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Web Resources: Capecitabine
Recent Research Publications

Web Resources: Capecitabine (6 links)

Recent Research Publications

Takimoto R, Kamigaki T, Okada S, et al.
Prognostic Factors for Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated With Combination of Immune-cell Therapy and First-line Chemotherapy: A Retrospective Study.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4525-4532 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of immune-cell therapy using T lymphocytes activated in vitro with or without dendritic cells vaccination (DCs), in combination with 1st-line chemotherapies in terms of the survival of patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 198 patients who were diagnosed with advanced CRC and administered 1st-line chemotherapies were enrolled in this study. The correlation between overall survival (OS) and various clinical factors was examined by univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: Univariate analyses revealed that the prognosis was improved in CRC patients who received immune-cell therapy with PS 0, bevacizumab (BV), and capecitabine-including regimens (Cap). Finally, multivariate analysis demonstrated that PS=0, and the combination of immune-cell therapy and Cap provided a survival benefit in patients with advanced CRC.
CONCLUSION: The survival benefit could be potentially obtained with better PS by the combination of immune-cell therapy and Cap as a 1st-line setting in patients with CRC.

Chen J, Wang J, Xu T
Comparison of efficacy and safety of S-1 and capecitabine in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16667 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of S-1 and capecitabine in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC).
METHODS: Eligible prospective clinical trials were searched and available data were extracted. Odds ratio and hazard ratio of available outcomes including objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events (AEs) were pooled for analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 6 studies including 828 patients were included. The results of pooled analysis showed no statistical difference in short-term efficacy including ORR (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-1.19; P = .48) or DCR (95% CI: 0.65-1.29; P = .61), or long-term efficacy including PFS (95% CI: 0.75-1.08; P = .26) or OS (95% CI: 0.78-1.13; P = .50). Symptoms of diarrhea at any grade were more prevalent (95% CI: 1.21-2.29; P = .002) in patients treated with S-1, while hand-foot syndrome (HFS) at any grade (95% CI: 0.24-0.48; P < .0001) or high grade (95% CI: 0.09-0.48; P < .0001) was more frequent in capecitabine group. AEs including leucopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, vomiting, oral mucositis, stomatitis, elevated alanine transaminase, or peripheral neuropathy showed no statistical difference between S-1 and capecitabine group (all P > .05).
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis reveals that S-1 has comparable efficacy, lower risk of HFS and higher incidence of diarrhea compared to capecitabine for treatment in patients with mCRC.

Pirozzi A, Riccardi F, Arpino G, et al.
Occurrence of second primary malignancies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16508 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: There is an association between the presence of neuroendocrine neoplasms and incremented risk to develop second primary malignancies. This risk is estimated to be 17%. The most common secondary neoplasms were found in the Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary tracts.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old Caucasian patient with melaena came to our observation in June 2015. The Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy exam found a polypoid formation in the duodenal bulb. Histopathological examination showed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm (G1).
DIAGNOSIS: During the follow up for the neuroendocrine neoplasm, a CT scan was performed in August 2016 describing infiltration of the right renal sinus and the third proximal ureter segment with heterogeneous enhancement of vascular structure. An US-guided biopsy was conclusive for a Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. In October 2016, a colonoscopy showed a neoplastic lesion at 20 cm from the anal orifice. The Histology exam was positive for an adenocarcinoma with a desmoplastic stroma infiltration.
INTERVENTIONS: In November 2016, the patient underwent a left hemicolectomy: the pathologic staging described a G2 adenocarcinoma pT3N1b. In May 2018, the Octreotide scan was negative. In the same month, the patient started a treatment based on 6 cycles of Rituximab, Oxaliplatin, and Capecitabine due to the persistence of lymphomatous disease and hepatic metastases. In July 2018, other 3 cycles of the same treatment were scheduled.
OUTCOMES: In January 2019, due to an increase in liver metastases' size, it was decided to start a new regimen for the colon cancer with FOLFIRI+Cetuximab. The patient is still in treatment with this regimen in April 2019.
LESSONS: The risk of a second primary tumor is increased among patients older than 70. Therefore, it is necessary to follow them using total body CT scan and endoscopic techniques of gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, not only for the evaluation of the neuroendocrine tumor but also for the higher risk to develop other neoplastic diseases.

Guo Q, Li Q, Wang J, et al.
A comprehensive evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of celecoxib in combination with chemotherapy in metastatic or postoperative recurrent gastric cancer patients: A preliminary, three-center, clinical trial study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16234 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of celecoxib combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic or postoperative recurrent gastric cancer.
METHODS: This preliminary, three-center, clinical trial study was conducted between September 2010 and December 2016. In the experimental group (n = 100), patients were treated with celecoxib combined with chemotherapy, and chemotherapy alone was used in the control group. Progression-free survival (PFS) was considered as the primary efficacy parameter. Overall survival (OS), remission rate (RR), quality of life (QOL) and drug safety were considered as the secondary efficacy parameters.
RESULTS: The PFS of the experimental group was 6 months, which was not significantly longer than that of the control group (5 months, P = .73). The average OS was not significantly different between the experimental group (12 months) and the control group (10 months, P = .59). The average OS of the COX-2 positive patients in the experimental group was 14 months and it was significantly longer than the 10-month OS in the control group (P = .01). The PFS of the COX-2 positive patients in the experimental group was 7.5 months, significantly longer than the 5-month PFS of patients in the control group (P < .001). No statistical significance was identified in the incidence of nausea, neutropenia, anorexia, peripheral neurotoxicity, diarrhea, vomiting, asthenia and thrombocytopenia. The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire revealed that the overall QOL of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < .05). No statistical significance was found in the scores of functioning scale between the 2 groups. However, the scores of the symptom scale, especially for pain and fatigue in the experimental group was remarkably higher than that in the control group (P < .05). The overall score of EORTC QLQ-STO22 for the experimental group was considerably higher compared to that for the control group (P < .05). No statistical significance was identified in term of the domains of restrictions on feeding, dysphagia, anxiety, reflux, sense of taste, dry mouth, hair loss and body shape between the 2 groups (P > .05 for all mentioned outcomes).
CONCLUSION: Celecoxib combined with chemotherapy offers more clinical benefits for COX-2 positive advanced gastric cancer patients.

