Gene Summary

Gene:E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1
Aliases: RBP3, E2F-1, RBAP1, RBBP3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner. It can mediate both cell proliferation and p53-dependent/independent apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor E2F1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: E2F1 (cancer-related)

Grodzik M, Szczepaniak J, Strojny-Cieslak B, et al.
Diamond Nanoparticles Downregulate Expression of
Molecules. 2019; 24(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that diamond nanoparticles (NDs) exhibited antiangiogenic and proapoptotic properties in vitro in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors in vivo. Moreover, NDs inhibited adhesion, leading to the suppression of migration and invasion of GBM. In the present study, we hypothesized that the NDs might also inhibit proliferation and cell cycle in glioma cells. Experiments were performed in vitro with the U87 and U118 lines of GBM cells, and for comparison, the Hs5 line of stromal cells (normal cells) after 24 h and 72 h of treatment. The analyses included cell morphology, cell death, viability, and cell cycle analysis, double timing assay, and gene expression (

Kim EM, Bae YM, Choi MH, Hong ST
Connexin 43 plays an important role in the transformation of cholangiocytes with Clonochis sinensis excretory-secretory protein and N-nitrosodimethylamine.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019; 13(4):e0006843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis is a group I bio-carcinogen responsible for cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA) in humans. However, the mechanism by which C. sinensis promotes carcinogenesis is unclear.
METHODOLOGY: Using the human cholangiocyte line H69, we investigated cell proliferation and gap junction protein expression after stimulation with the hepatotoxin N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and/or excretory-secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis, which induce inflammation. NDMA and ESP treatment increased proliferation by 146% and the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase by 37%. Moreover, the expression of the cell proliferation-related proteins E2F1, Ki-67, and cancer related protein cytokeratin 19 and Cox-2 increased in response to combined treatment with NDMA and ESP. The gap-junction proteins connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx26 increased. In contrast, Cx32 expression decreased in cells treated with NDMA and ESP. Silencing of Cx43 reduced cell proliferation and significantly suppressed Cx26 and Cox-2 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Cx43 is an important factor in CHCA induced by C. sinensis ESP and NDMA and further investigations targeting this pathway may allow prevention of this deadly disease.

Huang Y, Chi C
Glioma cell proliferation is inhibited by miR-342-3p, miR-377 / E2F1 signaling pathway.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019:524-531 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent years, micoRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be critical regulators to influence tumor genesis or further progression by directly targeting downstream tumor related genes in glioma. However, there're still many underlying mechanisms related to miRNAs signaling pathway remain to be uncovered in glioma. In the present study, we found that miR-342-3p and miR-377 inhibited the glioma cell line proliferation and arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase. Inhibition of the function of miR-342-3p and miR-377 promoted the cell proliferation. miR-342-3p and miR-377 target the E2F1 3'UTR to repress its expression on both mRNA and protein level. Downregulation of E2F1 inhibited the cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle. Overexpression of E2F1 blocked the proliferation repression caused by miR-342-3p or miR-377 in glioma cells. This study showed the function of miR-342-3p, miR-377/E2F1 axis in regulating glioma cells proliferation and provided the potential therapeutic target.

Xiong Y, Li T, Assani G, et al.
Ribociclib, a selective cyclin D kinase 4/6 inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 112:108602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer remains one of the main factors leading to tumor-related death worldwide. Many strategies of cancer treatment such as chemotherapy are developed and used nowadays. However, for the cancer chemotherapy resistance, reduction of the limitation of cancer chemotherapy efficacy is one of the aims of several oncology teams. Moreover, the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-cyclin D-retinoblastoma protein-E2F pathway is an important mechanism for cell cycle control and its dysregulation is one of the key factors for cancers development including cervical cancer. Ribociclib is one of the selective CDK4/6 inhibitors and is a new therapeutic approach showing promise as a good strategy of therapy in many human cancers. However, there are not the studies regarding the investigation of effects of Ribociclib in cervical cancer yet. In the present study, by western blotting and immunofluorescence assay, we found respectively that CDK4, CDK6 and cyclin D1 are highly expressed and are mostly localized in the nucleus with some localized in the cytoplasm of cervical cancer cell lines. Moreover, Ribociclib induced cell cycle arrest in G0-G1 phase and cell apoptosis, and inhibited C33A cell proliferation in dose - dependent manner following by decreased expression of certain related genes such as CDK4, CDK6, E2F1, P-Rb, and increased Bax expression. In C33A xenografts, Ribociclib inhibited tumor growth associated with decreased expressions of CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, Rb and Ki-67, and also significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis. However, we didn't find side effect of Ribociclib concerning heart, liver and kidney perturbation and any Ribociclib anti-tumor effects on HeLa in vitro and in vivo which may be due to Hela cell infection by HPV. Based on our findings, the Rb-E2F pathway can be considered as an important factor in human cervical cancer pathogenesis and as a mechanism of Ribociclib, a potential strategy of treatment for the improvement of new therapeutic measures for the treatment of HPV-negative cervical cancer which application for HPV-positive cervical cancer is desired in further study.

