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RASSF1; Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 (3p21.3)

Gene Summary

Gene:RASSF1; Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1
Aliases: 123F2, RDA32, NORE2A, RASSF1A, REH3P21
Location:3p21.3
Summary:This gene encodes a protein similar to the RAS effector proteins. Loss or altered expression of this gene has been associated with the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers, which suggests the tumor suppressor function of this gene. The inactivation of this gene was found to be correlated with the hypermethylation of its CpG-island promoter region. The encoded protein was found to interact with DNA repair protein XPA. The protein was also shown to inhibit the accumulation of cyclin D1, and thus induce cell cycle arrest. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ras association domain-containing protein 1
HPRD
Source:NCBI
Updated:14 December, 2014

Gene
Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (6)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Lung Cancer, Non-Small CellRASSF1 - Tumor Supressor Gene, methylation in Lung Cancer Epigenetics
Dammann and colleagues (2000) cloned RASSF1 mapped to the 3p21.3 region of minimal homozygous deletion in lung cancer. They identified three transcripts, A, B and C, derived from alternative splicing. Transcripts A and C were expressed in all normal tissues but transcript A was missing in SCLC cell lines. Loss of expression was associated with methylation of the RASSF1A CpG-island promoter sequence (24/60 primary lung tumours were highly methylated and 4/41 had missense mutations). They suggest that RASSF1A is a candidate lung tumour suppressor gene. In a meta analysis of 19 studies Liu et al (2013) found a significant association between RASSF1A methylation and NSCLC.
View Publications154
-RASSF1 and Adenocarcinoma View Publications146
Lung CancerRASSF1 and Lung Cancer View Publications119
Breast CancerRASSF1 and Breast Cancer View Publications86
Liver CancerRASSF1 and Liver Cancer View Publications41
Prostate CancerRASSF1 and Prostate Cancer View Publications39

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

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Latest Publications: RASSF1 (cancer-related)

Sturgeon SR, Arcaro KF, Johnson MA, et al.
DNA methylation in paired breast epithelial and white blood cells from women undergoing reduction mammoplasty.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(6):2985-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The extent to which white blood cell (WBC) DNA methylation provides information on the status of breast epithelial cell DNA is unknown.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined the correlation between methylation in Ras-association domain family-1 gene (RASSF1), a tumor-suppressor gene, and methylation in repetitive elements in paired sets of DNA from WBC and breast epithelial cells collected from 32 women undergoing reduction mammoplasty.
RESULTS: We observed no evidence of correlation in methylation levels for ALU, long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE1) or juxtacentromeric satellite-2 (SAT2) (r=0.02 for LINE1, p=0.98; r=0.28 for ALU, p=0.12; r=0.26 for SAT2, p=0.17) for matched sets of DNA from WBC and breast epithelial cells. Variability in these markers across individuals and in the same tissue was low. Five women had an average methylation level above 5% for RASSF1 in breast epithelial cell DNA; however, average methylation levels in WBC DNA for these women were all below 1%.
CONCLUSION: Methylation patterns in WBC DNA did not reflect methylation patterns in the breast.

Related: Breast Cancer


Guo W, Cui L, Wang C, et al.
Decreased expression of RASSF1A and up-regulation of RASSF1C is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(5):521-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Ras-Association Domain Family 1 (RASSF1) gene, which is located on the small arm of chromosome 3, contains two CpG islands and generates seven transcripts (RASSF1A-RASSF1G) by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. As the main transcript, RASSF1A, B and C may play different roles in tumorigenesis. The present study was to detect the role of RASSF1A, B and C in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and clarify the critical CpG sites of RASSF1A, in order to clarify more information on the role of RASSF1 with regard to the pathogenesis of ESCC. Frequent silencing of RASSF1A but not RASSF1B and RASSF1C were found in esophageal cancer cell lines and the silencing of RASSF1A may be reversed by 5-Aza-dC treatment. The aberrant promoter and exon 1 especially exon 1 methylation of RASSF1A induces silencing of its expression in TE13 cell line. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of RASSF1A was observed in ESCC tumor tissues and was associated with RASSF1A promoter and exon 1 methylation status. Unlike RASSF1A, methylation and expression variation of RASSF1B was not found in ESCC tissues. However, RASSF1C is highly expressed in ESCC tissues. RASSF1A methylation and protein expression were independently associated with ESCC patients' survival. These data indicated that the inactivation of RASSF1A through promoter and exon 1 methylation may play an important role in ESCC carcinogenesis and reactivation of RASSF1A gene may has therapeutic potential and may be used as a prognostic marker for ESCC patients.

Related: Azacitidine Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer


Haruta M, Kamijo T, Nakagawara A, Kaneko Y
RASSF1A methylation may have two biological roles in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis depending on the ploidy status and age of patients.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 348(1-2):167-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
RASSF1A methylation was frequent in neuroblastomas found in infants by mass-screening or infants and children diagnosed clinically, whereas CASP8 and DCR2 methylation was only frequent in tumors in children. When classified according to the ploidy status, RASSF1A and PCDHB methylation was only associated with MYCN amplification and poor outcomes in infants with a clinically diagnosed diploid, not triploid tumor. RASSF1A and PCDHB methylation was associated with poor outcomes in children with triploid and diploid tumors, respectively, and with MYCN amplification in children with diploid tumor. RASSF1A methylation may have two biological roles based on the ploidy status and patient's age.

Related: Neuroblastoma MYCN (n-myc)


Furlan D, Sahnane N, Bernasconi B, et al.
APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(5):553-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are poorly characterized, including the frequency and role of gene-specific hypermethylation, chromosome aberrations, and copy number alterations (CNAs). A subset of ACCs is known to show alterations in the APC/β-catenin pathway which includes mutations of APC gene. However, it is not known whether, in addition to mutation, loss of APC gene function can occur through alternative genetic and epigenetic mechanisms such as gene loss or promoter methylation. We investigated the global methylation profile of 34 tumor suppressor genes, CNAs of 52 chromosomal regions, and APC gene alterations (mutation, methylation, and loss) together with APC mRNA level in 45 ACCs and related peritumoral pancreatic tissues using methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), mutation analysis, and reverse transcription-droplet digital PCR. ACCs did not show an extensive global gene hypermethylation profile. RASSF1 and APC were the only two genes frequently methylated. APC mutations were found in only 7 % of cases, while APC loss and methylation were more frequently observed (48 and 56 % of ACCs, respectively). APC mRNA low levels were found in 58 % of cases and correlated with CNAs. In conclusion, ACCs do not show extensive global gene hypermethylation. APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of ACCs mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation, along with reduction of APC mRNA levels.