Lin Z, Chen J, Guo Y
Efficacy of XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(23):e16000 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare neoplasm, and consensus on the treatment is unavailable.
PATIENT CONCERN: A 60-year-old Chinese man presented with obstructive symptoms while eating and paroxysmal stomach pain for more than a month.
DIAGNOSIS: MANEC was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, imaging findings, and pathological examinations.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent radical gastrectomy and received XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy (oxaliplatin 200 mg day 1 + capecitabine 1.5 g twice a day) after surgery.
OUTCOMES: After 4 cycles of XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy were administered, abdominal computerized tomography and liver magnetic resonance showed liver metastasis.
LESSONS: The therapy of gastric MANEC is based on surgical operation, and adjuvant chemotherapy program has an important influence on its prognosis. Therefore, further studying the effectiveness of XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric MANEC is necessary.

De Falco V, Natalicchio MI, Napolitano S, et al.
A case report of a severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity due to an uncommon DPYD variant.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(21):e15759 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Fluoropyrimidines such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its orally active prodrug, capecitabine, are widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, including colorectal cancer. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) plays an important role in the 5-FU metabolism. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) is a highly polymorphic gene with several hundreds of reported genetic variants and DPD activity levels vary considerably among individuals, with different 5-FU-related efficacy and toxicity. About 5% of the population is deficient in DPD enzyme activity. The most well studied DPYD variant is the IVS14+1G>A, also known as DPYD *2A. In this report, we present a case of a patient with a double heterozygote DPYD variant (DPYD activity score: 0,5 according to Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium) who experienced a severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity resolved without any consequence.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-years-old Caucasian man with diagnosis of left colon adenocarcinoma underwent left hemicolectomy on July 2017: pT3 G3 N1c M0. According to the disease stage, he started an adjuvant therapy with XELOX using capecitabine at 50% of total dose, because of his DPYD IVS14+1G>A variant, detected before the treatment.
DIAGNOSIS: After few days, despite of this dose reduction, he experienced life-threatening adverse events such as mucositis G3, diarrhea G3, neutropenia G4, thrombocytopenia G4, and hyperbilirubinemia G3 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 5.0.
INTERVENTIONS: As first, we set up an intensive rehydration therapy, antibiotic and antifungal prophylaxis, Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factors, and supportive blood transfusions. Additional genetic tests revealed a double heterozygote variant of DPYD gene (DPYD IVS14+1G>A and 2846A>T) which is a very rare situation and only 3 cases are described in literature, all of them concluded with patient's death.
OUTCOMES: After 3 weeks of intensive therapy, the patient was fully recovered. Furthermore, all the whole-body CT scans performed since discharge from the hospital until now, have confirmed no evidence of disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies demonstrated that screening strategy for the most common DPYD variants allowed for avoiding toxicities and saving money. This report underlines the importance of genotyping DPYD before treatment and emphasizes the role of genotype-guided dose individualization.

Xu X, Kong Z, Yi K, et al.
Colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma causing intussusception and distant metastasis: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(21):e15740 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Cases of intussusception caused by mucinous carcinoma have been rarely reported, and those caused by colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) with distant metastasis were even fewer.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old woman who complained of severe pain around the navel with nausea and vomiting for a week was admitted on November 28, 2017. There were multiple watery stools and abdominal pain was worsened over the prior week.
DIAGNOSIS: She was diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography, current medical history, and abdominal signs. Her initial diagnosis was acute abdomen, intussusceptions, and intestinal obstruction. The final diagnosis was MAC, which was based on postoperative pathology.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient received emergency laparotomy, followed by 5 courses of chemotherapy with oxaliplatin plus capecitabine, and then 6 courses with 5-fluorouracil + oxaliplatin + calcium leucovorin.
OUTCOMES: The patient was in good nutritional condition, and no obvious tumor recurrence or metastasis was found until July 9, 2018.
LESSONS: Even though the prognosis of colonic MAC is poor, being able to receive timely surgical treatment, good nutritional status and reasonable postoperative chemotherapy are the key factors to prolonging patient's survival.

Miceli R, An J, Di Bartolomeo M, et al.
Prognostic Impact of Microsatellite Instability in Asian Gastric Cancer Patients Enrolled in the ARTIST Trial.
Oncology. 2019; 97(1):38-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Caucasian patients with microsatellite instability (MSI)-high gastric cancer (GC) may have better prognosis but worse outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: Here we explored the prognostic role of MSI in Asian patients.
METHODS: This post hoc analysis comprehended radically resected GC patients randomized to XP (capecitabine/cisplatin) or XPRT. MSI status was assessed by combining immunohistochemistry with multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The MSI prognostic effect on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated.
RESULTS: 393 tissue samples were analyzed and 35 (9%) were MSI-high. This subgroup was characterized by: older age, Borrmann classification 1-2, antral localization, T3-4 stage, and intestinal type. At univariable analysis, the microsatellite-stable subgroup showed a trend toward a worse prognosis as compared to the MSI-high group: 3-year DFS was 76.3 versus 85.4% (p = 0.122); 3-year OS was 81.7 versus 91.4% (p = 0.046). Multivariable analyses confirmed it in both DFS (hazard ratio, HR = 2.32 [95% CI 0.91, 5.88]; p = 0.077) and OS (HR = 3.17 [95% CI 0.97, 10.43]; p = 0.057).
CONCLUSIONS: MSI-high status was associated with specific clinical-pathological features and a trend toward better outcomes of Asian GC patients.

Zhu J, Zeng W, Ge L, et al.
Capecitabine versus 5-fluorouracil in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer: A meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(17):e15241 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The differences in efficacy between capecitabine and 5-fuorouracil (5-FU) in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) are not well recognized. We performed this meta-analysis to analyze the effect of capecitabine and 5-FU on neoadjuvant CRT to more accurately understand the differences between the 2 drugs.
METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database were performed to identify all published studies investigating the efficacy of capecitabine in neoadjuvant CRT of LARC versus 5-FU before August, 2017. Primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improving pathological complete response (pCR) rate of patients with LARC. Secondary endpoints were the ORs of efficiency for downstaging tumor and increasing R0 resection in patients with LARC. Safety analyses were also performed. The OR was the principal measurement of effect, which was calculated as capecitabine group versus 5-FU group, and was presented as a point estimate with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All calculations and statistical tests were performed using RevMan 5.3 software.
RESULTS: In all, 2916 patients with LARC enrolled in the 10 studies were divided into capecitabine group (n = 1451) and 5-FU group (n = 1465). The meta-analysis showed that capecitabine improved pCR (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63), and R0 resection rate (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10-3.36). There were no statistically significant differences either in overall downstaging rate (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.79-2.16) or in the tumor downstaging rate (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.79-1.92), but there was a significant difference of the nodal downstaging rate between the 2 groups (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.11-2.54). There was no statistically significant difference in sphincter preservation rate between the 2 groups (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.96-1.92). No obvious safety concerns about mortality and complications were raised in these studies. There were no statistically significant differences in 3-year disease-free-survival (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.75-2.20), and in grade 3 to 4 acute toxicity during CRT (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.31-1.30).
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with 5-FU-based neoadjuvant CRT, capecitabine-based neoadjuvant CRT can safely improve pCR, nodal down-staging, ad R0 resection of patients with LARC.

