EGR1

Gene Summary

Gene:EGR1; early growth response 1
Aliases: TIS8, AT225, G0S30, NGFI-A, ZNF225, KROX-24, ZIF-268
Location:5q31.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the EGR family of C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins. It is a nuclear protein and functions as a transcriptional regulator. The products of target genes it activates are required for differentitation and mitogenesis. Studies suggest this is a cancer suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:early growth response protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (32)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Early Growth Response Protein 1
  • Treatment Failure
  • Apoptosis
  • Chromosome 5
  • EGR1
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Western Blotting
  • Young Adult
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cell Survival
  • RNA Interference
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Base Sequence
  • Receptors, Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Movement
  • Breast Cancer
  • beta-Galactosidase
  • Lung Cancer
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Virus Latency
  • Cell Cycle
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Binding Sites
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Proteins
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EGR1 (cancer-related)

Ahmad HM, Muiwo P, Muthuswami R, Bhattacharya A
FosB regulates expression of miR-22 during PMA induced differentiation of K562 cells to megakaryocytes.
Biochimie. 2017; 133:1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of many miRNAs is altered in different cancers and these changes are thought to play a key role in formation and progression of cancer. In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) a number of miRNAs are known to be down regulated as compared to normal cells. In this report we have investigated the mechanism of this down regulation by using PMA induced differentiation of CML cell line K562 to megakaryocytes as an experimental system. On treatment with PMA, expression of many down regulated miRNAs including miR-22 is induced. PMA also induces expression of several transcription factors, including FosB, EGR1 and EGR2. Our results using a number of approaches, such as promoter reporter assay, FosB knock down and Chip assay, suggest that the expression of miR-22 is regulated transcriptionally by FosB.

Georg B, Falktoft B, Fahrenkrug J
PKA, novel PKC isoforms, and ERK is mediating PACAP auto-regulation via PAC1R in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cells.
Neuropeptides. 2016; 60:83-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neuropeptide PACAP is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system where it modulates diverse physiological functions including neuropeptide gene expression. We here report that in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cells PACAP transiently induces its own expression. Maximal PACAP mRNA expression was found after stimulation with PACAP for 3h. PACAP auto-regulation was found to be mediated by activation of PACAP specific PAC1Rs as PACAP had >100-fold higher efficacy than VIP, and the PAC1R selective agonist Maxadilan potently induced PACAP gene expression. Experiments with pharmacological kinase inhibitors revealed that both PKA and novel but not conventional PKC isozymes were involved in the PACAP auto-regulation. Inhibition of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) also impeded the induction, and we found that PKA, novel PKC and ERK acted in parallel and were thus not part of the same pathways. The expression of the transcription factor EGR1 previously ascribed as target of PACAP signalling was found to be transiently induced by PACAP and pharmacological inhibition of either PKC or MEK1/2 abolished PACAP mediated EGR1 induction. In contrast, inhibition of PKA mediated increased PACAP mediated EGR1 induction. Experiments using siRNA against EGR1 to lower the expression did however not affect the PACAP auto-regulation indicating that this immediate early gene product is not part of PACAP auto-regulation in NB-1 cells. We here reveal that in NB-1 neuroblastoma cells, PACAP induces its own expression by activation of PAC1R, and that the signalling is different from the PAC1R signalling mediating induction of VIP in the same cells. PACAP auto-regulation depends on parallel activation of PKA, novel PKC isoforms, and ERK, while EGR1 does not seem to be part of the PACAP auto-regulation.

Choi EJ, Yoo NJ, Kim MS, et al.
Putative Tumor Suppressor Genes EGR1 and BRSK1 Are Mutated in Gastric and Colorectal Cancers.
Oncology. 2016; 91(5):289-294 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The transcription factor-encoding EGR1 and the kinase-encoding BRSK1 are considered putative tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). However, EGR1 and BRSK1 mutations that could inactivate their functions are not reported in colorectal (CRC) and gastric (GC) cancers.
METHODS: There are mononucleotide repeats in EGR1 and BRSK1, which could be mutated in cancers with defects in mismatch repair, resulting in microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed 124 CRCs and 79 GCs for mutations and their intratumoral heterogeneities (ITHs).
RESULTS: Twenty-one out of 79 CRCs (26.6%) and 5 out of 34 GCs (14.7%) carrying high MSI (MSI-H) exhibited frameshift mutations. However, we found no such mutations in cancers with microsatellite stability. In addition, we studied ITH for these mutations in 16 cases of CRCs and observed that EGR1 and BRSK1 mutations exhibited ITH in 3 (18.8%) and 2 (12.5%) cases, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our data in this study reveal that the TSG genes EGR1 and BRSK1 carry mutational ITH as well as frameshift mutations in MSI-H CRC and GC, which together may be features of GC and CRC with MSI-H. These results suggest that frameshift mutations of EGR1 and BRSK1 might play a role in tumorigenesis through TSG inactivation in CRC and GC.