Related: APC FISH Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer


Zhang B, Liu S, Zhang Z, et al.
Analysis of BRAF(V600E) mutation and DNA methylation improves the diagnostics of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsies.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration biopsy specimens (FNABs) have a ~20% risk of thyroid cancer. BRAF(V600E) mutation and DNA methylation are useful markers to distinguish malignant thyroid neoplasm from benign. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined detection of BRAF(V600E) mutation and methylation markers on FNABs could improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid cancer.
METHODS: Using pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP) methods, FNABs from 79 and 38 patients with thyroid nodules in training and test groups, respectively, were analyzed for BRAF(V600E) mutation and gene methylation.
RESULTS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was found in 30/42 (71.4%) and 14/20 (70%) FNABs in training and test groups, respectively. All BRAF(V600E)-positive samples were histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) after thyroidectomy. As expected, BRAF mutation was not found in all benign nodules. Moreover, we demonstrated that the five genes, including CALCA, DAPK1, TIMP3, RAR-beta and RASSF1A, were aberrantly methylated in FNABs. Of them, methylation level of DAPK1 in PTCs was significantly higher than that in benign samples (P <0.0001). Conversely, methylation level of RASSF1A in PTCs was significantly lower than that in benign samples (P =0.003). Notably, compared with BRAF mutation testing alone, combined detection of BRAF mutation and methylation markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of PTC with excellent specificity.
CONCLUSION: Our data have demonstrated that combine analysis of BRAF mutation and DNA methylation markers on FNABs may be a useful strategy to facilitate the diagnosis of malignant thyroid neoplasm, particularly PTC.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6080878071149177.

Related: BRAF gene Thyroid Cancer


Vasiljević N, Scibior-Bentkowska D, Brentnall AR, et al.
Credentialing of DNA methylation assays for human genes as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk HPV positive women.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(3):709-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Testing for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is increasing; however due to limitations in specificity there remains a need for better triage tests. Research efforts have focused recently on methylation of human genes which show promise as diagnostic classifiers.
METHODS: Methylation of 26 genes: APC, CADM1, CCND2, CDH13, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, DAPK1, DPYS, EDNRB, EPB41L3, ESR1, GSTP1, HIN1, JAM3, LMX1, MAL, MDR1, PAX1, PTGS2, RARB, RASSF1, SLIT2, SOX1, SPARC, TERT and TWIST1 was measured by pyrosequencing in cytology specimens from a pilot set of women with normal or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) histology. Six genes were selected for testing in Predictors 1, a colposcopy referral study comprising 799 women. The three genes EPB41L3, DPYS and MAL were further tested in a second colposcopy referral study, Predictors 2, comprising 884 women.
RESULTS: The six genes selected from the pilot: EPB41L3, EDNRB, LMX1, DPYS, MAL and CADM1 showed significantly elevated methylation in CIN2 and CIN3 (CIN2/3) versus ≤CIN1 in Predictors 1 (p<0.01). Highest methylation was observed in cancer tissues. EPB41L3 methylation was the best single classifier of CIN2/3 in both HR-HPV positive (p<0.0001) and negative samples (p=0.02). Logistic regression modeling showed that other genes did not add significantly to EPB41L3 and in Predictors 2, its classifier value was validated with AUC 0.69 (95% CI 0.65-0.73).
CONCLUSION: Several methylated genes show promise for detecting CIN2/3 of which EPB41L3 seems the best. Methylated human gene biomarkers used in combination may be clinically useful for triage of women with HR-HPV infections.

Related: Cervical Cancer


Yang Q, Shao Y, Shi J, et al.
Concomitant PIK3CA amplification and RASSF1A or PAX6 hypermethylation predict worse survival in gastric cancer.
Clin Biochem. 2014; 47(1-2):111-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: A large number of genetic and epigenetic alterations have been found in gastric cancer, but there is remarkably little consensus on the value of individual biomarker in diagnosis and prognosis of this cancer. This study was designed to illustrate the value of PIK3CA amplification in combination with promoter methylation of RASSF1A and PAX6 genes in early diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Using real-time quantitative PCR, quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP), and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays, we examined PIK3CA amplification and promoter methylation of RASSF1A and PAX6 genes in a cohort of gastric cancers, and explored the association of various (epi)genotypes with clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that PIK3CA gene was specifically amplified in gastric cancers, but not in normal gastric tissues. Moreover, frequent methylation of RASSF1A and PAX6 was also found in gastric cancers. Given the patients harboring diverse (epi)genotypes, we thus investigated the effect of various (epi)genotypes on poor prognosis in gastric cancer. The data showed that concomitant PIK3CA amplification and RASSF1A or PAX6 methylation were closely associated with poor clinical outcomes, particularly survival, as compared to other (epi)genotypes in gastric cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: We found frequent PIK3CA amplification and promoter methylation of RASSF1A and PAX6 genes in gastric cancers, and demonstrated that concomitant PIK3CA amplification and promoter methylation in any one of these two genes were significantly associated with worse survival in gastric cancer. Collectively, such (epi)genotypes may be strong and independent poor prognostic factors for gastric cancer patients.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Visnovsky J, Fiolka R, Kudela E, et al.
Hypermethylation of selected genes in endometrial carcinogenesis.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013; 34(7):675-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. The prevention has failed so far to develop an effective screening program and its incidence is rising in proportion to the incidence of cervical cancer. In recent years the investigation of malignancy genomics (genetic and epigenetic changes) has become the main focus of scientists because of its high sensitivity and specificity.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study at the Dpt. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin from 2010 to 2012, in collaboration with the Institute of Pathology of the University Hospital in Martin. We analysed paraffin blocks of endometrial tissue from 123 women with endometrial cancer, hyperplasia and normal endometrial findings. By the use of bisulphidic modification technique and nested methylation-specific PCR (MSP), we analysed the methylation patterns of three genes: GSTP1, E-cad, RASSF1.
RESULTS: We found a statistically significant increase of methylation of the RASSF1 gene in endometrial cancer compared to simplex hyperplasia and intact endometrial tissue (p<0.001). GSTP1 and E-cad did not show any relevant methylation pattern in various endometrial lesions.
CONCLUSION: According to the results of our study, RASSF1 gene methylation could serve as a prognostic factor of endometrial carcinogenesis and could help to predict the behaviour of endometrial hyperplasia.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer GSTP1 CDH1


