CDKN1A

Gene Summary

Gene:CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
Aliases: P21, CIP1, SDI1, WAF1, CAP20, CDKN1, MDA-6, p21CIP1
Location:6p21.2
Summary:This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase2 or -cyclin-dependent kinase4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli. This protein can interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of cyclin-dependent kinase2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. Mice that lack this gene have the ability to regenerate damaged or missing tissue. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CDKN1A (cancer-related)

Cabrita MA, Bose R, Vanzyl EJ, et al.
The p53 protein induces stable miRNAs that have the potential to modify subsequent p53 responses.
Gene. 2017; 608:86-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p53 tumour suppressor is a transcription factor that can increase the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs). HT29-tsp53 cells expressing a temperature sensitive variant of p53 have provided a useful model to rapidly and reversibly control p53 activity. In this model, the majority of p53-responsive mRNAs were upregulated rapidly but they were short-lived leading to rapid decay of the p53 response at the restrictive temperature. Here we used oligonucleotide microarrays and reverse transcriptase PCR to show that p53-induced miRNAs exhibited a distinct temporal pattern of expression. Whereas p53-induced miRNAs like miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-34a-5p and miR-139-5p increased as fast as mRNAs, they were extremely stable persisting long after p53 induced mRNAs and even their corresponding primary miRNAs had decayed to baseline levels. Three p53-induced mRNAs (MDM2, BTG2 and CDKN1A) are experimentally verified targets of one or more of these specific miRNAs so we hypothesized that the sustained expression of p53-induced miRNAs could be explained by a post-transcriptional feedback loop. Activation of consecutive p53 responses separated by a period of recovery led to the selective attenuation of a subset of p53 regulated mRNAs corresponding to those targeted by one or more of the p53-responsive miRNAs. Our results indicate that the long term expression of p53 responsive miRNAs leads to an excess of miRNAs during the second response and this likely prevents the induction of MDM2, BTG2 and CDKN1A mRNA and/or protein. These observations are likely to have important implications for daily cancer therapies that activate p53 in normal tissues and/or tumour cells.

Su Z, Yang H, Zhao M, et al.
MicroRNA-92a Promotes Cell Proliferation in Cervical Cancer via Inhibiting p21 Expression and Promoting Cell Cycle Progression.
Oncol Res. 2017; 25(1):137-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-92a (miR-92a) generally plays a promoting role in human cancers, but the underlying mechanism in cervical cancer remains unclear. Here we studied the expression and clinical significance of miR-92a in cervical cancer, as well as the regulatory mechanism in the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Our data indicated that miR-92a was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to their matched adjacent nontumor tissues (ANTs), and the increased miR-92a levels were significantly associated with a higher grade, lymph node metastasis, and advanced clinical stage in cervical cancer. In vitro study revealed that inhibition of miR-92a led to a significant reduction in the proliferation of HeLa cells via induction of cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. In contrast, overexpression of miR-92a markedly promoted the proliferation of HeLa cells by promoting cell cycle progression. Further investigation revealed that miR-92a has a negative effect on protein levels, but not the mRNA levels, of p21 in HeLa cells, suggesting that p21 is a direct target of miR-92a. Overexpression of p21 eliminated the promoting effects of miR-92a on the proliferation and cell cycle progression of HeLa cells. However, knockdown of p21 reversed the suppressive effects of miR-92a downregulation on HeLa cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Moreover, p21 was significantly downregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to ANTs, suggesting that the increased expression of miR-92a may contribute to the decreased expression of p21, which further promotes cervical cancer growth. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-92a promotes the proliferation of cervical cancer cells via inhibiting p21 expression and promoting cell cycle progression, highlighting the clinical significance of miR-92a in cervical cancer.

Zhou X, Xie S, Yuan C, et al.
Lower Expression of SPRY4 Predicts a Poor Prognosis and Regulates Cell Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(6):1433-1442 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer worldwide. Sprouty proteins are modulators of mitogeninduced signal transduction processes and therefore can influence the process of cancerogenesis. The encoded protein of Sprouty homolog 4 (SPRY4) is associated with various human cancers. However, its biological role and clinical significance in CRC development and progression are unknown.
METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and biological role of SPRY4 in colorectal cancer. qRT-PCR was performed to investigate the expression of SPRY4 in tumor tissues and corresponding non tumor colorectal tissues from 70 patients. The effect of SPRY4 on proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays. CRC cells transfected with SPRY4 were injected into nude mice to study the effect of SPRY4 on tumorigenesis in vivo.
RESULTS: The lower expression of SPRY4 was remarkably correlated with deep tumor invasion and advanced TNM stage. Multivariate analyses revealed that SPRY4 expression served as an independent predictor for overall survival. Using 5-aza treatment, we also observed that SPRY4 expression can be affected by DNA methylation. Further experiments revealed that overexpressed SPRY4 significantly inhibited CRC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that SPRY4 is involved in the development and progression of colorectal cancer by regulating cell proliferation and shows that SPRY4 may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic target in patients with colorectal cancer.

