients (≥70 years) with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy or chemoradiotherapy: A retrospective analysis from a single cancer institute.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(50):e5630 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Knockdown of HOXA5 inhibits the tumorigenesis in esophageal squamous cell cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86:149-154 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surveillance of patients at high-risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016; 30(6):893-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
Complications of endoscopic resection techniques for upper GI tract lesions.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016; 30(5):735-748 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trends in gastrointestinal cancer incidence in Iran, 2001-2010: a joinpoint analysis.
Epidemiol Health. 2016; 38:e2016056 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Cancer incidence data for the years 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the cancer registration of the Ministry of Health. All incidence rates were directly age-standardized to the world standard population. In order to identified significant changes in time trends, we performed a joinpoint analysis. The annual percent change (APC) for each segment of the trends was then calculated.
RESULTS: The incidence of stomach cancer increased from 4.18 and 2.41 per 100,000 population in men and women, respectively, in 2001 to 17.06 (APC, 16.7%) and 8.85 (APC, 16.2%) per 100,000 population in 2010 for men and women, respectively. The corresponding values for colorectal cancer were 2.12 and 2.00 per 100,000 population for men and women, respectively, in 2001 and 11.28 (APC, 20.0%) and 10.33 (APC, 20.0%) per 100,000 in 2010. For esophageal cancer, the corresponding increase was from 3.25 and 2.10 per 100,000 population in 2001 to 5.57 (APC, 12.0%) and 5.62 (APC, 11.2%) per 100,000 population among men and women, respectively. The incidence increased most rapidly for stomach cancer in men and women aged 80 years and older (APC, 23.7% for men; APC, 18.6% for women), for colorectal cancer in men aged 60 to 69 years (APC, 24.2%) and in women aged 50 to 59 years (APC, 25.1%), and for esophageal cancer in men and women aged 80 years and older (APC, 17.5% for men; APC,15.3% for women) over the period of the study.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of gastrointestinal cancer significantly increased during the past decade. Therefore, monitoring the trends of cancer incidence can assist efforts for cancer prevention and control.
Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass After Neoadjuvant Therapy Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6677-6685 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional areas of the psoas muscles were measured on computed tomographic images collected at the initial visit, preoperatively and postoperatively in 84 patients. The psoas muscle index (PMI) was calculated by normalizing the cross-sectional areas to the patients' heights.
RESULTS: Low PMI at the initial visit was not associated with a poor prognosis. The majority of patients showed decreased PMI after NAT and surgery. The group in which the post-NAT PMI decreased had poorer overall survival than group without PMI decrease (p=0.025).
CONCLUSION: Decreased PMI correlates well with a poor prognosis in patients with ESCC. Changes in PMI over a period of time may have greater sensitivity when evaluating prognosis than the PMI at any single time point.
Prognostic Significance of Inflammatory and Nutritional Parameters in Patients with Esophageal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6557-6562 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 173 men and 19 women with a mean age of 65.8 years (range=42-86 years) who were scheduled to undergo esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. The association of CRP, NLR, albumin, PNI, and BMI with various clinicopathological factors and prognosis were evaluated.
RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that male sex, depth of invasion, nodal metastasis, pStage, high CRP, low PNI, high NLR, and low BMI were significant risk factors for a poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis identified depth of invasion, pStage, and BMI as significant prognostic factors in the Cox proportional hazard model.
CONCLUSION: The preoperative nutritional status affected the postoperative survival time in patients with esophageal cancer. In particular, a low BMI was an independent prognostic factor for poorer survival in the multivariate analysis.
Overexpression of PBK/TOPK Contributes to Tumor Development and Poor Outcome of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6457-6466 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed PBK/TOPK expression in 15 ESCC cell lines, and 54 primary ESCC tumors that were curatively resected between 1994 and 2007.
RESULTS: Overexpression of the PBK/TOPK protein was detected in 93% (14/15) ESCC cell lines and 19% (10/54) primary ESCC tumor samples, and significantly correlated with macroscopic appearance and tumor depth. PBK/TOPK positivity was independently associated with worse outcome in multivariate analysis (p=0.0235, hazard ratio=3.58). Knockdown of PBK/TOPK using specific siRNAs inhibited the cell proliferation, invasion/migration of PBK/TOPK-overexpressing ESCC cell lines.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that PBK/TOPK plays a crucial role in tumor malignant potential through its overexpression in ESCC.
S-1 in combination with docetaxel and oxaliplatin in patients with advanced gastro-esophageal adenocarcinoma: two parallel phase 1/2a studies.
Acta Oncol. 2017; 56(1):46-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We present final results of two parallel phase 1/2a studies (3 + 3 design). Escalating doses of docetaxel and S-1 with fixed dose O were given for 18 weeks every second week (DOS2w) or every third week (DOS3w) followed by S-1 maintenance therapy.
RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (18 in DOS2w and 16 in DOS3w) were enrolled between October 2013 and June 2015. Median age was 65 years (range 49-78). DLT was most often febrile neutropenia. Most common severe non-hematological adverse events were diarrhea (9%) and fatigue (6%). The RD of DOS3w was: docetaxel 50 mg/m(2), O 100 mg/m(2) and S-1 25 mg/m(2) twice daily and of DOS2w was: docetaxel 40 mg/m(2), O 70 mg/m(2) and S-1 35 mg/m(2) twice daily. Overall, response rate was 56%; median progression-free survival was 9.1 months; and median overall survival was 13.2 months in 34 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: At the RD, DOS2w and DOS3w showed an acceptable safety profile in patients with aGEA. Clinical trials ID: NCT-01928524 and EudraCT 2012-005187-10.
Knockdown of Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins Inhibits Foci Forming of Mediator of DNA-Damage Checkpoint 1 in Response to DNA Damage in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma TE-1 Cells.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2016; 81(10):1221-1228 [PubMed] Related Publications
Feasibility of Preoperative Chemotherapy with Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil versus Adriamycin, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil for Resectable Advanced Esophageal Cancer.
Oncology. 2017; 92(2):101-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either DCF [docetaxel 70 mg/m2, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 700 mg/m2 for 5 days] every 3 weeks or ACF (adriamycin 35 mg/m2, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 700 mg/m2 for 7 days) every 4 weeks. Each group consisted of 81 patients. Two cycles of preoperative chemotherapy were planned, after which patients underwent subtotal esophagectomy via a right thoracotomy with lymphadenectomy. Chemotherapy- and surgery-related adverse effects were assessed.
RESULTS: Grade 3-4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia occurred in 90 and 39% of patients, respectively, in the DCF group compared with 69 and 17% of patients, respectively, in the ACF group (p < 0.01). Perioperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups. The overall response rates of DCF and ACF were 61 and 40%, respectively, while the histopathological complete responses were 15 and 3%, respectively (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The DCF and ACF regimens were found to be equally feasible in patients with resectable advanced ESCC; however, DCF delivered an antitumor effect and therefore potentially improved the long-term outcomes.
SEOM Clinical Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer (2016).
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(12):1179-1186 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications