Gene Summary

Gene:RARB; retinoic acid receptor, beta
Aliases: HAP, RRB2, NR1B2, MCOPS12
Summary:This gene encodes retinoic acid receptor beta, a member of the thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear transcriptional regulators. This receptor localizes to the cytoplasm and to subnuclear compartments. It binds retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A which mediates cellular signalling in embryonic morphogenesis, cell growth and differentiation. It is thought that this protein limits growth of many cell types by regulating gene expression. The gene was first identified in a hepatocellular carcinoma where it flanks a hepatitis B virus integration site. Alternate promoter usage and differential splicing result in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:retinoic acid receptor beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RARB (cancer-related)

Hosgood HD, Song M, Hsiung CA, et al.
Interactions between household air pollution and GWAS-identified lung cancer susceptibility markers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA).
Hum Genet. 2015; 134(3):333-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously carried out a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer among never smokers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA) (6,609 cases, 7,457 controls) that identified novel susceptibility loci at 10q25.2, 6q22.2, and 6p21.32, and confirmed two previously identified loci at 5p15.33 and 3q28. Household air pollution (HAP) attributed to solid fuel burning for heating and cooking, is the leading cause of the overall disease burden in Southeast Asia, and is known to contain lung carcinogens. To evaluate the gene-HAP interactions associated with lung cancer in loci independent of smoking, we analyzed data from studies participating in FLCCA with fuel use information available (n = 3; 1,731 cases; 1,349 controls). Coal use was associated with a 30% increased risk of lung cancer (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Among the five a priori SNPs identified by our GWAS, two showed a significant interaction with coal use (HLA Class II rs2395185, p = 0.02; TP63 rs4488809 (rs4600802), p = 0.04). The risk of lung cancer associated with coal exposure varied with the respective alleles for these two SNPs. Our observations provide evidence that genetic variation in HLA Class II and TP63 may modify the association between HAP and lung cancer risk. The roles played in the cell cycle and inflammation pathways by the proteins encoded by these two genes provide biological plausibility for these interactions; however, additional replication studies are needed in other non-smoking populations.

Liu X, Giguère V
Inactivation of RARβ inhibits Wnt1-induced mammary tumorigenesis by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transitions.
Nucl Recept Signal. 2014; 12:e004 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) has been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. In contrast, recent data have shown that RARβ promotes ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis through remodeling of the stromal compartment and activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts. However, it is currently unknown whether RARβ oncogenic activity is specific to ERBB2-induced tumors, or whether it influences the initiation and progression of other breast cancer subtypes. Accordingly, we set out to investigate the involvement of RARβ in basal-like breast cancer using mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-wingless-related integration site 1 (Wnt1)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis as a model system. We found that compared with wild type mice, inactivation of Rarb resulted in a lengthy delay in Wnt1-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis and in a significantly slower tumor growth rate. Ablation of Rarb altered the composition of the stroma, repressed the activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts, and reduced the recruitment of inflammatory cells and angiogenesis. Reduced expression of IGF-1 and activity of its downstream signaling pathway contribute to attenuate EMT in the Rarb-null tumors. Our results show that, in the absence of retinoid signaling via RARβ, reduced IGF-1 signaling results in suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and delays tumorigenesis induced by the Wnt1 oncogene. Accordingly, our work reinforces the concept that antagonizing RARβ-dependent retinoid signaling could provide a therapeutic avenue to treat poor outcome breast cancers.

Serenaite I, Daniunaite K, Jankevicius F, et al.
Heterogeneity of DNA methylation in multifocal prostate cancer.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(1):53-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most prostate cancer (PCa) cases are multifocal, and separate foci display histological and molecular heterogeneity. DNA hypermethylation is a frequent alteration in PCa, but interfocal heterogeneity of these changes has not been extensively investigated. Ten pairs of foci from multifocal PCa and 15 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples were obtained from prostatectomy specimens, resulting altogether in 35 samples. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to evaluate methylation status of nine tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), and a set of selected TSGs was quantitatively analyzed for methylation intensity by pyrosequencing. Promoter sequences of the RASSF1 and ESR1 genes were methylated in all paired PCa foci, and frequent (≥75 %) DNA methylation was detected in RARB, GSTP1, and ABCB1 genes. MSP revealed different methylation status of at least one gene in separate foci in 8 out of 10 multifocal tumors. The mean methylation level of ESR1, GSTP1, RASSF1, and RARB differed between the paired foci of all PCa cases. The intensity of DNA methylation in these TSGs was significantly higher in PCa cases than in BPH (p < 0.001). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a divergent methylation profile of paired PCa foci, while the foci from separate cases with biochemical recurrence showed similar methylation profile and the highest mean levels of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that PCa tissue is heterogeneous, as between paired foci differences in DNA methylation status were found. Common epigenetic profile of recurrent tumors can be inferred from our data.

Dauksa A, Gulbinas A, Endzinas Z, et al.
DNA methylation at selected CpG sites in peripheral blood leukocytes is predictive of gastric cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5381-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Recently, a set of studies addressed the question of the prevalence of aberrant methylation in surrogate tissues, such as peripheral blood leukocytes. Toward this aim, we conducted a case-control pilot study to investigate aberrant methylation in leukocytes of gastric cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SNuPE combined with ion pair reverse phase HPLC (SIRPH method) was used to examine site-specific methylation status at selected CpG sites of the promoter regions of APC, ACIN1, BCL2, CD44, DAPK1, CDKN2A, RARB, TNFRSF10C HS3ST2 and of LINE-1, Alu repeats.
RESULTS: We observed that in the patients, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while DNA repetitive elements were slightly less methylated compared to controls. This was found to be significantly associated with higher prevalence for gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that larger studies must be carried-out to explore the biological significance and clinical usefulness of leukocyte DNA as non-invasive detection tool for gastric cancer.

