Gene Summary

Gene:IL6; interleukin 6
Aliases: CDF, HGF, HSF, BSF2, IL-6, BSF-2, IFNB2, IFN-beta-2
Summary:This gene encodes a cytokine that functions in inflammation and the maturation of B cells. In addition, the encoded protein has been shown to be an endogenous pyrogen capable of inducing fever in people with autoimmune diseases or infections. The protein is primarily produced at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted into the serum and induces a transcriptional inflammatory response through interleukin 6 receptor, alpha. The functioning of this gene is implicated in a wide variety of inflammation-associated disease states, including suspectibility to diabetes mellitus and systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: IL6 (cancer-related)

Zhang X, Liu N, Zhou M, et al.
DNA Nanorobot Delivers Antisense Oligonucleotides Silencing c-Met Gene Expression for Cancer Therapy.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2019; 15(9):1948-1959 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antisense oligonucleotides are considered to be a promising strategy for cancer therapy because of their high specificity and minimal side effects. They can bind specifically to mRNA silencing the expression of target genes. However, ssDNA cannot enter cells in large quantities, which limits its applications. Tetrahedral framework nucleic acids (tFNA) are considered to be optimal nanoscopic drug carriers because of their editability and biocompatibility. Most importantly, they can be modified with functional molecules. The over-expression of c-Met is associated with a wide variety of tumor occurrences, developments, drug resistance and prognoses. Activation of HGF/c-Met signaling pathways can promote cell migration and invasion in cancer. Therefore, blocking the expression of c-Met is a valid technique for cancer therapy. In this study, we used tFNA as carriers to deliver antisense oligonucleotides, which can bind to c-Met mRNA with high specificity and affinity, into cells resulting in the inhibition of c-Met expression for cancer therapy.

Simondurairaj C, Krishnakumar R, Sundaram S, Venkatraman G
Interleukin-6 Receptor (IL-6R) Expression in Human Gastric Carcinoma and its Clinical Significance.
Cancer Invest. 2019; 37(7):293-298 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study is to analyse the expression of Interleukin-6 receptor in different human gastric tissue and to correlate with the clinicopathological features of the patients. Immunohistochemistry was done against the IL-6R antibody and the Q-score was calculated from the staining pattern. Higher Q-scores were observed in tumour cells than the adjacent normal cells which were statistically significant. We also observed a significant correlation between the expressions of IL-6R and the clinicopathological features These findings suggest that IL-6R may represent as a therapeutic target for gastric carcinoma and serve as a prognostic indicator, as well.

Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela M
Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.

Pradhan N, Parbin S, Kausar C, et al.
Paederia foetida induces anticancer activity by modulating chromatin modification enzymes and altering pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human prostate cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2019; 130:161-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are responsible for tumor development and cancer progression; however, readily reversible. Bioactive molecules from diets are promising to cure cancer by modulating epigenetic marks and changing immune response. These compounds specifically target the activity of DNMTs and HDACs to cure various human cancers. In view of this, we investigated the anticancer and epigenetic regulatory activities of an edible-plant Paederia foetida. The efficacy of methanolic extract of P. foetida leaves (MEPL) was tested for the modulation of epigenetic factors in gene silencing, i.e. DNMT and HDAC and expression pattern of certain tumor-suppressor genes. After treatment of prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145) with MEPL, lupeol and β-sitosterol; induction of apoptosis, decrease in cellular-viability and inhibition of cellular-migration were noticed. Simultaneously there was inhibition of DNMT1, HDACs and pro-inflammatory, IL-6, IL1-β, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory, IL-10 genes in cancer and THP1 cell lines. The DNMT1 protein content, enzyme activity and Bcl2 expression decreased significantly; however, expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and pro-apoptotic gene Bax increased significantly after the treatment of cells with drugs. We conclude plant-derived compounds can be considered to target epigenetic machineries involved with malignant transformation and can open new avenues for cancer therapeutics provoking immune response.

Antunes DM, Rodrigues MFSD, Guimarães DM, et al.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Modulate Gene Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2385-2394 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most patients with head and neck cancer receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs concomitant with oncogenic treatment in order to control cardiovascular diseases and chronic inflammatory processes. Inflammation is closely related to neoplastic development and the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines represents a crucial event in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and celecoxib treatment in the gene expression pattern of cytokines and chemokines in squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were treated with plasmatic concentrations of ASA and celecoxib and were submitted to cell viability assay and immunoenzymatic assay to investigate interleukin 6 (IL6) production. Treated cells were collected and a gene expression array was performed using the reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Both treatments provoked a discrete inhibitory effect on cell viability and modulated IL6 production. The mRNA expression of several cytokines, chemokines, chemokine receptors, and other chemotaxis-related genes were modulated after treatment with ASA and celecoxib.
CONCLUSION: Plasmatic doses of ASA and celecoxib altered the expression of IL6 and the gene expression of chemokines (ligands and receptors) and cytokines in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

