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"Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms." (MeSH 2013)

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Latest Research Publications

Web Resources: Tegafur-uracil (5 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Maemura K, Mataki Y, Kurahara H, et al.
Gemcitabine and S-1 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancers.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):233-237 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine and S-1 are drugs commonly used for treating locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, the safety and efficacy of combination of these agents for induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by chemoradiotherapy are not well-defined.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with LAPC (IC-CRT group) were treated with gemcitabine and S-1 IC, followed by S-1 chemoradiotherapy. The clinical outcomes were compared to a cohort of 38 patients who received chemoradiotherapy alone (CRT group).
RESULTS: Disease control rates in the CRT and IC-CRT groups were 84% and 93%, respectively (p=0.024). The median time of disease progression was 10.8 and 15.4 months in the CRT and IC-CRT group, respectively (p=0.043). The median overall survival time was longer in the IC-CRT group compared to CRT (23.4 vs. 17.3 months), but this increase was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine and S-1 combination chemotherapy, followed by CRT, is a promising IC regimen for treating LAPC.

Koda K, Miyauchi H, Kosugi C, et al.
Tumor 5-FU-related mRNA Expression and Efficacy of Oral Fluoropyrimidines in Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Colorectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5325-5331 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has not been elucidated whether the clinical efficacy of oral fluoropyrimidines for adjuvant chemotherapy of colorectal cancer varies with tumor biological characteristics.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter randomized trial was performed comparing oral tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (S-1) and uracil-tegafur/ leucovorin (UFT/LV) as adjuvant therapy for stage III colorectal cancer. Postoperative survival was compared based on the 5-FU-related mRNA levels in cancer tissues.
RESULTS: Among patients with tumor expressing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) mRNA within the 66.7th percentile (lower 2/3) of all cases, overall survival (OS) was significantly better in the S-1 than in the UFT/LV group. In the S-1 group, patients with low DPD-expressing tumors had significantly better OS than those with highly expressing tumors. Patients with low thymidine synthase (TS)-expressing tumors had significantly better OS than those with highly expressing tumors.
CONCLUSION: The efficacy of oral fluoropyrimidines as adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer may be influenced by the level of 5-FU-related mRNA in cancer tissues.

Huang W, You L, Yang S, et al.
Metronomic S-1 chemotherapy plus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE): a promising treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma refractory to TACE.
J BUON. 2016 Jul-Aug; 21(4):909-916 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of metronomic S-1 chemotherapy combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for the treatment of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refractory to TACE.
METHODS: Twenty six patients met the eligibility criteria and were enrolled. TACE was performed on day 1, and metronomic S-1 chemotherapy on days 2-15. Tumor assessment was performed one month later. The primary endpoints were time to progression (TTP) and adverse events (AE).
RESULTS: Twenty six patients in total received 176 TACE interventions. There were 101 TACE interventions in 15 patients of metronomic S-1 chemotherapy plus TACE (TS) and 75 in 11 patients of TACE monotherapy (TM). Fifteen TS patients received a total of 55 cycles of treatment with S-1, with a median of 4 cycles (range 2-6). The total dose of S-1 was 6165 mg per day in 15 patients (average 120 mg, range 100-125). Median TTP and overall survival (OS) of TS group were 6 months (95% CI, 4.7-7.3) and 17 months (95% CI, 15.6-18.4), respectively, while for the TM group were 4 months (95% CI, 2.4-5.6) and 15 months (95% CI, 9.2-20.8), respectively. Though there were higher tumor response rate (RR) and disease control rates (DCRs) in patients with TS, no significant differences were detected. Both treatment approaches were tolerable with low grade AE.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, metronomic S-1 chemotherapy plus TACE in the present study was tolerable and associated with a better but not statistically significant TTP, RR and OS. It showed that metronomic S-1 chemotherapy plus TACE may be a promising treatment of BCLC Stage B HCC refractory to TACE.

Feng J, Xu J, Wang X, Zhao D
S-1 plus cisplatin with concurrent radiotherapy versus cisplatin alone with concurrent radiotherapy in Chinese patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer: A multicentre randomized controlled trial.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(36):e4557 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of S-1 plus cisplatin combined with concurrent radiotherapy (SCCCR) versus cisplatin alone combined with concurrent radiotherapy (CCCR) in Chinese patients with unresectable stage III nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2014, 72 eligible Chinese patients with NSCLC were included and randomly divided into 2 groups, each having 36 patients. Patients in the SCCCR group received S-1 plus cisplatin with concurrent, radiotherapy. The other 36 patients in the CCCR group were administered cisplatin with concurrent radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the overall response rate. The secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and adverse events.
RESULTS: The 3-year overall response rates for the SCCCR and CCCR groups were 60.1% and 53.3%, respectively (P = 0.041). The median OS was 35.1 (range, 6.5-47.2) months and 24.6 (range, 2.8-24.3) months for the SCCCR and CCCR groups, respectively (P = 0.016). The median PFS for the SCCCR and CCCR groups was 31.4 (range, 5.6-39.3) months and 22.3 (range, 2.4-36.5) months, respectively (P = 0.023). The toxicity profiles were similar for both groups.
CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of SCCCR was more encouraging compared to those of CCCR in Chinese NSCLC patients. In addition, the toxicities in both groups were tolerable.

Chen XD, He FQ, Chen M, et al.
Can S-1 replace fluorouracil for advanced gastric cancer? A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(24):e3916 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It remains to be seen whether S-1 can be a replacement for infusional fluorouracil (5-FU) for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of S-1 with 5-FU in AGC.PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched. Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses comparing S-1 with 5-FU for AGC were eligible. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2.Seven trials involving 2443 patients were included. Compared with 5-FU, S-1 showed no significant prolongation of overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.83-1.01], P = 0.07) and progression-free survival (HR = 0.89, 95% CI [0.70-1.13], P = 0.35), but longer time to treatment failure (HR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.56-0.97], P = 0.03). The objective response rates were comparable (risk ratio [RR] = 1.36, 95% CI [0.95, 1.96], P = 0.10). Regarding treatment-related deaths and hematological toxicities, there was significant heterogeneity between Asian and non-Asian trials, and subgroup analysis was applied. In Asian patients, there was a significant increase in hematological toxicities such as leukopenia (grade 1-4: RR = 1.22, 95% CI [1.08, 1.37], P = 0.001; grade 3-4: RR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.52, 3.21], P < 0.0001), neutropenia (grade 1-4: RR = 1.29, 95% CI [1.11, 1.48], P = 0.0005; grade 3-4: RR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.11, 3.17], P = 0.02), and thrombocytopenia (grade 1-4: RR = 1.71, 95% CI [1.22, 2.41], P = 0.002) in S-1-containing regimens compared with 5-FU-containing regimens, but without significant difference in treatment-related mortality rate (risk difference [RD] = 0.00, 95% CI [-0.01, 0.01], P = 0.68). In non-Asian patients, S-1-containing regimens were, however, associated with significantly fewer treatment-related deaths (RD = -0.02, 95% CI [-0.05, -0.00], P = 0.04), as well as less all grade 1-4 and grade 3-4 hematological toxicities except anemia. There was no significant heterogeneity in nonhematologic toxicities between Asian and non-Asian trials. Lower incidence of grade 1-4 nausea, diarrhea, mucositis, grade 3-4 mucositis, increased creatinine, and decreased calculated creatinine clearance was observed in S-1-containing regimens.S-1 could not improve OS, but increase some hematological toxicities in Asian patients. Therefore, special attention on hematological toxicities should be paid to Asian patients because S-1 is administered on an outpatient basis.

Tsuchiya T, Honda H, Oikawa M, et al.
Oral administration of the amino acids cystine and theanine attenuates the adverse events of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy in gastrointestinal cancer patients.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2016; 21(6):1085-1090 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nutritional therapy is used to reduce the adverse events (AEs) of anticancer drugs. Here, we determined whether the amino acids cystine and theanine, which provide substrates for glutathione, attenuated the AEs of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy.
METHODS: Patients scheduled to receive S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to the C/T or the control groups. The C/T group received 700 mg cystine and 280 mg theanine orally 1 week before the administration of S-1, which then continued for 5 weeks. Each group received S-1 for 4 weeks. Blood sampling was performed and AEs were evaluated (CTCAE ver. 4.0) before and after the administration of S-1. S-1 was discontinued when AEs ≥ grade 2 occurred.
RESULTS: The incidences of AEs of any grade and those over grade 2 were lower in the C/T group than in the controls. The incidence of diarrhea (G ≥ 2) was significantly less (p < 0.05) in the C/T group (3.1 %) than in the controls (25.8 %). The duration and completion rate of the S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly longer (p < 0.01) and higher (p < 0.01), respectively, in the C/T group (complete ratio: 75.0 %, duration: 24.8 ± 5.8 days) than in the controls (complete ratio: 35.5 %, duration: 20.0 ± 7.7 days).
CONCLUSIONS: The oral administration of cystine and theanine attenuated the AEs of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy and increased the S-1 completion rate, suggesting that cystine and theanine is a useful supportive care for chemotherapy.

Kobayashi S, Ueno M, Hara H, et al.
Unexpected Side Effects of a High S-1 Dose: Subanalysis of a Phase III Trial Comparing Gemcitabine, S-1 and Combinatorial Treatments for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.
Oncology. 2016; 91(3):117-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In this subanalysis of a phase III trial using three categorized doses of S-1, the influence of the actual doses on safety and efficacy was evaluated.
METHODS: We compared the efficacy and safety of the S-1 or gemcitabine plus S-1 combination (GS) arm between the top 10% group and the bottom 10% group according to the initial doses of S-1: ≥77.6 versus ≤65.9 mg/m2/day (n = 28 vs. 28) in the S-1 arm, and ≥65.1 versus ≤53.8 mg/m2/day (n = 27 vs. 28) in the GS arm.
RESULTS: Overall and progression-free survival were not significantly different between these two groups: hazard ratios of 0.818 and 0.761 with p values of 0.498 and 0.330 in the S-1 arm, and hazard ratios of 0.836 and 0.759 with p values of 0.557 and 0.323 in the GS arm, respectively. Incidences of grade 3-4 hematological toxicities were significantly higher in the top 10% group than in the bottom 10% group: 42.9 versus 14.3 and 85.2 versus 57.1%, with p values of 0.037 and 0.037 in the S-1 and the GS combination arm, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher actual doses of S-1 were associated with a higher incidence of hematological toxicity even in the same dose setting.

Uesaka K, Boku N, Fukutomi A, et al.
Adjuvant chemotherapy of S-1 versus gemcitabine for resected pancreatic cancer: a phase 3, open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial (JASPAC 01).
Lancet. 2016; 388(10041):248-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine is standard care for resected pancreatic cancer, S-1 has shown non-inferiority to gemcitabine for advanced disease. We aimed to investigate the non-inferiority of S-1 to gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer in terms of overall survival.
METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority phase 3 trial undertaken at 33 hospitals in Japan. Patients who had histologically proven invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, pathologically documented stage I-III, and no local residual or microscopic residual tumour, and were aged 20 years or older were eligible. Patients with resected pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2), intravenously administered on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks [one cycle], for up to six cycles) or S-1 (40 mg, 50 mg, or 60 mg according to body-surface area, orally administered twice a day for 28 days followed by a 14 day rest, every 6 weeks [one cycle], for up to four cycles) at the data centre by a modified minimisation method, balancing residual tumour status, nodal status, and institutions. The primary outcome was overall survival in the two treatment groups, assessed in the per-protocol population, excluding ineligible patients and those not receiving the allocated treatment. The protocol prespecified that the superiority of S-1 with respect to overall survival was also to be assessed in the per-protocol population by a log-rank test, if the non-inferiority of S-1 was verified. We estimated overall and relapse-free survival using the Kaplan-Meier methods, and assessed non-inferiority of S-1 to gemcitabine using the Cox proportional hazard model. The expected hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 0.87 with a non-inferiority margin of 1.25 (power 80%; one-sided type I error 2.5%). This trial is registered at UMIN CTR (UMIN000000655).
FINDINGS: 385 patients were randomly assigned to treatment between April 11, 2007, and June 29, 2010 (193 to the gemcitabine group and 192 to the S-1 group). Of these, three were exlcuded because of ineligibility and five did not receive chemotherapy. The per-protocol population therefore consisted of 190 patients in the gemcitabine group and 187 patients in the S-1 group. On Sept 15, 2012, following the recommendation from the independent data and safety monitoring committee, this study was discontinued because the prespecified criteria for early discontinuation were met at the interim analysis for efficacy, when all the protocol treatments had been finished. Analysis with the follow-up data on Jan 15, 2016, showed HR of mortality was 0.57 (95% CI 0.44-0.72, pnon-inferiority<0.0001, p<0.0001 for superiority), associated with 5-year overall survival of 24.4% (18.6-30.8) in the gemcitabine group and 44.1% (36.9-51.1) in the S-1 group. Grade 3 or 4 leucopenia, neutropenia, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were observed more frequently in the gemcitabine group, whereas stomatitis and diarrhoea were more frequently experienced in the S-1 group.
INTERPRETATION: Adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 can be a new standard care for resected pancreatic cancer in Japanese patients. These results should be assessed in non-Asian patients.
FUNDING: Pharma Valley Center, Shizuoka Industrial Foundation, Taiho Pharmaceutical.

Winther SB, Zubcevic K, Qvortrup C, et al.
Experience with S-1 in older Caucasian patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): Findings from an observational chart review.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(7):881-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An aging population will increase the number of older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, there is limited knowledge about treatment in older patients as they are under-represented in clinical trials. The oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 is associated with a lower rate of adverse events than capecitabine and may therefore be a suitable drug for elderly. However, data on the use of S-1 in Caucasian mCRC patients are lacking/scarce.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study we evaluated safety and the efficacy of S-1 alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (SOx) or irinotecan (IRIS) in older mCRC patients. Patients who received at least one cycle of S-1 (first-line therapy), SOx (mainly first-line therapy) or IRIS (second-line therapy) were included.
RESULTS: From June 2012 to December 2014, 71 older patients received ≥1 cycle of either S-1 (n = 9), SOx (n = 44) or IRIS (n = 18) for mCRC. Median age was 76 years and most patients had a WHO performance status of 0 (32%) or 1 (56%). All patients were evaluable for response and safety. In the SOx group, 18 (41%) and 20 patients (45%) had partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD), respectively (disease control rate 86%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.5 months and median overall survival (OS) was 18.5 months. In the S-1 group (median age 82 years), PR was 22%, median PFS 6.4 months and median OS 15.8 months. In the IRIS group, PR was 28%, median PFS 7.8 months and the median OS 16.5 months. In general, therapy was well tolerated; main non-hematological toxicities were fatigue and diarrhea.
CONCLUSION: S-1 monotherapy, SOx and IRIS were well tolerated for older patients with mCRC and could become alternative regimens in older mCRC patients. These regimens are now further evaluated in the randomized ongoing NORDIC9 trial.

Sekine A, Satoh H, Baba T, et al.
Safety and efficacy of S-1 in combination with carboplatin in non-small cell lung cancer patients with interstitial lung disease: a pilot study.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(6):1245-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is no established standard regimen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). For them, we performed a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of chemotherapy with carboplatin and S-1, which are known as cytotoxic drug with rare development of ILD as adverse event.
METHODS: A total of 21 chemotherapy-naive NSCLC patients with ILD were prospectively enrolled between March 2009 and September 2011. Every 3 weeks, carboplatin at a dose of AUC 5 on day 1 and S-1 at a dose of 80 mg/m2 daily for 14 days were administered.
RESULTS: The median age at initiating chemotherapy was 67. Histological examination revealed 10 patients (48 %) with adenocarcinoma. Before chemotherapy, partial pressure of arterial O2 (PaO2) was low with a median of 71 Torr on room air. The median number of cycles administered was four, and the overall response rate and disease control rate were 33 and 67 %, respectively. At the time of data cut-off, all patients were deceased. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) periods were 4.2 and 9.7 months. There was no significant difference of PFS and OS according to tumor histology. Acute exacerbation (AE) of ILD following S-1 plus carboplatin occurred in two patients (10 %, 2/21) within first course treatment. However, they were successfully managed with steroid therapy and survived for 7.0 and 8.8 months, respectively, after AE-ILD development.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of S-1 plus carboplatin treatment for NSCLC patients with ILD. This regimen could be a feasible option for NSCLC patients with ILD, regardless of tumor histology. Our results would support to carry out a large-scale clinical trial to confirm the feasibility of this regimen.