Vo LT, Thuan TB, Thu DM, et al.
Methylation profile of BRCA1, RASSF1A and ER in Vietnamese women with ovarian cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(12):7713-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation is considered a promising biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer in general and of ovarian cancer in particular. In our study, we validated the accuracy of methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) to analyze the methylation pattern of BRCA1, RASSF1A and ER in 59 and 10 Vietnamese patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and benign ovarian tumors, respectively. We found methylation of BRCA1, RASSF1A and ER in 11/59 (18.6%), 40/59 (67.8%) and 15/59 (25.4%) of EOC cases, while methylation of BRCA1 was only detected in 2/10 (20%) benign ovarian patients. Forty five out of the 59 EOCs (78%) demonstrated methylation at one or more genes. The methylation frequency of RASSF1A was significantly associated with EOC (p<0.0005). No significant association was observed between methylation status of these genes and the clinical and pathological parameters of tumors collected from Vietnamese women suffering from ovarian cancer.

Related: Ovarian Cancer


Kunstman JW, Korah R, Healy JM, et al.
Quantitative assessment of RASSF1A methylation as a putative molecular marker in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Surgery. 2013; 154(6):1255-61; discussion 1261-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation are widespread cancer, contributing to tumorigenesis and acting as markers for prognostication. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) demonstrates tumor-specific methylation of numerous genes, including RASSF1A. Although the function of RASSF1A in PTC tumorigenesis is still being defined, quantitative evaluation of RASSF1A methylation and its correlation with tumor characteristics has not been performed.
METHODS: Analysis of RASSF1A methylation was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction after methylation-dependent and -sensitive restriction enzyme digestion in PTC (n = 41) and normal (n = 18) thyroid tissue. Methylation was then evaluated for correlation with tumor size, stage, and multiple histopathologic characteristics.
RESULTS: RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation was observed in nearly all PTC cases versus normal thyroid tissue, with mean hypermethylation 4.2 times greater in PTC (P < .05). Hypermethylation was greater in multifocal than unifocal PTC (P < .05). Furthermore, tumor methylation was inversely correlated with extracapsular invasion (P < .05).
CONCLUSION: RASSF1A methylation differs in PTC compared with normal thyroid, is associated with multifocality, and is inversely correlated with extracapsular invasion. The ease of evaluating methylation status with minute amounts of DNA suggests a potential role for RASSF1A as a molecular marker for characterization of PTC histopathology.

Related: Thyroid Cancer


Pease M, Ling C, Mack WJ, et al.
The role of epigenetic modification in tumorigenesis and progression of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review of the literature.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82619 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are commonly occurring neoplasms with diverse endocrine and neurological effects. Although somatic gene mutations are uncommon in sporadic PAs, recent studies lend support to epigenetic modification as a potential cause of tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
METHODS: A systematic literature review of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify abstracts (n=1,082) pertaining to key targets and mechanisms implicated in epigenetic dysregulation of PAs published between 1993-2013. Data regarding histopathological subtype, target genes, mode of epigenetic modification, and clinical correlation were recorded and analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the 47 that studies met inclusion criteria and focused on epigenomic assessment of PAs, only 2 were genome-scale analyses. Current evidence supports epigenetic alteration in at least 24 PA genes, which were categorized into four groups based on function and epigenetic alteration: 1) Sixteen tumor suppressor genes silenced via DNA methylation; 2) Two oncogenes overexpressed via histone acetylation and hypomethylation; 3) Three imprinted genes with selective allelic silencing; and 4) One epigenome writer inducing abnormal genome-scale activity and 5) Two transcription regulators indirectly modifying the genome. Of these, 5 genes (CDKN2A, GADD45y, FGFR2, caspase-8, and PTAG) showed particular susceptibility to epigenetic modification, with abnormal DNA methylation in >50% of PA samples. Several genes displayed correlations between epigenetic modification and clinically relevant parameters, including invasiveness (CDKN2A; DAPK; Rb1), sex (MAGE-A3), tumor size (GNAS1), and histopathological subtype (CDKN2A; MEG3; p27; RASSF1A; Rb1).
CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic modification of selected PA genes may play a key role in tumorigenesis and progression, which may translate into important diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

Related: Pituitary Tumors FGFR2 gene


Ge YZ, Xu LW, Jia RP, et al.
The association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and prostate cancer: evidence from 19 published studies.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3881-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ras-associated domain family 1A (RASSF1A) is a putative tumor suppressor gene located at 3p21.3, and the epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A by hypermethylation of CpG islands within the promoter region has been observed in various cancer types, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, results from published studies on the association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and PCa risk are conflicting and inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of 19 eligible studies with odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in order to investigate the strength of relationship of RASSF1A promoter methylation with PCa risk and its clinicopathological variables. Overall, the RASSF1A promoter methylation was significantly associated with PCa risk (OR = 9.58, 95% CI 5.64-16.88, P heterogeneity <0.001) and Gleason score (GS) (OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.64-4.04, P(heterogeneity) = 0.019). In addition, subgroup analysis by testing material demonstrated the significant association between RASSF1A methylation and GS (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.92-4.97, P heterogeneity =0.042), PSA level (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.67-4.52, P(heterogeneity) = 0.639), and tumor stage (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.87, P(heterogeneity) = 0.026) in tissue rather than urine samples. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that RASSF1A promoter methylation was significantly associated with an increased risk for PCa; furthermore, the RASSF1A methylation status in tissue rather than urine was positively correlated with GS, serum PSA level, and tumor stage, which can be utilized for the early detection and prognosis prediction of PCa.