Song L, Du A, Xiong Y, et al.
γ-Aminobutyric acid inhibits the proliferation and increases oxaliplatin sensitivity in human colon cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14885-14894 [PubMed] Related Publications
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a natural non-protein amino acid, which broadly exists in many plant parts and is widely used as an ingredient in the food industry. In mammals, it is widely distributed in central nervous system and non-neural tissues. In addition to a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, endogenous GABA content has been found to be elevated in neoplastic tissues in colon cancer. However, the effect of extraneous GABA on colon cancer has rarely been reported. In this study, we found the inhibitory effects of GABA on the proliferation of colon cancer cells (CCCs). The amino acid also suppressed metastasis of SW480 and SW620 cells. To further study the correlated mechanism, we analyzed the changes in cell cycle distribution and found that GABA suppressed cell cycle progression through G2/M or G1/S phase. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis revealed GABA-induced changes in the mRNA expression of 30 genes, including EGR1, MAPK4, NR4A1, Fos, and FosB, in all the three types of CCC. Importantly, GABA enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of oxaliplatin (OXA) in subcutaneous xenograft tumor model in nude mice. The data suggest that GABA inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation perhaps by attenuating EGR1-NR4A1 axis, EGR1-Fos axis, and by disrupting MEK-EGR1 signaling pathway. This work reveals the pharmacological value of GABA derived from food and suggests that exogenous GABA might play an auxiliary role in polychemotherapy of colon cancer.

Ribeiro JR, Schorl C, Yano N, et al.
HE4 promotes collateral resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer cells.
J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy resistance presents a difficult challenge in treating epithelial ovarian cancer patients, particularly when tumors exhibit resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents. A few studies have shown that elevated serum levels of the ovarian cancer biomarker HE4 correlate with tumor chemoresistance, response to treatment, and survival. Here, we sought to confirm our previous results that HE4 contributes to collateral resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel in vitro and uncover factors that may contribute to HE4-mediated chemoresistance.
METHODS: MTS assays and western blots for cleaved PARP were used to assess resistance of HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 and OVCAR8 clones to cisplatin and paclitaxel. CRISPR/Cas technology was used to knockdown HE4 in HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells. A microarray was conducted to determine differential gene expression between SKOV3 null vector-transfected and HE4-overexpressing clones upon cisplatin exposure, and results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and tubulins were assessed by western blot.
RESULTS: HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 and OVCAR8 clones displayed increased resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel. Knockdown of HE4 in HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells partially reversed chemoresistance. Microarray analysis revealed that HE4 overexpression resulted in suppression of cisplatin-mediated upregulation of EGR1, a MAPK-regulated gene involved in promoting apoptosis. Upregulation of p38, a MAPK activated in response to cisplatin, was suppressed in HE4-overexpressing clones. No differences in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation were noted in HE4-overexpressing clones treated with 25 μM cisplatin, but ERK activation was partially suppressed in HE4-overexpressing clones treated with 80 μM cisplatin. Furthermore, treatment of cells with recombinant HE4 dramatically affected ERK activation in SKOV3 and OVCAR8 wild type cells. Recombinant HE4 also upregulated α-tubulin and β-tubulin levels in SKOV3 and OVCAR8 cells, and microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene expression was increased in SKOV3 HE4-overexpressing clones.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of HE4 promotes collateral resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel, and downregulation of HE4 partially reverses this chemoresistance. Multiple factors could be involved in HE4-mediated chemoresistance, including deregulation of MAPK signaling, as well as alterations in tubulin levels or stability.

Li L, Zhao LM, Dai SL, et al.
Periplocin Extracted from Cortex Periplocae Induced Apoptosis of Gastric Cancer Cells via the ERK1/2-EGR1 Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(5):1939-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Periplocin is extracted from the traditional herbal medicine cortex periplocae, which has been reported to suppress the growth of cancer cells. However, little is known about its effect on gastric cancer cells.
METHODS: Gastric cancer cells were treated with periplocin, and cell viability was assessed using MTS assay. Flow cytometry and TUNEL staining were performed to evaluate apoptosis, and protein expression was examined by western blotting. Microarray analysis was used to screen for changes in related genes.
RESULTS: We found that periplocin had an inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Periplocin inhibited cell viability via the ERK1/2-EGR1 pathway to induce apoptosis. Periplocin also inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts and induced apoptosis in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that periplocin inhibits the proliferation of gastric cancer cells and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential to be used as an antitumor drug.

Zhang D, Li Y, Wang R, et al.
Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy.

Yu Y, Luo Y, Zheng Y, et al.
Exploring the mechanism of non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines resistant to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016 Jan-Mar; 12(1):121-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Here we aimed to explore the possible mechanism and potential regulatory relationships in which the non.small.cell lung cancer. (NSCLC)-resisted epidermal growth factor receptor. (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: GSE38310, the gene expression profiles of NSCLC cell lines treated with dimethylsulfoxide or erlotinib, including HCC827, ER3, and T15-2, were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database and preprocessed by normalization. Basing on the regulatory relationships of transcriptional factors obtained from University of California Santa Cruz. (UCSC) database, the differentially expressed genes. (DEGs) were screened using limma package in R with. |logFC| >1 and P < 0.05, and regulatory networks of these DEGs were built with supervised inference of regulatory networks (SIRENE). Subsequently, differentially regulatory networks were compared basing on Limit Fold Change. (LFC) method.
RESULTS: Totally 24,380 genes were obtained, 1,531 DEGs were identified in HCC827 cell lines, 37 DEGs in ER3 cell lines, 156 DEGs in T15-2 cell lines. After removing the redundancy genes, 1,575 differentially expressed genes were got at last. Basing on three regulatory networks of HCC827 cell lines, ER3 cell lines and T15-2 cell lies, sex-determining region Y (SRY).related high mobility group-box gene 9. (SOX9) and Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (STAT3) were identified by comparing with HCC827 and ER3 networks. And suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 B (STAT5B), early growth response-1 (EGR1) and STAT6 were obtained in comparison of HCC827 and T15-2 networks.
CONCLUSIONS: The regulatory edges with remarkable changes between HCC827 and ER3, HCC827 and T15.2 included some transcription factors and genes. (e. g., STAT3 and SOX9). STAT3, SOX9, STAT5B, EGR1, and STAT6 might affect the resistance of NSCLC to erlotinib.