Yamauchi K, Kokuryo T, Yokoyama Y, et al.
Prediction of Early Recurrence After Curative Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastasis and Subsequent S-1 Chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(5):2175-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: S-1, an oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based medicine that combines tegafur, gimeracil and oteracil potassium is commonly used as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 53 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer and liver metastasis (synchronous, n=24; metachronous, n=29). The subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy with oral S-1 administration was initiated within 56 days after liver resection. Recurrence was evaluated by imaging studies, that were performed during the first year after liver resection. Of the 53 patients, 25 who did not recur within 1 year were defined as being in the no-recurrence (NREC) group and the remaining 18 patients were defined as being in the early-recurrence (EREC) group. There were no significant differences in gene expression profiling for drug resistance and metabolism between the NREC group and the EREC group.
RESULTS: In synchronous liver metastasis, there was no significant difference in early recurrence between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ≤5 ng/ml and serum CEA >5 ng/ml (8/24 vs. 16/24, respectively). In metachronous liver metastasis, the early recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with CEA >5 ng/ml compared to patients with CEA ≤5 ng/ml (15/29 vs. 14/29, p=0.05). The expression of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) and ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) were significantly lower in the EREC group (6/15) compared to the NREC group (9/15) in colorectal cancer with metachronous liver metastasis and with serum CEA >5 ng/ml.
CONCLUSION: Although the exact reason for down-regulation of these genes in the group with poor prognosis is unknown, the information obtained in this study may be useful in clinical practice for colorectal cancer.

Suenaga M, Yamada S, Fujii T, et al.
S-1 plus nab-paclitaxel is a promising regimen for pancreatic cancer in a preclinical model.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 113(4):413-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of combined S-1 and nab-paclitaxel in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with S-1, nab-paclitaxel, alone or in combination. Mice bearing subcutaneous xenograft of the cell line, PANC-1, were treated with the same drugs.
RESULTS: The growth-inhibitory effect of combined S-1 and nab-paclitaxel was greater than that of the individual drugs, and the combination index value indicated that S-1 and nab-paclitaxel had a synergistic effect in vitro. The combination of S-1 and nab-paclitaxel showed greater efficacy in vivo than monotherapy, and the growth-inhibitory effect was significantly greater when compared with the controls (P = 0.009), although no significant reduction in body weight was observed. Fractional tumor volume analysis indicated that the combination had a synergistic effect. Tumor stroma staining with α-smooth muscle actin was significantly decreased by nab-paclitaxel (P < 0.001) while the number of CD31-stained microvessel lumina was significantly increased by the combination therapy when compared with the control (P = 0.046).
CONCLUSIONS: S-1 and nab-paclitaxel had a synergetic effect in preclinical studies with good tolerability, and may play a role in stromal depletion and tumor angiogenesis. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:413-419. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sasaki Y, Akasu T, Saito N, et al.
Prognostic and predictive value of extended RAS mutation and mismatch repair status in stage III colorectal cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(7):1006-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prognostic and predictive value of KRAS gene mutations in stage III colorectal cancer is controversial because many recent clinical trials have not involved a surgery-alone arm. Additionally, data on the significance of extended RAS (KRAS/NRAS) mutations in stage III cancer are not available. Hence, we undertook a combined analysis of two phase III randomized trials, in which the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur-uracil (UFT) was evaluated, as compared with surgery alone. We determined the association of extended RAS and mismatch repair (MMR) status with the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy. Mutations in KRAS exons 2, 3, and 4 and NRAS exons 2 and 3 were detected by direct DNA sequencing. Tumor MMR status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Total RAS mutations were detected in 134/304 (44%) patients. In patients with RAS mutations, a significant benefit was associated with adjuvant UFT in relapse-free survival (RFS) (hazard ratio = 0.49; P = 0.02) and overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.51; P = 0.03). In contrast, among patients without RAS mutations, there was no difference in RFS or overall survival between the adjuvant UFT group and surgery-alone group. We detected deficient DNA MMR in 23/304 (8%) patients. The MMR status was neither prognostic nor predictive for adjuvant chemotherapy. An interaction analysis showed that there was better RFS among patients treated with UFT with RAS mutations, but not for those without RAS mutations. Extended RAS (KRAS/NRAS) mutations are proposed as predictive indicators with respect to the efficacy of adjuvant UFT chemotherapy in patients with resected stage III colorectal cancer.

Tanaka Y, Yoshida K, Tanahashi T, et al.
Phase II trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, nedaplatin, and S1 for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(6):764-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although standard chemotherapy for esophageal cancer patients is fluorouracil and cisplatin, the prognosis is still unsatisfactory. A new therapeutic regimen combining docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil was recently developed to improve both local and distant tumor control. We developed a new regimen of docetaxel, nedaplatin, and S1 (DGS) and previously reported the recommended dose in a phase I dose-escalation study. We then undertook a phase II study of DGS for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with clinical stage IB/II/III disease were eligible. Patients received two courses of chemotherapy: docetaxel 35 mg/m(2) with nedaplatin 40 mg/m(2) on day 8, 80 mg/m(2) S1 on days 1-14, and 2 weeks off. After completion of chemotherapy, patients underwent esophagectomy. The primary endpoint was the completion rate of protocol treatment (completion of two courses of preoperative chemotherapy and R0 surgery [no residual tumor]). We enrolled 32 patients. The completion rate of protocol treatment was 96.9%. During chemotherapy, the most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity was neutropenia (25.0%). No treatment-related deaths were observed, and the incidence of operative morbidity was tolerable. The overall response rate after chemotherapy was 83.3%. This DGS regimen was well tolerated and highly active. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN ID: 000014626).

