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Web Resources: Temozolomide
Recent Research Publications

Web Resources: Temozolomide (6 links)

Recent Research Publications

Khwaja R, Mantilla E, Fink K, Pan E
Adult Primary Peripheral PNET/Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4463-4465 [PubMed] Related Publications
This case report describes a patient with a rare occurrence of primary spinal intramedullary Ewing's sarcoma (ES) in the cervical and thoracic spine. The older age of disease occurrence, uncommon location in the cervical and thoracic spine, and EWSR1 gene fusion as the basis of diagnosis are unique features of this case. There is no clear protocol for treatment of primary extraskeletal ES of the spine, with controversy between evidence for pursuing surgery versus a combination of radiation and chemotherapy. Our patient was treated with temozolomide chemotherapy for recurrent metastatic disease of primary ES of the spine.

Xingyi J, Guonan C, Xin Z, Naijie L
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2019; 15(7):1468-1481 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used for the treatment of GBM, but the effects of TMZ for GBM are limited by the presence of rapid resistance. It was reported that a small percentage of glioma cells which called glioma stem cells (GSCs) lead GBM resistance to TMZ, and sensitizes GSCs to TMZ was an effective way to solve the TMZ resistance and cure the GBM. A polypeptide

Lv Y, Zhang J, Liu F, et al.
Targeted therapy with anlotinib for patient with recurrent glioblastoma: A case report and literature review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(22):e15749 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. The first choice for GBM is surgery, and followed by a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There are limited treatments for patients with recurrent GBM. Relapsed patients usually have a worse prognosis, and with a median survival time of <6 months. Anlotinib is a novel small molecule multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and inhibit tumor cell growth. This drug has been used to treat advanced lung cancer.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of recurrent GBM was treated with anlotinib in this report. The patient was diagnosed with GBM in August 2016 and treated with surgery and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. She was diagnosed with recurrence in February 2017 following which she was treated with gamma knife and TMZ chemotherapy. In November 2017, the patient presented with decreased vision in left eye. She was given radiation and her left eye vision returned to normal after radiation. On May23, 2018, the patient reported a decrease in left visual acuity again.
DIAGNOSES: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed progression of the disease, and the tumor invaded the left optic nerve.
INTERVENTIONS: This patient was administer anlotinib 12 mg po qd (d1-14, 21days as a cycle). Three cycles anlotinib were given to this patient.
OUTCOMES: The patient reported her left visual acuity increased over 10 days after first cycle of anlotinib treatment. MRI scan revealed tumor volume shrinks, especially the part that invades the left optic nerve shrinks significantly at 26 days after anlotinib treatment on August 11, 2018. However, the tumor progressed in 2 months after using of anlotinib. From the beginning of the application of anlotinib to death, her survival time was 110 days.
LESSONS: Anlotinib treatment with mild side effects may be a new option for the patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

De Felice F, Pranno N, Marampon F, et al.
Immune check-point in glioblastoma multiforme.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2019; 138:60-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents one of the main frequent and aggressive primary brain neoplasms among adults worldwide. Despite a first-line multimodal treatment, including radical surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy with concomitant temozolomide-based chemotherapy, GBM prognosis continues to be unfavourable. During this decade, different research groups have explored immune check-point inhibitors role in order to improve response to therapy and subsequently prolong survival rate. The aim of this review was to analyze published literature to support immune check-point inhibitors use in the management of patients with GBM diagnosis. The hope was to help physicians for better decision-making.

Forte IM, Indovina P, Iannuzzi CA, et al.
Targeted therapy based on p53 reactivation reduces both glioblastoma cell growth and resistance to temozolomide.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):2189-2199 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Despite current intensive treatment regimens, consisting of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with GB remains extremely poor. Considering that alterations of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway have a key role in both GB development and resistance to TMZ treatment, the re‑activation of p53 could be an effective therapeutic approach against GB. In this study, we challenged p53 wild‑type and mutant GB cell lines with RITA, a molecule originally identified for its ability to restore p53 functions, although it was subsequently shown to act also through p53‑independent mechanisms. We examined the effects of RITA on GB cell viability, through MTS and clonogenic assays, and analyzed cell death through cytoflourimetric analyses. In all the tested GB cell lines, RITA significantly reduced the cell proliferative and clonogenic potential and induced cell accumulation in the S and/or G2/M cell cycle phases and massive p53‑dependent apoptosis. Moreover, RITA was more effective than the well‑known p53 re‑activating molecule, nutlin‑3, and did not affect the viability of normal astrocytes. In addition, RITA decreased survivin expression and induced DNA damage, two mechanisms that likely contribute to its anti‑tumor effects. Furthermore, RITA synergized with TMZ and was able to decrease the expression of MGMT, which is a crucial player in TMZ resistance. Thus, although further studies are warranted to clarify the exact mechanisms of action of RITA, the data of this study suggest the potential of such an approach for GB therapy, which may also help to overcome resistance to TMZ.