Xu J, Liu H, Yang Y, et al.
Genome-Wide Profiling of Cervical RNA-Binding Proteins Identifies Human Papillomavirus Regulation of RNASEH2A Expression by Viral E7 and E2F1.
MBio. 2019; 10(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control mRNA processing, stability, transport, editing, and translation. We recently conducted transcriptome analyses comparing normal (i.e., healthy) cervical tissue samples with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical cancer tissue samples and identified 614 differentially expressed protein-coding transcripts which are enriched in cancer-related pathways and consist of 95 known RBPs. We verified the altered expression of 26 genes with a cohort of 72 cervical samples, including 24 normal cervical samples, 25 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) and CIN3 samples, and 23 cervical cancer tissue samples. LY6K (lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus K), FAM83A (family member with sequence similarity 83), CELSR3, ASF1B, IQGAP3, SEMA3F, CLDN10, MSX1, CXCL5, ASRGL1, ELAVL2, GRB7, KHSRP, NOVA1, PTBP1, and RNASEH2A were identified as novel candidate genes associated with cervical lesion progression and carcinogenesis. HPV16 or HPV18 infection was found to alter the expression of 8 RBP genes (CDKN2A, ELAVL2, GRB7, HSPB1, KHSRP, NOVA1, PTBP1, and RNASEH2A) in human vaginal and foreskin keratinocytes. Both viral E6 and E7 decreased NOVA1 expression, but only E7 increased the expression of RNASEH2A in an E2F1-dependent manner. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) directs RNASEH2 activity with respect to DNA replication by removing the RNA primers to promote Okazaki fragment maturation, and two factors are closely associated with neoplasia progression. Therefore, we predict that the induction of expression of RNASEH2A via viral E7 and E2F1 may promote DNA replication and cancer cell proliferation.

Hong S, Xu J, Li Y, et al.
Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon epithelial differentiation.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(17):3274-3287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) constitutively activate ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia- and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways for viral genome amplification. HPVs activate these pathways through the immune regulator STAT-5. For the ATR pathway, STAT-5 increases expression of the topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 (TopBP1), a scaffold protein that binds ATR and recruits it to sites of DNA damage. TopBP1 also acts as a transcriptional regulator, and we investigated how this activity influenced the HPV life cycle. We determined that TopBP1 levels are increased in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias as well as cervical carcinomas, consistent with studies in HPV-positive cell lines. Suppression of TopBP1 by shRNAs impairs HPV genome amplification and activation of the ATR pathway but does not affect the total levels of ATR and CHK1. In contrast, knockdown reduces the expression of other DNA damage factors such as RAD51 and Mre11 but not BRCA2 or NBS1. Interestingly, TopBP1 positively regulates the expression of E2F1, a TopBP1-binding partner, and p73 in HPV-positive cells in contrast to its effects in other cell types. TopBP1 transcriptional activity is regulated by AKT, and treatment with AKT inhibitors suppresses expression of E2F1 and p73 without interfering with ATR signaling. Importantly, the levels of p73 are elevated in HPV-positive cells and its knockdown impairs HPV genome amplification. This demonstrates that p73, like p63 and p53, is an important regulator of the HPV life cycle that is controlled by the transcriptional activating properties of the multifunctional TopBP1 protein.

Jin Y, Liang ZY, Zhou WX, Zhou L
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI2) inhibits invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro via uPA- and RB/E2F1-related mechanisms.
Hepatol Int. 2019; 13(2):180-189 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI2) has been shown to be associated with invasive phenotypes and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its biological roles and underlying mechanisms in invasion of HCC have not been explored. The present study aimed to address the issues.
METHODS: First, sub-lines in that PAI2 was stably overexpressed and silenced were established based on MHCC97H and BEL7402 cell lines, respectively. Wound-healing and transwell assays were applied to evaluate cell migration and invasion. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity was measured using an ELISA kit. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were used to show gene expression at mRNA and protein levels. E2F1 expression in human specimens was determined by tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining.
RESULTS: The sub-lines, MHCC97H-PAI2 and BEL7402-siPAI2, were successfully established. The two sub-lines carried much lower and higher migration and invasion powers, respectively, in contrast to the controls. In MHCC97H-PAI2 sub-line, intra-medium uPA activity was significantly decreased, while RB expression was obviously elevated, compared with the controls. The BEL7402-siPAI2 sub-line presented the opposite trend. To identify the role of RB/E2F1 pathway, we transiently overexpressed E2F1 in MHCC97H-PAI2 sub-line, and largely reversed the inhibitory effects of PAI2 on cell migration and invasion, through regulating multiple matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In HCC specimens, E2F1 expression was much higher in tumor than in non-tumor tissues, and was significantly related to Edmondson-Steiner grade, overall as well as tumor-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that PAI2 inhibits invasive potential of HCC cells via uPA- and RB/E2F1-related mechanisms.