Lai ZL, Tsou YA, Fan SR, et al.
Methylation-associated gene silencing of RARB in areca carcinogens induced mouse oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:378358 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Regarding oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development, chewing areca is known to be a strong risk factor in many Asian cultures. Therefore, we established an OSCC induced mouse model by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), or arecoline, or both treatments, respectively. These are the main two components of the areca nut that could increase the occurrence of OSCC. We examined the effects with the noncommercial MCGI (mouse CpG islands) microarray for genome-wide screening the DNA methylation aberrant in induced OSCC mice. The microarray results showed 34 hypermethylated genes in 4-NQO plus arecoline induced OSCC mice tongue tissues. The examinations also used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and bisulfite sequencing to realize the methylation pattern in collected mouse tongue tissues and human OSCC cell lines of different grades, respectively. These results showed that retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) was indicated in hypermethylation at the promoter region and the loss of expression during cancer development. According to the results of real-time PCR, it was shown that de novo DNA methyltransferases were involved in gene epigenetic alternations of OSCC. Collectively, our results showed that RARB hypermethylation was involved in the areca-associated oral carcinogenesis.

Noorlag R, van Kempen PM, Moelans CB, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation using 24-gene array in early head and neck cancer: better outcome in oral than in oropharyngeal cancer.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(9):1220-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by DNA promoter hypermethylation is an early event in carcinogenesis and a potential target for personalized cancer treatment. In head and neck cancer, little is known about the role of promoter hypermethylation in survival. Using methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) we investigated the role of promoter hypermethylation of 24 well-described genes (some of which are classic TSGs), which are frequently methylated in different cancer types, in 166 HPV-negative early oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and 51 HPV-negative early oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) in relation to clinicopathological features and survival. Early OSCC showed frequent promoter hypermethylation in RARB (31% of cases), CHFR (20%), CDH13 (13%), DAPK1 (12%), and APC (10%). More hypermethylation (≥ 2 genes) independently correlated with improved disease specific survival (hazard ratio 0.17, P = 0.014) in early OSCC and could therefore be used as prognostic biomarker. Early OPSCCs showed more hypermethylation of CDH13 (58%), TP73 (14%), and total hypermethylated genes. Hypermethylation of two or more genes has a significantly different effect on survival in OPSCC compared with OSCC, with a trend toward worse instead of better survival. This could have a biological explanation, which deserves further investigation and could possibly lead to more stratified treatment in the future.

Sharma G, Agarwal SM
Identification of critical microRNA gene targets in cervical cancer using network properties.
Microrna. 2014; 3(1):37-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs which function as oncogenes or tumour suppressor gene and regulate gene expression by controlling targets that play role in cancer development and progression. Numerous recent studies have established an association of abnormal expression of miRNA with cervical cancer progression. Although the number of reported deregulated miRNA in cervical cancer is increasing, only a few associations between miRNA and their targets have been studied in cervical cancer. Therefore, we performed a systematic analysis of known dysregulated miRNAs involved in cervical cancer so as to identify critical miRNA targets that could pave way for therapeutic solutions. In this study, miRNAs reported to be dysregulated in cervical cancer were collected and their targets predicted using TargetScan, PicTar and miRanda. These targets were subsequently compared with previously curated gene dataset involved in cervical cancer to derive the putative target dataset. We then compared network properties (composed of degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality and clustering coefficient) of the putative, validated and human protein-protein interaction network. Based on the topological properties genes were ranked and observed that the gene targets BIRC5 (survivin), HOXA1 and RARB presenting with high Novoseek score of Genecards were enriched in cervical cancer. BIRC5 is an anti- apoptotic protein while HOXA1 and RARB are transcription factors which play critical role in altering the level of cell cycle and apoptosis associated proteins. Also, miRNA-mRNA network was constructed and it was found that miR-203 and miR-30b could target these genes. The analysis indicates that the genes BIRC5, HOXA1 and RARB are critical targets that play an important regulatory role in cervical cancer pathogenesis.

van Kempen PM, van Bockel L, Braunius WW, et al.
HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with TIMP3 and CADM1 promoter hypermethylation.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(5):1185-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) in a proportion of tumors. HPV-positive OPSCC is considered a distinct molecular entity with a prognostic advantage compared to HPV-negative cases. Silencing of cancer-related genes by DNA promoter hypermethylation may play an important role in the development of OPSCC. Hence, we examined promoter methylation status in 24 common tumor suppressor genes in a group of 200 OPSCCs to determine differentially methylated genes in HPV-positive versus HPV-negative primary OPSCC. Methylation status was correlated with HPV status, clinical features, and patient survival using multivariate methods. Additionally, methylation status of 16 cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) was compared with HPV-positive OPSCC. Using methylation-specific probe amplification, HPV-positive OPSCC showed a significantly higher cumulative methylation index (CMI) compared to HPV-negative OPSCC (P=0.008). For the genes CDH13, DAPK1, and RARB, both HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC showed promoter hypermethylation in at least 20% of the tumors. HPV status was found to be an independent predictor of promoter hypermethylation of CADM1 (P < 0.001), CHFR (P = 0.027), and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). CADM1 and CHFR showed similar methylation patterns in OPSCC and cervical SCC, but TIMP3 showed no methylation in cervical SCC in contrast to OPSCC. Methylation status of neither individual gene nor CMI was associated with survival. These results suggest that HPV-positive tumors are to a greater extent driven by promotor hypermethylation in these tumor suppressor genes. Especially CADM1 and TIMP3 are significantly more frequently hypermethylated in HPV-positive OPSCC and CHFR in HPV-negative tumors.