Lei ST, Shen F, Chen JW, et al.
MiR-639 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle in human thyroid cancer by suppressing CDKN1A expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1834-1840 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has indicated that aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRs) are extensively involved in cancer development and progression. MiR-639 has been reported to act as tumor promoter in various types of cancer. However, the biological function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-639 in thyroid carcinoma (TC) have not been intensively investigated. Herein the present study aimed to investigate the functional role of miR-639 in TC. We found that miR-639 expression was upregulated in TC cells and clinical tissues. Overexpression of miR-639 promoted TC cell proliferation and cell cycle, with increased expression of CyclinE and c-myc, whereas miR-639-in reverses the function. Using prediction software and luciferase reporter assay, we found that CDKN1A was a target of miR-639. CDKN1A small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated the role of miR-639-in on cell proliferation of TC. In summary, our data demonstrated that miR-639 upregulation was associated with development of TC, miR-639 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle by targeting CDKN1A in TC.

Gorjala P, Cairncross JG, Gary RK
p53-dependent up-regulation of CDKN1A and down-regulation of CCNE2 in response to beryllium.
Cell Prolif. 2016; 49(6):698-709 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Beryllium salts (here, beryllium sulphate) can produce a cytostatic effect in some cell types. The basis for this effect may include increased expression of proliferation inhibitors, reduced expression of proliferation promoters, or both. This study sought to determine the role of p53, the tumour-suppressing transcription factor, in mediating beryllium-induced cytostasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human A172 glioma cells express wild-type TP53 gene. Activity of p53 was experimentally manipulated using siRNA and related approaches. Key elements of the beryllium-response were compared in normal and p53-knockdown A172 cells using RT-PCR and Western blotting.
RESULTS: In A172 cells, 10 μm BeSO4 caused 300% increase in CDKN1A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21) mRNA and 90% reduction of CCNE2 (cyclin E2) mRNA. The increased p21 mRNA and reduced cyclin E2 mRNA were each dependent on presence of functional p53. For p21, increased mRNA led to commensurately increased protein levels. In contrast, reduction in cyclin E2 mRNA levels did not lead to corresponding reductions in cyclin E2 protein. The proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 caused p53 protein to increase, but it had no effect on cyclin E2 protein levels. Cycloheximide time course studies indicated that the cyclin E2 protein half-life was more than 12 hours in these cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Beryllium elicited p53-dependent changes in mRNA levels of key determinants of cell proliferation such as p21 and cyclin E2. However, cyclin E2 protein appeared to be aberrantly regulated in this cell type, as its turnover was unexpectedly slow.

Salimi S, Hajizadeh A, Yaghmaei M, et al.
The effects of p21 gene C98A polymorphism on development of uterine leiomyoma in southeast Iranian women.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12497-12502 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is a monoclonal tumor which arises from uninhibited proliferation of a single myometrial cell; therefore, the imbalance in cell cycle regulation could be a key event in its development. In the present study, we aimed to assess the association of p21 gene polymorphisms and UL. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 154 women with UL and 197 age-, BMI-, and ethnically matched controls. p21 C98A (rs1801270) and C70T (rs1059234) polymorphism genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The CA genotype of p21 C98A polymorphism was significantly higher in UL women (28 %) compared to the controls (18 %), and the UL risk was 1.8-fold greater in women with CA genotype compared to CC genotype before and after adjusting for age, BMI, and ethnicity (OR, 1.8 [95 % CI, 1.1 to 3]; P = 0.02). There was no association between the AA genotype of p21 C98A polymorphism and UL. Moreover, the frequency of p21 98A allele was significantly higher in the UL women compared to controls (17 vs. 12 %, p = 0.04). The p21 C70T polymorphism did not correlate with UL before and after adjusting for age, BMI, and ethnicity. There was no difference in haplotype frequency of p21 C70T and C98A polymorphisms between UL patients and the controls. CA genotype of p21 C98A polymorphism may be a risk factor for UL susceptibility; however, p21 C70T polymorphism did not associate with UL.

Zhu W, Xue Y, Liang C, et al.
S100A16 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis via AKT and ERK cell signaling pathways in human prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12241-12250 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100A16 is a member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family. It is overexpressed in many types of tumors and associated with proliferation, migration, and invasion; however, its function in human prostate cancer is unresolved. Our objective was to determine its effects and the underlying pathways of S100A16 in prostate cancer tissues and cells. We measured S100A16 expression by quantitative real-time polymerase and Western blotting in eight matched prostate cancer and adjacent normal tissues, and in three prostate cancer cell lines, DU-145, LNCaP, and PC-3, compared to a normal prostate epithelial cell line PrEC. DU-145 cells stably overexpressing S100A16 and PC-3 cells with S100A16 knockdown were established by transfection with S100A16 overexpression plasmid or shRNAs. Invasion, migration, and proliferation were analyzed by transwell assay, wound healing, and colony formation assays, respectively. Western blotting and invasion assays were performed to determine expressions and activation of AKT, ERK, p21, and p27. S100A16 was significantly overexpressed in both prostate cancer tissues and cells lines compared to normal controls (P < 0.05). Overexpression of S100A16 significantly promoted invasion, migration, and proliferation in prostate cancer cells in vitro, whereas silencing S100A16 showed the converse effects (P < 0.05). Furthermore, overexpression of S100A16 activated cell signaling proteins AKT and ERK and downregulated tumor suppressors p21 and p27. Specific inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, suppressed activation of AKT and ERK, which attenuated DU-145 cell clone formation and invasion induced by S100A16 overexpression. S100A16 may promote human prostate cancer progression via signaling pathways involving AKT, ERK, p21, and p27 downstream effectors. Our findings suggest that S100A16 may serve as a novel therapeutic or diagnostic target in human prostate cancer.