Wu SY, Rupaimoole R, Shen F, et al.
A miR-192-EGR1-HOXB9 regulatory network controls the angiogenic switch in cancer.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:11169 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A deeper mechanistic understanding of tumour angiogenesis regulation is needed to improve current anti-angiogenic therapies. Here we present evidence from systems-based miRNA analyses of large-scale patient data sets along with in vitro and in vivo experiments that miR-192 is a key regulator of angiogenesis. The potent anti-angiogenic effect of miR-192 stems from its ability to globally downregulate angiogenic pathways in cancer cells through regulation of EGR1 and HOXB9. Low miR-192 expression in human tumours is predictive of poor clinical outcome in several cancer types. Using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) nanoliposomes, we show that miR-192 delivery leads to inhibition of tumour angiogenesis in multiple ovarian and renal tumour models, resulting in tumour regression and growth inhibition. This anti-angiogenic and anti-tumour effect is more robust than that observed with an anti-VEGF antibody. Collectively, these data identify miR-192 as a central node in tumour angiogenesis and support the use of miR-192 in an anti-angiogenesis therapy.

Sakakini N, Turchi L, Bergon A, et al.
A Positive Feed-forward Loop Associating EGR1 and PDGFA Promotes Proliferation and Self-renewal in Glioblastoma Stem Cells.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(20):10684-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
Glioblastomas are the most common primary brain tumors, highly vascularized, infiltrating, and resistant to current therapies. This cancer leads to a fatal outcome in less than 18 months. The aggressive behavior of glioblastomas, including resistance to current treatments and tumor recurrence, has been attributed to glioma stemlike/progenitor cells. The transcription factor EGR1 (early growth response 1), a member of a zinc finger transcription factor family, has been described as tumor suppressor in gliomas when ectopically overexpressed. Although EGR1 expression in human glioblastomas has been associated with patient survival, its precise location in tumor territories as well as its contribution to glioblastoma progression remain elusive. In the present study, we show that EGR1-expressing cells are more frequent in high grade gliomas where the nuclear expression of EGR1 is restricted to proliferating/progenitor cells. We show in primary cultures of glioma stemlike cells that EGR1 contributes to stemness marker expression and proliferation by orchestrating a PDGFA-dependent growth-stimulatory loop. In addition, we demonstrate that EGR1 acts as a positive regulator of several important genes, including SHH, GLI1, GLI2, and PDGFA, previously linked to the maintenance and proliferation of glioma stemlike cells.

Lu JC, Zhang YP
E2F, HSF2, and miR-26 in thyroid carcinoma: bioinformatic analysis of RNA-sequencing data.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1):15017576 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinoma (THCA) using bioinformatics. RNA-sequencing data of THCA (N = 498) and normal thyroid tissue (N = 59) were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Next, gene expression levels were calculated using the TCC package and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the edgeR package. A co-expression network was constructed using the EBcoexpress package and visualized by Cytoscape, and functional and pathway enrichment of DEGs in the co-expression network was analyzed with DAVID and KOBAS 2.0. Moreover, modules in the co-expression network were identified and annotated using MCODE and BiNGO plugins. Small-molecule drugs were analyzed using the cMAP database, and miRNAs and transcription factors regulating DEGs were identified by WebGestalt. A total of 254 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated DEGs were identified between THCA samples and controls. DEGs enriched in biological process terms were related to cell adhesion, death, and growth and negatively correlated with various small-molecule drugs. The co-expression network of the DEGs consisted of hub genes (ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, and SERPINA1) and one module (JUN, FOSB, and EGR1). Furthermore, 5 miRNAs and 5 transcription factors were identified, including E2F, HSF2, and miR-26. miR-26 may participate in THCA by targeting CITED1 and PLA2R1; E2F may participate in THCA by regulating ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, EGR1, and JUN; HSF2 may be involved in THCA development by regulating SERPINA1 and FOSB; and small-molecule drugs may have anti-THCA effects. Our results provide novel directions for mechanistic studies and drug design of THCA.