Xiong Y, Chen R, Wang L, et al.
Downregulation of miR‑186 promotes the proliferation and drug resistance of glioblastoma cells by targeting Twist1.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(6):5301-5308 [PubMed] Related Publications
Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of glioma; however, the development of drug resistance remains a major obstacle in the effective treatment of glioblastoma. Increasing evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the drug resistance of glioma; however, the role of miR‑186‑5p in the TMZ resistance of glioblastoma remains unknown. In the present study, the role of miR‑186‑5p in the resistance of glioblastoma to TMZ was investigated. mRNA and protein expression levels were detected via reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. It was determined that miR‑186‑5p was significantly downregulated in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. Additionally, the expression of miR‑186‑5p was decreased, whereas that of Twist1 was upregulated during the development of drug resistance in glioma cells. The introduction of miR‑186 into glioblastoma cells via transfection decreased the proliferation and TMZ resistance of glioblastoma cells, as determined via 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine and Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays, whereas the inhibition of miR‑186‑5p induced opposing effects. Furthermore, luciferase reporter and expression rescue assays revealed that miR‑186‑5p bound to the 3'‑untranslated region of Twist‑related protein 1 (Twist1). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that downregulation of miR‑186‑5p may contribute to the proliferation and drug resistance of glioblastoma cells via the regulation of Twist1 expression. These results suggested that miR‑186‑5p may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of glioblastoma.

Wu P, Cai J, Chen Q, et al.
Lnc-TALC promotes O
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2045 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new regulatory molecules implicated in diverse biological processes, including therapeutic resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying lncRNA-mediated temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioblastoma (GBM) remain largely unknown. To illustrate the role of lncRNA in TMZ resistance, we induce TMZ-resistant GBM cells, perform a lncRNA microarray of the parental and TMZ-resistant cells, and find an unreported lncRNA in GBM, lnc-TALC (temozolomide-associated lncRNA in glioblastoma recurrence), correlated with TMZ resistance via competitively binding miR-20b-3p to facilitate c-Met expression. A phosphorylated AKT/FOXO3 axis regulated lnc-TALC expression in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Furthermore, lnc-TALC increased MGMT expression by mediating the acetylation of H3K9, H3K27 and H3K36 in MGMT promoter regions through the c-Met/Stat3/p300 axis. In clinical patients, lnc-TALC is required for TMZ resistance and GBM recurrence. Our results reveal that lnc-TALC in GBM could serve as a therapeutic target to overcome TMZ resistance, enhancing the clinical benefits of TMZ chemotherapy.

Carabenciov ID, Bhargav AG, Uhm JH, Ruff MW
Bevacizumab Use in Refractory Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma: A Single-Center Case Series.
Neurologist. 2019; 24(3):87-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) are highly vascular tumors with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) signaling present in the tumor vasculature. PA may, therefore, be responsive to VEGF blockade with bevacizumab (BEV). Data regarding the use of BEV in refractory PA in adults are limited primarily to case reports and case series of patients with recurrent PA. We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study from 2009 to 2018. We screened 426 patients with pathologically confirmed PA. We identified 5 adult patients with PA who received BEV at our institution with sufficient clinical follow-up to derive evidence of the efficacy and toxicity. All 5 patients experienced tumor progression after initial therapies which included surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Four patients received BEV as monotherapy, whereas 1 received BEV with the continuation of previously initiated alkylating chemotherapy (temozolomide). The average duration of BEV therapy was 10.2 months (range, 1 to 20 mo) with an average follow-up of 47 months (range, 6 to 112 mo). One patient had a severe necrotizing rash in areas of skin contact and discontinued after 1 cycle of BEV. All patients had stabilization per RANO criteria, with 1 patient experiencing progression after 10 months on treatment. One patient had disease progression 5 years after completion of BEV, but the tumor responded to repeat treatment with BEV. Our institution's experience with the use of BEV in recurrent PA is in line with previous reports of therapeutic benefit in recurrent adult PA.

Mucha-Małecka A, Wojton-Dziewonska D, Adamek D, et al.
Radiation-induced anaplastic astrocytoma following treatment of medulloblastoma.
Folia Neuropathol. 2019; 57(1):80-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old girl in whom neurosurgery was performed for cerebellar vermis medulloblastoma in April 2000. After resection the patient underwent chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, receiving 53.07 Gy to posterior fossa and 35.07 Gy to the rest of the craniospinal axis. In 2012, she was diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma, which was located within the high-dose region. Surgical resection of the tumour was performed. Postoperatively, the patient received radiation therapy (50.4 Gy) with concurrent temozolomide, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. Five years after the diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma, the patient remains asymptomatic.