Dadhania V, Zhang M, Zhang L, et al.
Meta-Analysis of the Luminal and Basal Subtypes of Bladder Cancer and the Identification of Signature Immunohistochemical Markers for Clinical Use.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 12:105-117 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that bladder cancer can be divided into two molecular subtypes referred to as luminal and basal with distinct clinical behaviors and sensitivities to chemotherapy. We aimed to validate these subtypes in several clinical cohorts and identify signature immunohistochemical markers that would permit simple and cost-effective classification of the disease in primary care centers.
METHODS: We analyzed genomic expression profiles of bladder cancer in three cohorts of fresh frozen tumor samples: MD Anderson (n=132), Lund (n=308), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=408) to validate the expression signatures of luminal and basal subtypes and relate them to clinical follow-up data. We also used an MD Anderson cohort of archival bladder tumor samples (n=89) and a parallel tissue microarray to identify immunohistochemical markers that permitted the molecular classification of bladder cancer.
FINDINGS: Bladder cancers could be assigned to two candidate intrinsic molecular subtypes referred to here as luminal and basal in all of the datasets analyzed. Luminal tumors were characterized by the expression signature similar to the intermediate/superficial layers of normal urothelium. They showed the upregulation of PPARγ target genes and the enrichment for FGFR3, ELF3, CDKN1A, and TSC1 mutations. In addition, luminal tumors were characterized by the overexpression of E-Cadherin, HER2/3, Rab-25, and Src. Basal tumors showed the expression signature similar to the basal layer of normal urothelium. They showed the upregulation of p63 target genes, the enrichment for TP53 and RB1 mutations, and overexpression of CD49, Cyclin B1, and EGFR. Survival analyses showed that the muscle-invasive basal bladder cancers were more aggressive when compared to luminal cancers. The immunohistochemical expressions of only two markers, luminal (GATA3) and basal (KRT5/6), were sufficient to identify the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer with over 90% accuracy.
INTERPRETATION: The molecular subtypes of bladder cancer have distinct clinical behaviors and sensitivities to chemotherapy, and a simple two-marker immunohistochemical classifier can be used for prognostic and therapeutic stratification.
FUNDING: U.S. National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Health.

Marques LA, Semprebon SC, Niwa AM, et al.
Antiproliferative activity of monastrol in human adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and non-tumor (HB4a) breast cells.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016; 389(12):1279-1288 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monastrol is an allosteric inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin Eg5 that exhibits an antiproliferative effect against several cell lines. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of monastrol on human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and mammary epithelial cells (HB4a, non-tumoral). Monastrol treatment decreased cell viability only in MCF-7 tumor cells. Real-time cell growth kinetic analysis showed a decrease in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells exposed to monastrol, while in the HB4a cells, only a concentration of 100 μM was able to induce this effect. In a cell cycle analysis, exposure of MCF-7 cells to monastrol led to an increased population of cells in both the G1 and G2/M phases. In HB4a cells, the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase was increased. Monastrol led to an increased mitotic index in both cell lines. Monastrol was not able to induce cell death by apoptosis in any of the cell lines studied. Gene expression analysis was performed to measure the mRNA levels of cell cycle genes, DNA damage indicator gene, and apoptotic related genes. Treatment with monastrol induced in MCF-7 cells a 5-fold increase in the mRNA levels of the CDKN1A gene, an inhibitor of CDKs related with cell cycle arrest in response a stress stimulus, and a 2-fold decrease in CDKN1C mRNA levels in HB4a cells. These results provide evidence that monastrol has a greater antiproliferative effect on MCF-7 tumor cells compared with non-tumor HB4a cells; however, no selective is observed.

Shin SS, Park SS, Hwang B, et al.
MicroRNA-106a suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer cells by modulating MAPK signaling, cell cycle regulators, and Ets-1-mediated MMP-2 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2421-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the clinical significance of tumorigenesis, little is known about the cellular signaling networks of microRNAs (miRs). Here we report a new finding that mir‑106a regulates the proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer cells. Basal expression levels of mir‑106a were significantly lower in bladder cancer cells than in normal urothelial cells. Overexpression of mir‑106a suppressed the proliferation of bladder cancer cell line EJ. Transient transfection of mir‑106a into EJ cells led to downregulation of ERK phosphorylation and upregulation of p38 and JNK phosphorylation over their levels in the control. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that mir‑106a-transfected cells accumulated in the G1-phase of the cell cycle, and cyclin D1 and CDK6 were significantly downregulated. This G1-phase cell cycle arrest was due in part to the upregulation of p21CIP1/WAF1. In addition, mir‑106a overexpression blocked the wound-healing migration and invasion of EJ cells. Furthermore, mir‑106a transfection resulted in decreased expression of MMP-2 and diminished binding activity of transcription factor Ets-1 in EJ cells. Collectively, we report the novel mir‑106a-mediated molecular signaling networks that regulate the proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer cells, suggesting that mir‑106a may be a therapeutic target for treating advanced bladder tumors.