Related: Prostate Cancer


Camargo EA, da Silva GN, Gobette CP, et al.
No relationship between the amount of DNA damage and the level of hMLH1 and RASSF1A gene expression in bladder cancer cells treated with cisplatin and gemcitabine.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):5941-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor response to antineoplastic drugs is not always predictable. This is also true for bladder carcinoma, a highly recurrent neoplasia. Currently, the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine is well accepted as a standard protocol for treating bladder carcinoma. However, in some cases, this treatment protocol causes harmful side effects. Therefore, we investigated the roles of the genes TP53, RASSF1A (a tumor suppressor gene) and hMLH1 (a gene involved in the mismatch repair pathway) in cell susceptibility to cisplatin/gemcitabine treatment. Two bladder transitional carcinoma cell (TCC) lines, RT4 (wild-type TP53) and 5637 (mutated TP53), were used in this study. First, we evaluated whether the genotoxic potential of cisplatin/gemcitabine was dependent on TP53 status. Then, we evaluated whether the two antineoplastic drugs modulated RASSF1A and hMLH1 expression in the two cell lines. Increased DNA damage was observed in both cell lines after treatment with cisplatin or gemcitabine and with the two drugs simultaneously, as depicted by the comet assay. A lack of RASSF1A expression and hypermethylation of its promoter were observed before and after treatment in both cell lines. On the other hand, hMLH1 downregulation, unrelated to methylation status, was observed in RT4 cells after treatment with cisplatin or with cisplatin and gemcitabine simultaneously (wild-type TP53); in 5637 cells, hMLH1 was upregulated only after treatment with gemcitabine. In conclusion, the three treatment protocols were genotoxic, independent of TP53 status. However, cisplatin was the most effective, causing the highest level of DNA damage in both wild-type and mutated TP53 cells. Gemcitabine was the least genotoxic agent in both cell lines. Furthermore, no relationship was observed between the amount of DNA damage and the level of hMLH1 and RASSF1A expression. Therefore, other alternative pathways might be involved in cisplatin and gemcitabine genotoxicity in these two bladder cancer cell lines.

Related: Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Cisplatin Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology MLH1 Gemcitabine


Hagrass HA, Pasha HF, Shaheen MA, et al.
Methylation status and protein expression of RASSF1A in breast cancer patients.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(1):57-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently genetics and epigenetics alterations have been found to be characteristic of malignancy and hence can be used as targets for detection of neoplasia. RAS association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) gene hypermethylation has been a subject of interest in recent researches on cancer breast patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether RASSF1A methylation status and RASSF1A protein expression are associated with the major clinico-pathological parameters. One hundred and twenty breast cancer Egyptian patients and 100-control subjects diagnosed with benign lesions of the breast were enrolled in this study. We evaluated RASSF1A methylation status in tissue and serum samples using Methyl specific PCR together with RASSF1A protein expression in tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results were studied in relation to known prognostic clinicopathological features in breast cancer. Frequency of RASSF1A methylation in tissues and serum were 70 and 63.3 % respectively and RASSF1A protein expression showed frequency of 46.7 %. There was an association between RASSF1A methylation in tissues, serum and loss of protein expression in tissues with invasive carcinoma, advanced stage breast cancer, L.N. metastasis, ER/PR and HER2 negativity. RASSF1A methylation in serum showed high degree of concordance with methylation in tissues (Kappa = 0.851, P < 0.001). RASSF1A hypermethylation in tissues and serum and its protein expression may be a valid, reliable and sensitive tool for detection and follow up of breast cancer patients.

Related: Breast Cancer


Casadio V, Molinari C, Calistri D, et al.
DNA Methylation profiles as predictors of recurrence in non muscle invasive bladder cancer: an MS-MLPA approach.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 32:94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) generally has a good long-term prognosis, up to 80% of patients will nevertheless experience local recurrence after the primary tumor resection. The search for markers capable of accurately identifying patients at high risk of recurrence is ongoing. We retrospectively evaluated the methylation status of a panel of 24 tumor suppressor genes (TIMP3, APC, CDKN2A, MLH1, ATM, RARB, CDKN2B, HIC1, CHFR, BRCA1, CASP8, CDKN1B, PTEN, BRCA2, CD44, RASSF1, DAPK1, FHIT, VHL, ESR1, TP73, IGSF4, GSTP1 and CDH13) in primary lesions to obtain information about their role in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC.
METHODS: Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 74 patients operated on for bladder cancer were analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA): 36 patients had relapsed and 38 were disease-free at the 5-year follow up. Methylation status was considered as a dichotomous variable and genes showing methylation ≥20% were defined as "positive".
RESULTS: Methylation frequencies were higher in non recurring than recurring tumors. A statistically significant difference was observed for HIC1 (P = 0.03), GSTP1 (P = 0.02) and RASSF1 (P = 0.03). The combination of the three genes showed 78% sensitivity and 66% specificity in identifying recurrent patients, with an overall accuracy of 72%.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggest a potential role of HIC1, GSTP1 and RASSF1 in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC. Such information could help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of recurrence who require close monitoring during follow up.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology


Zare-Abdollahi D, Safari S, Movafagh A, et al.
Intact expression status of RASSF1A in acute myeloid leukemia.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(1):770 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a typical tumor suppressor gene, transcriptional silencing of ras-association domain family 1, isoform A (RASSF1A) is caused by biallelic methylation or the condition that one allele is methylated and then the other allele lost by allelic loss, as second hit. RASSF1A is inactivated epigenetically and thus down-regulated in many solid tumors. In summary, for the first time, we analyzed the expression status of RASSF1A in a cohort of 56 de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results of our study indicate that patients with AML exhibited no differences in the RASSF1A gene expression comparing to normal controls. In conclusion, expression status of RASSF1A remained intact in our target samples, indicating that RASSF1A expression variation does not participate in the pathogenesis and the progression of AML.