Jiang D, Shen Y, Dai D, et al.
Meta-analyses of methylation markers for prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):10449-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer that has become the sixth leading cause of mortality in both the developed and developing countries. Accumulating evidence showed a number of genes with aberrant DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of PCa. Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of aberrantly methylated genes to the risk of PCa. Relevant methylation studies were retrieved from PubMed and Wanfang literature databases. In the meta-analysis, Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each methylation event under appropriate models. A total of 594 publications were initially retrieved from PubMed and Wanfang literature database. After a three-step filtration, we harvested 39 case-control articles investigating the role of gene methylation in the prediction of PCa risk. Among the 31 genes involved, 24 genes were shown to be significantly hypermethylated in the PCa patients. Our meta-analyses identified strong associations of four aberrantly methylated genes (GSTP1, RASSF1, p16, and RARB) with PCa. Further research is needed to strengthen our findings in the future.

Leong KJ, Beggs A, James J, et al.
Biomarker-based treatment selection in early-stage rectal cancer to promote organ preservation.
Br J Surg. 2014; 101(10):1299-309 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Total mesorectal excision (TME) remains commonplace for T1-2 rectal cancer owing to fear of undertreating a small proportion of patients with node-positive disease. Molecular stratification may predict cancer progression. It could be used to select patients for organ-preserving surgery if specific biomarkers were validated.
METHODS: Gene methylation was quantified using bisulphite pyrosequencing in 133 unirradiated rectal cancer TME specimens. KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability status were also defined. Molecular parameters were correlated with histopathological indices of disease progression. Predictive models for nodal metastasis, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and distant metastasis were constructed using a multilevel reverse logistic regression model.
RESULTS: Methylation of the retinoic acid receptor β gene, RARB, and that of the checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger gene, CHFR, was associated with tumour stage (RARB: 51·9 per cent for T1-2 versus 33·9 per cent for T3-4, P < 0·001; CHFR: 5·5 per cent for T1-2 versus 12·6 per cent for T3-4, P = 0·005). Gene methylation associated with nodal metastasis included RARB (47·1 per cent for N- versus 31·7 per cent for N+; P = 0·008), chemokine ligand 12, CXCL12 (12·3 per cent for N- versus 8·9 per cent for N+; P = 0·021), and death-associated protein kinase 1, DAPK1 (19·3 per cent for N- versus 12·3 per cent for N+; P = 0·022). RARB methylation was also associated with LVI (45·1 per cent for LVI- versus 31·7 per cent for LVI+; P = 0·038). Predictive models for nodal metastasis and LVI achieved sensitivities of 91·1 and 85·0 per cent, and specificities of 55·3 and 45·3 per cent, respectively.
CONCLUSION: This methylation biomarker panel provides a step towards accurate discrimination of indolent and aggressive rectal cancer subtypes. This could offer an improvement over the current standard of care, whereby fit patients are offered radical surgery.

Daniunaite K, Jarmalaite S, Kalinauskaite N, et al.
Prognostic value of RASSF1 promoter methylation in prostate cancer.
J Urol. 2014; 192(6):1849-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Patients with prostate cancer who have biochemical recurrence after curative therapy are at higher risk for distant metastasis and cancer specific death. Assessment of aberrant DNA methylation in urine might complement currently used clinical prognostic factors and serve as a noninvasive tool for early prediction of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Promoter methylation of 7 genes was evaluated by methylation sensitive polymerase chain reaction in 149 prostate cancer tissues, 37 noncancerous prostate tissues and 17 benign prostatic hyperplasia samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for DNA methylation analysis of the urine of 253 patients with prostate cancer and 32 with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
RESULTS: In prostate cancer tissue the most frequently methylated genes were RASSF1, GSTP1 and RARB, which combined were positively identified in 85% of cases. These genes were also methylated in the urine of 60% of patients with prostate cancer. RASSF1 was methylated in 45% of prostate cancer urine samples with methylation intensity significantly higher in prostate cancer than in benign prostatic hyperplasia cases (p = 0.018). In a univariate model RASSF1 methylation and the total number of methylated genes in prostate cancer tissue were predictive of time to biochemical recurrence (p = 0.019 and 0.043, respectively). On multivariate analysis RASSF1 methylation together with pathological stage was the most significant predictor of biochemical recurrence in patients with Gleason score 6 tumors when analyzed in tissue and urine (p ≤0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of RASSF1 in cancerous tissue and urine from patients with prostate cancer correlated with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. The prognostic potential of this biomarker deserves further investigation.