Okada K, Hakata S, Terashima J, et al.
Combination of the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide and 5-fluorouracil upregulates major histocompatibility complex class II and p21 genes and activates caspase-3/7 in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):1875-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Epigenetic anticancer drugs such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been combined with existing anticancer drugs for synergistic or additive effects. In the present study, we found that a very low concentration of depsipeptide, an HDAC inhibitor, potentiated the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a human colon cancer cell model using HCT-116, HT29, and SW48 cells via the inhibition of colony formation ability or cellular viability. Exposure to a combination of 5-FU (1.75 µM) and 1 nM depsipeptide for 24 and 48 h resulted in a 3- to 4-fold increase in activated caspase-3/7, while 5-FU alone failed to activate caspase-3/7. Microarray and subsequent gene ontology analyses revealed that compared to 5-FU or depsipeptide alone, the combination treatment of 5-FU and depsipeptide upregulated genes related to cell death and the apoptotic process consistent with the inhibition of colony formation and caspase-3/7 activation. These analyses indicated marked upregulation of antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class (GO:0002504) and MHC protein complex (GO:0042611). Compared with vehicle controls, the cells treated with the combination of 5-FU and depsipeptide showed marked induction (3- to 8.5-fold) of expression of MHC class II genes, but not of MHC class I genes. Furthermore, our global analysis of gene expression, which was focused on genes involved in the molecular regulation of MHC class II genes, showed enhancement of pro-apoptotic PCAF and CIITA after the combination of 5-FU and depsipeptide. These results may indicate a closer relationship between elevation of MHC class II expression and cellular apoptosis induced by the combination of depsipeptide and 5-FU. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that the combination of 5-FU and depsipeptide induces human colon cancer cell apoptosis in a concerted manner with the induction of MHC class II gene expression.

Li LH, Zhang PR, Cai PY, Li ZC
Histone deacetylase inhibitor, Romidepsin (FK228) inhibits endometrial cancer cell growth through augmentation of p53-p21 pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 82:161-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Romidepsin (FK228), a Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been used for anti-cancer therapies. However, the anti-cancer effect of FK228 and its underlying mechanism in endometrial carcinoma (EC) have not been studied. The aime of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of FK228 and the associated mechanism(s) in EC.
METHODS: Ishikawa and HEC-1-A endometrial cancer cells were treated with 8nM concentration of FK228 and cell growth was measured by XTT assay. The cell cycle distribution and cell death were measured by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, respectively. The mNRA and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively.
RESULTS: Based on assays carried out in EC cell lines, it was observed that FK228 inhibited EC cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, following treatment with FK228 for 48h, there were significant induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in EC cells. Moreover, FK228 treatment significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of p53, p21, cleaved caspases such as 3, 7 and 8 and PARP. Further, FK228 treatment increased the levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 that confirms the HDAC inhibition.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FK228 inhibits EC tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by activation caspase/PARP via the induction of p53/p21 signaling cascades, suggesting that FK228 is a potential therapeutic agent for EC.

Zatonski T, Ciesielska U, Nowinska K, et al.
Expression of Cell Cycle-Related Proteins p16, p27, p53 and Ki-67 in HPV-positive and -negative Samples of Papillomas of the Upper Respiratory Tract.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3917-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as an etiological factor of respiratory tract papillomas has been described in numerous studies, however its role in malignant transformation has not been clearly defined. Depending on their oncogenic potential they have been classified as low- and high-risk HPVs. We analyzed the expression of four cell cycle-related proteins in order to understand the processes leading to malignant transformation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six cases of pharyngeal and laryngeal papillomas were analyzed. Nested multiplex polymerase chain reactions to detect the presence of the HPV types, as well as immunohistochemical reactions were performed for the detection of cell cycle-related proteins p16, p27, p53 and Ki-67.
RESULTS: The presence of HPVs 6/11 and 16 was confirmed in 10/56 cases. The expression of all analyzed cell cycle-related proteins was increased in HPV-infected papillomas.
CONCLUSION: HPV infection of the upper respiratory tract may influence the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, that could indicate its possible role in the process of malignant transformation.

Tang H, Wu Y, Liu M, et al.
SEMA3B improves the survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by upregulating p53 and p21.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):900-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
As one of the most common malignancies, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is ranked as the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In our previous study, by employing cDNA microarray analysis, semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B) was found to be significantly downregulated in ESCC. In the present study, SEMA3B downregulation at the mRNA level was found in 34 of 60 primary ESCCs (56.7%) and in 6 of 9 ESCC cell lines (66.7%) by transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of SEMA3B in a tissue microarray further indicated that downregulated expression of SEMA3B protein was found in 125 of 222 (56.3%) ESCC cases and downregulation of SEMA3B protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.000), advanced clinicopathological stage (P=0.001) and poor disease-specific survival (P=0.017) of ESCC patients. In addition, functional studies demonstrated that the SEMA3B gene could suppress the tumorigenic ability of ESCC cells and cell motility. Furthermore, it was found that by upregulating p53 and p21 expression and inhibiting Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation, SEMA3B could induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase. Taken together, our results suggest that SEMA3B may be an important tumor-suppressor gene in the malignant progression of ESCC, as well as a valuable prognostic marker for ESCC patients.