Manicum T, Ni F, Ye Y, et al.
Prognostic values of
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world, with Eastern Asia having the highest incidence rates. E2F is a family of transcription factor proteins that has a variety of functions, which include control of cell cycle, cell differentiation, DNA damage response and cell death. E2F transcription factors are divided into two subfamilies: transcription activators (E2F transcription factors 1 (E2F1), 2 (E2F2) and 3a (E2F3a)) and repressors (E2F3b, E2F transcription factors 4 (E2F4), 5 (E2F5), 6 (E2F6), 7 (E2F7) and 8 (E2F8)). Studies have demonstrated that E2F had prognostic significance in a number of cancers. However, the entirety of the prognostic roles of

Aygun N, Altungoz O
MYCN is amplified during S phase, and c‑myb is involved in controlling MYCN expression and amplification in MYCN‑amplified neuroblastoma cell lines.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(1):345-361 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma derived from primitive sympathetic neural precursors is a common type of solid tumor in infants. MYCN proto‑oncogene bHLH transcription factor (MYCN) amplification and 1p36 deletion are important factors associated with the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma. Expression levels of MYCN and c‑MYB proto‑oncogene transcription factor (c‑myb) decline during the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells; E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) activates the MYCN promoter. However, the underlying mechanism of MYCN overexpression and amplification requires further investigation. In the present study, potential c‑Myb target genes, and the effect of c‑myb RNA interference (RNAi) on MYCN expression and amplification were investigated in MYCN‑amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. The mRNA expression levels and MYCN gene copy number in five neuroblastoma cell lines were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, variations in potential target gene expression and MYCN gene copy number between pre‑ and post‑c‑myb RNAi treatment groups in MYCN‑amplified Kelly, IMR32, SIMA and MHH‑NB‑11 cell lines, normalized to those of non‑MYCN‑amplified SH‑SY5Y, were examined. To determine the associations between gene expression levels and chromosomal aberrations, MYCN amplification and 1p36 alterations in interphases/metaphases were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Statistical analyses revealed correlations between 1p36 alterations and the expression of c‑myb, MYB proto‑oncogene like 2 (B‑myb) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21). Additionally, the results of the present study also demonstrated that c‑myb may be associated with E2F1 and L3MBTL1 histone methyl‑lysine binding protein (L3MBTL1) expression, and that E2F1 may contribute to MYCN, B‑myb, p21 and chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 (hCdt1) expression, but to the repression of geminin (GMNN). On c‑myb RNAi treatment, L3MBTL1 expression was silenced, while GMNN was upregulated, indicating G2/M arrest. In addition, MYCN gene copy number increased following treatment with c‑myb RNAi. Notably, the present study also reported a 43.545% sequence identity between upstream of MYCN and Drosophila melanogaster amplification control element 3, suggesting that expression and/or amplification mechanisms of developmentally‑regulated genes may be evolutionarily conserved. In conclusion, c‑myb may be associated with regulating MYCN expression and amplification. c‑myb, B‑myb and p21 may also serve a role against chromosome 1p aberrations. Together, it was concluded that MYCN gene is amplified during S phase, potentially via a replication‑based mechanism.

Lu G, Li Y, Ma Y, et al.
Long noncoding RNA LINC00511 contributes to breast cancer tumourigenesis and stemness by inducing the miR-185-3p/E2F1/Nanog axis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):289 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence have illustrated the vital role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 00511 (LINC00511) on the human cancer progression and tumorigenesis. However, the role of LINC00511 in breast cancer tumourigenesis is still unknown. This research puts emphasis on the function of LINC00511 on the breast cancer tumourigenesis and stemness, and investigates the in-depth mechanism.
METHODS: The lncRNA and RNA expression were measured using RT-PCR. Protein levels were measured using western blotting analysis. CCK-8, colony formation assays and transwell assay were performed to evaluate the cell proliferation ability and invasion. Sphere-formation assay was also performed for the stemness. Bioinformatic analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays were carried to confirm the molecular binding.
RESULTS: LINC00511 was measured to be highly expressed in the breast cancer specimens and the high-expression was correlated with the poor prognosis. Functionally, the gain and loss-of-functional experiments revealed that LINC00511 promoted the proliferation, sphere-formation ability, stem factors (Oct4, Nanog, SOX2) expression and tumor growth in breast cancer cells. Mechanically, LINC00511 functioned as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-185-3p to positively recover E2F1 protein. Furthermore, transcription factor E2F1 bind with the promoter region of Nanog gene to promote it transcription.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data concludes that LINC00511/miR-185-3p/E2F1/Nanog axis facilitates the breast cancer stemness and tumorigenesis, providing a vital insight for them.

Schiewer MJ, Mandigo AC, Gordon N, et al.
PARP-1 regulates DNA repair factor availability.
EMBO Mol Med. 2018; 10(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PARP-1 holds major functions on chromatin, DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, both of which are relevant in the context of cancer. Here, unbiased transcriptional profiling revealed the downstream transcriptional profile of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. Further investigation of the PARP-1-regulated transcriptome and secondary strategies for assessing PARP-1 activity in patient tissues revealed that PARP-1 activity was unexpectedly enriched as a function of disease progression and was associated with poor outcome independent of DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that enhanced PARP-1 activity may promote aggressive phenotypes. Mechanistic investigation revealed that active PARP-1 served to enhance E2F1 transcription factor activity, and specifically promoted E2F1-mediated induction of DNA repair factors involved in homologous recombination (HR). Conversely, PARP-1 inhibition reduced HR factor availability and thus acted to induce or enhance "BRCA-ness". These observations bring new understanding of PARP-1 function in cancer and have significant ramifications on predicting PARP-1 inhibitor function in the clinical setting.