Rovers KP, Bakkers C, Simkens GAAM, et al.
Perioperative systemic therapy and cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC versus upfront cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC alone for isolated resectable colorectal peritoneal metastases: protocol of a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, phase II-III, randomised, superiority study (CAIRO6)
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Upfront cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC (CRS-HIPEC) is the standard treatment for isolated resectable colorectal peritoneal metastases (PM) in the Netherlands. This study investigates whether addition of perioperative systemic therapy to CRS-HIPEC improves oncological outcomes.
METHODS: This open-label, parallel-group, phase II-III, randomised, superiority study is performed in nine Dutch tertiary referral centres. Eligible patients are adults who have a good performance status, histologically or cytologically proven resectable PM of a colorectal adenocarcinoma, no systemic colorectal metastases, no systemic therapy for colorectal cancer within six months prior to enrolment, and no previous CRS-HIPEC. Eligible patients are randomised (1:1) to perioperative systemic therapy and CRS-HIPEC (experimental arm) or upfront CRS-HIPEC alone (control arm) by using central randomisation software with minimisation stratified by a peritoneal cancer index of 0-10 or 11-20, metachronous or synchronous PM, previous systemic therapy for colorectal cancer, and HIPEC with oxaliplatin or mitomycin C. At the treating physician's discretion, perioperative systemic therapy consists of either four 3-weekly neoadjuvant and adjuvant cycles of capecitabine with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), six 2-weekly neoadjuvant and adjuvant cycles of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), or six 2-weekly neoadjuvant cycles of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan (FOLFIRI) followed by four 3-weekly (capecitabine) or six 2-weekly (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin) adjuvant cycles of fluoropyrimidine monotherapy. Bevacizumab is added to the first three (CAPOX) or four (FOLFOX/FOLFIRI) neoadjuvant cycles. The first 80 patients are enrolled in a phase II study to explore the feasibility of accrual and the feasibility, safety, and tolerance of perioperative systemic therapy. If predefined criteria of feasibility and safety are met, the study continues as a phase III study with 3-year overall survival as primary endpoint. A total of 358 patients is needed to detect the hypothesised 15% increase in 3-year overall survival (control arm 50%; experimental arm 65%). Secondary endpoints are surgical characteristics, major postoperative morbidity, progression-free survival, disease-free survival, health-related quality of life, costs, major systemic therapy related toxicity, and objective radiological and histopathological response rates.
DISCUSSION: This is the first randomised study that prospectively compares oncological outcomes of perioperative systemic therapy and CRS-HIPEC with upfront CRS-HIPEC alone for isolated resectable colorectal PM.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT02758951 , NTR/ NTR6301 , ISRCTN/ ISRCTN15977568 , EudraCT/ 2016-001865-99 .

Gore M, Hackshaw A, Brady WE, et al.
An international, phase III randomized trial in patients with mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (mEOC/GOG 0241) with long-term follow-up: and experience of conducting a clinical trial in a rare gynecological tumor.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(3):541-548 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated four different treatment regimens for advanced-stage mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.
METHODS: We conducted a multicenter randomized factorial trial (UK and US). Patients were diagnosed with primary mEOC: FIGO stage II-IV or recurrence after stage I disease. Treatment arms were paclitaxel-carboplatin, oxaliplatin-capecitabine, paclitaxel-carboplatin-bevacizumab, or oxaliplatin-capecitabine-bevacizumab. Chemotherapy was given 3-weekly for 6 cycles, and bevacizumab (3-weekly) was continued as maintenance (for 12 cycles). Endpoints included overall-survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity and quality of life (QoL).
RESULTS: The trial stopped after 50 patients were recruited due to slow accrual. Median follow-up was 59 months. OS hazard ratios (HR) for the two main comparisons were: 0.78 (p = 0.48) for Oxal-Cape vs. Pac-Carbo (each with/without bevacizumab), and 1.04 (p = 0.92) for bevacizumab vs. no bevacizumab. Corresponding PFS HRs were: 0.84 and 0.80. Retrospective central pathology review revealed only 45% (18/40) cases with available material had confirmed primary mEOC. Among these, OS HR for Oxal-Cape vs. Pac-Carbo was 0.36 (p = 0.14); PFS HR = 0.62 (p = 0.40). Grade 3-4 toxicity was seen in 61% Pac-Carbo, 61% Oxal-Cape, 54% Pac-Carbo-Bev, and 85% Oxal-Cape-Bev. QoL was similar between the four arms.
CONCLUSION: mEOC/GOG0241 represents an example of a randomized rare tumor trial. Logistical challenges led to early termination, including difficulties in local histopathological diagnosis and accessing drugs outside their labelled indication. There was misalignment between central funders who support clinical trials in rare cancers and the deprioritisation of such work by those managing and funding research at a local level. Rare cancer trials should include centralised pathology review before treatment. Clinical trial registry number: ISRCTN83438782.