Ozawa Y, Akahori D, Koda K, et al.
Distinctive impact of pre-existing interstitial lung disease on the risk of chemotherapy-related lung injury in patients with lung cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(5):1031-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pre-existing interstitial lung disease (pre-ILD) increases the risk of chemotherapy-related lung injury (CRLI). However, whether the risk varies by type of anti-cancer cytotoxic agent in patients with pre-ILD is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine agent, is associated with a smaller CRLI risk than docetaxel (DTX) and investigated these agents together with radiological evaluations of pre-ILD via pre-treatment chest computed tomography (CT).
METHODS: After reviewing 234 and 352 patients who underwent evaluable chest CT within 6 months prior to the administration of S-1 or DTX, respectively, from January 2006 to October 2014, 60 and 89, respectively, of these patients with pre-ILD were retrospectively analysed.
RESULTS: In total, 2 persons administered S-1 (3 %) and 16 treated with DTX (18 %) developed CRLI (p = 0.007) after the initial treatment (mean, 61 days), of whom 1 and 7, respectively, died because of respiratory failure. Pre-treatment CT revealed that 9 S-1-treated patients (16 %) and 15 DTX-treated patients (17 %) had pre-ILD occupying more than 25 % of the lung field. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that DTX administration increased the risk of CRLI by 6.47-fold versus S-1 therapy (p = 0.016). Of note, the area occupied by pre-ILD was also associated with the risk of CRLI (<25 %; odds ratio 0.309, p = 0.045).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that S-1 is associated with a smaller risk of CRLI than DTX. The area occupied by pre-ILD should also be noted when administrating anti-cancer agents.

Kataoka H, Mori Y, Shimura T, et al.
A phase II prospective study of the trastuzumab combined with 5-weekly S-1 and CDDP therapy for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(5):957-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of 5-weekly S-1 and cisplatin combined with trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
METHODS: This phase II study treatment consisted of S-1 (80-120 mg per day) orally on day 1-21, cisplatin (60 mg/m(2)) intravenously on day 8, and trastuzumab (8 mg/kg on day 1 of the first cycle, followed by 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks) intravenously. The primary end point was 1-year survival rate. The secondary end points included overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and safety.
RESULTS: A total 22 patients from seven centers were enrolled. In the 20 patients evaluable for analysis, the 1-year survival rate was 70 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 49.9-90.1 %), and median survival time, PFS, and RR were 15.3, 7.5 months and 41.2 %, respectively. Major grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (30 %), anorexia (30 %), leukopenia (25 %), fatigue (20 %), and anemia (15 %).
CONCLUSIONS: Five-weekly S-1 and cisplatin combined with trastuzumab showed effective with favorable safety profile in patients with HER2-positive AGC.

Nonoshita T, Otsuka S, Inagaki M, Iwagaki H
Complete Response Obtained with S-1 Plus CDDP Therapy in a Patient with Multiple Liver Metastases from Gastric Cancer.
Hiroshima J Med Sci. 2015; 64(4):65-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 58-year-old woman with advanced gastric cancer underwent total gastrectomy in May 2012. The histological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, cT4a (SE), pN1, cM0; fStage IIIA. Chemotherapy by S-1 was started after surgery. Six months after the operation, two metastatic nodules were noticed on the liver. Therefore, the chemotherapy was switched to S-1 plus cisplatin (CDDP) in November 2012. TS-1 (80 mg/body) was administrated from day 1 to 21 followed by 14 days rest as one course. CDDP (70 mg/body) was infused on day 1. After 3 courses of this combination chemotherapy, remarkable diminution of the metastatic lesions on CT images was observed. Because of the adverse event of Grade 2 nausea, the patient was forced to discontinue chemotherapy. The patient underwent partial resection of the liver (Hr-0: S8, S7) at 1 year after the first operation. The resected specimens showed no sign of malignancy, although uneven fatty deposition was observed more frequently than in the surroundings, and designated as histologically complete response (CR). The patient has been alive 30 months after the second operation without any recurrent sites. Thus, combined use of peroral S-1 and CDDP should be recommended for multiple liver metastases after gastrectomy.

Okuma Y, Hosomi Y, Miyamoto S, et al.
Correlation between S-1 treatment outcome and expression of biomarkers for refractory thymic carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:156 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thymic carcinoma is a rare cancer with minimal evidence of a survival benefit following chemotherapy. An oral fluoropyrimidine of S-1, however, is the recommended active cytotoxic chemotherapy agent for refractory thymic carcinoma based on a case series, whereas sunitinib or everolimus are recommended as molecular-targeted agents based on Phase II trials. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy of S-1 for refractory thymic carcinoma and performed a biomarker analysis.
METHODS: We assessed the clinicopathological variables of 14 consecutive patients who underwent S-1 for refractory thymic carcinoma and correlated the clinical outcomes with potential biomarkers using paraffin-embedded cancer tissues of eight patients in the cohort.
RESULTS: A total of 178 thymic malignancies were identified, of whom 14 patients included 12 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, one lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, and one undifferentiated carcinoma. Six patients exhibited a partial response (42.9 %: 95 % confidence interval [CI], 21.4-67.4) and the disease control rate was 85.7 % (60.0-96.0 %). After a median follow-up of 24.2 months, the median progression-free survival was 8.1 months (range, 2.6-12.2 months), and median overall survival was 30.0 months (range, 6.2-41.9 months). No significant correlation between biomarker expression and response was noted. However, thymidine synthase (TS)/dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and TS/orotate phosphoribosyltransferase were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: S-1 for refractory thymic carcinoma offered clinical activity and achieved an 85 % disease control rate. Although the biomarkers did not correlate with clinical outcome, the study results showed efficacy of S-1 as a cytotoxic chemotherapy for refractory thymic carcinoma, which warrants future investigation.