Fang E, Wang J, Hong M, et al.
Valproic acid suppresses Warburg effect and tumor progression in neuroblastoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019; 508(1):9-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered glucose metabolism is a hallmark for cancer, which is characterized by a unique metabolic phenotype known as Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis. Emerging studies show that valproic acid (VPA), an established histone deacetylase inhibitor, possesses tumor suppressive properties. However, the effects of VPA on the regulation of Warburg effect in neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial malignancy in childhood, still remain elusive. In this study, we show that VPA inhibits the aerobic glycolysis in NB cells by decreasing glucose uptake and reducing lactate and ATP production. Mechanistically, VPA suppresses aerobic glycolysis via reducing the levels of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), resulting in repressed expression of glycolytic genes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) and phosphoglycerate pinase 1 (PGK1). Rescue experiments show that VPA inhibits the aerobic glycolysis and NB progression through down-regulation of E2F1. These results demonstrate that VPA suppresses the Warburg effect and tumor progression, indicating a novel therapeutic strategy for NB.

Khan FM, Gupta SK, Wolkenhauer O
Integrative workflows for network analysis.
Essays Biochem. 2018; 62(4):549-561 [PubMed] Related Publications
Due to genetic heterogeneity across patients, the identification of effective disease signatures and therapeutic targets is challenging. Addressing this challenge, we have previously developed a network-based approach, which integrates heterogeneous sources of biological information to identify disease specific core-regulatory networks. In particular, our workflow uses a multi-objective optimization function to calculate a ranking score for network components (e.g. feedback/feedforward loops) based on network properties, biomedical and high-throughput expression data. High ranked network components are merged to identify the core-regulatory network(s) that is then subjected to dynamical analysis using stimulus-response and

Li X, Zhang H, Wu X
Long noncoding RNA DLX6-AS1 accelerates the glioma carcinogenesis by competing endogenous sponging miR-197-5p to relieve E2F1.
Gene. 2019; 686:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in numerous of human cancer tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, the in-depth molecular mechanism that lncRNAs regulate the gliomagenesis is still ambiguous. In this research, our study invests energy in the biologic roles of lncRNA DLX6-AS1 on the glioma tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that DLX6-AS1 expression was both high-expressed in the glioma cells and tissue, and the overexpression of DLX6-AS1 was clinically correlated with the poor outcome of glioma patients. In the cellular functional assays, silenced DLX6-AS1 expression by siRNAs inhibited the proliferation, invasion and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, while the enhanced DLX6-AS1 expression by plasmids promotes them. The bioinformatics predictive tools, luciferase reporter assay and correlation analysis found that miR-197-5p could both target the 3'-UTR of DLX6-AS1 as well as E2F1 gene, constructing DLX6-AS1-miR-197-5p-E2F1 axis. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that lncRNA DLX6-AS1 has valuable diagnostic value clinical diagnose for the glioma patients (AUC = 0.736). Overall, our finding supports that DLX6-AS1 accelerates the glioma carcinogenesis by competing endogenous sponging miR-197-5p to relieve E2F1, acting as a novel therapeutic target for glioma.

Yang Y, Peng XW
The silencing of long non-coding RNA ANRIL suppresses invasion, and promotes apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells through the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As one of the most common primary intraocular carcinomas, retinoblastoma generally stems from the inactivation of the retinoblastoma

Schaal CM, Bora-Singhal N, Kumar DM, Chellappan SP
Regulation of Sox2 and stemness by nicotine and electronic-cigarettes in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):149 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths and its incidence is highly correlated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco smoke, cannot initiate tumors, but can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of cells in vitro and promote tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. This nicotine-mediated tumor promotion is facilitated through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 subunit. More recently, nicotine has been implicated in promoting self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells from lung cancers. This subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells has been implicated in tumor initiation, generation of the heterogeneous tumor population, metastasis, dormancy, and drug resistance. Here we describe the molecular events driving nicotine and e-cigarette extract mediated stimulation of self-renewal of stem-like cells from non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS: Experiments were conducted using A549 and H1650 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and human mesenchymal stem cells according to protocols described in this paper. 2 μM nicotine or e-cigarette extracts was used in all relevant experiments. Biochemical analysis using western blotting, transient transfections, RT-PCR and cell biological analysis using double immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, as well as proximity ligation assays were conducted.
RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that nicotine can induce the expression of embryonic stem cell factor Sox2, which is indispensable for self-renewal and maintenance of stem cell properties in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma (NSCLC) cells. We further demonstrate that this occurs through a nAChR-Yap1-E2F1 signaling axis downstream of Src and Yes kinases. Our data suggests Oct4 may also play a role in this process. Over the past few years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been promoted as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarette smoking as they do not contain tobacco; however, they do still contain nicotine. Hence we have investigated whether e-cigarette extracts can enhance tumor promoting properties similar to nicotine; we find that they can induce expression of Sox2 as well as mesenchymal markers and enhance migration and stemness of NSCLC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed light on novel molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of smoking-related lung cancer in the context of cancer stem cell populations, and reveal new pathways involved that could potentially be exploited therapeutically.