Al-Batran SE, Homann N, Pauligk C, et al.
Perioperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel versus fluorouracil or capecitabine plus cisplatin and epirubicin for locally advanced, resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FLOT4): a randomised, phase 2/3 trial.
Lancet. 2019; 393(10184):1948-1957 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is effective in metastatic gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. This study reports on the safety and efficacy of the docetaxel-based triplet FLOT (fluorouracil plus leucovorin, oxaliplatin and docetaxel) as a perioperative therapy for patients with locally advanced, resectable tumours.
METHODS: In this controlled, open-label, phase 2/3 trial, we randomly assigned 716 patients with histologically-confirmed advanced clinical stage cT2 or higher or nodal positive stage (cN+), or both, resectable tumours, with no evidence of distant metastases, via central interactive web-based-response system, to receive either three pre-operative and three postoperative 3-week cycles of 50 mg/m
FINDINGS: Between Aug 8, 2010, and Feb 10, 2015, 716 patients were randomly assigned to treatment in 38 German hospitals or with practice-based oncologists. 360 patients were assigned to ECF/ECX and 356 patients to FLOT. Overall survival was increased in the FLOT group compared with the ECF/ECX group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·77; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.63 to 0·94]; median overall survival, 50 months [38·33 to not reached] vs 35 months [27·35 to 46·26]). The number of patients with related serious adverse events (including those occurring during hospital stay for surgery) was similar in the two groups (96 [27%] in the ECF/ECX group vs 97 [27%] in the FLOT group), as was the number of toxic deaths (two [<1%] in both groups). Hospitalisation for toxicity occurred in 94 patients (26%) in the ECF/ECX group and 89 patients (25%) in the FLOT group.
INTERPRETATION: In locally advanced, resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, perioperative FLOT improved overall survival compared with perioperative ECF/ECX.
FUNDING: The German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe), Sanofi-Aventis, Chugai, and Stiftung Leben mit Krebs Foundation.

Yoshimatsu K, Ishibashi K, Koda K, et al.
A Japanese multicenter phase II study of adjuvant chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6/CAPOX for stage III colon cancer treatment after D2/D3 lymphadenectomy.
Surg Today. 2019; 49(6):498-506 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A phase II trial was conducted to investigate the benefit of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in Japanese stage III colon cancer patients.
METHODS: Eligible patients were scheduled to receive 12 cycles of mFOLFOX6 or 8 cycles of CAPOX in adjuvant settings. The primary endpoint was the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS). Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify risk factors for a worse DFS.
RESULTS: A total of 130 patients, including 73 patients receiving mFOLFOX6 and 57 patients receiving CAPOX, were enrolled from 16 institutions between April 2010 and April 2014. The 3-year DFS was 82.2%, exceeding the expected primary endpoint of 81.7%. The 3-year DFS tended to be higher in patients receiving mFOLOFOX6 than in those receiving CAPOX (mFOLFOX6, 86.3%; CAPOX, 76.9%; P = 0.06). The 3-year DFS rates did not differ markedly based on the risk stratification (T1/T2/T3 N1 vs. T4 or N2) indicated by the IDEA COLLABORATION study (P = 0.22). In the multivariate analysis, stage IIIC (P = 0.046) and early discontinuation (P < 0.01) were identified as independent significant risk factors for a worse DFS.
CONCLUSION: Our findings represent the first positive results in a Japanese phase II trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6/CAPOX. Early discontinuation within 2 months was an independent risk factor for a shorter DFS.

Chelakkot PG, Ravind R, Sruthi K, Menon D
Treatment in resectable non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of stomach: Changing paradigms.
Indian J Cancer. 2019 Jan-Mar; 56(1):74-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adjuvant treatment in gastric adenocarcinoma has been a challenge for the treating specialists, and despite several trials, a clear consensus is yet to be defined. The higher propensity for lymph nodal involvement and locoregional recurrences led to the hypothesis that locoregional and systemic treatments need to be equally aggressive to achieve better outcomes in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma. Regional, ethnic, and biological differences between the Eastern and Western population are also found to reflect in the tumor behavior and its response to treatment. The MAGIC (Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy), Intergroup 0116, ACTS-GC (Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer), CLASSIC (Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Adjuvant Study in Stomach Cancer), ARTIST (Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy in Stomach Cancer), and the recently published CRITICS (Chemoradiotherapy after Induction Chemotherapy in Cancer of the Stomach) trials were a few of the randomized controlled trials that tried to give a clearer perspective of this tumor, though it still remains a dilemma. A study incorporating the tumor and demographic factors along with the availability of skilled talent and resources might generate an answer.

Werthmann PG, Kempenich R, Lang-Avérous G, Kienle GS
Long-term survival of a patient with advanced pancreatic cancer under adjunct treatment with
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(12):1524-1530 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Advanced pancreatic cancer (aPC) has a poor prognosis with limited survival benefit from current standard treatment.
CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old architect developed epigastric pain. A cystic lesion of the pancreas of 45-mm diameter was detected. In a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, about one year later, multiple lesions were seen in the corpus and the tail of the pancreas; CA-19-9 was elevated to 58.5 U/mL. A distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed, and a tumor of 7 cm × 5 cm × 3.5 cm was excised. Histologic investigation showed an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-associated invasive adenocarcinoma with invasion of the lymph vessels, perineural invasion, and positive nodes (2/27); surgical margins showed tumor cells, and the tumor was classified as pT3 N1 M0 R1. The patient was treated with radiation of the tumor bed and capecitabine/oxaliplatin followed by gemcitabine and FOLFIRINOX. Seven months after surgery, a liver metastasis was detected and treatment with FOLFIRINOX was started. Four months after detection of the metastasis, the patient opted for additional treatment with VAE. Another month later, the metastasis was treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eight months later, the hepatic lesion recurred and was again treated with RFA. The continuous VAE treatment was increased in dose, and the patient stayed recurrence-free for the next 39 mo in good health and working full-time (as of the time this case report was written).
CONCLUSION: We present the case of a patient with aPC with R1-resection with development of liver metastasis during the course of treatment who showed an overall survival of 63 mo and a relapse-free survival of 39 mo under increasing VAE therapy. The possible synergistic effect on tumor control of RFA treatment and immune-stimulatory effects of VAE should be further investigated.

Zhao H, Zhong W, Chen D, Cheng X
Synchronous isolated splenic metastasis from cancer of hepatic flexure of colon: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(14):e15016 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal cancer is very rare, as metastatic colorectal cancer involving the spleen is usually a manifestation of widely disseminated disease. Splenectomy is the best therapeutic option for this entity and probably the only chance for radical cure.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old male presented with abdominal distension and dark red bloody stool of 6-month duration.
DIAGNOSES: Synchronous isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal cancer.
INTERVENTIONS: Based on multidisciplinary team (MDT) mode, the patient underwent the primary hepatic flexure tumor resection due to his poor general condition. One month after surgery the patient began treatment with Xelox (capecitabine 1000 mg/m, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m) every 3 weeks. The patient underwent isolated splenic metastasis resection successfully by laparoscopic after four courses of chemotherapy.
OUTCOMES: The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he completed four courses of postoperative chemotherapy using the original chemotherapy regimen Xelox (capecitabine 1000 mg/m, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m). The patient was subsequently followed up every 3 months and no signs of recurrence were noted in a recent examination.
LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal cancer in China. It is also the first case in which treatment was overseen by an MDT. The possibility of splenic metastasis should be considered in cases in which colorectal cancer is associated with a splenic lesion, despite its rarity. Splenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy are the optimal therapeutic approaches, as such an approach prolongs survival and palliates the disease.