Torigoe H, Toyooka S, Katsui K, et al.
Induction S-1+Concurrent Radiotherapy Followed by Surgical Resection of Locally Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer in an Elderly Patient.
Acta Med Okayama. 2016; 70(1):63-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present the case of a 77-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with lung squamous cell carcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastasis. He was treated with induction chemoradiotherapy for T1bN2M0 stage IIIA disease. Considering his age, we selected S-1 as the chemotherapeutic drug. Observing an objective response with no severe adverse events, we performed a left upper lobectomy with sleeve resection of the pulmonary artery. No residual tumor cells were found in the resected specimens, and no critical complication was observed in the clinical course. This case suggests that induction chemoradiotherapy using S-1 combined with concurrent radiation followed by surgery can be a therapeutic option for elderly patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Yamada R, Sotozono C, Nakamura T, et al.
Predictive factors for ocular complications caused by anticancer drug S-1.
Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2016; 60(2):63-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify predictive factors for ocular complications caused by the anticancer drug S-1.
METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 39 patients who underwent S-1 chemotherapy at Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, with the aim to determine whether these patients were aware of the ocular complications caused by S-1. Cognition rate was determined. The 26 patients who requested opthalmological examination for further evaluation studied further and classified into two groups-those who had developed corneal epithelial complications, conjunctival injection or chemosis, or lacrimal duct blockages (referred to as the positive group) and those without these findings (referred to as the negative group). Predictive factors, such as age, sex, total administration days, total dose, presence or absence of anticancer drug pretreatment, and single-drug or combination-drug therapy, were investigated and compared between groups.
RESULTS: Of the 39 patients who completed the questionnaire, ten were aware of the potential for ocular complications due to S-1 chemotherapy (cognition rate 25.6 %). Of the 26 patients who had requested opthalmological examination and entered into the study, 13 (26 eyes) were classified into the positive group, with corneal complications observed in 15 eyes (57.7 %), conjunctivitis in 26 eyes (100 %), and lacrimal duct blockage in 14 eyes (53.8 %). Cognition rate in the 13 patients in the positive group and the 13 patients in the negative group was 38.5 % (5 patients) and 7.7 % (1 patient), respectively. Patient age was significantly different between the two groups, with the patients in the positive group being significantly older than those in the negative group (mean age ± standard deviation: 71.6 ± 6.8 vs. 63.5 ± 7.3 years, respectively; P = 0.0077, Student's t test). No other significant predictive factors were detected.
CONCLUSION: Older patients were at greater risk of S-1-related ocular complications, but these complications were not associated with total administration days or total dose.

Abdel-Rahman O, ElHalawani H, Essam-Eldin S
S-1-based regimens and the risk of leucopenic complications; a Meta-analysis with comparison to other fluoropyrimidines and non fluoropyrimidines.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016; 15(4):437-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We performed a meta-analysis oriented at the risk of leucopenic complications associated with S-1-based regimens.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The studies that were granted eligibility for inclusion include randomized phase II and III trials of patients with solid tumors on S-1; that entailed details of events of febrile neutropenia, all-grade and high-grade neutropenia and leucopenia.
RESULTS: After rejecting ineligible studies, a total of 28 clinical trials were elected eligible for further quantitative analysis. The RR of febrile neutropenia, all-grade and high-grade neutropenia for S-1 vs.non fluoropyrimidine controls was 0.27 [95% CI 0.16, 0.46; P < 0.0001] 0.69 [95% CI 0.58, 0.81; P < 0.00001] and 0.47 [95% CI 0.32, 0.70; P = 0.0002], correspondingly; while The RR of all-grade and high-grade leucopenia for S-1 vs.non fluoropyrimidine controls was 0.60 [95% CI 0.46, 0.79; P = 0.0002] and 0.34 [95% CI 0.14, 0.79; P = 0.01], respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of febrile neutropenia, all-grade and high-grade neutropenia and leucopenia is less in S-1-based therapy than in non fluoropyrimidine regimens; yet comparable to the risk associated with infusional 5FU or capecitabine-based regimens.

Yamashita H, Haga A, Takenaka R, et al.
Efficacy and feasibility of ambulatory treatment-based monthly nedaplatin plus S-1 in definitive or salvage concurrent chemoradiotherapy for early, advanced, and relapsed esophageal cancer.
Radiat Oncol. 2016; 11:4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Standard chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is an optional treatment for patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer. However, there are some demerits in this regimen because CDDP administration requires a large transfusion volume and 5-FU must be continuously infused over 24 h. Therefore, hospitalization is unavoidable. We collected retrospectively the data of definitive CRT with nedaplatin and S-1 as carried out in our institution.
METHODS: Patients with early and advanced esophageal cancer and relapsed esophageal cancer after radical surgery were included. Nedaplatin 80 mg/m(2) was given on days 1 and 29, and S-1 80 mg/m(2) on days 1-14 and 29-42. No prophylactic treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor was administered. Patients received two courses of concurrent radiotherapy of more than 50 Gy with or without two additional courses as adjuvant therapy every 4 weeks.
RESULTS: Between August 2011 and June 2015, 89 patients (age range, 44-86 years; K-PS 90-100, 81 %; squamous cell carcinoma histology, 97 %; definitive/salvage CRT, 75/25 %) were collected. Twenty-one (24 %) patients completed four cycles, and 94 % received two or more cycles. Grade 4 leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia occurred in 12, 7, and 10 % of the patients, respectively. Five patients developed febrile neutropenia. Grade 3 non-hematological toxicity included infection in 12 %, mucositis/esophagitis in 3 %, kidney in 3 %, and fatigue in 3 %. Sixty-four patients (72 %) received the prescribed full dose and full cycles of chemotherapy. A complete response was achieved in 76 patients (85 %). The 3-year overall survival rate was 54.4 % in definitive CRT and 39.8 % in salvage CRT, respectively. Sixty-two subjects (70 %) received treatment as outpatients.
CONCLUSIONS: Nedaplatin and S-1 in combination with radiotherapy is feasible, and toxicity is tolerable. This treatment method has the potential to shorten hospitalization without impairing the efficacy of CRT.