Talib WH, Al Kury LT
Parthenolide inhibits tumor-promoting effects of nicotine in lung cancer by inducing P53 - dependent apoptosis and inhibiting VEGF expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:1488-1495 [PubMed] Related Publications
The correlation between cigarette smoking and the onset of non-small cell lung cancer is well documented. Enhanced proliferation, angiogenesis induction, and resistance to apoptosis were reported as direct results associated with exposure to nicotine (the active ingredient of cigarettes). Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone with anticancer activity against different cancer types. In this study, we tested the ability of parthenolide to inhibit the proliferating effect of nicotine in lung cancer cell lines. MTT assay was used to measure cell survival of A549 and H526 cells treated with nicotine, parthenolide, and their combination. Angiogenesis inhibition was measured using VEGF detection kit and apoptosis induction was evaluated by measuring caspase-3 activity. Real time PCR assay was used to detect the change in expression of several genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis (CASP3, CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, Bcl-2, TOPO I, and TOPO II). Parthenolide inhibited lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased the proliferation stimulating effect of nicotine. Caspase-3 activity and VEGF assays evidenced an apoptosis-inducing and VEGF- inhibiting effects of parthenolide. The real time PCR assay demonstrated that parthenolide down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expression of E2F1, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, and CASP 3,7,8,9, which indicates an activation of P53- dependent apoptosis pathway in response to parthenolide. Furthermore, this pathway remained active in the presence of nicotine suggesting the ability of parthenolide to exclude the anti-apoptotic effect of nicotine. Our results indicate that parthenolide inhibits nicotine proliferating effect on lung cancer. The anticancer effect of parthenolide is mediated by angiogenesis inhibition and activation of P53- dependent apoptosis. Parthenolide is a promising natural product for inhibiting and treating nicotine-associated lung cancer. However, further studied on more lung cancer cell lines and on protein level are needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action.

Zhou MT, Zhao C, Chen X, et al.
MicroRNA-34a promotes MICB expression in hepatocytes.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(12):1477-1487 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) behaves as a tumor suppressor by decreasing the expression of oncogenes involved in multiple carcinogenic pathways. Intravenous delivery of miR-34a mimics has been investigated in clinical trials as a potential treatment for advanced cancers; however, the effect of miR-34a on cancer immune surveillance is controversial. In the current study, we found that miR-34a plays a dual role in the regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I-related sequence B (MICB) protein, a ligand of the NKG2D receptor. MiR-34a could both induce and reduce MICB expression by upregulating ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) protein kinase and downregulating the transcription factor E2F1, respectively. The net effect of miR-34a on MICB expression depended on endogenous E2F1 levels. Overexpression of miR-34a promoted MICB expression in hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells that have low E2F1 levels but not in HCC cells that have high E2F1 levels. In HCC patients, the expression of miR-34a and MICB showed positive correlation in paratumor liver tissues, which have low E2F1 levels, but not in HCC tissues, which have high E2F1 levels. We showed that miR-34a overexpression in non-transformed liver cells enhanced cytolysis and interferon-γ production by NK-92MI cells. Furthermore, higher miR-34a expression in tumor and paratumor tissues was associated with positive and negative outcomes, respectively, in HCC patients. Our findings suggest that miR-34a induces MICB expression in paratumor liver tissues, which may cause liver damage and serious cytokine release syndrome, thus disclosing potential side effects of systemic administration of miR-34a in anticancer therapy.

Xiang S, Wang Z, Ye Y, et al.
E2F1 and E2F7 differentially regulate KPNA2 to promote the development of gallbladder cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(8):1269-1281 [PubMed] Related Publications
Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) is a nuclear import factor that is elevated in multiple cancers. However, its molecular regulation at the transcriptional levels is poorly understood. Here we found that KPNA2 was significantly upregulated in gallbladder cancer (GBC), and the increased levels were correlated with short survival of patients. Gene knocking down of KPNA2 inhibited tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro as well as xenografted tumor development in vivo. A typical transcription factor E2F1 associated with its DNA-binding partner DP1 bond to the promoter region of KPNA2 and induced KPNA2 expression. In contrast, an atypical transcription factor E2F7 competed against DP1 and blocked E2F1-induced KPNA2 gene activation. Mutation of the dimerization residues of E2F7 or DNA-binding domain of E2F1 abolished the suppressive effects of E2F7 on KPNA2 gene expression. In addition, KPNA2 mediated nuclear localization of E2F1 and E2F7, where they in turn controlled KPNA2 expression. Taken together, our data provided mechanistic insights into divergently transcriptional regulation of KPNA2, thus pointing to KPNA2 as a potential target for cancer therapy.