Zhong BL, Bian LJ, Wang GM, et al.
Identification of key genes involved in HER2-positive breast cancer.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(4):664-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: As an invasive cancer, breast cancer is the most common tumour in women and is with high mortality. To study the mechanisms of HER2-positive breast cancer, we analyzed microarray of GSE52194.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: GSE52194 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus including 5 HER2-positive breast cancer samples and 3 normal breast samples. Using cuffdiff software, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were screened. Functions of the DEGs were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed using Cytoscape and modules of the PPI network were screened by CFinder. Moreover, lncRNA-DEG pairs were screened.
RESULTS: Total 209 lncRNA transcriptions were predicted, and 996 differentially expressed transcriptions were screened. Besides, FOS had interaction relationships with EGR1 and SOD2 separately in module E and F of the PPI network for the DEGs. Moreover, there were many lncRNA-DEG pairs (e.g. TCONS_00003876-EGR1, TCONS_00003876-FOS, lnc-HOXC4-3:1-FOS, lnc-HOXC4-3:1-BCL6B, lnc-TEAD4-1:1-FOS and lnc-TEAD4-1:1-BCL6B), meanwhile, co-expressed DEGs of TCONS_00003876, lnc-HOXC4-3:1 and lnc-TEAD4-1:1 were enriched in p53 signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and cancer-related pathways, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA1, EGR1, BCL6, SOD2, FOS, TCONS_00003876, lnc-HOXC4-3:1 and lnc-TEAD4-1:1 might play a role in HER2-positive breast cancer.

He S, Zhong Y, Shuai C, et al.
Tumor suppressor NGX6 inhibits the growth and metastasis of multiple cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):5751-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated gene 6 (NGX6) is a membrane protein primarily located in the nuclear membrane and cell membrane. Several groups reported that NGX6 gene was down-regulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer and even less in the carcinomas with metastasis. Current studies have demonstrated that NGX6 possesses various biological functions, such as regulating protein expression of related genes, involving cell signal transduction pathways, negatively controlling cell cycle progression, inhibiting angiogenesis, and increasing the sensitivity of patients to anti-cancer drugs. Some factors regulating the expression level of NGX6 gene also have been studied. The methylation of promoter of NGX6 and histone H3K9 negatively regulates its expression, similar to the function of transcription factor special protein-1 (Sp1). However, the regulatory factor early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) is provided with positive regulation function. This review will summarize the progress of those studies on NGX6 and elucidate the potential application of NGX6 for some malignant diseases.

Uno M, Kokuryo T, Yokoyama Y, et al.
α-Bisabolol Inhibits Invasiveness and Motility in Pancreatic Cancer Through KISS1R Activation.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(2):583-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
α-Bisabolol is a plant-derived, oily sesquiterpene alcohol that induces apoptosis of various cancer cells. We previously reported the antiproliferative effects of α-bisabolol on pancreatic cancer cell lines using in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, the effects of α-bisabolol on tumor invasiveness and motility are still unknown. In this study, demonstrated that α-bisabolol suppressed the invasiveness and motility of a pancreatic cancer cell line. Although Early growth response 1 (EGR1) was involved in antiproliferative effects of α-bisabolol, it had no relationship with the inhibitory effect of α-bisabolol on cellular invasiveness and motility. Polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that α-bisabolol induced Kisspeptin 1 receptor (KISS1R) in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The inhibition of KISS1R weakened the inhibitory effect of α-bisabolol on invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. The results also implied that the inhibitory effects of α-bisabolol on tumor invasiveness and motility are at least partly associated with the activation of KISS1R. However, there is a possibility that other molecular mechanisms of α-bisabolol regulate invasiveness and motility in pancreatic cancer cells. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the precise mechanisms of α-bisabolol activity for clinical application as a novel treatment for pancreatic cancer.

Mizutani N, Omori Y, Kawamoto Y, et al.
Resveratrol-induced transcriptional up-regulation of ASMase (SMPD1) of human leukemia and cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 470(4):851-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol (RSV) is a plant-derived phytoalexin present in plants, whose pleiotropic effects for health benefits have been previously reported. Its anti-cancer activity is among the current topics for novel cancer treatment. Here, effects of RSV on cell proliferation and the sphingolipid metabolism of K562, a human leukemia cell line, were analyzed. Some experiments were also performed in HCT116, a human colon cancer cell line. RSV inhibited cell proliferation of both cell lines. Increased cellular ceramide and decreased sphingomyelin and S1P by RSV were observed in RSV-treated K562 cells. Further analysis revealed that acid sphingomyelinase mRNA and enzyme activity levels were increased by RSV. Desipramine, a functional ASMase inhibitor, prevented RSV-induced ceramide increase. RSV increased ATF3, EGR1, EGR3 proteins and phosphorylated c-Jun and FOXO3. However, co-transfection using these transcription factor expression vectors and ASMase promoter reporter vector revealed positive effects of EGR1 and EGR3 but not others. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated the direct binding of EGR1/3 transcription factors with ASMase 5'-promoter. These results indicate that increased EGR1/3 and ASMase expression play an important role in cellular ceramide increase by RSV treatment.