Marzese DM, Scolyer RA, Roqué M, et al.
DNA methylation and gene deletion analysis of brain metastases in melanoma patients identifies mutually exclusive molecular alterations.
Neuro Oncol. 2014; 16(11):1499-509 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The brain is a common target of metastases for melanoma patients. Little is known about the genetic and epigenetic alterations in melanoma brain metastases (MBMs). Unraveling these molecular alterations is a key step in understanding their aggressive nature and identifying novel therapeutic targets.
METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses of MBMs (n = 15) and normal brain tissues (n = 91) and simultaneous multigene DNA methylation and gene deletion analyses of metastatic melanoma tissues (99 MBMs and 43 extracranial metastases) were performed. BRAF and NRAS mutations were evaluated in MBMs by targeted sequencing.
RESULTS: MBMs showed significant epigenetic heterogeneity. RARB, RASSF1, ESR1, APC, PTEN, and CDH13 genes were frequently hypermethylated. Deletions were frequently detected in the CDKN2A/B locus. Of MBMs, 46.1% and 28.8% had BRAF and NRAS missense mutations, respectively. Compared with lung and liver metastases, MBMs exhibited higher frequency of CDH13 hypermethylation and CDKN2A/B locus deletion. Mutual exclusivity between hypermethylated genes and CDKN2A/B locus deletion identified 2 clinically relevant molecular subtypes of MBMs. CDKN2A/B deletions were associated with multiple MBMs and frequently hypermethylated genes with shorter time to brain metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Melanoma cells that colonize the brain harbor numerous genetically and epigenetically altered genes. This study presents an integrated genomic and epigenomic analysis that reveals MBM-specific molecular alterations and mutually exclusive molecular subtypes.

Paziewska A, Dabrowska M, Goryca K, et al.
DNA methylation status is more reliable than gene expression at detecting cancer in prostate biopsy.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(4):781-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We analysed critically the potential usefulness of RNA- and DNA-based biomarkers in supporting conventional histological diagnostic tests for prostate carcinoma (PCa) detection.
METHODS: Microarray profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation was performed on 16 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 32 cancerous and non-cancerous prostate samples extracted by radical prostatectomy. The predictive value of the selected biomarkers was validated by qPCR-based methods using tissue samples extracted from the 58 prostates and, separately, using 227 prostate core biopsies.
RESULTS: HOXC6, AMACR and PCA3 expression showed the best discrimination between PCa and BPH. All three genes were previously reported as the most promising mRNA-based markers for distinguishing cancerous lesions from benign prostate lesions; however, none were sufficiently sensitive and specific to meet the criteria for a PCa diagnostic biomarker. By contrast, DNA methylation levels of the APC, TACC2, RARB, DGKZ and HES5 promoter regions achieved high discriminating sensitivity and specificity, with area under the curve (AUCs) reaching 0.95-1.0. Only a small overlap was detected between the DNA methylation levels of PCa-positive and PCa-negative needle biopsies, with AUCs ranging between 0.854 and 0.899.
CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation-based biomarkers reflect the prostate malignancy and might be useful in supporting clinical decisions for suspected PCa following an initial negative prostate biopsy.

Vasiljević N, Scibior-Bentkowska D, Brentnall AR, et al.
Credentialing of DNA methylation assays for human genes as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk HPV positive women.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(3):709-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Testing for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is increasing; however due to limitations in specificity there remains a need for better triage tests. Research efforts have focused recently on methylation of human genes which show promise as diagnostic classifiers.
METHODS: Methylation of 26 genes: APC, CADM1, CCND2, CDH13, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, DAPK1, DPYS, EDNRB, EPB41L3, ESR1, GSTP1, HIN1, JAM3, LMX1, MAL, MDR1, PAX1, PTGS2, RARB, RASSF1, SLIT2, SOX1, SPARC, TERT and TWIST1 was measured by pyrosequencing in cytology specimens from a pilot set of women with normal or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) histology. Six genes were selected for testing in Predictors 1, a colposcopy referral study comprising 799 women. The three genes EPB41L3, DPYS and MAL were further tested in a second colposcopy referral study, Predictors 2, comprising 884 women.
RESULTS: The six genes selected from the pilot: EPB41L3, EDNRB, LMX1, DPYS, MAL and CADM1 showed significantly elevated methylation in CIN2 and CIN3 (CIN2/3) versus ≤CIN1 in Predictors 1 (p<0.01). Highest methylation was observed in cancer tissues. EPB41L3 methylation was the best single classifier of CIN2/3 in both HR-HPV positive (p<0.0001) and negative samples (p=0.02). Logistic regression modeling showed that other genes did not add significantly to EPB41L3 and in Predictors 2, its classifier value was validated with AUC 0.69 (95% CI 0.65-0.73).
CONCLUSION: Several methylated genes show promise for detecting CIN2/3 of which EPB41L3 seems the best. Methylated human gene biomarkers used in combination may be clinically useful for triage of women with HR-HPV infections.

Moison C, Assemat F, Daunay A, et al.
Synergistic chromatin repression of the tumor suppressor gene RARB in human prostate cancers.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(4):477-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
DNA methylation and polycomb proteins are well-known mediators of epigenetic silencing in mammalian cells. Usually described as mutually exclusive, this statement is today controversial and recent in vitro studies suggest the co-existence of both repressor systems. We addressed this issue in the study of Retinoic Acid Receptor β (RARβ), a tumor suppressor gene frequently silenced in prostate cancer. We found that the RARβ promoter is hypermethylated in all studied prostate tumors and methylation levels are positively correlated with H3K27me3 enrichments. Thus, by using bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of immunoprecipitated H3K27me3 chromatin, we demonstrated that DNA methylation and polycomb repression co-exist in vivo at this locus. We found this repressive association in 6/6 patient tumor samples of different Gleason score, suggesting a strong interplay of DNA methylation and EZH2 to silence RARβ during prostate tumorigenesis.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic imbalances detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a cohort of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-the first step towards clinical personalized medicine.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral tumors are a growing health problem worldwide; thus, it is mandatory to establish genetic markers in order to improve diagnosis and early detection of tumors, control relapses and, ultimately, delineate individualized therapies. This study was the first to evaluate and discuss the clinical applicability of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe panel directed to head and neck cancer. Thirty primary oral squamous cell tumors were analyzed using the P428 MLPA probe panel. We detected genetic imbalances in 26 patients and observed a consistent pattern of distribution of genetic alterations in terms of losses and gains for some chromosomes, particularly for chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. Regarding the latter, some specific genes were highlighted due to frequent losses of genetic material--RARB, FHIT, CSMD1, GATA4, and MTUS1--and others due to gains--MCCC1, MYC, WISP1, PTK2, CCND1, FGF4, FADD, and CTTN. We also verified that the gains of MYC and WISP1 genes seem to suggest higher propensity of tumors localized in the floor of the mouth. This study proved the value of this MLPA probe panel for a first-tier analysis of oral tumors. The probemix was developed to include target regions that have been already shown to be of diagnostic/prognostic relevance for oral tumors. Furthermore, this study emphasized several of those specific genetic targets, suggesting its importance to oral tumor development, to predict patients' outcomes, and also to guide the development of novel molecular therapies.