Ding LY, Chu M, Jiao YS, et al.
TFDP3 regulates the apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0203833 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer/testis antigen TFDP3 belongs to the transcription factor DP(TFDP) family. It can bind to E2F family molecules to form a heterodimeric transcription factor E2F/TFDP complex. The complex is an important regulatory activator of cell cycle, involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other important physiological activities. In addition, TFDP3 has also been found to be a tumor-associated antigen that only expresses in malignant tumor tissue and normal testicular tissue; Thus, it is closely related to tumor occurrence and development. In this study, our group investigated the expression of TFDP3 in mononuclear cell samples from a variety of tissue-derived malignant tumors, breast cancer and benign breast lesions. The results show that TFDP3 is expressed in the malignant form of various tissues. Moreover, our recent research had focused on the ability of TFDP3 to influence the drug resistance and apoptosis of tumor cells. To further clarify the mechanisms involved in tumor resistance, this study also examined the expression of TFDP3 and tumor cell autophagy regulation; Autophagy helps cells cope with metabolic stress (such as in cases of malnutrition, growth factor depletion, hypoxia or hypoxia) removes erroneously folded proteins or defective organelles to prevent the accumulation of abnormal proteins; and removes intracellular pathogens. Our results showed that TFDP3 expression can induce autophagy by up-regulating the expression of autophagic key protein LC3(MAP1LC3) and increasing the number of autophagosomes during chemotherapy of malignant tumors. Then, DNA and organelles damage caused by the chemotherapy medicine are repaired. Thus, TFDP3 contributes toward tumor cell resistance. When siRNA inhibits TFDP3 expression, it can reduce cell autophagy, improving the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapy drugs.

Qian W, Zhang Z, Peng W, et al.
CDCA3 mediates p21-dependent proliferation by regulating E2F1 expression in colorectal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):2021-2033 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated cell cycle progression serves a crucial role in tumor development. Cell division cycle-associated 3 (CDCA3) is considered a trigger of mitotic entry; it is an important part of the S phase kinase-associated protein 1/Cullin/F-box ubiquitin ligase complex and mediates the destruction of mitosis-inhibitory kinase wee1. However, little is known about the role of CDCA3 in cancer, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to explore the biological and clinical significance of CDCA3 in CRC growth and progression. CDCA3 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression and poor survival. Overexpression of CDCA3 increased proliferation in LoVo CRC cells, whereas CDCA3 knockdown in SW480 CRC cells led to decreased proliferation, in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanistic investigations demonstrated that reduced CDCA3 expression resulted in G1/S phase transition arrest, which was attributed to a significant accumulation of p21 in SW480 cells; conversely, increased CDCA3 expression promoted G1/S phase transition through decreased p21 accumulation in LoVo cells. It was also demonstrated that CDCA3 was able to regulate the expression of transcription factor E2F1, thereby repressing p21 expression. Taken together, these results suggested that overexpression of CDCA3 may serve a crucial role in tumor malignant potential and that CDCA3 may be used as a prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in CRC.

Li H, Wang Z, Jiang M, et al.
The oncoprotein HBXIP promotes human breast cancer growth through down-regulating p53 via miR-18b/MDM2 and pAKT/MDM2 pathways.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2018; 39(11):1787-1796 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Mammalian hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is an 18-kDa protein that regulates a large number of transcription factors such as TF-IID, E2F1, SP1, STAT3, c-Myc, and LXR by serving as an oncogenic transcription coactivator and plays an important role in the development of breast cancer. We previously showed that HBXIP as an oncoprotein could enhance the promoter activity of MDM2 through coactivating p53, promoting the MDM2 transcription in breast cancer. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of MDM2/p53 interaction by HBXIP in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo. We showed that HBXIP could up-regulate MDM2 through inducing DNA methylation of miR-18b, thus suppressing the miR-18b expression, leading to the attenuation of p53 in breast cancer cells. In addition, HBXIP could promote the phosphorylation of MDM2 by increasing the level of pAKT and bind to pMDM2, subsequently enhancing the interaction between MDM2 and p53 for the down-regulation of p53 in breast cancer cells. In MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft nude mice, we also observed that overexpression of HBXIP promoted breast cancer growth through the miR-18b/MDM2 and pAKT/MDM2 pathways. In conclusion, oncoprotein HBXIP suppresses miR-18b to elevate MDM2 and activates pAKT to phosphorylate MDM2 for enhancing the interaction between MDM2 and p53, leading to p53 degradation in promotion of breast cancer growth. Our findings shed light on a novel mechanism of p53 down-regulation during the development of breast cancer.