Yordanova A, Ahrens H, Feldmann G, et al.
Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy Combined With Chemotherapy in Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Clin Nucl Med. 2019; 44(5):e329-e335 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Combinations of therapies may enhance therapeutic effects without significantly increasing the incidence of adverse events. However, there are few data regarding survival after concomitant chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with [Lu]Lu-octreotate in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Thus, we explored the outcome of this combination of therapies.
METHODS: Fifteen patients with somatostatin receptor-positive, rapidly progressive G2/G3 NETs during chemotherapy or PRRT alone from 2 German cancer centers were included in the retrospective analysis. The patients received a combination of PRRT and chemotherapy with temozolomide (n = 3) or temozolomide plus capecitabine (n = 12). To evaluate the effects of the combined treatment, we assessed the responses, survival, and adverse events.
RESULTS: The cumulative administered activity of [Lu]Lu-octreotate had a median of 21.3 GBq after 3 cycles of combination therapy. The patients exhibited a median progression-free survival of 7.1 months and a median overall survival of 25.3 months. The clinical benefit (objective response and stable disease) rates were as follows: 55% of patients according to CT, 38% in [F]F-FDG PET/CT, and 44% in [Ga]Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. One patient with rapidly progressing liver metastases experienced grade 4 liver failure according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 5.0). Four other patients (27%) experienced significantly elevated (grade 3) liver parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: According to different imaging modalities, the combination of PRRT and temozolomide +/- capecitabine led to disease control in 38% to 55% of the progressive NETs after PRRT or chemotherapy alone failed. The overall survival in this extensively pretreated group of patients was nearly 25 months. The majority of patients did not experience any serious adverse events.

Kojima Y, Yoshie R, Kawamoto H, et al.
Trastuzumab Emtansine (T-DM1) Plus S-1 in Patients with Trastuzumab-Pretreated HER2-Positive Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Phase Ib Study.
Oncology. 2019; 96(6):309-317 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In treating human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer, the efficacy of capecitabine combined with HER2-directed agents such as trastuzumab and lapatinib is supported by some evidence. The combination of T-DM1 and S-1, another oral 5-FU, may be a safe alternative treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
OBJECTIVES: The optimal dose of S-1 was evaluated in combination with T-DM1 for patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The safety and clinical response of this combination treatment were also assessed.
METHODS: This 3 + 3 dose-escalation study of S-1 given for the first 2 of 3 weeks, in combination with T-DM1 (3.6 mg/kg given every 3 weeks) to patients with trastuzumab-pretreated HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer was designed to evaluate the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) occurrence in the first cycle. We also evaluated the safety and clinical activity of this combination treatment in multiple cycles. Two different dose levels of S-1 (65 and 80 mg/m2/day) were planned, although the capecitabine arm was abandoned because of slow recruitment.
RESULTS: Twelve out of the 13 patients enrolled were evaluable for DLT. One DLT (grade ≥3 non-hematological adverse events) occurred at dose level 0, leading to the expansion of this cohort to 6 patients, with an additional DLT (≥7 days discontinuation of medication), while no DLT occurred at dose level 1. As a result, the maximum tolerable dose of S-1 was determined to be 80 mg/m2/day for 14 days with T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg, repeated every 3 weeks. Two patients had grade 3 thrombocytopenia at dose level 0, and 1 patient at dose level 1.
CONCLUSIONS: S-1 can be safely combined with the clinically relevant dose of T-DM1 in patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Further evaluation with a larger sample size is required for efficacy assessment.

Springfeld C, Jäger D, Büchler MW, et al.
Chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer.
Presse Med. 2019; 48(3 Pt 2):e159-e174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy is an important part of multimodality pancreatic cancer treatment. After curative resection, adjuvant chemotherapy can significantly improve disease free survival and overall survival. The current standard of care is six months adjuvant chemotherapy with modified folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (mFOLFIRINOX) in patients fit enough for this protocol, otherwise six months of gemcitabine and capecitabine based on the European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC)-4 study. In patients with metastatic disease, combination chemotherapy according to the FOLFIRINOX protocol or with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel is an important improvement to gemcitabine monotherapy that was the standard for many years. Patients not fit for combination chemotherapy however may still benefit from gemcitabine. Patients with good performance status may benefit from second-line chemotherapy. Chemoradiation has long been used in locally advanced pancreatic cancer but is now tempered following the LAP07 study. This trial showed no difference in overall survival in those patients with stable disease after four months of gemcitabine (with or without erlotinib) randomized to either continuation of gemcitabine therapy or chemoradiation (54Gy with capecitabine). As an alternative to radiation, other forms local therapies including radiofrequency ablation, irreversible electroporation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, microwave ablation and local anti-KRAS therapy (using siG12D-LODER) are currently under investigation. Given the systemic nature of pancreas cancer from an early stage, the success of any local approach other than complete surgical resection (with adjuvant systemic therapy) is likely to be very limited. In patients with locally advanced, irresectable cancer, chemotherapy may offer the chance for secondary resection with a survival similar to patients with primary resectable disease. Downstaging regimens need to be evaluated in prospective randomized trials in order to make firm recommendations. Selection of patient groups for specific therapy including cytotoxics is becoming a reality using assays based on drug cellular transport and metabolism, and molecular signatures. Going forward, high throughput screening of different chemotherapy agents using molecular signatures based on patients' derived organoids holds considerable promise.