Benamar M, Guessous F, Du K, et al.
Inactivation of the CRL4-CDT2-SET8/p21 ubiquitylation and degradation axis underlies the therapeutic efficacy of pevonedistat in melanoma.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 10:85-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The cullin-based CRL4-CDT2 ubiquitin ligase is emerging as a master regulator of cell proliferation. CRL4-CDT2 prevents re-initiation of DNA replication during the same cell cycle "rereplication" through targeted degradation of CDT1, SET8 and p21 during S-phase of the cell cycle. We show that CDT2 is overexpressed in cutaneous melanoma and predicts poor overall and disease-free survival. CDT2 ablation inhibited a panel of melanoma cell lines through the induction of SET8- and p21-dependent DNA rereplication and senescence. Pevonedistat (MLN4924), a specific inhibitor of the NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE), inhibits the activity of cullin E3 ligases, thereby stabilizing a vast number of cullin substrates and resulting in cancer cell inhibition in vitro and tumor suppression in nude mice. We demonstrate that pevonedistat is effective at inhibiting the proliferation of melanoma cell lines in vitro through the induction of rereplication-dependent permanent growth arrest as well as through a transient, non-rereplication-dependent mechanism. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated heterozygous deletion of CDKN1A (encoding p21) or SET8 in melanoma cells demonstrated that the rereplication-mediated cytotoxicity of pevonedistat is mediated through preventing the degradation of p21 and SET8 and is essential for melanoma suppression in nude mice. By contrast, pevonedistat-induced transient growth suppression was independent of p21 or SET8, and insufficient to inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Pevonedistat additionally synergized with the BRAF kinase inhibitor PLX4720 to inhibit BRAF melanoma, and suppressed PLX4720-resistant melanoma cells. These findings demonstrate that the CRL4-CDT2-SET8/p21 degradation axis is the primary target of inhibition by pevonedistat in melanoma and suggest that a broad patient population may benefit from pevonedistat therapy.
RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: The identification of new molecular targets and effective inhibitors is of utmost significance for the clinical management of melanoma. This study identifies CDT2, a substrate receptor for the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase, as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in melanoma. CDT2 is required for melanoma cell proliferation and inhibition of CRL4(CDT2) by pevonedistat suppresses melanoma in vitro and in vivo through the induction of DNA rereplication and senescence through the stabilization of the CRL4(CDT2) substrates p21 and SET8. Pevonedistat also synergizes with vemurafenib in vivo and suppresses vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells. These findings show a significant promise for targeting CRL4(CDT2) therapeutically.

Kumar D, Basu S, Parija L, et al.
Curcumin and Ellagic acid synergistically induce ROS generation, DNA damage, p53 accumulation and apoptosis in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81:31-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the cervix continue to be a global health issue, and the medication for the treatment for chronic HPV infection so far has not been effective. Potential anticancer and anti HPV activities of two known phytochemicals, Curcumin and Ellagic acid were evaluated in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Curcumin is a natural compound found in the root of Curcuma longa plant and Ellagic acid a polyphenol found in fruits of strawberries, raspberries and walnuts. The combination of Curcumin and Ellagic acid at various concentrations showed better anticancer properties than either of the drug when used alone as evidenced by MTT assay. Besides this, Curcumin and Ellagic acid also restore p53, induce ROS formation and DNA damage. Mechanistic study further indicated that Curcumin and Ellagic acid show anti-HPV activity as evidenced by decrease in the HPV E6 oncoprotein on HeLa cells.

Sarsik B, Doganavsargil B, Simsir A, et al.
P21 and p27 Immunoexpression in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinomas.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(4):839-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
p21 and p27 are members of cyclin-dependent kinase family, which function as tumor suppressors and they are involved in development and progression of several malignancies. We investigated their expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). Radical nephroureterectomy materials of 34 patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry to evaluate expression of p21 and p27 in UUTUC. Results were correlated with various clinicopathological variables as age, gender, tumor grade and stage, tumor architecture, multifocality, subsequent bladder carcinoma development and clinical outcome.p21 and p27 expression was observed in 52.9 % (n = 18) and 88.2 % (n = 30), respectively. A total of 21 tumors (61.7 %) showed either total loss of p21 expression (n = 16, 47 %) or lower expression (n = 5, 14.7 %). No correlation was found between p21 expression and clinicopathologic variables. Cases showing total loss or lower p27 expression (11.7 % and <25.6 %, respectively) (n = 19, 55.8 %) constituted 67.6 % (n = 23) of the cases totally. This loss or lower p27 expression correlated with a shorter overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.039 and p = 0.037, respectively). None of the noninvasive tumors (papillary and nodular tumors) showed loss of p27 (p = 0.016) while 33.3 % of invasive ones showed p27 loss. Noninvasive tumor architecture also correlated with subsequent bladder carcinoma development (p = 0.032) while invasive tumor architecture correlated with advanced stage (T3 and T4) (p = 0.003). p27 is widely expressed in UUTUC, while p21 expression is observed in half of the cases. Loss of p27 expression correlated with tumor architecture and overall survival in UUTUC. However, further research is needed to assess their role in UUTUC.

Thanee M, Loilome W, Techasen A, et al.
CD44 variant-dependent redox status regulation in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma: A target for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(7):991-1000 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Expression of CD44, especially the variant isoforms (CD44v) of this major cancer stem cell marker, contributes to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense through stabilizing xCT (a cystine-glutamate transporter) and promoting glutathione synthesis. This enhances cancer development and increases chemotherapy resistance. We investigate the role of CD44v in the regulation of the ROS defense system in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Immunohistochemical staining of CD44v and p38(MAPK) (a major ROS target) expression in Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hamster CCA tissues (at 60, 90, 120, and 180 days) reveals a decreased phospho-p38(MAPK) signal, whereas the CD44v signal was increased during bile duct transformation. Patients with CCA showed CD44v overexpression and negative-phospho-p38(MAPK) patients a significantly shorter survival rate than the low CD44v signal and positive-phospho-p38(MAPK) patients (P = 0.030). Knockdown of CD44 showed that xCT and glutathione levels were decreased, leading to a high level of ROS. We examined xCT-targeted CD44v cancer stem cell therapy using sulfasalazine. Glutathione decreased and ROS increased after the treatment, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. Thus, the accumulation of CD44v leads to the suppression of p38(MAPK) in transforming bile duct cells. The redox status regulation of CCA cells depends on the expression of CD44v to contribute the xCT function and is a link to the poor prognosis of patients. Thus, an xCT inhibitor could inhibit cell growth and activate cell death. This suggests that an xCT-targeting drug may improve CCA therapy by sensitization to the available drug (e.g. gemcitabine) by blocking the mechanism of the cell's ROS defensive system.