Skaga E, Skaga IØ, Grieg Z, et al.
The efficacy of a coordinated pharmacological blockade in glioblastoma stem cells with nine repurposed drugs using the CUSP9 strategy.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1495-1507 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Constructed from a theoretical framework, the coordinated undermining of survival paths in glioblastoma (GBM) is a combination of nine drugs approved for non-oncological indications (CUSP9; aprepitant, auranofin, captopril, celecoxib, disulfiram, itraconazole, minocycline, quetiapine, and sertraline) combined with temozolomide (TMZ). The availability of these drugs outside of specialized treatment centers has led patients to embark on combination treatments without systematic follow-up. However, no experimental data on efficacy using the CUSP9 strategy in GBM have been reported.
METHODS: Using patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) cultures from 15 GBM patients, we described stem cell properties of individual cultures, determined the dose-response relationships of the drugs in the CUSP9, and assessed the efficacy the CUSP9 combination with TMZ in concentrations clinically achievable. The efficacy was evaluated by cell viability, cytotoxicity, and sphere-forming assays in both primary and recurrent GSC cultures.
RESULTS: We found that CUSP9 with TMZ induced a combination effect compared to the drugs individually (p < 0.0001). Evaluated by cell viability and cytotoxicity, 50% of the GSC cultures displayed a high sensitivity to the drug combination. In clinical plasma concentrations, the effect of the CUSP9 with TMZ was superior to TMZ monotherapy (p < 0.001). The Wnt-signaling pathway has been shown important in GSC, and CUSP9 significantly reduces Wnt-activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Adding experimental data to the theoretical rationale of CUSP9, our results demonstrate that the CUSP9 treatment strategy can induce a combination effect in both treatment-naïve and pretreated GSC cultures; however, predicting response in individual cultures will require further profiling of GSCs.

Chen L, Liu YC, Zheng YY, et al.
Furanodienone overcomes temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma through the downregulation of CSPG4-Akt-ERK signalling by inhibiting EGR1-dependent transcription.
Phytother Res. 2019; 33(6):1736-1747 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive type of brain tumour. Patients with GBM respond poorly to chemotherapy and have poor survival outcomes. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), also known as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), has been shown to contribute to critical processes, such as cell survival, proliferation, and chemotherapy resistance, during glioma progression. In this study, we found that furanodienone (FUR), a diene-type sesquiterpene isolated from the rhizomes of Rhizoma curcumae, exhibited a potential cytotoxic effect on temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant GBM cells in vitro by inhibiting CSPG4 and related signalling pathways. Studies investigating the mechanism demonstrated that FUR suppressed CSPG4-Akt-ERK signalling, inflammatory responses, and cytokine levels but activated caspase-dependent pathways and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, an immunofluorescence assay and a dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that inhibition of EGR1-mediated transcription might have contributed to the FUR-dependent blockade of CSPG4 signalling and glioma cell survival. These results established a link between FUR-induced CSPG4 inhibition and the suppression of EGR1-dependent transcription. Attenuation of ERK1/2 and cytokine signalling might have generated the EGR1-dependent negative feedback loop of the CSPG4 pathway during FUR-induced apoptosis. These findings suggested that FUR could be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of malignant glioma via targeting CSPG4 signalling.

Bureta C, Saitoh Y, Tokumoto H, et al.
Synergistic effect of arsenic trioxide, vismodegib and temozolomide on glioblastoma.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3404-3412 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment of glioblastoma is a critical health issue, owing to its resistance to chemotherapy. The current standard of treatment is surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment. Long‑term local treatment of glioblastoma is rarely achieved and the majority of the patients undergo relapse. Resistance to temozolomide emerges from numerous signalling pathways that are altered in glioblastoma, including the Hedgehog signalling pathway. Hence, further research is required to identify effective treatment modalities. We investigated the effect of vismodegib, arsenic trioxide and temozolomide on glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo to apply our findings to the clinical setting. WST‑1 assay revealed that glioblastoma proliferation was inhibited following treatment with these drugs either in single or in combination; this synergistic effect was confirmed by CalcuSyn software. Western blot analysis revealed an increase in the expression of cleaved caspase‑3 and γH2AX. Furthermore, there was marked inhibition and decreased tumour growth in mice that received combination therapy, unlike those that received single agent or vehicle treatment. Our results revealed that the combination of arsenic trioxide/vismodegib and temozolomide may be an attractive therapeutic method for the treatment of glioblastoma.

Dirkse A, Golebiewska A, Buder T, et al.
Stem cell-associated heterogeneity in Glioblastoma results from intrinsic tumor plasticity shaped by the microenvironment.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The identity and unique capacity of cancer stem cells (CSC) to drive tumor growth and resistance have been challenged in brain tumors. Here we report that cells expressing CSC-associated cell membrane markers in Glioblastoma (GBM) do not represent a clonal entity defined by distinct functional properties and transcriptomic profiles, but rather a plastic state that most cancer cells can adopt. We show that phenotypic heterogeneity arises from non-hierarchical, reversible state transitions, instructed by the microenvironment and is predictable by mathematical modeling. Although functional stem cell properties were similar in vitro, accelerated reconstitution of heterogeneity provides a growth advantage in vivo, suggesting that tumorigenic potential is linked to intrinsic plasticity rather than CSC multipotency. The capacity of any given cancer cell to reconstitute tumor heterogeneity cautions against therapies targeting CSC-associated membrane epitopes. Instead inherent cancer cell plasticity emerges as a novel relevant target for treatment.