Koyani CN, Kitz K, Rossmann C, et al.
Activation of the MAPK/Akt/Nrf2-Egr1/HO-1-GCLc axis protects MG-63 osteosarcoma cells against 15d-PGJ2-mediated cell death.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2016; 104:29-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
Despite considerable efforts to improve treatment modalities for osteosarcoma (OS), patient survival remains poor mainly due to pro-survival pathways in OS cells. Among others, prostaglandins (PGs) are the potent regulators of bone homoeostasis and OS pathophysiology. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the impact of 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2, a stable PGD2 degradation product) on cell death/cell survival pathways in p53-deficient MG-63 OS cells. Our findings show that 15d-PGJ2 induces generation of reactive oxygen species that promote p38 MAPK activation and subsequent Akt phosphorylation. This pathway induced nuclear expression of Nrf2 and Egr1, and increased transcription of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc), catalysing the first step in GSH synthesis. Silencing of Nrf2, Egr1 and HO-1 significantly elevated 15d-PGJ2-mediated reduction of cellular metabolic activity. Activation of cell survival genes including HO-1 and GCLc inhibited 15d-PGJ2-induced cleavage of pro-caspase-3 and PARP. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining showed an increase in early/late apoptotic cells in response to 15d-PGJ2. The observed 15d-PGJ2-mediated signalling events are independent of PGD2 receptors (DP1 and DP2) and PPARγ. In addition, the electrophilic carbon atom C9 is a prerequisite for the observed activity of 15d-PGJ2. The present data show that the intracellular redox imbalance acted as a node and triggered both death and survival pathways in response to 15d-PGJ2. Pharmacological or genetic interference of the pro-survival pathway, the p38 MAPK/Akt/Nrf2-Egr1/HO-1-GCLc axis, sensitizes MG-63 cells towards 15d-PGJ2-mediated apoptosis.

Norouzi S, Norouzi M, Amini M, et al.
Two COX-2 inhibitors induce apoptosis in human erythroleukemia K562cells by modulating NF-κB and FHC pathways.
Daru. 2016; 24:1 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leukemia is distinguished by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes. Although there has been some progress in developing novel cancer therapies, no significant improvement was observed in the overall survival rate over the last decade. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are known to inhibit tumor growth by exerting antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects through inhibition of COX -dependent and independent pathways. The ability of two new triaryl-oxadiazole derivatives, compounds A (3-(4-chlorophenyl) -5-(4-flurophenyl)-4-Phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazole) and B (3,5-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-4-Phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazole), to induce apoptosis in human erythroleukemia K562 cells was evaluated and the upstream mechanism was investigated.
METHODS: K562 cells were treated with compounds A and B at their IC50 concentrations and analyzed by DAPI staining and Annexin-V-FLUOS labelling solution. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation was evaluated by TransAM kit. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, ferritin heavy chain (FHC), extra cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p-ERK and early growth response protein-1 (Egr1) levels were determined using Western blotting, while c-Myc mRNA level was investigated by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Changes in nuclear morphology and the increased annexin-V/PI staining revealed the apoptotic cell death in compounds A- and B-treated K562 cells. A significant reduction in NF-κB activity as well as FHC and p-ERK levels were detected in these cells. No change was observed in the levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, COX-2, c-Myc and Egr1, following treatment with the two compounds. Collectively, compounds A and B potentiate apoptosis as shown by DAPI staining, flowcytometry, FHC and p-ERK downregulation and NF-κB inactivation.
CONCLUSION: Two compounds induce apoptosis in a COX-2-independent manner which also appears to be independent from mitochondria, caspase and c-Myc/Egr1 pathways.

Han Y, Zhang Q, Yu X, et al.
Immunohistochemical detection of STAT6, CD34, CD99 and BCL-2 for diagnosing solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13166-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs)/hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are uncommon mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic type that can arise anywhere in the body. Recently, NGFI-A binding protein 2 (NAB2)-signal transducer and the activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) fusion gene were discovered as a hallmark of SFTs/HPCs by using whole-exome, and transcriptome sequencing; consequently, the fusion gene can be rapidly detected by STAT6 immunohistochemistry. In this study, 53 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues were performed using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against STAT6, CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2. Nuclear STAT6 positive staining was present in 51 cases (51/53, sensitivity 96.2%), which were usually diffuse (4+ in 14 cases; 3+ in 13 cases; 2+ in 9 cases; 1+ in 15 cases) and intense (strong in 17 cases; moderate in 22 cases; and weak in 12 cases) staining. CD34 was positive in 47 cases (47/53, sensitivity 88.7%), CD99 was positive in 50 cases (50/53, sensitivity 94.3%) and Bcl-2 was positive in 51 cases (51/53, sensitivity 96.2%). There is no difference among categories such as age, sex, location, tumor size, or estimated dignity in immunohistochemical staining of STAT6, CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2. The nuclear STAT6 being positive is a helpful and highly sensitive marker in diagnosis of SFTs/HPCs. Considering immunohistochemical STAT6, CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2 findings together can provide more supportive diagnostic information.

Peng WX, Xiong EM, Ge L, et al.
Egr-1 promotes hypoxia-induced autophagy to enhance chemo-resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2016; 340(1):62-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies suggest that early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) plays an important role in hypoxia-induced drug-resistance. However, the mechanism still remains to be clarified. Herein, we investigated the role of Egr-1 in hypoxia-induced autophagy and its resulted hypoxia-driven chemo-resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) cells. Our data demonstrated that Egr-1 was overexpressed in HCC tissues and cells and conferred them drug resistance under hypoxia. Mechanistically, Egr-1 transcriptionally regulated hypoxia-induced autophagy by binding to LC3 promoter in HCC cells, which resulted in resistance of HCC cells to chemotherapeutic agents; while dominant negative Egr-1 could inhibit autophagy level, and thus enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to chemotherapeutic agents, indicating that hypoxia-induced Egr-1 expression enhanced drug resistance of HCC cells likely through autophagy. Accordingly, it is suggested that a mechanism of hypoxia/Egr-1/autophagy axis might be involved in drug resistance in HCC.