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)


Qiu X, Zhang L, Lu S, et al.
Upregulation of DNMT1 mediated by HBx suppresses RASSF1A expression independent of DNA methylation.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(1):202-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its critical gene targets remain largely unknown. RASSF1A gene (Ras-association domain family 1A, RASSF1A), a tumor-suppressor gene, is frequently found to be hypermethylated and downregulated in HCC. In the present study, we investigated whether HBx is involved in the hypermethylation and downregulation of RASSF1A and we examined the potential regulation mechanisms. RT-PCR analysis was used to determine RASSF1A and HBx expression in 9 liver cell lines and the results showed that RASSF1A expression was relatively low in HBx-positive cells. Notably, RASSF1A was downregulated in HepG2.2.15 cells, as compared to HepG2 cells. Further analysis revealed that HBx transfection suppressed RASSF1A expression and HBx knockdown induced its expression. Enforced HBx suppressed RASSF1A and meanwhile induced DNMT1 and DNMT3B expression. In addition, RASSF1A is negatively regulated by DNMT1. ChIP analysis using an antibody against DNMT1 revealed that HBx enhanced the binding of DNMT1 to the RASSF1A promoter but the inhibition of RASSF1A by HBx is DNA methylation-independent as detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Further studies using MSP and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) revealed that no significant methylation changes were observed for regional methylation levels of RASSF1A in DNMT1 knockdown cells, although methylation levels of specific CpG sites at the predicted binding sites for the Sp1 and USF transcription factors were reduced. Additionally, RASSF1A was downregulated in HBV-associated HCC (HBV-HCC) as detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry suggesting RASSF1A expression may be related to HBx in HCC and the clinical relevance of our observations. Collectively, our data showed that HBx suppressed RASSF1A expression via DNMT1 and offered a new mechanism of RASSF1A inactive in HCC in addition to the widely known DNA methylation, enriching the epigenetic mechanism by which HBx contributes to the pathogenesis of HBV-HCC.

Related: Liver Cancer


Fukatsu A, Ishiguro F, Tanaka I, et al.
RASSF3 downregulation increases malignant phenotypes of non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 83(1):23-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ras-Association Family1A (RASSF1A) is a well-established tumor suppressor. Ten RASSF homologues comprise this family, and each member is considered a tumor suppressor. RASSF3 is one of the RASSF family members, but its function has not yet been clarified. Recently, we found that RASSF3 interacts with MDM2 and facilitates its ubiquitination, which induces apoptosis through p53 stabilization. However, the role of RASSF3 in human malignancies remains largely unknown.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-five non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients from Nagoya University Hospital and 45 NSCLC patients from Aichi Cancer Center Hospital underwent pulmonary resection at each hospital, and lung cancer and corresponding non-cancerous lung tissues were collected. The expression levels of RASSF3 were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. We performed statistical analysis to investigate the correlation with RASSF3 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics. We also transfected RASSF3-siRNA into NSCLC cells, and performed motility assays to evaluate the influence on migration ability.
RESULTS: RASSF3 expression levels were downregulated in 125 of a total 140 NSCLCs. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the low RASSF3 expression group below the median value was independently correlated with progressive phenotypes (lymph node metastasis and pleural invasion), non-adenocarcinoma histology and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status. In motility assays, RASSF3-knockdown NSCLC cells increased the migration rate compared to the control cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that the expression levels of RASSF3 were frequently downregulated in NSCLCs. Downregulation of RASSF3 strongly correlated with the progressive phenotypes of NSCLCs and EGFR wild-type status. In vitro studies also suggested that RASSF3 downregulation increases migration ability of lung cancer cells. Together, our findings indicate RASSF3 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene of NSCLCs.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer MDM2 gene TP53 EGFR


Zhao ZH, Fan YC, Yang Y, Wang K
Association between Ras association domain family 1A promoter methylation and hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(41):7189-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To assess diagnostic accuracy of Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) promoter methylation in body fluids (serum, plasma and whole blood) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Relative information about study characteristics and incidence of RASSF1A methylation was collected. Quality of all included studies was evaluated by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled using a random-effect model, and a summary receiver operating characteristic curve was used to demonstrate the overall diagnostic performance. Positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 95%CI were also calculated. Meta-regression was applied to analyze observed heterogeneity, and Deeks' test was performed to detect publication bias.
RESULTS: After a systematic literature review, seven studies with a total of 302 cases of HCC and 250 cases of chronic liver diseases were included in the analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.70 (95%CI: 0.49-0.85) and 0.72 (95%CI: 0.54-0.85), respectively. The PLR was 2.51 (95%CI: 1.64-3.86), NLR was 0.41 (95%CI: 0.25-0.68), and DOR was 6.13 (95%CI: 3.17-11.84). The χ(2) values of sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR and DOR were 59.41 (P < 0.001), 50.50 (P < 0.001), 17.40 (P = 0.010), 31.24 (P < 0.001) and 80.51 (P < 0.001), respectively. The area under the curve was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.73-0.81). Three factors were analyzed by univariate meta-regression and none was significant to interpret the observed heterogeneity (P > 0.05). No significant publication bias was detected by Deeks' test (P = 0.346).
CONCLUSION: We showed the potential diagnostic value of RASSF1A methylation in body fluids in HCC patients and it may improve diagnostic accuracy combined with the α-fetoprotein test.