Zhang Z, Yin J, Lu C, et al.
Exosomal transfer of long non-coding RNA SBF2-AS1 enhances chemoresistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):166 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acquired drug resistance is a constraining factor in clinical treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the mechanisms of chemoresponsive tumors acquire therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. Here, we aim to investigate whether temozolomide (TMZ) resistance of chemoresponsive GBM was enhanced by long non-coding RNA SBF2 antisense RNA 1 (lncRNA SBF2-AS1) enriched exosomes.
METHOD: LncSBF2-AS1 level in TMZ-resistance or TMZ-sensitive GBM tissues and cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR and FISH assays. A series of in vitro assay and xenograft tumor models were performed to observe the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on TMZ-resistance in GBM. CHIP assay were used to investigate the correlation of SBF2-AS1 and transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). Dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to verify the relation between lncSBF2-AS1, miR-151a-3p and XRCC4. Comet assay and immunoblotting were performed to expound the effect of lncSBF2-AS1 on DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair. A series of in vitro assay and intracranial xenografts tumor model were used to determined the function of exosomal lncSBF2-AS1.
RESULT: It was found that SBF2-AS1 was upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and tissues, and overexpression of SBF2-AS1 led to the promotion of TMZ resistance, whereas its inhibition sensitized resistant GBM cells to TMZ. Transcription factor ZEB1 was found to directly bind to the SBF2-AS1 promoter region to regulate SBF2-AS1 level and affected TMZ resistance in GBM cells. SBF2-AS1 functions as a ceRNA for miR-151a-3p, leading to the disinhibition of its endogenous target, X-ray repair cross complementing 4 (XRCC4), which enhances DSB repair in GBM cells. Exosomes selected from temozolomide-resistant GBM cells had high levels of SBF2-AS1 and spread TMZ resistance to chemoresponsive GBM cells. Clinically, high levels of lncSBF2-AS1 in serum exosomes were associated with poor response to TMZ treatment in GBM patients.
CONCLUSION: We can conclude that GBM cells remodel the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor chemotherapy-resistance by secreting the oncogenic lncSBF2-AS1-enriched exosomes. Thus, exosomal lncSBF2-AS1 in human serum may serve as a possible diagnostic marker for therapy-refractory GBM.

Burić SS, Podolski-Renić A, Dinić J, et al.
Modulation of Antioxidant Potential with Coenzyme Q10 Suppressed Invasion of Temozolomide-Resistant Rat Glioma
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019; 2019:3061607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The main reasons for the inefficiency of standard glioblastoma (GBM) therapy are the occurrence of chemoresistance and the invasion of GBM cells into surrounding brain tissues. New therapeutic approaches obstructing these processes may provide substantial survival improvements. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of lipophilic antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to increase sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) and suppress glioma cell invasion. To that end, we used a previously established TMZ-resistant RC6 rat glioma cell line, characterized by increased production of ROS, altered antioxidative capacity, and high invasion potential. CoQ10 in combination with TMZ exerted a synergistic antiproliferative effect. These results were confirmed in a 3D model of microfluidic devices showing that the CoQ10 and TMZ combination is more cytotoxic to RC6 cells than TMZ monotherapy. In addition, cotreatment with TMZ increased expression of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes in RC6 cells. The anti-invasive potential of the combined treatment was shown by gelatin degradation, Matrigel invasion, and 3D spheroid invasion assays as well as in animal models. Inhibition of MMP9 gene expression as well as decreased N-cadherin and vimentin protein expression implied that CoQ10 can suppress invasiveness and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in RC6 cells. Therefore, our data provide evidences in favor of CoQ10 supplementation to standard GBM treatment due to its potential to inhibit GBM invasion through modulation of the antioxidant capacity.

Luo W, Yan D, Song Z, et al.
miR-126-3p sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by inactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling via targeting SOX2.
Life Sci. 2019; 226:98-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The acquired drug resistance has been regarded as a main barrier for the effective treatment of temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM). MiR-126-3p is commonly down-regulated and exerts tumor-suppressive roles in kinds of human cancers, including GBM. This study was designed to investigate the functions and mechanisms of miR-126-3p in regulating TMZ resistance in GBM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR analysis was used to measure the expressions of miR-126-3p and SOX2 mRNA in GBM tissues and cells. Cell viability, colony forming ability and apoptosis were detected to evaluate the effect of miR-126-3p or SOX2 on TMZ resistance. Luciferase reporter experiments were applied to identify the target genes of miR-126-3p. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the protein levels associated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TOP/FOP Flash assays were conducted to determine the effects of miR-126-3p or SOX2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
KEY FINDINGS: miR-126-3p expression was decreased in TMZ-resistant GBM tissues and cells. High levels of miR-126-3p enhanced TMZ sensitivity by inhibiting cell viability, reducing colony forming potential and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, SOX2 was identified as a downstream target of miR-126-3p. On the contrary, SOX2 overexpression conferred TMZ resistance of GBM cells. Moreover, miR-126-3p-mediated TMZ sensitivity was reversed following increased expression of SOX2. Furthermore, miR-126-3p-induced inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was greatly abrogated by SOX2 up-regulation.
SIGNIFICANCE: MiR-126-3p sensitizes GBM cells to TMZ possibly by repressing SOX2 expression and blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This study provides novel targets to overcome TMZ resistance in GBM chemotherapy.