Ruiz de Sabando A, Wang C, He Y, et al.
ML264, A Novel Small-Molecule Compound That Potently Inhibits Growth of Colorectal Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(1):72-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Western civilization. Studies have shown that colorectal cancer arises as a consequence of the modification of genes that regulate important cellular functions. Deregulation of the WNT and RAS/MAPK/PI3K signaling pathways has been shown to be important in the early stages of colorectal cancer development and progression. Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the proliferating intestinal crypt epithelial cells. Previously, we showed that KLF5 is a mediator of RAS/MAPK and WNT signaling pathways under homeostatic conditions and that it promotes their tumorigenic functions during the development and progression of intestinal adenomas. Recently, using an ultrahigh-throughput screening approach we identified a number of novel small molecules that have the potential to provide therapeutic benefits for colorectal cancer by targeting KLF5 expression. In the current study, we show that an improved analogue of one of these screening hits, ML264, potently inhibits proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in vitro through modifications of the cell-cycle profile. Moreover, in an established xenograft mouse model of colon cancer, we demonstrate that ML264 efficiently inhibits growth of the tumor within 5 days of treatment. We show that this effect is caused by a significant reduction in proliferation and that ML264 potently inhibits the expression of KLF5 and EGR1, a transcriptional activator of KLF5. These findings demonstrate that ML264, or an analogue, may hold a promise as a novel therapeutic agent to curb the development and progression of colorectal cancer.

Pupo M, Maggiolini M, Musti AM
GPER Mediates Non-Genomic Effects of Estrogen.
Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1366:471-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens are important modulators of a broad spectrum of physiological functions in humans. However, despite their beneficial actions, a number of lines of evidence correlate the sustained exposure to exogenous estrogen with increased risk of the onset of various cancers. Mainly these steroid hormones induce their effects by binding and activating estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). These receptors belong to the family of ligand-regulated transcription factors, and upon activation they regulate the expression of different target genes by binding directly to specific DNA sequences. On the other hand, in recent years it has become clear that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30/GPER) is able to mediate non-genomic action of estrogens in different cell contexts. In particular, GPER has been shown to specifically bind estrogens, and in turn to functionally cross-react with diverse cell signaling systems such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, the Notch signaling pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. In this chapter we will present some of the different experimental techniques currently used to demonstrate the functional role of GPER in mediating non-genomic actions of estrogens, such as the dual luciferase assay, assessment of the involvement of GPER in the stimulation of cell migration in breast cancer cell lines and in cancer-associated fibroblasts, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Overall, the experimental procedures described herein represent key instruments for assessing the biological role of GPER in mediating non-genomic signals of estrogen.

Ponti D, Bastianelli D, Rosa P, et al.
The expression of B23 and EGR1 proteins is functionally linked in tumor cells under stress conditions.
BMC Cell Biol. 2015; 16:27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nucleolus is a multi-domain enriched with proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle and apoptosis control, viral replication and differentiation of stem cells. Several authors have suggested a role for the nucleolus also in malignant transformation. We have recently demonstrated that under specific circumstances the transcriptional factor EGR1 is shuttled to the nucleolus where it functions as a negative regulator of RNA polymerase I. Since this activity is hampered in ARF -/- cells, and ARF transcription is regulated by EGR1 while the turnover of ARF protein is under the control of B23, we speculated that some sort of cooperation between EGR1 and B23 might also exist.
RESULTS: In this work we identified a canonical EGR1 binding site on the B23 promoter through experiments of transactivation and in vitro DNA binding assay. We then found that the levels of B23 expression are directly correlated with those of EGR1, and that this correlation applies to several cellular types and to different stress conditions. Furthermore, we showed that EGR1 stability and accumulation within the nucleolus is in turn regulated by B23 through proteasome involvement, similarly to ARF turnover.
CONCLUSION: Our results highlight EGR1 as a regulator of B23 expression actively playing within the newly discovered nucleolar B23-ARF-EGR1 network.

Shi S, Zhang M, Guo R, et al.
131I therapy mediated by sodium/iodide symporter combined with kringle 5 has a synergistic therapeutic effect on glioma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(2):691-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor; the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) can be used to absorb several isotopes, such as 131I for nuclear medicine imaging and radionuclide therapy. Previously, we found that the early growth response-1 (Egr1) promoter had an 131I radiation positive feedback effect on the NIS gene. Kringle 5 (K5), a kringle domain of plasminogen, induced endothelial cell apoptosis. We investigated the effect of K5 combined with the 131I radiation positive feedback effect (Egr1-NIS) for treating malignant U87 glioma cells using a lentiviral vector. We successfully constructed a stable U87 glioma cell line, U87-K5-Egr1-NIS. The radio-inducible Egr1 promoter induced an 131I radiation positive feedback effect absorbed by NIS. Mediated by 131I, K5 increased glioma cell apoptosis; 131I radiation also increased endothelial cell sensitivity to K5-induced apoptosis. The combined therapy had a synergistic effect on the antitumor efficacy of glioma treatment, not only increasing tumor cell apoptosis but also significantly inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and reducing capillary density in U87 glioma tissues.