Hori S, Miyake M, Onishi S, et al.
Evaluation of pro‑ and anti‑tumor effects induced by three colony‑stimulating factors, G‑CSF, GM‑CSF and M‑CSF, in bladder cancer cells: Is G‑CSF a friend of bladder cancer cells?
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):2237-2249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytotoxic chemotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, this treatment can cause transient and prolonged neutropenia, which can result in fatal infection. Three recombinant human colony‑stimulating factors (CSFs), granulocyte CSF (G‑CSF), granulocyte‑macrophage CSF (GM‑CSF), and macrophage CSF (M‑CSF), are currently available to reduce the duration and degree of neutropenia. The present study investigated the pro‑ and anti‑tumor effects of these three CSFs and the changes in molecular profiles. Xenograft tumors in athymic mice were generated by subcutaneously inoculating the human bladder cancer cell lines MGH‑U3 and UM‑UC‑3. A total of 2 weeks after cell inoculation, mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, G‑CSF, GM‑CSF and M‑CSF) and treated thrice a week for 2 weeks. Tumor growth during monitoring and tumor weight at the time of euthanization were significantly higher in mice treated with G‑CSF and lower in mice treated with GM‑CSF compared with the control mice. Tumors were examined by immunostaining with antibodies against proteins associated tumor proliferation (Ki‑67), angiogenesis [CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)], anti‑immunity (CD204) and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT; E‑cadherin). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of M2 macrophages and EMT were promoted by G‑CSF, whereas lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of M2 macrophages were inhibited by GM‑CSF. Treatment‑associated changes in serum pro‑ and anti‑tumoral cytokines and chemokines were evaluated by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)‑based arrays. In the ELISA for serum, the levels of cytokines associated with angiogenesis (interleukin‑6 and VEGF), and EMT (transforming growth factor‑β1 and ‑β2) were elevated in mice treated with G‑CSF. Treatment with GM‑CSF and M‑CSF also affected the level of these cytokines characteristically. The current results indicate that administration of exogenous G‑CSF to patients with bladder cancer promotes tumor growth through promotion of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, recruitment of M2 macrophages and enhancement of EMT through the modulation of the tumor microenvironment.

Matte I, Garde-Granger P, Bessette P, Piché A
Ascites from ovarian cancer patients stimulates MUC16 mucin expression and secretion in human peritoneal mesothelial cells through an Akt-dependent pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):406 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CA125 is a well-established ovarian cancer (OC) serum biomarker. The CA125 heavily glycosylated epitope is carried by the MUC16 mucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane mucin. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the extracellular domain of MUC16 is released from the cell surface into malignant ascites and blood vessels. Previous studies have shown that both tumor and surrounding mesothelial cells may express MUC16. Although little is known about the regulation of MUC16 expression in these cells, recent evidence suggest that inflammatory cytokines may stimulate MUC16 expression. Because malignant ascites is a pro-inflammatory environment, we investigated whether OC ascites stimulate the expression and release of MUC16 by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs).
METHODS: HPMCs were isolated from peritoneal lavages of women operated for conditions other than cancer. MUC16 protein expression was determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry depending on the experiments. The release of MUC16 from the cell surface was measured using EIA and MUC16 mRNA expression by ddPCR.
RESULTS: We show that high-grade serous ascites from patients with OC (n = 5) enhance MUC16 expression in HPMCs. Malignant ascites, but not benign peritoneal fluids, stimulate the release of MUC16 in HPMCs in a dose-dependent manner, which is abrogated by heat inactivation. Moreover, we establish that ascites-induced MUC16 expression occurs at the post-transcriptional level and demonstrate that ascites-induced MUC16 expression is mediated, at least partially, through an Akt-dependent pathway. A cytokine array identified upregulation of several cytokines and chemokines in ascites that mediate MUC16 upregulation versus those that do not, including CCL7, CCL8, CCL16, CCL20, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-10, HGF and IL-1 R4. However, when individually tested, none of these factors affected MUC16 expression or secretion. Concentrations of CA125 in the serum of a given patient did not correlate with the ability of its corresponding ascites to stimulate MUC16 release in HPMCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate that mesothelial cells are an important source of MUC16 in the context of ovarian cancer and malignant ascites is a strong modulator of MUC16 expression in HPMCs and uncover the Akt pathway as a driving factor for upregulation of MUC16. Factors in ascites associated with enhanced MUC16 expression and release remains to be identified.