Related: Liver Cancer AFP


Jung EJ, Kim IS, Lee EY, et al.
Comparison of methylation profiling in cancerous and their corresponding normal tissues from korean patients with breast cancer.
Ann Lab Med. 2013; 33(6):431-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA hypermethylation plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and disease progression; therefore, accurate measurement of differential gene methylation patterns among many genes is likely to reveal biomarkers for improved risk assessment. We evaluated the gene hypermethylation profiles of primary breast tumors and their corresponding normal tissues and investigated the association between major clinicopathological features and gene hypermethylation.
METHODS: A single reaction using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to analyze the DNA methylation status of 24 tumor suppressor genes in 60 cancerous tissues and their corresponding normal tissues from patients with primary breast cancer.
RESULTS: In cancerous breast tissues, 21 of 24 genes displayed promoter methylation in one or more samples. The most frequently methylated genes included RASSF1 (43.3%), APC (31.7%), CDKN2B (25.0%), CDH13 (23.3%), GSTP1 (16.7%), and BRCA1 (10%). APC was associated with lymph node metastasis, and BRCA1 was associated with negative estrogen receptor and negative progesterone receptor expression. In normal breast tissues, 8 of 24 tumor suppressor genes displayed promoter hypermethylation; CDKN2B (28.3%) and RASSF1 (8.3%) hypermethylation were most frequently observed.
CONCLUSIONS: RASSF1 and CDKN2B hypermethylation in Korean breast cancer patients were the most frequent in cancerous tissue and corresponding normal tissue, respectively. Our data indicates that methylation of specific genes is a frequent event in morphologically normal breast tissues adjacent to breast tumors as well as the corresponding breast cancers. This study also suggests that gene methylation is linked to various pathological features of breast cancer; however, this requires confirmation in a larger study.

Related: Breast Cancer


Okamoto Y, Shinjo K, Shimizu Y, et al.
Hepatitis virus infection affects DNA methylation in mice with humanized livers.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 146(2):562-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cells of tumors associated with chronic inflammation frequently have altered patterns of DNA methylation, including hepatocellular carcinomas. Chronic hepatitis has also been associated with aberrant DNA methylation, but little is known about their relationship.
METHODS: Pyrosequencing was used to determine the methylation status of cultured Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells after hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We also studied mice with severe combined immunodeficiency carrying the urokinase-type plasminogen activator transgene controlled by an albumin promoter (urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient mice), in which up to 85% of hepatocytes were replaced by human hepatocytes (chimeric mice). Mice were given intravenous injections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or HCV, liver tissues were collected, and DNA methylation profiles were determined at different time points after infection. We also compared methylation patterns between paired samples of hepatocellular carcinomas and adjacent nontumor liver tissues from patients.
RESULTS: No reproducible changes in DNA methylation were observed after infection of Huh7.5.1 cells with HCV. Livers from HBV- and HCV-infected mice had genome-wide, time-dependent changes in DNA methylation, compared with uninfected urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient mice. There were changes in 160 ± 63 genes in HBV-infected and 237 ± 110 genes in HCV-infected mice. Methylation of 149 common genes increased in HBV- and HCV-infected mice; methylation of some of these genes also increased in hepatocellular carcinoma samples from patients compared with nontumor tissues. Expression of Ifng, which is expressed by natural killer cells, increased significantly in chimeric livers, in concordance with induction of DNA methylation, after infection with HBV or HCV. Induction of Ifng was reduced after administration of an inhibitor of natural killer cell function (anti-asialo GM1).
CONCLUSIONS: In chimeric mice with humanized livers, infection with HBV and HCV appears to activate a natural kill cell-dependent innate immune response. This contributes to the induction and accumulation of aberrant DNA methylation in human hepatocytes.

Related: Liver Cancer Childhood Liver Cancer


Murria Estal R, Palanca Suela S, de Juan Jiménez I, et al.
MicroRNA signatures in hereditary breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 142(1):19-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to identify signatures of miR associated with hereditary, BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation positive breast cancer (BC), and non-hereditary BC, either sporadic (SBC) or non-informative (BRCAX). Moreover, we search for signatures associated with tumor stage, immunohistochemistry and tumor molecular profile. Twenty formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) BCs, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRCAX and SBC, five per group were studied. Affymetrix platform miRNA v.3.0 was used to perform miR expression analysis. ER, PR, HER2 and Ki67 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. BRCA1, BRCA2 and RASSF1 methylation analysis, AURKA copy number variations, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 deletions, were studied by MLPA. We validated eight of the miR selected by the arrays in 77 BCs by qRT-PCR. The miR profiles associated with tumor features were studied applying the Sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis. MiR discrimination capability to distinguish hereditary and non-hereditary BC was analyzed by the discriminant function. With 15 out of 1,733 hsa-miRs, it was possible to differentiate the four groups. BRCA1, BRCA2 and SBC were associated with clusters of hyper-expressed miRs, and BRCAX with hypo-expressed miRs. Hsa-miR-4417 and hsa-miR-423-3p expressions (included among the eight validated miRs) differentiated 70.1 % of hereditary and non-hereditary BCs. We found miR profiles associated with tumor features like node involvement, histological grade, ER, PR and HER2 expression. Regarding molecular parameters, we only found a weak association of miRs in BC harboring losses in AURKA. We conclude that array miR expression profiles can differentiate the four study groups using FFPE BC. However, miRs expression estimated by qRT-PCR differentiates only hereditary and non-inherited BCs. The miR expression array is a simple and rapid approach that could be useful to facilitate the identification of those SBC carrying genetic or epigenetic changes in BRCA genes responsible of BRCA-like phenotype. These patients could benefit from the treatment with PARP inhibitors.