van der Valk MJM, Hilling DE, Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg E, et al.
Quality of Life After Curative Resection for Rectal Cancer in Patients Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy Compared With Observation: Results of the Randomized Phase III SCRIPT Trial.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2019; 62(6):711-720 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection for rectal cancer is the standard of care in several American and European guidelines.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the differences in health-related quality of life over time between patients with rectal cancer who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or observation.
DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled phase III trial.
SETTINGS: Health-related quality-of-life assessments were conducted in Dutch patients from 43 institutes.
PATIENTS: Patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who underwent preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy followed by curative surgery (the SCRIPT trial) were included.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to adjuvant capecitabine monotherapy for 8 cycles or observation. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer C30 and CR38 questionnaires at 1 month after surgery (before the start of chemotherapy), and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the difference in quality of life at 6 months after surgery, just after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients in the treatment group. Second, the difference in health-related quality of life at 12 months after surgery was examined. A statistically significant difference of 5 points was considered clinically relevant.
RESULTS: Health-related quality-of-life results of 226 of 233 patients were available. At T3, overall quality of life (C30 summary score) was worse for patients treated with chemotherapy compared with observation (mean 82.3 versus 86.9, p = 0.006), but the difference was not clinically relevant. Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy reported clinically relevant worse physical functioning (mean 78.3 versus 87.0, p < 0.001) and more reports of fatigue and dyspnea (35.7 versus 21.0 and 17.1 versus 6.7, p < 0.001). All differences were resolved at 12 months postsurgery.
LIMITATIONS: A selection of relatively fit patients willing to be randomly assigned may limit the generalizability of the results.
CONCLUSIONS: Although inferior health-related quality of life was reported just after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, no persistent deterioration in quality of life was detected. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A907.

Xu X, Xu Y, Wang J, et al.
The controversy of esophageal carcinosarcoma: A case report and brief review of literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(10):e14787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Esophageal carcinosarcoma (ECS) is defined as a relatively rare malignant neoplasm with both epithelial carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Besides, there were so many various controversies in ECS. This article describes a case of ECS that was effectively treated with radical esophagectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Also, we discuss the presentation, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ECS.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 58-year-old man presented with a history of progressive dysphagia and precordial pain after swallowing for 1 month.
DIAGNOSIS: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a large polypoid neoplasm that occupied the esophageal lumen 30 to 34 cm from the incisors. On the characteristic morphology, clinical symptom and biopsy findings, the ECS was the primary considerated. Computed tomography (CT) examination demonstrated no radiological evidence of metastatic disease.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, coupled with adequate lymph node dissection (2-field lymphadenectomy). ECS was confirmed by pathology report of postoperative. Then, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine.
OUTCOMES: The patient remained alive without tumor recurrence at 24 months after multidisciplinary therapy.
LESSONS: It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers (EC). However, there is no recommended clinical treatment for ECS because of the rarity of the disease. Esophagectomy with extended lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine may be recommended treatment for ECS. Chemotherapy regimen with docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine may be a suitable adjuvant therapy for ECS.

Vihervaara H, Ålgars A, Kemppainen J, et al.
Perioperative EOX treatment in operable locally advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: Prediction of tumor response by FDG -PET and histopathology.
Surg Oncol. 2019; 28:42-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective single-center analysis was to evaluate the feasibility of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging in evaluating metabolic response of preoperative chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced operable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma and to investigate the association between histopathologic and FDG-PET response and overall survival.
METHODS: Patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of distal esophagus, gastroesophageal junction or stomach were assessed for the study during 2008-2012. After evaluation with endoscopy, computed tomography and FDG-PET, patients with clinical stage II or III disease were assigned for perioperative EOX (epirubicin-oxaliplatin-capecitabine) treatment targeted at three cycles both pre- and postoperatively, if possible. Metabolic response was evaluated by repeated FDG-PET during or right after the second chemotherapy cycle. Becker tumor regression grade (TRG) was used to evaluate histopathologic response. For statistical purposes, the clinically significant cut-off for tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUV
RESULTS: 54 patients were included in the study. 53 PET images were obtained before chemotherapy, 11 (21%) of those were PET negative. A major metabolic response was detected in 19 patients and major histopathologic response in 14 patients. No statistically significant association was observed between SUVδ% and histopathological responses. Median overall survival (OS) time of the patients was 49.9 months. No association between OS and PET response was found in our study. The administration of all six cycles of perioperative EOX was associated with improved OS.
CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up PET during or right after second preoperative chemotherapy cycle did not assist in identifying patients with favorable histopathological response or OS.

De Bari B, Franzetti-Pellanda A, Saidi A, et al.
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy delivered with helical tomotherapy under daily image guidance for rectal cancer patients: efficacy and safety in a large, multi-institutional series.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(4):1075-1084 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Helical tomotherapy (HT) has been recently introduced in the neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. Aim of this study is to report the toxicity and local control rates of a large series of locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and HT under daily image guidance followed by surgery.
METHODS: Data from 117 locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated at two Swiss Radiotherapy departments were collected and analyzed. Radiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week delivered in 5 weeks) to the regional pelvic lymph nodes. Seventy patients also received a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) up to 50 Gy to the tumor and involved nodes (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week delivered in 5 weeks). Chemotherapy consisted of capecitabine 825 mg/m
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 45 months (range 4-90 months). The overall rate of acute grade 2-4 toxicity was 18.8% (n = 22). Four patients (3.4%) presented a grade 3 dermatitis (n = 1) or diarrhea (n = 3), and 1 (0.8%) demonstrated grade 4 rectal toxicity. No patients presented with grade ≥ 3 hematologic toxicity. Six patients (5.1%) had late grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. The 4-year local control rate was 88.4% (95% CI 87.5-88.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy delivered with HT under daily image guidance is well tolerated and shows a high 4-year local control rates.