Chu SH, Zhou ZM, Feng DF, Ma YB
Inhibition of human glioma U251 cells growth in vitro and in vivo by hydroxyapatite nanoparticle-assisted delivery of short hairpin RNAs against SATB1.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(2):977-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been reported to be over-expressed in many human tumors and knockdown of SATB1 can inhibit tumor growth. The present study was designed to determine the role of SATB1 in the growth of human glioma U251 cells using the plasmid-based SATB1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivered by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro growth, invasion and angiogenesis assays of human glioma U251 cells were done. U251 cells tumor blocks were transplanted into the nude mice. CaCl2-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles carrying shRNA-SATB1 plasmids were injected into the tumors. The apoptosis of the tumor U251 cells was examined with TUNEL assay and flow cytometer (FCM). The tumor growth and immunohistochemistry were measured. The expression level of SATB1 mRNA was investigated by RT-PCR. The expression levels of SATB1, Cyclin D1, MMP-2, VEGF, Bax and Caspase-9 protein were determined by western blot analysis. The results showed that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles-delivered shRNA-SATB1 could significantly inhibit the growth, invasion and angiogenesis of U251 cells in vitro and the growth of U251 cells in vivo. FCM results showed that Nano HAP-shRNA-SATB1-induced apoptosis (up to 67.8 %). SATB1 expression was strongly down-regulated in the tumor U251 cells. Cyclin D1, MMP-2 and VEGF were also down-regulated in the tumor tissues that also displayed significant increased in Bax expression and Caspase-9 activity. These results show that Nano HAP-shRNA-SATB1 can inhibit the growth of human glioma U251 cells in vitro and in vivo, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be used for the in vitro and in vivo delivery of plasmid-based shRNAs into U251 cells.

Moritz R, Ellinger J, Nuhn P, et al.
DNA hypermethylation as a predictor of PSA recurrence in patients with low- and intermediate-grade prostate cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(12):5249-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA CpG island hypermethylation causes gene silencing and is a common event in prostate carcinogenesis and progression. We investigated its role as a possible prognostic marker in patients with PCA Gleason score ≤7.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a quantitative, methylation-specific PCR to analyze methylation patterns at five gene loci (APC, GSTP1, PTGS2, RARbeta and TIG1) in 84 prostate cancer (PCA) tissues (Gleason Score ≤7). Methylation was correlated with established clinico-pathological parameters (preoperative PSA, pathological Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle penetration, lymph node involvement, surgical margins and age) and PSA recurrence.
RESULTS: DNA hypermethylation was frequently detected at APC (95.2%), GSTP1 (84.5%), PTGS2 (100%), RAR-beta (81.0%) and TIG1 (95.2%). DNA hypermethylation was correlated with Gleason Score (p=0.027; PTGS2) and lymph node involvement (p=0.024; RARbeta). High methylation levels at RARbeta (p=0.023) was a significant predictor of PSA recurrence following radical prostatectomy.
CONCLUSION: The analysis of DNA hypermethylation provides prognostic information in prognosis of low- and intermediate-grade PCA.

Sulahian R, Casey F, Shen J, et al.
An integrative analysis reveals functional targets of GATA6 transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(49):5637-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
Lineage-restricted transcription factors (TFs) are frequently mutated or overexpressed in cancer and contribute toward malignant behaviors; however, the molecular bases of their oncogenic properties are largely unknown. As TF activities are difficult to inhibit directly with small molecules, the genes and pathways they regulate might represent more tractable targets for drug therapy. We studied GATA6, a TF gene that is frequently amplified or overexpressed in gastric, esophageal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. GATA6-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines cluster in gene expression space, separate from non-overexpressing lines. This expression clustering signifies a shared pathogenic group of genes that GATA6 may regulate through direct cis-element binding. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify GATA6-bound genes and considered TF occupancy in relation to genes that respond to GATA6 depletion in cell lines and track with GATA6 mRNA (synexpression groups) in primary gastric cancers. Among other cellular functions, GATA6-occupied genes control apoptosis and govern the M-phase of the cell cycle. Depletion of GATA6 reduced the levels of the latter transcripts and arrested cells in G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. Synexpression in human tumor samples identified likely direct transcriptional targets substantially better than consideration only of transcripts that respond to GATA6 loss in cultured cells. Candidate target genes responded to the loss of GATA6 or its homolog GATA4 and even more to the depletion of both proteins. Many GATA6-dependent genes lacked nearby binding sites but several strongly dependent, synexpressed and GATA6-bound genes encode TFs such as MYC, HES1, RARB and CDX2. Thus, many downstream effects occur indirectly through other TFs and GATA6 activity in gastric cancer is partially redundant with GATA4. This integrative analysis of locus occupancy, gene dependency and synexpression provides a functional signature of GATA6-overexpressing gastric cancers, revealing both limits and new therapeutic directions for a challenging and frequently fatal disease.