Ramos J, Das J, Felty Q, et al.
NRF1 motif sequence-enriched genes involved in ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer signaling pathways.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 172(2):469-485 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) transcription factor has recently been shown to control breast cancer progression. However, mechanistic aspects by which NRF1 may contribute to susceptibility to different breast tumor subtypes are still not fully understood. Since transcriptional control of NRF1 seems to be dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, herein, we investigated the role of NRF1 in estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative, but human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve) breast cancer. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of NRF1 and its transcriptional activity were significantly higher in ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer samples compared to normal breast tissues. This was consistent with our observation of higher NRF1 protein expression in the experimental model of HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis. To identify network-based pathways involved in the susceptibility to the ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer subtype, the NRF1 transcriptional regulatory genome-wide landscape was analyzed using the approach consisting of a systematic integration of ChIP DNA-seq, RNA-Microarray, NRF1 protein-DNA motif binding, signal pathway analysis, and Bayesian machine learning. Our findings show that a high percentage of known HER2+ breast cancer susceptibility genes, including EGFR, IGFR, and E2F1, are under transcriptional control of NRF1. Promoters of several genes from the KEGG HER2+ breast cancer pathway and 11 signaling pathways linked to 6 hallmarks of cancer contain the NRF1 motif. By pathway analysis, key breast cancer hallmark genes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness, cell apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, chromosomal integrity, and DNA damage/repair were highly enriched with NRF1 motifs. In addition, we found using Bayesian network-based machine learning that 30 NRF1 motif-enriched genes including growth factor receptors-FGFR1, IGF1R; E2Fs transcription factor family-E2F1, E2F3; MAPK pathway-SHC2, GRB2, MAPK1; PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway-PIK3CD, PIK3R1, PIK3R3, RPS6KB2; WNT signaling pathway-WNT7B, DLV1, DLV2, GSK3B, NRF1, and DDB2, known for its role in DNA repair and involvement in early events associated with metastatic progression of breast cancer cells, were associated with HER2-amplified breast cancer. Machine learning search further revealed that the likelihood of HER2-positive breast cancer is almost 100% in a patient with the high NRF1 expression combined with expression patterns of high E2F3, GSK3B, and MAPK1, low or no change in E2F1 and FGFR1, and high or no change in PIK3R3. In summary, our findings suggest novel roles of NRF1 and its regulatory networks in susceptibility to the ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve aggressive breast cancer subtype. Clinical confirmation of our machine learned Bayesian networks will have significant impact on our understanding of the role of NRF1 as a valuable biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as provide strong rationale for future studies to develop NRF1 signaling-based therapeutics to target HER2+ breast cancer.

Gu Y, Wang X, Liu H, et al.
SET7/9 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression through regulation of E2F1.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(4):1863-1874 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Histone‑lysine N‑methyltransferase SET7/9 is a protein lysine monomethylase that methylates histone H3K4 as well as various non‑histone proteins. Deregulation of SET7/9 is frequently detected in human cancers. However, the role of SET7/9 in HCC development remains unclear. In the present study, upregulation of SET7/9 and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) expression was detected in 68 samples of HCC tissues compared with these levels noted in the paired healthy liver samples. The expression levels of SET7/9 and E2F1 were significantly correlated with pathological stage and tumor size. Subcellular fractionation and co‑immunoprecipitation analyses revealed protein‑protein interaction between SET7/9 and E2F1 in the cytoplasm of HCC cells. Silencing of SET7/9, as well as treatment with 5'‑deoxy‑5'‑methylthioadenosine (MTA), a protein methylation inhibitor, led to reduced E2F1 protein abundance in HCC cells. Using Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8) assay, Transwell migration assay and wound healing assay, significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion were observed in cells exhibiting downregulation of SET7/9 and E2F1 expression, as well as in wild‑type HCC cells treated with MTA. Furthermore, SET7/9 downregulation and MTA treatment resulted in reduced expression of downstream targets of E2F1, including cyclin A2, cyclin E1 and CDK2. In conclusion, the present study revealed an oncogenic function of SET7/9 in HCC and demonstrated that SET7/9 may be responsible for alterations in the proliferative ability, aggressiveness and invasive/metastatic potential of HCC cells through post‑translational regulation of E2F1.

Li X, Tian Z, Jin H, et al.
Decreased c-Myc mRNA Stability via the MicroRNA 141-3p/AUF1 Axis Is Crucial for p63α Inhibition of Cyclin D1 Gene Transcription and Bladder Cancer Cell Tumorigenicity.
Mol Cell Biol. 2018; 38(21) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BC) ranks as the sixth most common cancer in the United States and is the leading cause of death in patients with urinary malignancies. p63 is a member of the p53 family and is believed to function as a tumor suppressor in human BCs. Our most recent studies revealed a previously unknown function of the RING of XIAP in promoting microRNA 4295 (miR-4295) transcription, thereby reducing p63α protein translation and enhancing normal urothelial transformation, whereas p63α upregulates hsp70 transcription, subsequently activating the HSP70/Wasf3/Wave3/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) axis and promoting BC cell invasion via initiating the transcription factor E2F1. In this study, we found that p63α inhibited cyclin D1 protein expression, subsequently decreasing the ability of BC cell anchorage-independent growth

Rodriguez-Bravo V, Pippa R, Song WM, et al.
Nuclear Pores Promote Lethal Prostate Cancer by Increasing POM121-Driven E2F1, MYC, and AR Nuclear Import.
Cell. 2018; 174(5):1200-1215.e20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) regulate nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, transcription, and genome integrity in eukaryotic cells. However, their functional roles in cancer remain poorly understood. We interrogated the evolutionary transcriptomic landscape of NPC components, nucleoporins (Nups), from primary to advanced metastatic human prostate cancer (PC). Focused loss-of-function genetic screen of top-upregulated Nups in aggressive PC models identified POM121 as a key contributor to PC aggressiveness. Mechanistically, POM121 promoted PC progression by enhancing importin-dependent nuclear transport of key oncogenic (E2F1, MYC) and PC-specific (AR-GATA2) transcription factors, uncovering a pharmacologically targetable axis that, when inhibited, decreased tumor growth, restored standard therapy efficacy, and improved survival in patient-derived pre-clinical models. Our studies molecularly establish a role of NPCs in PC progression and give a rationale for NPC-regulated nuclear import targeting as a therapeutic strategy for lethal PC. These findings may have implications for understanding how NPC deregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of other tumor types.