Park YJ, Kim EK, Bae JY, et al.
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promotes cancer invasion by modulating cathepsin D via early growth response (EGR)-1.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 370(2):222-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) contributes to tumor progression as well as maintaining telomere length, however, the mechanism by which hTERT promotes invasiveness is not yet completely understood. This study aims to unravel the precise mechanism through which hTERT promotes cancer invasion. We established an hTERT-overexpressed immortalized cell line (IHOK/hTERT). In orthotopic xenograft models, IHOK/hTERT harbors higher tumorigenicity than IHOK/Control. IHOK/hTERT showed much higher migration and invasion activities compared to IHOK/Control. IHOK/hTERT co-cultured with fibroblasts displayed increased invasion compared to IHOK/hTERT without fibroblasts. We screened for genes that play an important role in intermodulation between cancer cells and fibroblasts using a microarray and identified fibroblast activation protein (FAP). hTERT knockdown showed decreased expression of FAP and early growth response (EGR)-1, one of the transcriptional regulators of FAP in IHOK/hTERT and oral cancer cell line YD10B. Furthermore, EGR-1 knockdown in IHOK/hTERT and YD10B showed reduced invasion and reduced cathepsin D expression compared to Control-siRNA cells. Taken together, this study provides evidence that hTERT overexpression is responsible for the upregulation of the cysteine protease cathepsin D by regulating EGR-1 to activate invasiveness in cancer progression.

Wang J, Li Y, Liu Y, et al.
Overexpression of truncated AIF regulated by Egr1 promoter radiation-induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cells.
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2015; 54(4):413-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been demonstrated that gene-radiotherapy can improve the radiotherapy by selectively increasing cells' response to ionizing radiation. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein, and its C-terminal domain is responsible for the proapoptotic activity. In the present study, we overexpressed truncated AIF on MCF-7 cells by transfection of pcDNA3.1-tAIF (pc-tAIF) and pcDNA3.1-Egr1-tAIF (pc-Egr1-tAIF) plasmids. After MCF-7-tAIF cells were exposed to X-rays, the AIF and tAIF expressions, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle invasion, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release and activation of caspase-9 were measured by using Western blot, MTT assay, flow cytometry and Matrigel transwell assay, respectively. Our results showed that tAIF expression increased on time- and dose-dependent manners. Both tAIF and radiation can synergistically enhance the apoptosis, cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and cell-invasive inhibition. In addition, tAIF overexpression and irradiation increased Cyt c release. However, only irradiation increased caspase-9 activation. Our studies indicated that tAIF overexpression might enhance apoptosis induced by radiation in MCF-7 cells.

Stamatakis K, Jimenez-Martinez M, Jimenez-Segovia A, et al.
Prostaglandins induce early growth response 1 transcription factor mediated microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase up-regulation for colorectal cancer progression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(37):39941-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) has been associated with cell growth, invasiveness, tumor progression and metastasis of colorectal carcinomas. However, the downstream prostaglandin (PG)-PG receptor pathway involved in these effects is poorly characterized.We studied the PG-pathway in gene expression databases and we found that PTGS2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) and PTGES (prostaglandin E synthase) are co-expressed in human colorectal tumors. Moreover, we detected that COX2 and microsomal Prostaglandin E2 synthase 1 (mPGES1) proteins are both up-regulated in colorectal human tumor biopsies.Using colon carcinoma cell cultures we found that COX2 overexpression significantly increased mPGES1 mRNA and protein. This up-regulation was due to an increase in early growth response 1 (EGR1) levels and its transcriptional activity. EGR1 was induced by COX2-generated PGF2α. A PGF2α receptor antagonist, or EGR1 silencing, inhibited the mPGES1 induction by COX2 overexpression. Moreover, using immunodeficient mice, we also demonstrated that both COX2- and mPGES1-overexpressing carcinoma cells were more efficient forming tumors.Our results describe for the first time the molecular pathway correlating PTGS2 and PTGES in colon cancer progression. We demonstrated that in this pathway mPGES1 is induced by COX2 overexpression, via autocrine PGs release, likely PGF2α, through an EGR1-dependent mechanism. This signaling provides a molecular explanation to PTGS2 and PTGES association and contribute to colon cancer advance, pointing out novel potential therapeutic targets in this oncological context.

Li L, Zhang CL, Kang L, et al.
Enhanced EJ Cell Killing of (125)I Radiation by Combining with Cytosine Deaminase Gene Therapy Regulated by Synthetic Radio-Responsive Promoter.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2015; 30(8):342-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the enhancing effect of radionuclide therapy by the therapeutic gene placed under the control of radio-responsive promoter.
METHODS: The recombinant lentivirus E8-codA-GFP, including a synthetic radiation-sensitive promoter E8, cytosine deaminase (CD) gene, and green fluorescent protein gene, was constructed. The gene expression activated by (125)I radiation was assessed by observation of green fluorescence. The ability of converting 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorourial (5-FU) by CD enzyme was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The viability of the infected cells exposed to (125)I in the presence of 5-FC was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the infected cells exposed to (125)I alone served as negative control and 5-FU as positive control.
RESULTS: The recombinant lentiviral vector was constructed successfully. On exposure of infected cells to (125)I, green fluorescence can be observed and 5-FU can be detected. MTT assay showed that the survival rate for infected cells treated with (125)I was lower compared with the (125)I control group, but higher than the positive control group.
CONCLUSION: The synthetic promoter E8 can induce the expression of downstream CD gene under (125)I radiation, and the tumor killing effect of (125)I can be enhanced by combining CD gene therapy with radiosensitive promoter.