Nie X, Wang X, Lin Y, et al.
SNP rs1059234 in CDKN1A Gene Correlates with Prognosis in Resected Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(3):409-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) and Cyclin D1 (CCND1) play essential roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression and are closely associated with human cancer. CDKN1A and CCND1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been demonstrated to influence the prognosis in humans with different cancers. However, their roles in the prognosis of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma (RGA) remain to be determined.
METHODS: Genotypes of CDKN1A rs1059234 and CCND1 rs603965 SNPs were performed in 235 tissue samples from RGA. The association of the genotypes of these two SNPs with the prognosis in the patients with RGA was analyzed by X2 test, multivariate Cox regression analyses, and Kaplan Meier curves.
RESULTS: During the 50 months of median follow-up time, the overall recurrence and survival rate in the whole group was 57.4% and 46.8%, respectively. Whereas, recurrence and survival rate in patients with CC genotype of rs1059234 located in 3'UTR of CDKN1A were 78.0% and 27.1% (p = 0.004; p = 0.006). Multivariate analyses further confirmed that the CC genotype was significantly related with both increased recurrence and death risk (HR 3.33, 95% CI 1.95-5.70; p = 1.07 x 10⁻⁵, and HR 3.45, 95% CI 1.95-6.10; p = 2.03 x 10⁻⁵). No significant difference among CCND1 rs603965 SNP with the prognosis was determined.
CONCLUSIONS: rs1059234 of CDKN1A is closely associated with the prognosis in patients with RGA.

Bo C, Li N, Li X, et al.
Long noncoding RNA uc.338 promotes cell proliferation through association with BMI1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hum Cell. 2016; 29(4):141-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human cancers all over the world. Increasing evidences have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in malignant transformation, tumor growth and metastasis in HCC. Among lncRNAs, ultraconserved RNAs (ucRNAs) containing an ultraconserved region have been report to contribute to human cancers. lncRNA ultraconserved element 338 (uc.338) was first found to be upregulated in HCC and promote cell growth. However, the exact mechanism by which uc.338 modulates cell growth remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that uc.338 promotes HCC cell proliferation and induces cell cycle progression. RNA-immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays showed that uc.338 associated with BMI1. We found that uc.338 promotes HCC cell proliferation and induces cell cycle progression through association with BMI1. uc.338 also modulated the transcription of CDKN1A. The oncogenic activity of uc.338 is partially due to its repression of p21. uc.338 may be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Chen Y, Pan K, Wang P, et al.
HBP1-mediated Regulation of p21 Protein through the Mdm2/p53 and TCF4/EZH2 Pathways and Its Impact on Cell Senescence and Tumorigenesis.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(24):12688-705 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
The activity of the CDK inhibitor p21 is associated with diverse biological activities, including cell proliferation, senescence, and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms governing transcription of p21 need to be extensively studied. In this study, we demonstrate that the high-mobility group box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) transcription factor is a novel activator of p21 that works as part of a complex mechanism during senescence and tumorigenesis. We found that HBP1 activates the p21 gene through enhancing p53 stability by inhibiting Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination of p53, a well known positive regulator of p21. HBP1 was also found to enhance p21 transcription by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We identified histone methyltransferase EZH2, the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2, as a target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. HBP1-mediated repression of EZH2 through Wnt/β-catenin signaling decreased the level of trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 of overall and specific histone on the p21 promoter, resulting in p21 transactivation. Although intricate, the reciprocal partnership of HBP1 and p21 has exceptional importance. HBP1-mediated elevation of p21 through the Mdm2/p53 and TCF4/EZH2 pathways contributes to both cellular senescence and tumor inhibition. Together, our results suggest that the HBP1 transcription factor orchestrates a complex regulation of key genes during cellular senescence and tumorigenesis with an impact on protein ubiquitination and overall histone methylation state.

Tonissi F, Lattanzio L, Astesana V, et al.
Reoxygenation Reverses Hypoxia-related Radioresistance in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(5):2211-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is characterized by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression and radiotherapy (RT) resistance. Cancer cells are able to survive and proliferate in hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia can be transiently interrupted by phases of reoxygenation. This work aimed to analyze the reoxygenation effect on proliferation in response to radiation in HNC cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: HNC cell lines CAL33 and CAL166 were subjected to an 8-Gy radiation dose in hypoxia and/or after reoxygenation. Cell proliferation and molecular factors involved in response to treatments were studied.
RESULTS: Cytotoxicity test confirmed radioresistance in hypoxia and highlighted that reoxygenation before RT restores sensitivity in both cell lines. Our results showed a similar proliferation inhibition effect and EGFR modulation but a different cell death mechanism in the two cell lines after treatment.
CONCLUSION: Reoxygenation before RT rescued radiosensitivity in HNC cells.