Imaoka H, Kou T, Tanaka M, et al.
Clinical outcome of elderly patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine plus S-1, S-1 alone, or gemcitabine alone: Subgroup analysis of a randomised phase III trial, GEST study.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 54:96-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the GEST study of unresectable pancreatic cancer, S-1 demonstrated non-inferiority compared to gemcitabine, but gemcitabine plus S-1 (GS) did not show superiority over gemcitabine for overall survival (OS). We performed subgroup analysis of these data focused on the efficacy and safety of these regimens as a first-line treatment for elderly patients.
METHODS: Elderly patients (≥ 70 years, n = 261) treated for unresectable pancreatic cancer (GS: n = 90, S-1: n = 85 and gemcitabine: n = 86) were analysed.
RESULTS: No significant differences between the GS, S-1, or gemcitabine groups in OS (median: 10.2, 8.0 and 8.5 months, respectively) or objective response rates (27.6%, 25.3% and 14.3%, respectively) were noted. Grade ≥ III adverse haematological events were observed more frequently in GS-treated than in S-1- or gemcitabine-treated elderly patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.016, respectively). Four of 8 patients aged ≥ 80 years experienced serious adverse events.
CONCLUSIONS: S-1 and gemcitabine are both efficacious options for treatment of elderly patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Conversely, first-line treatment of elderly patients with GS should only be used after careful consideration.

Wang ZQ, Zhang DS, Xu N, et al.
Phase II study of oxaliplatin combined with S-1 and leucovorin (SOL) for Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Chin J Cancer. 2016; 35:8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin are widely used for patients with colorectal cancer. This phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of S-1, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (SOL) in the treatment of Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
METHODS: Eligible patients with untreated mCRC from four hospitals in China received intravenous oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) on day 1, oral S-1 twice daily (80-120 mg per day) on day 1-7, and leucovorin twice daily (50 mg per day) simultaneously with S-1, every 2 weeks.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Forty patients were enrolled in our study. In total, 296 cycles of SOL were administered. The overall response rate was 50.0%. At a median follow-up of 27 months, progression-free survival and overall survival were 7.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.6 months) and 22.2 months (95% CI 15.1-29.3 months), respectively. The most common grade 3/4 non-hematological adverse events were diarrhea (n = 8, 20.0%), nausea (n = 3, 7.5%), and vomiting (n = 3, 7.5%). The most common grade 3/4 hematological toxicities were thrombocytopenia (n = 3, 7.5%), neutropenia (n = 1, 2.5%), and abnormal alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase levels (n = 1, 2.5%). There was one treatment-related death.
CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that the SOL regimen is effective and moderately tolerated in Chinese patients with mCRC.

Ueno M, Okusaka T, Omuro Y, et al.
A randomized phase II study of S-1 plus oral leucovorin versus S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(3):502-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding oral leucovorin (LV) to S-1 when compared with S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gemcitabine-refractory PC patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive S-1 at 40, 50, or 60 mg according to body surface area plus LV 25 mg, both given orally twice daily for 1 week, repeated every 2 weeks (SL group), or S-1 monotherapy at the same dose as the SL group for 4 weeks, repeated every 6 weeks (S-1 group). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: Among 142 patients enrolled, 140 were eligible for efficacy assessment (SL: n = 69 and S-1: n = 71). PFS was significantly longer in the SL group than in the S-1 group [median PFS, 3.8 versus 2.7 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.85; P = 0.003]). The disease control rate was significantly higher in the SL group than in the S-1 group (91% versus 72%; P = 0.004). Overall survival (OS) was similar in both groups (median OS, 6.3 versus 6.1 months; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54-1.22; P = 0.463). After adjusting for patient background factors in a multivariate analysis, OS tended to be better in the SL group (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47-1.07; P = 0.099). Both treatments were well tolerated, although gastrointestinal toxicities were slightly more severe in the SL group.
CONCLUSION: The addition of LV to S-1 significantly improved PFS in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced PC, and a phase III trial has been initiated in a similar setting.
CLINICAL TRIALS NUMBER: Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center: JapicCTI-111554.

Takashima T, Mukai H, Hara F, et al.
Taxanes versus S-1 as the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (SELECT BC): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2016; 17(1):90-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oral fluoropyrimidines are used for the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer to avoid severe adverse effects, although firm supporting evidence is lacking. We aimed to establish whether S-1 is non-inferior to taxanes in this setting.
METHODS: We did an open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial at 154 hospitals in Japan. We enrolled individuals who had HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer who had received no chemotherapy for advanced disease, and who were resistant to endocrine treatment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) either to taxane (docetaxel 60-75 mg/m(2) at intervals of 3-4 weeks; paclitaxel 80-100 mg/m(2) weekly for 3 of 4 weeks; or paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) at intervals of 3-4 weeks) or to S-1 (40-60 mg twice daily for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day break). Randomisation was done centrally with the minimisation method, with stratification by institution, liver metastasis, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, previous treatment with taxanes or oral fluorouracil, and time from surgery to recurrence. The primary endpoint was overall survival, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 1·333 for the hazard ratio (HR). The primary efficacy analysis was done in the full analysis set, which consisted of all patients who took at least one study treatment and who had all data after randomisation. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network, Japan (protocol ID C000000416).
FINDINGS: Between Oct 27, 2006, and July 30, 2010, we enrolled 618 patients (309 assigned to taxane; 309 assigned to S-1). The full analysis set consisted of 286 patients in the taxane group and 306 in the S-1 group. Median follow-up was 34·6 months (IQR 17·9-44·4). Median overall survival was 35·0 months (95% CI 31·1-39·0) in the S-1 group and 37·2 months (33·0-40·1) in the taxane group (HR 1·05 [95% CI 0·86-1·27]; pnon-inferiority=0·015). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (20 [7%] of 307 patients in the S-1 group vs nine [3%] of 290 patients in the taxane group), fatigue (ten [3%] vs 12 [4%]), and oedema (one [<1%] vs 12 [4%]). Treatment-related deaths were reported in two patients in the taxane group.
INTERPRETATION: S-1 is non-inferior to taxane with respect to overall survival as a first-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer. S-1 should be considered a new option for first-line chemotherapy for patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.
FUNDING: Comprehensive Support Project for Oncology Research of the Public Health Research Foundation, Japan; Taiho.