Vismara MFM, Donato A, Malara N, et al.
Immunotherapy in gliomas: Are we reckoning without the innate immunity?
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2019 Jan-Dec; 33:2058738419843378 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Innate immunity plays a central role in neoplasms, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Nowadays, tumors classification, especially that regarding gliomas, is based on molecular features such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes and the presence of co-deletion 1p/19q. Therapy, in most cases, is based on surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacological treatment with chemotherapeutic agents such as temozolomide. However, the results of the treatments, after many decades, are not completely satisfactory. There is a class of drugs, used to treat cancer, which modulates immune response; in this class, the immune checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines play a prominent role. These drugs were evaluated for the treatment of gliomas, but they exhibited a poor outcome in clinical trials. Those scarce results could be due to the response of tumor-associated macrophage that creates imbalances between innate and adaptive immunity and changes in blood-brain barrier properties. Here, we have briefly reviewed the current literature on this topic, focusing on the possible role for innate immunity in the failure of immunotherapies against brain tumors.

Antonopoulos M, VAN Gool SW, Dionysiou D, et al.
Immune Phenotype Correlates With Survival in Patients With GBM Treated With Standard Temozolomide-based Therapy and Immunotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):2043-2051 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The need for more effective treatment modalities that can improve the clinical outcome of patients with glioblastoma multiforme remains imperative. Dendritic cell vaccination is a fast-developing treatment modality, currently under exploration. Functional immune cell subpopulations may play a role in the final outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 101 patients drawn from the HGG-2010 trial, including baseline patient characteristics and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of immune cell subpopulations, were analyzed by statistical and machine-learning methods.
RESULTS: The analysis revealed strong correlations between immune profiles and overall survival, when the extent of resection and the vaccination schedule were used as stratification variables.
CONCLUSION: A systematic, in silico workflow detecting strong and statistically significant correlations between overall survival and immune profile-derived quantities obtained at the start of dendritic cell vaccination was devised. The derived correlations could serve as a basis for the identification of prognostic markers discriminating between potential long- and short-term survivors of patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

Miyamoto K, Minegaki T, Tanahashi M, et al.
Synergistic Effects of Olaparib and DNA-damaging Agents in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1813-1820 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chemotherapy is an important first-line treatment for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, there are few secondary options. Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, enhances the cytotoxicity of various anticancer drugs and has been used to treat advanced ovarian and breast cancers. This study examined the effect of olaparib on the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in ESCC cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ESCC KYSE70 and KYSE140 cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, SN-38, or temozolomide without or with olaparib.
RESULTS: Olaparib enhanced the cytotoxicity of all tested anticancer drugs and increased the effects of cisplatin, doxorubicin, SN-38, and temozolomide synergistically. These anticancer drugs caused the accumulation of phospho-histone H2AX Ser139 (γH2AX), a biomarker of DNA damage, and olaparib increased this accumulation.
CONCLUSION: PARP inhibitors may potentiate the anticancer activity of DNA-damaging agents in ESCC patients synergistically.

Guler OC, Yıldırım BA, Önal C, Topkan E
Retrospective comparison of standard and escalated doses of radiotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients treated with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.
Indian J Cancer. 2019 Jan-Mar; 56(1):59-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacies of standard dose-(SDRT) and escalated dose radiotherapy (EDRT) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Outcomes of 126 newly diagnosed GBM patients who received SDRT (60 Gy, 30 fractions) or EDRT (70 Gy, 30 fractions) with concurrent plus adjuvant TMZ were retrospectively analyzed. Both groups received concurrent TMZ (75 mg/m
RESULTS: At median 14.2 months follow-up, 26 (20.6%) patients were alive. Median LPFS and OS were 9.2 [95% confidence interval (CI); 8.4-10.0] and 15.4 months (95% CI; 12.1-18.8), respectively, for the entire cohort. Although the median OS was numerically superior in the EDRT this difference could not reach statistical significance (22.0 vs. 14.9 months; P = 0.45), Likewise, LPFS was also (9.9 vs. 8.9 months; P = 0.89) not different between the two treatment groups. In multivariate analysis, better recursive partitioning analysis class (3-4 vs. 5; P = 0.044) and extensive surgery (gross total resection vs. subtotal resection/biopsy only; P= 0.021) were identified to associate significantly with superior OS times, irrespective of the RT protocol.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the current median OS of 22 months of the EDRT group is promising, no statistically significant survival advantage for EDRT was observed even in the presence of TMZ. Randomized studies with larger population sizes and available genetic markers are warranted to conclude more reliably on the fate of EDRT plus TMZ.