Li H, Li J, Jia S, et al.
miR675 upregulates long noncoding RNA H19 through activating EGR1 in human liver cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(31):31958-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2017 Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miR675, embedded in H19's first exon, had been linked to the development of human cancers. Herein, we demonstrate miR675 overexpression promotes and silencing miR675 attenuated liver cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, miR675 inhibits the heterochromatin1 isoform HP1α expression in human liver cancer cells which causes a dramatically decrease of the total histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) , histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and a increase of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation(H3K27Ac).Notably, a significant reduction of the H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 and the increment of H3K27Ac occupancy on the promoter region of EGR1 triggers EGR1 transcription, translation, sumoylation and activation which upregulates lincRNA H19. Strikingly, H19 may induce and activate tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) which is essential for the Warburg effect in its dimer and for gene expression in its teramer during tumorigenesis. Our results imply that miR675 is involved in the epigenetic regulation of H3K9me3, H3k27me3 and H3K27Ac for gene expression and function during hepatocarcinogenesis (e.g.C-myc,Pim1,Ras,CyclinD1,RB1).These findings sheds light on the significance of miR675-HP1α-EGR1-H19-PKM2 cascade signaling pathway in liver cancer.

Petzuch B, Groll N, Schwarz M, Braeuning A
Application of HC-AFW1 Hepatocarcinoma Cells for Mechanistic Studies: Regulation of Cytochrome P450 2B6 Expression by Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Early Growth Response 1.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2015; 43(11):1727-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Various exogenous compounds, for example, the drugs bupropione and propofol, but also various cytostatics, are metabolized in the liver by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP2B6. Transcription from the CYP2B6 gene is regulated mainly via the transcription factors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). Most hepatic cell lines express no or only low levels of CYP2B6 because of loss of these two regulators. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is frequently used in liver cell cultivation and is thought to affect the expression of various P450 isoforms by inducing or preserving cellular differentiation. We studied the effects of up to 1.5% of DMSO as cell culture medium supplement on P450 expression in hepatocarcinoma cells from line HC-AFW1. DMSO did not induce differentiation of the HC-AFW1 cell line, as demonstrated by unaltered levels of selected mRNA markers important for hepatocyte differentiation, and also by the lack of a DMSO effect on a broader spectrum of P450s. By contrast, CYP2B6 mRNA was strongly induced by DMSO. This process was independent of CAR or PXR activation. Interestingly, elevated transcription of CYP2B6 was accompanied by a simultaneous induction of early growth response 1 (EGR1), a transcription factor known to influence the expression of CYP2B6. Expression of wild-type EGR1 or of a truncated, dominant-negative EGR1 mutant was able to mimic or attenuate the DMSO effect, respectively. These findings demonstrate that EGR1 is involved in the regulation of CYP2B6 by DMSO in HC-AFW1 cells.

Kwak Y, Cho H, Hur W, Sim T
Antitumor Effects and Mechanisms of AZD4547 on FGFR2-Deregulated Endometrial Cancer Cells.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(10):2292-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uncontrolled activation of FGFRs induces the progression of various cancers. It was recently reported that FGFR2-activating mutants are implicated in about 12% of endometrial carcinomas. AZD4547, a potent pan-FGFR inhibitor, is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for several FGFR-driven cancers. However, AZD4547 has not been examined yet against FGFR2 mutant-driven endometrial cancers. Thus, we evaluated the activity of AZD4547 against four different endometrial cancer cells, including AN3-CA, MFE296, MFE280, and HEC1A, where all but HEC1A cells express distinctive FGFR2 mutations. We found that AZD4547 exhibits potent antiproliferative activity (EC50 = 31 nmol/L) against AN3-CA cells harboring FGFR2-K310R/N550K mutant. Analysis using a phospho-kinase array revealed that AZD4547 blocks FGFR2 downstream signaling, such as p38, ERK1/2, JNK, p70S6K, and PLCγ. Moreover, oral administration of AZD4547 (30 mg/kg, every day) remarkably delayed tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of AN3-CA cells. Unbiased reporter gene assay showed that AZD4547 antagonizes the aFGF-induced activation of several transcription factors, including EGR1, ELK-1/SRF, AP-1, and NFκB. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that AZD4547 perturbs a number of transcriptions, and EGR1 was identified as one of the major targets of AZD4547. The significance of the FGFR2-EGR1 axis in endometrial cancer progression has not been reported. In addition, using kinome-wide inhibition profiling analysis, we first identified potential new target kinases of AZD4547, including MAP4K3, MAP4K5, IRR, RET, and FLT3. Our study demonstrated that AZD4547 exhibits its therapeutic activity against endometrial cancer cells by perturbing various regulatory mechanisms related to FGFR signaling.

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