Spatola C, Privitera G, Milazzotto R, et al.
Trends in combined radio-chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: a survey among radiation oncology centers of Sicily region on behalf of AIRO.
Radiol Med. 2019; 124(7):671-681 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To conduct a survey among Sicilian centers of radiation oncology belonging to Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia ed Oncologia Clinica (AIRO), to record the different methods of integration of radio-chemotherapy both in neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, to evaluate surgical procedures in relation to the sphincter preservation and to report the different toxicity profiles of the treatment strategies.
METHODS: A questionnaire was sent at the end of 2017 to all the radiation oncology centers of Sicily region in order to collect the data from individual centers and the treatment characteristics retrospectively over the previous 5 years, from 2012 to 2016. The required data were collected from 13 centers out of 17 which, in relation to the single catchment areas, correspond to approximately 85% of the Sicilian population. The requested data concerned the type of integrated treatment (neoadjuvant vs adjuvant vs radical), combination with chemotherapy (induction, concomitant, adjuvant), type of surgical intervention (sphincter-saving vs abdomino-perineal resection), disease stage, schedule and radiotherapy technique adopted, as well as toxicity detected over the treatment period.
RESULTS: A total of 784 pts (M/F: 509/275) were treated between 2012 and 2016, with a median age of 67 years (range 25-92). The majority of patients was treated in the neoadjuvant phase (62% of the total) compared to the adjuvant phase (31%) and to those treated radically (7%). Twenty-five percent of patients did not receive combination chemotherapy mainly for cardiovascular problems. Chemotherapy used concomitantly to radiotherapy was single-agent capecitabine (73% of patients) or 5-fluorouracil (27%). The use of chemotherapy alone before concomitant treatment is more common for patients treated in the adjuvant phase (64% of this subgroup), while 14% of patients treated in the neoadjuvant phase received induction chemotherapy before the concomitant phase; in both cases of chemotherapy alone, the majority of patients (91%) received oxaliplatin-based protocols (FOLFOX/XELOX/CAPOX). Few patients (3%) received chemotherapy alone after the concomitant phase. Information on the surgical treatment received is available for 88% of the sample. Of these, 93% received a surgical treatment. The overall rate of sphincter-saving surgery (anterior resection) was 72%, but the contribution of neoadjuvant treatment allowed to reach a rate of 83% in this subgroup (against 65% found in the subgroup of patients treated in adjuvant phase). Traditional radiotherapy schedule (45-50 Gy in 25-28 fractions) was used in 90% of patients, of which an intensified treatment in neoadjuvant phase (45 Gy + boost of 9-10 Gy) was used in 11% of patients. A short-course regimen (25 Gy in 5 fraction) in neoadjuvant setting was opted rarely (7%). Three-dimensional conformal technique was preferred over intensity-modulated ones (73% vs 27%). Toxicity was mainly of grade I-II CTCAE (skin 23%, gastrointestinal 39%, genitourinary 14%) compared to grade III (gastrointestinal 4%, genitourinary and hematological < 1%). Interestingly, the toxicity rates were significantly higher in the adjuvant group compared to the neoadjuvant (GI: 58% vs 31%, GU: 21% vs 10%).
CONCLUSION: The present survey shows that in the Sicily region integrated therapies for rectal cancer have allowed a neoadjuvant approach in the majority of patients, thus resulting in a greater use of sphincter conservative surgery. The toxicity has also been reported to be significantly less in this treatment setting.

Yang Y, Liu Q, Jia B, et al.
Preoperative Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Locally Advanced Distal Rectal Cancer.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 18:1533033818824367 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of a combined preoperative regimen consisting of volumetric modulated arc therapy-simultaneous integrated boost and capecitabine chemotherapy for distal rectal cancer. A total of 26 patients with locally advanced distal rectal cancer were enrolled from March 2015 to May 2016. The radiation dose fractionation was 58.75 Gy/25 fractions (2.35 Gy/fraction) for rectal tumor and pelvic lymph node metastasis and 50 Gy/25 fractions for pelvic lymph node stations, accompanied with simultaneous capecitabine chemotherapy. Completion of the simultaneous chemotherapy was ensued by 1 week of rest and then another cycle of induction chemotherapy with capecitabine. A radical rectal cancer surgery was performed 6 to 8 weeks after the simultaneous chemoradiotherapy. The primary end points were the complete pathological response rate and the postoperative sphincter preservation rate. All 26 patients completed the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, among which 25 received surgical treatment. The postoperative complete pathological response rate was as high as 32% (8/25), while the sphincter preservation rate was 60% (15/25), the overall tumor/node (T/N) downstaging rate was 92% (23/25), and the R0 resection rate was 100%. During the chemoradiation, the most common adverse events were grade 1 and 2; grade 3 radiodermatitis occurred in 2 cases but no occurrence of acute adverse events occurred that were grade 4 and above. After the surgery, there was one case of ureteral injury and one case of intestinal obstruction, but no perioperative deaths occurred. In conclusion, the chemoradiation regimen of preoperative volumetric modulated arc therapy-simultaneous integrated boost (VMAT-SIB

Patrão AS, Papaxoinis G, Kordatou Z, et al.
Prognostic significance of positive circumferential resection margin post neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with esophageal or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2019; 45(3):439-445 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the prognosis of patients with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (E/GEJ) adenocarcinoma extending beyond the muscularis propria layer (≥ypT3) and positive circumferential resection margin (CRM), post neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
METHODS: 177 patients were retrospectively studied. The majority (94.9%) received ECX (epirubicin, cisplatin, capecitabine), and all had clear proximal/distal resection margins. CRM was defined as positive (CRM+) when it was directly infiltrated (infiltrated CRM) or when tumor cells were detected within 1 mm from CRM (close CRM) and as negative (CRM-) when tumor cells were found in a distance > 1 mm from CRM.
RESULTS: CRM+ was found in 83 patients (46.9%). Of them, infiltrated CRM was recorded in 36 (20.3%) and close CRM in 47 (26.6%). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 132 patients (74.6%). Lymphovascular invasion and primary site in the lower esophagus were independently associated with higher risk of CRM+. Patients with infiltrated CRM, compared to those with close CRM and those CRM-, had the shortest median time-to-relapse (11.4 vs. 15.6 vs. 22.1 months, respectively, p = 0.005) and overall survival (18.7 vs. 23.1 vs. 38.8 months, respectively, p = 0.001). However, CRM status was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. Symptomatic isolated locoregional recurrences were rare in both CRM+ and CRM-patients (4/56 [7.1%] vs. 5/52 [9.6%], p = 0.736), as well as in infiltrated vs. non-infiltrated CRM (CRM- and close CRM) (0/26 [0%] vs. 9/82 [11.0%], p = 0.110).
CONCLUSION: Although CRM status is associated with poor outcome, it does not represent an independent prognostic factor. The status of CRM did not significantly influence the pattern of cancer relapse.