Casadio V, Molinari C, Calistri D, et al.
DNA Methylation profiles as predictors of recurrence in non muscle invasive bladder cancer: an MS-MLPA approach.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 32:94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) generally has a good long-term prognosis, up to 80% of patients will nevertheless experience local recurrence after the primary tumor resection. The search for markers capable of accurately identifying patients at high risk of recurrence is ongoing. We retrospectively evaluated the methylation status of a panel of 24 tumor suppressor genes (TIMP3, APC, CDKN2A, MLH1, ATM, RARB, CDKN2B, HIC1, CHFR, BRCA1, CASP8, CDKN1B, PTEN, BRCA2, CD44, RASSF1, DAPK1, FHIT, VHL, ESR1, TP73, IGSF4, GSTP1 and CDH13) in primary lesions to obtain information about their role in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC.
METHODS: Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 74 patients operated on for bladder cancer were analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA): 36 patients had relapsed and 38 were disease-free at the 5-year follow up. Methylation status was considered as a dichotomous variable and genes showing methylation ≥20% were defined as "positive".
RESULTS: Methylation frequencies were higher in non recurring than recurring tumors. A statistically significant difference was observed for HIC1 (P = 0.03), GSTP1 (P = 0.02) and RASSF1 (P = 0.03). The combination of the three genes showed 78% sensitivity and 66% specificity in identifying recurrent patients, with an overall accuracy of 72%.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggest a potential role of HIC1, GSTP1 and RASSF1 in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC. Such information could help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of recurrence who require close monitoring during follow up.

Howell M, Li R, Zhang R, et al.
The expression of Apoc3 mRNA is regulated by HNF4α and COUP-TFII, but not acute retinoid treatments, in primary rat hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 387(1-2):241-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin A status regulates obesity development, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic lipogenic gene expression in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. The development of hyperlipidemia in acne patients treated with retinoic acid (RA) has been attributed to the induction of apolipoprotein C-III expression. To understand the role of retinoids in the development of hyperlipidemia in ZF rats, the expression levels of several selected RA-responsive genes in the liver and isolated hepatocytes from Zucker lean (ZL) and ZF rats were compared using real-time PCR. The Rarb and Srebp-1c mRNA levels are higher in the liver and isolated hepatocytes from ZF than ZL rats. The Apoc3 mRNA level is only higher in the isolated hepatocytes from ZF than ZL rats. To determine whether dynamic RA production acutely regulates Apoc3 expression, its mRNA levels in response to retinoid treatments or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) were analyzed. Retinoid treatments for 2-6 h did not induce the expression of Apoc3 mRNA. The overexpression of HNF4α or COUP-TFII induced or inhibited Apoc3 expression, respectively. We conclude that short-term retinoid treatments could not induce Apoc3 mRNA expression, which is regulated by HNF4α and COUP-TFII in hepatocytes.

Su J, Gu Y, Pruijn FB, et al.
Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(52):37138-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

Flanagan JM, Wilhelm-Benartzi CS, Metcalf M, et al.
Association of somatic DNA methylation variability with progression-free survival and toxicity in ovarian cancer patients.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(11):2813-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have addressed whether inter-individual methylation variation in somatic (white blood cells, WBCs) DNA of ovarian cancer patients provides potential for prognostic and/or pharmacoepigenetic stratification.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: WBC DNA methylation was analysed by bisulphite pyrosequencing at ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), mutL homologue 1 (MLH1), breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1), secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), stratifin (SFN), retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) loci and the repetitive element LINE1 in 880 SCOTROC1 trial patients [paclitaxel (Taxol)-carboplatin versus docetaxel (Taxotere)-carboplatin as primary chemotherapy for stage Ic-IV epithelial ovarian cancer].
RESULTS: We observed no significant associations (P < 0.005, after correction for multiple testing) for progression-free survival (PFS) using test and validation sets. However, we did identify mean SFN methylation associated with PFS (hazard ratio, HR = 1.01 per 1% increase in methylation, q = 0.028); particularly in the paclitaxel (HR = 1.01, q = 0.006), but not in the docetaxel arm in stratified analyses. Furthermore, higher methylation within the ESR1 gene was associated with CA125 response (odds ratio, OR = 1.06, q = 0.04) and with neuropathy (HR = 0.95, q = 0.002), but only in the paclitaxel arm of the trial.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study linking DNA methylation variability in WBC to clinical outcomes for any tumour type; the data generated on novel prognostic and pharmacoepigenetic DNA methylation biomarkers in the circulation now need independent further evaluation.