Kasai T, Nakamura Y, Fukuda M, et al.
A Phase II Study of S-1 for Previously Untreated Elderly Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Chemotherapy. 2016; 61(2):93-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: S-1, a novel oral fluoropyrimidine, is active in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, data on S-1 for elderly patients with NSCLC are insufficient.
METHODS: Eligibility criteria were no prior chemotherapy, stage IIIB or IV NSCLC, performance status 0-1, age >70 years, and adequate hematological, hepatic, and renal functions. Patients received S-1 (40 mg/m(2) twice a day) for 28 consecutive days. This schedule was repeated every 6 weeks. The primary end point was the tumor response rate.
RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were enrolled and 31 patients were evaluable for response. The patients' median age was 80 years (range: 71-88). The response rate was 22.6% (95% CI: 11-38). Neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, and diarrhea of grade ≥ 3 occurred in 6, 6, 10, 3, and 3%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC, S-1 appears to be well tolerated and demonstrates encouraging activity.

Tsuchiya T, Arai J, Matsumoto K, et al.
Prognostic Impact of the ABCC11/MRP8 Polymorphism in Adjuvant Oral Chemotherapy with S-1 for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Chemotherapy. 2016; 61(2):77-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Postoperative 1-year administration of S-1, an oral derivative of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was shown to be feasible in lung cancer. The 5-year survival rates of postoperative patients treated with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy and the prognostic impact of clinicopathological factors were examined.
METHODS: The data of 50 patients with curatively resected pathological stage IB to IIIA non-small cell lung cancer, who were treated with S-1 postoperatively, were analyzed. The prognostic impacts of 22 clinicopathological factors including expressions of the 5-FU pathway enzymes were evaluated. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), i.e. 538G>A (rs17822931), of ABCC11/MRP8, which encodes a 5-FU excretion enzyme that is known as an earwax type determinant, was also evaluated.
RESULTS: The 5-year overall and relapse-free survival rates were 72.5 and 67.5%, respectively. A performance status ≥ 1, lymphatic vessel invasion, blood vessel invasion, and the A/A type of SNP538, which is responsible for the dry earwax type, were significantly associated with shorter relapse-free survivals. In 34 patients who showed a relative performance of 70% or more for chemotherapy, multivariate survival analysis indicated significant hazard ratios only for the A/A type of SNP538 (p = 0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: S-1 has sufficient power as adjuvant chemotherapy. However, its effect might be small in the dry earwax type patient group in an adjuvant setting.

Peng M, Ding Y, Yu L, et al.
Tegafur Substitution for 5-Fu in Combination with Actinomycin D to Treat Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0143531 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) combination chemotherapy provides a satisfactory therapeutic response in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTNs), it has severe side effects. The current study analyzed the therapeutic effects and side effects of tegafur plus actinomycin D (Act-D) vs. 5-Fu plus Act-D for the treatment of GTNs based on controlled historical records. A total of 427 GTN cases that received tegafur and Act-D combination chemotherapy at the Second Xiangya Hospital of XiangYa Medical School between August 2003 and July 2013 were analyzed based on historical data. A total of 393 GTN cases that received 5-Fu plus Act-D between August 1993 and July 2003 at the same hospital were also analyzed, which constituted the control group. The therapeutic effects, toxicity and side effects after chemotherapy were compared between the groups. The overall response rate was 90.63% in the tegafur+Act-D group (tegafur group) and 92.37% in the 5-Fu+Act-D group (5-Fu group); these rates were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the incidence rates of myelosuppression (white blood cell decline), gastrointestinal reactions (nausea, vomiting, dental ulcer, and diarrhea), skin lesions and phlebitis were lower in the tegafur group than in the 5-Fu group (P < 0.05). The results of this study may provide useful data for the clinical application of tegafur in GTN treatment.

Chen X, Li W, Sun L, et al.
S-l combined with cisplatin plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus cisplatin plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with advanced gastric cancer: a multi-centre randomized controlled trial.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(7):672-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of S-l combined with cisplatin plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (SCCC) versus cisplatin plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCC) for Chinese patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
METHODS: Between April 2008 and June 2010, 144 eligible patients with AGC were included and divided randomly into 2 groups. Seventy-two patients in the SCCC group received with S-1 on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle, 24-h cisplatin infusion (70 mg/m(2) on day 1) every 4 weeks for 2 cycles, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (30-Gy radiotherapy over 4 weeks) beginning on day 1. The other 72 patients in the CCC group were administered cisplatin and concurrent chemoradiotherapy as for SCCC. The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival and adverse events.
RESULTS: The median overall survival durations were 11.7 months (range 1.7-29.7 months) and 9.5 months (range 1.2-25.4 months) in SCCC and CCC groups, respectively (P = 0.041). The median progression-free survival durations were 10.6 months for SCCC (range 1.3-24.7 months) and 8.8 months (range 0.7-22.3 months) for CCC (P = 0.046). The toxicity profile was similar in both groups.
CONCLUSION: In summary, SCCC showed more promising safety and efficacy than CCC in Chinese patients with AGC. In addition, the toxicities were also acceptable in both groups.

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