Lamano JB, Quaggin-Smith JA, Horbinski CM, et al.
Long-term glioblastoma survival following recovery from cytomegalovirus colitis: A case report.
J Clin Neurosci. 2019; 64:18-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Survival outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are universally poor with only a small percentage of patients surviving five years beyond initial diagnosis. Activation of the immune system against tumor cells is the basis of immunotherapy and aims to facilitate long-term immune surveillance and tumor suppression. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has emerged as an immunologic target in GBM given that tumor cells have been shown to express the CMV-associated proteins IE1 and pp65. Moreover, vaccine therapy targeting CMV antigens has promoted improved survival outcomes with long-term survivors. In this report, we present the case of a 69 year-old woman with GBM who survived seven years post-diagnosis. Following tumor resection, the patient underwent concomitant radiation and temozolomide therapy that was complicated by CMV colitis and abdominal abscesses. Despite not receiving adjuvant temozolomide, the patient demonstrated a five year progression-free survival before requiring re-resection for radiation necrosis. Following re-resection, the patient survived for two additional years. As the patient's tumor stained positive for CMV antigens IE1 and pp65, it is hypothesized that she developed an immune response against CMV during recovery that contributed to anti-tumor surveillance and prolonged survival. Overall, this case supports further investigation into the role of CMV and immunotherapy in GBM.

Zou Y, Chen M, Zhang S, et al.
TRPC5‑induced autophagy promotes the TMZ‑resistance of glioma cells via the CAMMKβ/AMPKα/mTOR pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3413-3423 [PubMed] Related Publications
Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first choice chemotherapy agent against glioblastoma, but the TMZ chemotherapy resistance has restricted the clinical application. Although autophagy is considered an adaptive response for cell survival under the pressure of chemotherapy and associated with chemotherapy resistance, its initiator and the precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, it was determined that TMZ increases the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 5 (TRPC5) protein expression and the basal autophagy level, and the upregulation of autophagy is mediated by TRPC5 in glioma cells. Additionally, knockdown of TRPC5 upregulated the chemotherapy sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, TRPC5‑small interfering RNA and pharmacological inhibition indicated that the Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase β (CaMKKβ)/AMP‑activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)/mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) pathway mediates cell survival autophagy during TMZ treatment. In addition, TMZ‑resistant U87/TMZ cells retained a high basal autophagy level, while silence of TRPC5 expression or inhibition of autophagy reversed TMZ resistance. Thus, the present study revealed that TRPC5, an initiator of autophagy, upregulated TMZ resistance via the CaMKKβ/AMPKα/mTOR pathway and this indicated a novel therapeutic site for drug resistance in glioma chemotherapy.

Braga C, Vaz AR, Oliveira MC, et al.
Targeting gliomas with triazene-based hybrids: Structure-activity relationship, mechanistic study and stability.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 172:16-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Herein we report novel hybrid compounds based on valproic acid and DNA-alkylating triazene moieties, 1, with therapeutic potential for glioblastoma multiforme chemotherapy. We identified hybrid compounds 1d and 1e to be remarkably more potent against glioma and more efficient in decreasing invasive cell properties than temozolomide and endowed with chemical and plasma stability. In contrast to temozolomide, which undergoes hydrolysis to release an alkylating metabolite, the valproate hybrids showed a low potential to alkylate DNA. Key physicochemical properties align for optimal CNS penetration, highlighting the potential of these effective triazene based-hybrids for enhanced anticancer chemotherapy.

Aoki K, Natsume A
Overview of DNA methylation in adult diffuse gliomas.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2019; 36(2):84-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult diffuse gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system that vary greatly in histology and prognosis. A significant advance during the last decade has been the identification of a set of genetic lesions that correlate well with histology and clinical outcome in diffuse gliomas. Most characteristic driver mutations consist of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2, and H3 histone family member 3A, which are strongly associated with DNA and histone methylation patterns. A well-characterized DNA methylation aberration is on the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter. This aberration is associated with an improved response to the DNA alkylating agent, temozolomide. Methylation alterations are used for classification or treatment decisions of diffuse gliomas. This supports the importance of considering epigenomic aberrations in the pathogenesis of gliomas. Recent DNA methylation analyses revealed a small group of IDH mutant diffuse gliomas exhibiting decreased DNA hypermethylation resulting in substantial unfavorable prognosis comparable to glioblastoma. Thus, DNA methylation patterns may become a new standard that replaces the conventional grading system based on histological diagnosis. In this review, we summarize recent developments regarding the contributions of methylation patterns to the pathogenesis of adult diffuse glioma, the interactions between methylation patterns and driver mutations, and potential epigenomic targeted therapies.