Dahl C, Christensen C, Jönsson G, et al.
Mutual exclusivity analysis of genetic and epigenetic drivers in melanoma identifies a link between p14 ARF and RARβ signaling.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(10):1166-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Melanoma genomes contain thousands of alterations including: mutations, copy number alterations, structural aberrations, and methylation changes. The bulk of this variation is stochastic and functionally neutral, with only a small minority representing "drivers" that contribute to the genesis and maintenance of tumors. Drivers are often directly or inversely correlated across tumors, reflecting the molecular and regulatory signaling pathways in which they operate. Here, a profile of genetic and epigenetic drivers in 110 human melanoma cell lines was generated and searched for non-random distribution patterns. Statistically significant mutual exclusivity was revealed among components of each of the p16(INK4A)-CDK4-RB, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. In addition, an inverse correlation was observed between promoter hypermethylation of retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) and CDKN2A alterations affecting p14(ARF) (P < 0.0001), suggesting a functional link between RARβ signaling and the melanoma-suppressive activities of p14(ARF). Mechanistically, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment increased the expression of p14(ARF) in primary human melanocytes and the steady-state levels of p14(ARF) in these cells were shown to be regulated via RARβ. Furthermore, the ability of ATRA to induce senescence is reduced in p14(ARF)-depleted melanocytes, and we provide proof-of-concept that ATRA can induce irreversible growth arrest in melanoma cells with an intact RARβ-p14(ARF) signaling axis, independent of p16(INK4A) and p53 status.
IMPLICATIONS: These data highlight the power of mutual exclusivity analysis of cancer drivers to unravel molecular pathways and establish a previously unrecognized cross-talk between RARβ and p14(ARF) with potential implications for melanoma treatment.

Molinari C, Casadio V, Foca F, et al.
Gene methylation in rectal cancer: predictive marker of response to chemoradiotherapy?
J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(12):2343-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although numerous studies have focused on the link between CpG island methylator phenotypes and the development of colorectal cancer, few studies have dealt specifically with methylation profiling in rectal cancer and its role in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). We characterized methylation profiles in normal and neoplastic tissue samples from patients with rectal cancer and assessed the role of this molecular profile in predicting chemoradioactivity. We evaluated 74 pretreatment tumor samples and 16 apparently normal tissue biopsies from rectal cancer patients submitted to NCRT. The methylation profile of 24 different tumor suppressor genes was analyzed from FFPE samples by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Methylation status was studied in relation to tissue type and clinical pathological parameters, in particular, pathological response evaluated by tumor regression grade (TRG). ESR1, CDH13, RARB, IGSF4, and APC genes showed high methylation levels in tumor samples (range 18.92-49.77) with respect to normal tissue. Methylation levels of the remaining genes were low and similar in both normal (range 1.91-14.56) and tumor tissue (range 1.84-11). Analysis of the association between methylation and response to therapy in tumor samples showed that only TIMP3 methylation status differed significantly within the four TRG classes (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Results from the present explorative study suggest that quantitative epigenetic classification of rectal cancer by MS-MLPA clearly distinguishes tumor tissue from apparently normal mucosa. Conversely, with the exception of TIMP3 gene, the methylation of selected genes does not seem to correlate with response to NCRT.

Twelves D, Nerurkar A, Osin P, et al.
DNA promoter hypermethylation profiles in breast duct fluid.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 139(2):341-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation of tumor-suppressor genes occurs early in the molecular transformation of precursor events to breast cancer and is therefore of interest to screening in high-risk women. The aim of this study was to use tumor-suppressor genes that have previously been shown to be cancer predictive in tissue to evaluate the potential of DNA methylation assays in cells from duct lavage (DL) fluid. The frequency of target gene DNA methylation in tissue and DL of cancer and healthy control patients was assessed, and an association of DNA methylation between different duct systems in the same breast was explored. The cancer and control groups were identified in the outpatient clinic when surgical treatment was finalized. Tumor, adjacent tissue and bilateral DL samples for comparative DNA methylation studies were obtained during surgery from women with cancer. In the healthy control group, samples of tissue and DL were collected. Reverse transcriptase methylation-specific PCR was conducted on modified DNA purified from 42 cancer biopsies, 41 benign excision cavity biopsies (internal control), 29 benign biopsies (external control), and 119 DL specimens. A validated panel of cancer predictive genes was analyzed in the study bank of tissue and DL samples from cancer and healthy patients. The sensitivity of DNA methylation in DL samples compared with matched cancer tissue was highest for SCGB3A1 (90 %), CDH13 (91 %), and RARB (83 %). The genetic algorithm selected RASSF1A, RARB, and IGFBP7 as the optimum predictor set for detecting DNA methylation in cancer tissue. The optimum area under the ROC curve for DNA methylation in cancer compared with internal control healthy tissue from excision margins was 0.84. The area under the ROC curve for DNA methylation in cancer DL compared with contralateral benign DL was 0.76. DL cytology was not a helpful predictor of breast cancer. This study shows that relative patterns of tumor-suppressor gene hypermethylation in breast cancer tissue are significantly reflected in the DL from the cancer affected breast. Using DL, nonconcordant patterns of DNA methylation between different duct systems confer independent oncologic potential for distinct breast lobes. The approach of DNA methylation in DL may be substantiated by a larger trial of breast cancer biomarkers.