Kobayashi K, Kawakami K, Yokokawa T, et al.
Association of Hand-Foot Skin Reaction with Regorafenib Efficacy in the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Oncology. 2019; 96(4):200-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) can deteriorate quality of life in patients receiving regorafenib. Cutaneous toxicity is a main adverse effect of multikinase inhibitors and has also been associated with clinical outcome. This study assessed the association between the antitumor efficacy of regorafenib and HFSR in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
METHODS: Patients who received regorafenib at 160 mg/day during the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle were divided into subgroups based on whether they developed HFSR between May 2013 and October 2015. Estimates of overall survival and progression-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients received at least one dose of regorafenib in this retrospective study. Of these patients, 81.4% (n = 79) experienced HFSR of any grade, and 34.0% (n = 33) had grade 3 HFSR. Among those patients with HFSR at any time during the study, 68.0% (n = 66) underwent the first HFSR event (any grade) during cycle 1. Both overall survival and progression-free survival were improved in patients who had HFSR grade ≥2 at any time compared with those who had HFSR grade ≤1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a history of HFSR grade ≥2 induced by capecitabine as a significant risk factor for severe HFSR (grade ≥2).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mCRC treated using regorafenib who experienced severe HFSR showed better overall survival than patients without severe HFSR. Severe HFSR may offer an early surrogate marker for the efficacy of regorafenib in patients with mCRC.

Chen L, Hao Y, Cong X, et al.
Peripheral Venous Blood Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) for Predicting the Survival of Patients With Gastric Cancer Treated With SOX or XELOX Regimen Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 18:1533033819829485 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an important role in tumor progression. Predicting survival is remarkably difficult in patients with gastric cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential prognostic significance of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with gastric cancer receiving S-1 plus oxaliplatin or oxaliplatin and capecitabine regimen.
METHODS: Ninety-one patients with gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study and then underwent operation. The optimal cutoff value was calculated using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses. The optimal cutoff value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio was divided into low platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio <162 group and high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥162 group. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to analyze the survival curves. The independent prognostic factors and prognostic value of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. The toxicity was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria.
RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that patients with low platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated remarkably with better mean disease-free survival and mean overall survival than those with high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (mean disease-free survival 47.33 and 33.62 months, respectively; mean overall survival 51.21 and 36.80 months, respectively). The results demonstrated that platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio had prognostic significance using the cutoff value of 162 on disease-free survival and overall survival, and the mean disease-free survival and overall survival time for patients with low platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio were longer than those with high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio. Meanwhile, patients with gastric cancer who had lower platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio had longer 1-, 3-, and 5-year rates of disease-free survival and overall survival. Moreover, patients with low platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio had longer mean disease-free survival and overall survival than those with high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in receiving S-1 plus oxaliplatin or oxaliplatin and capecitabine regimen.
CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio may be a promising and convenient prognostic biomarker for patients gastric cancer receiving S-1 plus oxaliplatin or oxaliplatin and capecitabine regimen neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It may be useful to help the doctors identify the high-risk patients for taking efficient treatment strategy decisions.

Strauss VY, Shaw R, Virdee PS, et al.
Study protocol: a multi-centre randomised study of induction chemotherapy followed by capecitabine ± nelfinavir with high- or standard-dose radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (SCALOP-2).
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation is a treatment option for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, overall survival is comparable to chemotherapy alone and local progression occurs in nearly half of all patients, suggesting chemoradiation strategies should be optimised. SCALOP-2 is a randomised phase II trial testing the role of radiotherapy dose escalation and/or the addition of the radiosensitiser nelfinavir, following induction chemotherapy of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel (GEMABX). A safety run-in phase (stage 1) established the nelfinavir dose to administer with chemoradiation in the randomised phase (stage 2).
METHODS: Patients with locally advanced, inoperable, non-metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma receive three cycles of induction GEMABX chemotherapy prior to radiological assessment. Those with stable/responding disease are eligible for further trial treatment. In Stage 1, participants received one further cycle of GEMABX followed by capecitabine-chemoradiation with escalating doses of nelfinavir in a rolling-six design. Stage 2 aims to register 262 and randomise 170 patients with responding/stable disease to one of five arms: capecitabine with high- (arms C + D) or standard-dose (arms A + B) radiotherapy with (arms A + C) or without (arms B + D) nelfinavir, or three more cycles of GEMABX (arm E). Participants allocated to the chemoradiation arms receive another cycle of GEMABX before chemoradiation begins. Co-primary outcomes are 12-month overall survival (radiotherapy dose-escalation question) and progression-free survival (nelfinavir question). Secondary outcomes include toxicity, quality of life, disease response rate, resection rate, treatment compliance, and CA19-9 response. SCALOP-2 incorporates a detailed radiotherapy quality assurance programme.
DISCUSSION: SCALOP-2 aims to optimise chemoradiation in LAPC and incorporates a modern induction regimen.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudract No: 2013-004968-56; ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02024009.

Eltweri AM, Thomas AL, Chung WY, et al.
The Effect of Supplementary Omegaven® on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Advanced Esophagogastric Adenocarcinoma Receiving Palliative Epirubicin, Oxaliplatin, and Capecitabine Chemotherapy: A Phase II clinical trial.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):853-861 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous studies have shown anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids (Omegaven®) in vitro and in vivo. Whether this effect can be exploited in patients with advanced esophago-gastric adenocarcinoma is unknown. The present study intended to determine the tumour radiological response and toxicity profile of intravenous omega-3 fish oil infusion when combined with standard palliative chemotherapy, and present the effects of this treatment on plasma cytokine biomarkers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants with advanced esophago-gastric adenocarcinoma were enrolled in a phase II single-arm clinical trial of palliative chemotherapy (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine; EOX) coupled with weekly infusion of Omegaven®. Outcomes were compared to those observed in 37 historical control patients who had received EOX alone. Toxicity was graded using the CTCAE v4.03 and radiological response was assessed using RECIST v1.1. Plasma cytokine levels of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and VEGF were evaluated by ELISA.
RESULTS: Twenty participants were included in the analysis. Radiological responses were as follows: partial response (EOX plus omega-3 group 73% vs. EOX alone 39%, p=0.03), stable disease (EOX plus omega-3 21% vs. EOX alone 39%, p=0.24), and progressive disease (EOX plus omega-3 7% vs. EOX alone 18%, p=0.34). Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was less common (thromboembolism & gastrointestinal) in those who received EOX plus omega-3. This translated into fewer hospital admissions. There were significant reductions in the concentrations of IL-2 (p=0.009), TNF-α (p<0.0001) and VEGF (p=0.002) following each treatment.
CONCLUSION: The treatment with supplementary omega-3 fatty acids reduced chemotherapy-related toxicity and resulted in better radiological responses. The combination treatment resulted in a shift towards a favourable anti-inflammatory cytokine profile. These findings should be evaluated in a randomised clinical trial.

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