Feng Q, Leong WS, Liu L, Chan WI
Peruvoside, a Cardiac Glycoside, Induces Primitive Myeloid Leukemia Cell Death.
Molecules. 2016; 21(4):534 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the available chemotherapy and treatment, leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure due to frequent relapses after treatment. Among the heterogeneous leukemic cells, a rare population referred as the leukemic stem cell (LSC), is thought to be responsible for relapses and drug resistance. Cardiac glycosides (CGs) have been used in treating heart failure despite its toxicity. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated its new usage as a potential anti-cancer drug. Ouabain, one of the CGs, specifically targeted CD34⁺CD38(-) leukemic stem-like cells, but not the more mature CD34⁺CD38⁺ leukemic cells, making this type of compounds a potential treatment for leukemia. In search of other potential anti-leukemia CGs, we found that Peruvoside, a less studied CG, is more effective than Ouabain and Digitoxin at inducing cell death in primitive myeloid leukemia cells without obvious cytotoxicity on normal blood cells. Similar to Ouabain and Digitoxin, Peruvoside also caused cell cycle arrest at G₂/M stage. It up-regulates CDKN1A expression and activated the cleavage of Caspase 3, 8 and PARP, resulting in apoptosis. Thus, Peruvoside showed potent anti-leukemia effect, which may serve as a new anti-leukemia agent in the future.

Luo J, Zhang C, Wang C, et al.
Miz-1 promotes the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells via suppression of p21 and release of p21-arrested cyclin D1.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(6):3532-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumorigenesis results from various types of dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors that influence cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and senescence. The transcription factor Myc-interacting zinc finger protein 1 (Miz-1) can either activate or repress gene expression in concert with binding partners including the Myc oncoprotein in several types of tumors. Known target genes of these complexes encode the cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitors such as cdkn2b (p15) and cdkn1a (p21). In the present study, we showed that the silencing of Miz-1 expression, through shRNA in a lentiviral vector, influenced various biological processes in two types of esophageal carcinoma cell lines. Silencing of the expression of Miz-1 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in vitro. Loss of Miz-1 reduced the migration ability in esophageal carcinoma cells. High expression of p21 and downregulation of cyclin D1 accompanied the knockdown of Miz-1. Our data demonstrated that esophageal cancer has a cell cycle arrest pathway via Miz-1, p21 and cyclin D1.

Kim CW, Go RE, Lee HM, et al.
Cigarette smoke extracts induced the colon cancer migration via regulating epithelial mesenchymal transition and metastatic genes in human colon cancer cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2017; 32(2):690-704 [PubMed] Related Publications
There was considerable evidence that exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the relationship between cigarette smoking and colon cancer remains unclear. Moreover, there were only a few studies on effects of complexing substance contained in cigarette smoke on colon cancer. Thus, we further investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affects the cell cycle, apoptosis and migration of human metastatic colon cancer cells, SW-620. MTT assay revealed that SW-620 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited following treatments with all CSEs, 3R4F, and two-domestic cigarettes, for 9 days in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, CSE treatments decreased cyclin D1 and E1, and increased p21 and p27 proteins by Western blot analysis in SW-620 cells. Additionally, the treatment of the cells with CSE contributed to these effects expressing by apoptosis-related proteins. An increased migration or invasion ability of SW-620 cells following CSE treatment was also confirmed by a scratch or fibronectin invasion assay in vitro. In addition, the protein levels of E-cadherin as an epithelial maker were down-regulated, while the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin, snail, and slug, were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. A metastatic marker, cathepsin D, was also down-regulated by CSE treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that CSE exposure in colon cancer cells may deregulate the cell growth by altering the expression of cell cycle-related proteins and pro-apoptotic protein, and stimulate cell metastatic ability by altering epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and cathepsin D expression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 690-704, 2017.

Li RH, Zhang AM, Li S, et al.
Multiple differential expression networks identify key genes in rectal cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(3):435-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer is an important contributor to cancer mortality.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to identify key genes across three phenotypes (fungating, polypoid and polypoid & small-ulcer) of rectal cancer based on multiple differential expression networks (DENs).
METHODS: Differential interactions and non-differential interactions were evaluated according to Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) algorithm, and were selected to construct DENs. Topological analysis was performed for exploring hub genes in largest components of DENs. Key genes were denoted as intersections between nodes of DENs and rectal cancer associated genes from Genecards. Finally, we utilized hub genes to classify phenotypes of rectal cancer on the basis of support vector machines (SVM) methodology.
RESULTS: We obtained 19 hub genes and total 12 common key genes of three largest components of DENs, and EGFR was the common element. The SVM results revealed that hub genes could classify phenotypes, and validated feasibility of DEN methods.
CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully identified significant genes (such as EGFR and UBC) across fungating, polypoid and polypoid & small-ulcer phenotype of rectal cancer. They might be potential biomarkers for classification, detection and therapy of this cancer.