Gauchotte G, Lacomme S, Brochin L, et al.
Retinoid acid receptor expression is helpful to distinguish between adenoma and well-differentiated carcinoma in the thyroid.
Virchows Arch. 2013; 462(6):619-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoid receptors (RRs) play a key role in cell proliferation and differentiation. We characterized the expression of RA receptors and retinoid X receptors (RARs and RXRs) in a series of 111 thyroid tumors and investigated the mechanisms responsible for their deregulation: hypermethylation of the RARB2 promoter, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the regions of RARB and RXRA, and altered expression of CRBP1 and enzymes involved in RA biosynthesis (RDH10 and RALDH2). Expression of RALDH2 and RDH10 was conserved in 100 % of adenomas and in 90 and 98 %, respectively, of carcinomas, whereas staining for CRBP1 was decreased in 9 % of FAs and 28 % of carcinomas, mainly anaplastic carcinomas (55 %). We found an abnormal expression of RARA, RARB, RXRA, and RXRB in 67, 69, 66, and 73 %, respectively, of thyroid carcinomas (n = 78) and in 9, 9, 9, and 33 % of follicular adenomas (n = 33) (p < 0.001). An abnormal staining pattern of at least two of these markers had 90 % sensitivity and 91 % specificity for a diagnosis of malignancy. Promoter hypermethylation of RARB2 was observed in some anaplastic carcinomas (14 %). LOH was found to be common at the RARB locus (3p24-3p25) and the RXRA locus (9q34), respectively, in 44 and 55 % of carcinomas and in 27 and 43 % of adenomas. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining for RARs and RXRs may help in the differential diagnosis between well-differentiated carcinoma and follicular adenoma. Further investigation should be carried out to determine whether the characterization of RR expression might identify patients who could benefit from therapy with RA derivatives.

Rinner B, Weinhaeusel A, Lohberger B, et al.
Chordoma characterization of significant changes of the DNA methylation pattern.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e56609 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
Chordomas are rare mesenchymal tumors occurring exclusively in the midline from clivus to sacrum. Early tumor detection is extremely important as these tumors are resistant to chemotherapy and irradiation. Despite continuous research efforts surgical excision remains the main treatment option. Because of the often challenging anatomic location early detection is important to enable complete tumor resection and to reduce the high incidence of local recurrences. The aim of this study was to explore whether DNA methylation, a well known epigenetic marker, may play a role in chordoma development and if hypermethylation of specific CpG islands may serve as potential biomarkers correlated with SNP analyses in chordoma. The study was performed on tumor samples from ten chordoma patients. We found significant genomic instability by Affymetrix 6.0. It was interesting to see that all chordomas showed a loss of 3q26.32 (PIK 3CA) and 3q27.3 (BCL6) thus underlining the potential importance of the PI3K pathway in chordoma development. By using the AITCpG360 methylation assay we elucidated 20 genes which were hyper/hypomethylated compared to normal blood. The most promising candidates were nine hyper/hypomethylated genes C3, XIST, TACSTD2, FMR1, HIC1, RARB, DLEC1, KL, and RASSF1. In summary, we have shown that chordomas are characterized by a significant genomic instability and furthermore we demonstrated a characteristic DNA methylation pattern. These findings add new insights into chordoma development, diagnosis and potential new treatment options.

Hauser S, Kogej M, Fechner G, et al.
Serum DNA hypermethylation in patients with bladder cancer: results of a prospective multicenter study.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(3):779-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cell-free serum DNA levels are increased in patients with cancer, and at least partially, these DNA fragments are derived from cancer cells. A few reports indicated that methylated serum DNA in patients with bladder cancer (BCA) is a useful non-invasive biomarker. The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to validate earlier studies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 227 consecutive participants (non-muscle invasive BCA, n=75; muscle-invasive BCA, n=20; transurethral bladder resection (TURB) without BCA, n=48; benign disease, n=31; healthy individuals, n=53), were recruited for this study. Cell-free serum DNA was isolated and digested with methylation-sensitive restriction-enzymes (Bsh1236I, HpaII and HinP1I) to quantify the amount of methylated (TIMP3, APC, RARB, TIG1, GSTP1, p14, p16, PTGS2 and RASSF1A) DNA fragments.
RESULTS: The amount of methylated DNA was usually small (<10%), and the methylation frequencies varied for different genes (e.g. frequent: TIMP3; moderate: APC, RARB, TIG1; infrequent: p16, PTGS2, p14, RASSF1A, GSTP1). Methylation levels at each gene site and the number of methylated genes were increased in BCA compared to healthy individuals, but were similar in BCA and patients with non-malignant disease. The number of methylated genes allowed for discrimination (62% sensitivity, 89% specificity) of BCA patients from healthy individuals. DNA hypermethylation was not correlated with advanced stage or grade in patients with BCA.
CONCLUSION: The detection of hypermethylated DNA in serum allows for discrimination of patients with BCA and healthy individuals, but there is no difference between patients with BCA and those with non-malignant disease, thereby limiting its value as a non-invasive biomarker.

Tang D, Kryvenko ON, Mitrache N, et al.
Methylation of the RARB gene increases prostate cancer risk in black Americans.
J Urol. 2013; 190(1):317-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gene promoter hypermethylation may be useful as a biomarker for cancer risk in histopathologically benign prostate specimens.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study of gene promoter methylation status for 5 genes (APC, RARB, CCND2, RASSF1 and MGMT) measured in benign biopsy specimens from 511 prostate cancer case-control pairs. We estimated the overall and race stratified risk of subsequent prostate cancer associated with methylation status.
RESULTS: On race stratified analysis RARB methylation was associated with a higher cancer risk in black American men (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.39-3.44). APC methylation was associated with an increased risk of high grade tumors (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.20-4.90), which was higher in black than in white men (OR 3.21 vs 2.04). In cases RARB and APC gene methylation in benign prostate samples persisted in matched malignant specimens. In black cases the combined risk associated with RARB and APC methylation (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.44-6.42) was greater than the individual risk of each gene and significantly different from that in white cases (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.56-2.30).
CONCLUSIONS: RARB gene methylation in histopathologically benign prostate samples was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of subsequent prostate cancer in black men. Methylation data on additional genes may improve risk stratification and clinical decision making algorithms for cancer screening and diagnosis.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. RARB, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/RARB.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 06 August, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999