Yordanova A, Ahrens H, Feldmann G, et al.
Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy Combined With Chemotherapy in Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Clin Nucl Med. 2019; 44(5):e329-e335 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Combinations of therapies may enhance therapeutic effects without significantly increasing the incidence of adverse events. However, there are few data regarding survival after concomitant chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with [Lu]Lu-octreotate in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Thus, we explored the outcome of this combination of therapies.
METHODS: Fifteen patients with somatostatin receptor-positive, rapidly progressive G2/G3 NETs during chemotherapy or PRRT alone from 2 German cancer centers were included in the retrospective analysis. The patients received a combination of PRRT and chemotherapy with temozolomide (n = 3) or temozolomide plus capecitabine (n = 12). To evaluate the effects of the combined treatment, we assessed the responses, survival, and adverse events.
RESULTS: The cumulative administered activity of [Lu]Lu-octreotate had a median of 21.3 GBq after 3 cycles of combination therapy. The patients exhibited a median progression-free survival of 7.1 months and a median overall survival of 25.3 months. The clinical benefit (objective response and stable disease) rates were as follows: 55% of patients according to CT, 38% in [F]F-FDG PET/CT, and 44% in [Ga]Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. One patient with rapidly progressing liver metastases experienced grade 4 liver failure according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 5.0). Four other patients (27%) experienced significantly elevated (grade 3) liver parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: According to different imaging modalities, the combination of PRRT and temozolomide +/- capecitabine led to disease control in 38% to 55% of the progressive NETs after PRRT or chemotherapy alone failed. The overall survival in this extensively pretreated group of patients was nearly 25 months. The majority of patients did not experience any serious adverse events.

He Y, Kaina B
Are There Thresholds in Glioblastoma Cell Death Responses Triggered by Temozolomide?
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of high-grade malignant glioma, notably glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form of brain cancer. The drug induces a dozen DNA methylation adducts, including

Yin J, Zeng A, Zhang Z, et al.
Exosomal transfer of miR-1238 contributes to temozolomide-resistance in glioblastoma.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 42:238-251 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although temozolomide (TMZ) resistance is a significant clinical problem in glioblastoma (GBM), its underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we identified the role of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) from TMZ-resistant cells as important mediators of chemoresistance in GBM cells.
METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from TMZ-resistant GBM cells and characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Expression levels of miR-1238 in GBM cell lines and their exosomes, clinical tissues, and sera were evaluated by RT-qPCR. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to elucidate the function of exosomal miR-1238 in TMZ resistance in GBM cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate the potential mechanisms of miR-1238/CAV1 that contribute to TMZ resistance.
FINDINGS: MiR-1238 levels were higher in TMZ-resistant GBM cells and their exosomes than in sensitive cells. Higher levels of miR-1238 were found in the sera of GBM patients than in healthy people. The loss of miR-1238 may sensitize resistant GBM cells by directly targeting the CAV1/EGFR pathway. Furthermore, bioactive miR-1238 may be incorporated into the exosomes shed by TMZ-resistant cells and taken up by TMZ-sensitive cells, thus disseminating TMZ resistance.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings establish that miR-1238 plays an important role in mediating the acquired chemoresistance of GBM and that exosomal miR-1238 may confer chemoresistance in the tumour microenvironment. These results suggest that circulating miR-1238 serves as a clinical biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for TMZ resistance in GBM. FUND: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No·81402056, 81472362, and 81772951) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863) (No·2012AA02A508).

Byun HK, Kim N, Yoon HI, et al.
Clinical predictors of radiation-induced lymphopenia in patients receiving chemoradiation for glioblastoma: clinical usefulness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the immuno-oncology era.
Radiat Oncol. 2019; 14(1):51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is currently being examined as a treatment modality for glioblastoma. Maintaining an optimal total lymphocyte count (TLC) after radiotherapy (RT) and using temozolomide may be beneficial in optimizing immunotherapy. However, conventional temozolomide-based chemoradiation is known to induce immunosuppressive effects, including lymphopenia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential clinical predictors of acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) in patients receiving chemoradiation for glioblastoma.
METHODS: We identified patients with glioblastoma treated with RT plus temozolomide from 2006 to 2017. ASL was defined as a TLC of < 500/μL within 3 months after initiating RT. Independent predictors of ASL were determined using logistic regression.
RESULTS: A total of 336 patients were evaluated. Three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) were used in 186 (55.4%) and 150 patients (44.6%), respectively. TLC decreased during RT and remained persistently low during the 1-year follow-up, whereas the levels of other blood cell types recovered. In total, 118 patients (35.1%) developed ASL. During a median follow-up of 19.3 months, patients with ASL showed significantly worse overall survival than did those without ASL (median, 18.2 vs. 22.0 months; P = .028). Multivariable analysis revealed that increased planning target volume (PTV) was independently associated with increased ASL incidence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.03; P = .042), while IMRT was independently associated with decreased ASL incidence (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87; P = .015). A propensity-matched comparison showed that the incidence of ASL was lower with IMRT than with 3D-CRT (20% vs. 37%; P = .005).
CONCLUSIONS: IMRT and low PTV were significantly associated with decreased ASL incidence after RT plus temozolomide for glioblastoma. An IMRT-based strategy is necessary to enhance treatment outcomes in the immune-oncology era.