Related: Breast Cancer


Hauser S, Zahalka T, Fechner G, et al.
Serum DNA hypermethylation in patients with kidney cancer: results of a prospective study.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(10):4651-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: No reliable biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exists. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of CpG island hypermethylation of cell-free (cf) circulating serum DNA in patients with RCC as a potential biomarker.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total 35 patients with RCC and 54 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Cell-free DNA (cFDNA) in serum was isolated and digested with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes (Bsh1236I, HpaII and HinP1I) to quantify the amount of methylated Adenomatosis-poliposis-coli gene (APC), Gluthation-a-transferase-protein 1 gene (GSTP1), ARF tumor suppressor protein gene (p14(ARF)), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16), Retinoid-acid-receptor-beta gene (RAR-B), RAS-association domain family-1 gene (RASSF1), Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-gene (TIMP3) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxid synthase 2 (PTGS2) DNA fragments.
RESULTS: In 30 of 35 investigated patients with RCC, at least one gene was methylated within the serum cfDNA. The methylation frequency ranged from 14.3% for p14(ARF) to 54.3% for APC. All genes, except p16 and TIMP3, were significantly more frequently methylated in patients with RCC compared to healthy individuals. Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed a high specificity for serum cfDNA methylation [between 85.2% for RAR-B and 100% for p14(ARF)], but the sensitivity was low in single-gene analysis [range-14.3% for p14(ARF) to 54.3% for APC]. The combined analysis of multiple genes increased the diagnostic sensitivity (i.e. APC, PTGS2 and GSTP1, 62.9%) at a high specificity (87%). DNA hypermethylation of APC was correlated with advanced tumor stage.
CONCLUSION: The detection of hypermethylated cfDNA in serum may be helpful for the identification of RCC; the combinatorial analysis of multiple genes may increase the diagnostic accuracy.

Related: Kidney Cancer


Shi H, Li Y, Wang X, et al.
Association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The RAS association domain family protein 1a gene (RASSF1A) is one of the tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Inactivation of RASSF1A is critical to the pathogenesis of cancer. Aberrant TSG methylation was considered an important epigenetic silencing mechanism in the progression of ovarian cancer. A number of studies have discussed association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and ovarian cancer. However, they were mostly based on a small number of samples and showed inconsist results, Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to better identify the association.
METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI databases using a systematic searching strategy. We pooled the odds ratio (ORs) from individual studies using a fixed-effects model. We performed heterogeneity and publication bias analysis simultaneously.
RESULTS: Thirteen studies, with 763 ovarian cancer patients and 438 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The frequencies of RASSF1A promoter methylation ranged from 30% to 58% (median is 48%) in the cancer group and 0 to 21% (median is 0) in the control group. The frequencies of RASSF1A promoter methylation in the cancer group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The pooled odds ratio was 11.17 (95% CI = 7.51-16.61) in the cancer group versus the corresponding control group under the fixed-effects model.
CONCLUSION: The results suggested that RASSF1A promoter methylation had a strong association with ovarian cancer.

Related: Ovarian Cancer


Klajic J, Fleischer T, Dejeux E, et al.
Quantitative DNA methylation analyses reveal stage dependent DNA methylation and association to clinico-pathological factors in breast tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:456 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation of regulatory genes has frequently been found in human breast cancers and correlated to clinical outcome. In the present study we investigate stage specific changes in the DNA methylation patterns in order to identify valuable markers to understand how these changes affect breast cancer progression.
METHODS: Quantitative DNA methylation analyses of 12 candidate genes ABCB1, BRCCA1, CDKN2A, ESR1, GSTP1, IGF2, MGMT, HMLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN, RASSF1A and FOXC1 was performed by pyrosequencing a series of 238 breast cancer tissue samples from DCIS to invasive tumors stage I to IV.
RESULTS: Significant differences in methylation levels between the DCIS and invasive stage II tumors were observed for six genes RASSF1A, CDKN2A, MGMT, ABCB1, GSTP1 and FOXC1. RASSF1A, ABCB1 and GSTP1 showed significantly higher methylation levels in late stage compared to the early stage breast carcinoma. Z-score analysis revealed significantly lower methylation levels in DCIS and stage I tumors compared with stage II, III and IV tumors. Methylation levels of PTEN, PPP2R2B, FOXC1, ABCB1 and BRCA1 were lower in tumors harboring TP53 mutations then in tumors with wild type TP53. Z-score analysis showed that TP53 mutated tumors had significantly lower overall methylation levels compared to tumors with wild type TP53. Methylation levels of RASSF1A, PPP2R2B, GSTP1 and FOXC1 were higher in ER positive vs. ER negative tumors and methylation levels of PTEN and CDKN2A were higher in HER2 positive vs. HER2 negative tumors. Z-score analysis also showed that HER2 positive tumors had significantly higher z-scores of methylation compared to the HER2 negative tumors. Univariate survival analysis identifies methylation status of PPP2R2B as significant predictor of overall survival and breast cancer specific survival.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study we report that the level of aberrant DNA methylation is higher in late stage compared with early stage of invasive breast cancers and DCIS for genes mentioned above.

Related: Breast Cancer TP53


Pan J, Chen J, Zhang B, et al.
Association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75283 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) remains as one of the most common cause of cancer related death among men in the US. The widely used prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening is limited by low specificity. The diagnostic value of other biomarkers such as RAS association domain family protein 1 A (RASSF1A) promoter methylation in prostate cancer and the relationship between RASSF1A methylation and pathological features or tumor stage remains to be established. Therefore, a meta-analysis of published studies was performed to understand the association between RASSF1A methylation and prostate cancer. In total, 16 studies involving 1431 cases and 565 controls were pooled with a random effect model in this investigation. The odds ratio (OR) of RASSF1A methylation in PCa case, compared to controls, was 14.73 with 95% CI = 7.58-28.61. Stratified analyses consistently showed a similar risk across different sample types and, methylation detection methods. In addition, RASSF1A methylation was associated with high Gleason score OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.56-3.53. Furthermore, the pooled specificity for all included studies was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.72-0.94), and the pooled sensitivity was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55-0.89). The specificity in each subgroup stratified by sample type remained above 0.84 and the sensitivity also remained above 0.60. These results suggested that RASSF1A promoter methylation would be a potential biomarker in PCa diagnosis and therapy.