Xie BH, He X, Hua RX, et al.
Mir-765 promotes cell proliferation by downregulating INPP4B expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(3):405-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation is widely involved in cancer progression and contributed to sustained cell proliferation by directly targeting multiple targets. Therefore, better understanding the underlying mechanism of miRNA in carcinogenesis may improve diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for malignancy. In our study, we found that mir-765 is upregulated in both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues, compared to human normal liver cell line and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, respectively. Overexpression of mir-765 increased HCC cells proliferation and tumorigenicity, whereas inhibition of mir-765 reverses this effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that INPP4B as a direct target of mir-765 and ectopic expression of mir-765 repressed INPP4B expression, resulting in upregulation of p-AKT, Cyclin D1, and downregulation of p-FOXO3a, p21 expression in HCC. Strikingly, we found that silencing the expression of INPP4B is the essential biological function of miR-765 during HCC cell proliferation. Collectively, our findings reveal that miR-765 is a potential onco-miR that participates in carcinogenesis of human HCC by suppressing INPP4B expression, and might represent a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients.

Moolmuang B, Singhirunnusorn P, Ruchirawat M
Effects of 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine, Bromodeoxyuridine, Interferons and Hydrogen Peroxide on Cellular Senescence in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(3):957-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular senescence, a barrier to tumorigenesis, controls aberrant proliferation of cells. We here aimed to investigate cellular senescence in immortalized cholangiocyte and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines using five different inducing agents: 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine, bromodeoxyuridine, interferons (IFNβ and IFNγ), and hydrogen peroxide. We analyzed senescence characteristics, colony formation ability, expression of genes involved in cell cycling and interferon signaling pathways, and protein levels. Treatment with all five agents decreased cell proliferation and induced cellular senescence in immortalized cholangiocyte and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines with different degrees of growth-inhibitory effects depending on cell type and origin. Bromodeoxyuridine gave the strongest stimulus to inhibit growth and induce senescence in most cell lines tested. Expression of p21 and interferon related genes was upregulated in most conditions. The fact that bromodeoxyuridine had the strongest effects on growth inhibition and senescence induction implies that senescence in cholangiocarcinoma cells is likely controlled by DNA damage response pathways relating to the p53/p21 signaling. In addition, interferon signaling pathways may partly regulate this mechanism in cholangiocarcinoma cells.

Żuryń A, Litwiniec A, Safiejko-Mroczka B, et al.
The effect of sulforaphane on the cell cycle, apoptosis and expression of cyclin D1 and p21 in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(6):2521-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sulforaphane (SFN) is present in plants belonging to Cruciferae family and was first isolated from broccoli sprouts. Chemotherapeutic and anticarcinogenic properties of sulforaphane were demonstrated, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the expression of cyclin D1 and p21 protein in SFN-treated A549 cells and correlated these results with the extent of cell death and/or cell cycle alterations, as well as determined a potential contribution of cyclin D1 to cell death. A549 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of SFN (30, 60 and 90 µM) for 24 h. Morphological and ultrastructural changes were observed using light, transmission electron microscope and videomicroscopy. Image-based cytometry was applied to evaluate the effect of SFN on apoptosis and the cell cycle. Cyclin D1 and p21 expression was determined by flow cytometry, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. siRNA was used to evaluate the role of cyclin D1 in the process of suforaphane-induced cell death. We found that the percentage of cyclin D1-positive cells decreased after the treatment with SFN, but at the same time mean fluorescence intensity reflecting cyclin D1 content was increased at 30 µM SFN and decreased at 60 and 90 µM SFN. Percentage of p21-positive cells increased following the treatment, with the highest increase at 60 µM SFN, at which concentration mean fluorescence intensity of this protein was also significantly increased. The 30-µM dose of SFN induced an increased G2/M phase population along with a decreased polyploid fraction of cells, which implies a functional G2/M arrest. The major mode of cell death induced by SFN was necrosis and, to a lower degree apoptosis. Transfection with cyclin D1-siRNA resulted in significantly compromised fraction of apoptotic and necrotic cells, which suggests that cyclin D1 is an important determinant of the therapeutic efficiency of SFN in the A549 cells.

Seçme M, Eroğlu C, Dodurga Y, Bağcı G
Investigation of anticancer mechanism of oleuropein via cell cycle and apoptotic pathways in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
Gene. 2016; 585(1):93-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common types of pediatric tumors that can spread quickly in neuronal tissues. Oleuropein which is active compound of olive leaves, belongs to polyphenols group and has antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and anti-carcinogenic effects. The aim of the study is to determine the therapeutic effects of oleuropein on cell proliferation, invasion, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptotic mechanisms in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line under in vitro conditions. The effect of oleuropein on cell viability was determined by XTT method. 84 cell cycle control and 84 apoptosis related genes were evaluated by RT-PCR. Effects of oleuropein on apoptosis were researched by TUNEL assay. Protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. Effects of oleuropein on cell invasion, colony formation and migration were detected by matrigel-chamber, colony formation assay and wound-healing assay, respectively. IC50 value of oleuropein in SH-SY5Y cells was detected as 350 μM at 48th hours. It is determined that oleuropein causes cell cycle arrest by down-regulating of CylinD1,CylinD2,CyclinD3,CDK4,CDK6 and up-regulating of p53 and CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN1A gene expressions. Oleuropein also induces apoptosis by inhibiting of Bcl-2 and activating of Bax,caspase-9 and caspase-3 gene expressions. Apoptotic cell ratio was found 36.4 ± 3.27% in oleuropein dose group. Oleuropein decreased invasion in SH-SY5Y cells and suppressed colony numbers in ratio of 53.6 ± 4.71%.Our results demonstrated that oleuropein can be a therapeutic agent in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

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