Peng Y, He X, Chen H, et al.
Inhibition of microRNA-299-5p sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide via the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are a lethal class of brain cancer, with a median survival <15 months in spite of therapeutic advances. The poor prognosis of GBM is largely attributed to acquired chemotherapy resistance, and new strategies are urgently needed to target resistant glioma cells. Here we report a role for

Rhyasen GW, Yao Y, Zhang J, et al.
BRD4 amplification facilitates an oncogenic gene expression program in high-grade serous ovarian cancer and confers sensitivity to BET inhibitors.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200826 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BRD4 is a transcriptional co-activator functioning to recruit regulatory complexes to acetylated chromatin. A subset of High-grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC) patients are typified by focal, recurrent BRD4 gene amplifications. Despite previously described cancer dependencies, it is unclear whether BRD4 amplification events are oncogenic in HGSOC. We find that physiologically relevant levels of expression of BRD4 isoforms in non-transformed ovarian cells result in cellular transformation. Transcriptional profiling of BRD4-transformed ovarian cells, and BRD4-amplified HGSOC patient samples revealed shared expression patterns, including enriched MYC, and E2F1 gene signatures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a novel BET inhibitor, AZD5153, is highly active in BRD4-amplified patient derived xenografts and uncover Neuregulin-1 as a novel BRD4 effector. Experiments involving Neuregulin-1 inhibition and exogenous addition, demonstrate Neuregulin-1 as necessary and sufficient for BRD4-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates the oncogenic potential of BRD4 amplification in cancer and establishes BRD4-amplified HGSOC as a potential patient population that could benefit from BET inhibitors.

Singh S, Gupta M, Sharma A, et al.
The Nonsynonymous Polymorphisms Val276Met and Gly393Ser of E2F1 Gene are Strongly Associated with Lung, and Head and Neck Cancers.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2018; 22(8):498-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The early gene factor-2 (E2F), a family of transcription factors, is involved in cell cycle regulation. Deregulated expression of most of the members of the E2F family is associated with various human cancers. In this study, we investigated the association between the E2F1 genetic variants rs3213173 (C/T) (Val276Met) and rs3213176 (G/A) (Gly393Ser) with the risk of lung cancer (LC) and head and neck cancer (HNC) in 190 patients and 230 control samples.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mutagenic primer-based PCR-RFLP methods to genotype all target polymorphisms.
RESULTS: The rs3213173 (C/T) polymorphism was associated with LC risk in the homozygous model (odds ratio [OR] = 2.954, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.366-6.386; p = 0.004) as well as in heterozygous model (OR = 2.314; 95% CI = 1.369-3.912; p = 0.001). A significant association was also observed for the rs3213176 (G/A) polymorphism with LC risk in homozygous model, GG versus AA (OR = 2.750; 95% CI = 1.236-6.118; p = 0.01); in heterozygous model, GG versus GA (OR = 2.111; 95% CI = 1.256-3.549; p = 0.004); and in combined mutant GG versus GA+AA (OR = 2.214; 95% CI = 1.343-3.650; p = 0.001). The rs3213176 (G/A) marker was also associated with HNC risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that the rs3213173 (C/T) and rs3213176 (G/A) polymorphisms of the E2F1 gene are genetic risk factors for susceptibility to LC and HNC in the North Indian Population.

Szurián K, Csala I, Marosvári D, et al.
EZH2 is upregulated in the proliferation centers of CLL/SLL lymph nodes.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2018; 105(2):161-165 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymph node involvement of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) is characterised by the diffuse infiltration of small neoplastic lymphocytes, which is accompanied by the presence of proliferation centres (PCs) comprising prolymphocytes and paraimmunoblasts. There is increasing evidence of accumulation of various molecular alterations in the tumour cells of PCs, which may explain why extended PCs are related to a less favourable prognosis. To further characterize PCs, we compared the expression level of EZH2 protein, the overexpression of which has recently been recognized as poor prognostic factor in CLL/SLL, in the PCs and the intervening small cell areas in lymph nodes of 15 patients with CLL/SLL. We also investigated the mutational profile of EZH2 and the expression of its upstream regulators c-Myc, E2F1, pRB and miR-26a. Our results showed a significantly increased expression of EZH2 in the PCs. No EZH2 mutations were detected, however, overexpression of c-Myc, E2F1 and pRb proteins as well as reduced expression of the tumor suppressor miR-26a were demonstrated in the PCs. In summary our findings indicate that EZH2 pathway is significantly upregulated in the PCs of CLL/SLL lymph nodes, providing further evidence for the distinguished biological features of the PCs.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. E2F1 Transcription Factor, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/E2F1.htm Accessed:

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