Related: Prostate Cancer


Fiolka R, Zubor P, Janusicova V, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation of the tumor-suppressor genes RASSF1A, GSTP1 and CDH1 in endometrial cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2878-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is a common gynecological malignancy with a good prognosis in early stages of the disease. The CpG island in the promoter region of tumor-suppressor genes are frequently methylated in various types of human cancers. In the present study, we examined the methylation status of the GSTP1, CDH1 and RASSF1A genes in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC), endometrial complex hyperplasia (EHP) and healthy endometrium with the aim to identify correlations between promoter hypermethylation, disease risk and clinicopathological parameters. A nested two-stage methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was performed to analyze the promoter CpG methylation status of GSTP1, CDH1 and RASSF1A genes in the population studied. A total of 92 subjects were initially included in the study of which 41 EEC, 19 EHP and 20 controls were processed for final analyses. A significant difference was found between the study groups and the presence of promoter CpG hypermethylation status in the GSTP1 (p<0.05) and RASSF1A (p<0.0001) genes. RASSF1A, GSTP1 and CDH1 gene promoter methylation was present in 85.4, 68.3 and 31.4% of EEC samples when compared to that in the controls with 30.0, 35.0 and 20.0%, respectively. CpG methylation of all three investigated tumor-suppressor genes was found in 12.2% of EEC patients, in 4.2% of EHP patients and in 3.7% of the controls, respectively. Positive findings for the promoter methylation of two investigated genes were found in 48.7% of EEC patients, 26.0% of EHP patients and in 18.5% of the controls. With regard to histopathological variables and CpG methylation, we found significant correlations between the RASSF1A and GSTP1 genes and higher tumor grade, deeper myometrial invasion and positive metastatic involvement of pelvic lymph nodes. No associations were noted between promoter hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene and biological features of the endometrial cancer cases. The results indicate that aberrant CpG methylation of the promoter region in the GSTP1 and RASSF1A tumor-suppressor genes is an important event in carcinogenesis of endometrial cancer and may have an impact on tumor aggressiveness. Finally, the present study suggests that epigenetic alterations may be of diagnostic value for the better clinical management of premalignant endometrial lesions.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer GSTP1 CDH1


Zhou Y, Zhang X, Klibanski A
Genetic and epigenetic mutations of tumor suppressive genes in sporadic pituitary adenoma.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 386(1-2):16-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
Human pituitary adenomas are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Approximately 5% of them are familial adenomas. Patients with familial tumors carry germline mutations in predisposition genes, including AIP, MEN1 and PRKAR1A. These mutations are extremely rare in sporadic pituitary adenomas, which therefore are caused by different mechanisms. Multiple tumor suppressive genes linked to sporadic tumors have been identified. Their inactivation is caused by epigenetic mechanisms, mainly promoter hypermethylation, and can be placed into two groups based on their functional interaction with tumor suppressors RB or p53. The RB group includes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, RB1, BMP4, CDH1, CDH13, GADD45B and GADD45G; AIP and MEN1 genes also belong to this group. The p53 group includes MEG3, MGMT, PLAGL1, RASSF1, RASSF3 and SOCS1. We propose that the tumor suppression function of these genes is mainly mediated by the RB and p53 pathways. We also discuss possible tumor suppression mechanisms for individual genes.

Related: Pituitary Tumors RB1 TP53


Li XJ, Park ES, Park MH, Kim SM
3,3'-Diindolylmethane suppresses the growth of gastric cancer cells via activation of the Hippo signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2419-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have revealed that 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM) has antitumor effects in both in vivo and in vitro tumor models. However, the biological function of DIM in human gastric cancer cells is unknown. Genetic and biological studies have confirmed the importance of the novel Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, organ size and tumorigenesis in mammals. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of DIM in human gastric cancer cells and to elucidate whether DIM induces cell death by activating the Hippo signaling pathway. Two human gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-1 and SNU-484) were used to investigate the DIM response. DIM significantly inhibited the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage of G1 phase cells increased 24 h following DIM treatment. DIM reduced CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and cyclin D1 protein levels, while increasing p53 protein levels. DIM induced the levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, cleaved-caspase-9, and diminished pro-caspase-3 protein production. In addition, DIM increased pLATS1, Mob1, pMob1, pYAP and Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1) protein levels and reduced Yap protein production levels. DIM stimulated the binding of RASSF1 with the Mst1/2-LATS1-Mob1 complex, promoting an active Hippo signaling pathway and favoring YAP phosphorylation (pYAP) that inactivates cell proliferation. Furthermore, DIM inhibited the growth of human gastric tumors in a xenograft mouse model. These results indicate that DIM suppresses the growth of gastric cancer cells by activating the Hippo signaling pathway.

Related: Apoptosis Signal Transduction Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Agarwal S, Amin KS, Jagadeesh S, et al.
Mahanine restores RASSF1A expression by down-regulating DNMT1 and DNMT3B in prostate cancer cells.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hypermethylation of the promoter of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A silences its expression and has been found to be associated with advanced grade prostatic tumors. The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) family of enzymes are known to be involved in the epigenetic silencing of gene expression, including RASSF1A, and are often overexpressed in prostate cancer. The present study demonstrates how mahanine, a plant-derived carbazole alkaloid, restores RASSF1A expression by down-regulating specific members of the DNMT family of proteins in prostate cancer cells.
RESULTS: Using methylation-specific PCR we establish that mahanine restores the expression of RASSF1A by inducing the demethylation of its promoter in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we show that mahanine treatment induces the degradation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B, but not DNMT3A, via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; an effect which is rescued in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. The inactivation of Akt by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, results in a similar down-regulation in the levels DNMT1 and DNMT3B. Mahanine treatment results in a decline in phospho-Akt levels and a disruption in the interaction of Akt with DNMT1 and DNMT3B. Conversely, the exogenous expression of constitutively active Akt inhibits the ability of mahanine to down-regulate these DNMTs, suggesting that the degradation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B by mahanine occurs via Akt inactivation.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we show that mahanine treatment induces the proteasomal degradation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B via the inactivation of Akt, which facilitates the demethylation of the RASSF1A promoter and restores its expression in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, mahanine could be a potential therapeutic agent for advanced prostate cancer in men when RASSF1A expression is silenced.

Related: Prostate Cancer Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer- Molecular Biology AKT1


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. RASSF1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/RASSF1.htm Accessed: date

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