Norden AD, Korytowsky B, You M, et al.
A Real-World Claims Analysis of Costs and Patterns of Care in Treated Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme in the United States.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2019; 25(4):428-436 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have a poor prognosis and high likelihood of recurrence. Routine care for incident cases in the United States involves surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Real-world data reporting the treatments and health care burden associated with GBM are limited.
OBJECTIVE: To assess patterns of care, health care resource utilization (HCRU), and costs associated with treatment of GBM in the United States.
METHODS: This study is a retrospective claims database analysis. Adult patients with a GBM diagnosis (index date) between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2016, who had undergone brain surgery within 90 days of the index date, had received temozolomide and/or RT up to 90 days after index date, and had at least 6 months of continuous enrollment before the index date, were identified. Patients were excluded if they had (a) another primary cancer within 6 months pre-index, (b) secondary brain metastases, or (c) received temozolomide and/or RT pre-index. Baseline characteristics, treatments, HCRU, and costs were reported. First-line therapy began upon first receipt of RT and/or temozolomide after index date; second-line therapy began when a new drug was added > 28 days after initiation of first-line therapy or when there was a treatment gap > 90 days. Treatment regimens, duration of treatment (corrected group prognosis method), HCRU, and costs were reported descriptively in the 0- to 6-month and 7- to 12-month periods following initiation of first-line and second-line therapy.
RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were comparable between patients receiving temozolomide and/or RT. Patients receiving RT without chemotherapy tended to be older, be retired, and have more baseline comorbidities. Of the 4,071 patients receiving first-line therapy for GBM, most (73.0%) received temozolomide + RT; 24.4% received RT; and 2.5% received temozolomide monotherapy. Of those receiving first-line therapy, 1,283 (31.5%) patients subsequently received second-line therapy: 39.4% received bevacizumab monotherapy; 28.9% received bevacizumab combination therapy (temozolomide, 45.2% of patients; irinotecan, 24.3%; and temozolomide + lomustine, 15.4%); 15.5% received temozolomide monotherapy; and 13.7% received other systemic cancer therapies. The proportion of patients with hospitalizations increased from 2.9% (4-6 months pre-index) to 20.8% in the 3 months before the index date (likely due to diagnostic procedures) and 28.1% in the first 6 months after index (likely due to surgery) and then decreased to 13.3% in the 7- to 12-month period after index. Mean total per-patient costs at 6 and 12 months were $117,325 and $162,550 (first line) and $126,128 and $243,833 (second line). Costs in all time periods were largely driven by costs of RT/systemic cancer therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with newly diagnosed GBM received treatment according to recommendations. However, relatively few patients received second-line therapy, and the HCRU burden and costs associated with both lines of therapy were substantial. Novel therapies for GBM are required to improve treatment options and outcomes in these patients.
DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb (Princeton Pike, NJ). Neither honoraria nor payments were provided for authorship. Norden received consultancy fees relating to this study from Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dastani, Korytowsky, Le, Singh, and You are employees of Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dastani and Korytowsky are shareholders of Bristol-Myers Squibb. Bobiak was an employee of Bristol-Myers Squibb at the time of this study. Preliminary data from this study were previously presented at the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 22nd Annual International Meeting in Boston, MA, May 20-24, 2017.

Jeong H, Park J, Shim JK, et al.
Combined treatment with 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde and temozolomide suppresses glioblastoma tumorspheres by decreasing stemness and invasiveness.
J Neurooncol. 2019; 143(1):69-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive human primary brain malignancy. The key properties of GBM, stemness and invasiveness, are known to be associated with a highly unfavorable prognosis. Notably, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely related to the progression of GBM. On the basis of reports that 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) and its derivative, 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA), suppresses EMT in several human cancer cells, we sought to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of HCA and BCA, alone and in combination with temozolomide (TMZ), on GBM tumorspheres (TSs).
METHODS: Two human GBM TSs were treated with HCA, BCA, or TMZ. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by measuring ATP levels, neurosphere formation, 3D-invasion in collagen matrix, and viability. Protein expression profiles after drug treatment were evaluated by western blotting. In vivo anticancer efficacy of drugs was examined in a mouse orthotopic xenograft model.
RESULTS: Combined treatment of GBM TSs with HCA or BCA and TMZ significantly reduced cell viability, stemness, and invasiveness. Expression levels of stemness-, invasiveness-, and mesenchymal transition-associated markers, Zeb1, N-cadherin, and β-catenin, were also substantially decreased by the combined treatment. The combined treatment also reduced tumor growth in a mouse orthotopic xenograft model.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that HCA and BCA, combined with TMZ, are potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of GBM.

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