Ameri Z, Ghiasi S, Farsinejad A, et al.
Telomerase inhibitor MST-312 induces apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic, proliferative and inflammatory genes.
Life Sci. 2019; 228:66-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The telomerase-based therapy of cancer has received a great deal of attention due to the fact that it is expressed in almost all of the cancer cells while it is inactivated in most of the normal somatic cells. Current investigation was aimed to examine the effects of namely telomerase inhibitor, the MST-312, as a chemically modified derivative of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on human multiple myeloma cell line U-266.
MAIN METHODS: U-266 cells were cultured and then treated by MST-312. The viability of cultured cells was measured by both trypan blue staining and MTT assay techniques. To examine the apoptosis, annexin-V/7-AAD staining using flow cytometry method was employed. To analysis the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, c-Myc, hTERT, IL-6 and TNF-α genes, the quantitative real-time PCR was employed.
KEY FINDINGS: We observed the short-term dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of MST-312 against U-266 myeloma cells. Gene expression analysis indicated that the MST-312-based apoptosis was associated with up-regulation of pro-apoptotic gene (Bax) as well as down-regulation of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), proliferative (c-Myc, hTERT) and inflammatory (IL-6, TNF-α) genes.
SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that telomerase-based therapy using MST-312 may represent a novel promising strategy for treatment of multiple myeloma.

Veenstra C, Karlsson E, Mirwani SM, et al.
The effects of PTPN2 loss on cell signalling and clinical outcome in relation to breast cancer subtype.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(7):1845-1856 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN2 dephosphorylates several tyrosine kinases in cancer-related signalling pathways and is thought to be a tumour suppressor. As PTPN2 is not frequently studied in breast cancer, we aimed to explore the role of PTPN2 and the effects of its loss in breast cancer.
METHODS: Protein expression and gene copy number of PTPN2 were analysed in a cohort of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients with immunohistochemistry and droplet digital PCR, respectively. PTPN2 was knocked down in three cell lines, representing different breast cancer subtypes, with siRNA transfection. Several proteins related to PTPN2 were analysed with Western blot.
RESULTS: Low PTPN2 protein expression was found in 50.2% of the tumours (110/219), gene copy loss in 15.4% (33/214). Low protein expression was associated with a higher relapse rate in patients with Luminal A and HER2-positive tumours, but not triple-negative tumours. In vitro studies further suggested a subtype-specific role of PTPN2. Knockdown of PTPN2 had no effect on the triple-negative cell line, whilst knockdown in MCF7 inhibited phosphorylation of Met and promoted that of Akt. Knockdown in SKBR3 led to increased Met phosphorylation and decreased Erk phosphorylation as well as EGF-mediated STAT3 activation.
CONCLUSION: We confirm previous studies showing that the PTPN2 protein is lost in half of the breast cancer cases and gene deletion occurs in 15-18% of the cases. Furthermore, the results suggest that the role of PTPN2 is subtype-related and should be further investigated to assess how this could affect breast cancer prognosis and treatment response.

Kim SL, Choi HS, Kim JH, et al.
Dihydrotanshinone-Induced NOX5 Activation Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cell through the ROS/Stat3 Signaling Pathway.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019; 2019:9296439 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to mediate metastasis and recurrence and are therefore a promising therapeutic target. In this study, we found that dihydrotanshinone (DHTS) inhibits CSC formation. DHTS inhibited mammosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner and showed significant tumor growth inhibition in a xenograft model. This compound reduced the CD44

Ahmed ESA, Ahmed NH, Medhat AM, et al.
Mesenchymal stem cells targeting PI3K/AKT pathway in leukemic model.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(4):1010428319846803 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells have therapeutic properties that are related to their potentials for trans-differentiation, immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. This study was performed to analyze the role of mesenchymal stem cells as an alternative for cellular signaling growth factors involved in the pathogenesis of leukemogenesis in rats. Treatment of rats with 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene induced leukemogenesis appeared as a significant decrease in hematological parameters with concomitant significant increase in bone marrow oxidative and inflammatory indices (transforming growth factor beta and interleukin-6) in comparison with normal groups. On the contrary, Western immunoblotting showed a significant increase in the signaling growth factors: PI3K, AKT, mTOR proteins and a significant decrease in PTEN in 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene-treated group. In addition, a significant increase in the transcript levels of B cell lymphoma-2 protein gene in the 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group, while that of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor-4 and B cell lymphoma-2 protein associated x-protein were significantly downregulated compared to controls. Meanwhile, therapeutic mesenchymal stem cells treatment predict a significant improvement versus 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group through the modulation of growth factors that confront bone marrow dysplasia. In the same direction treatment of 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group with mesenchymal stem cells, it induced apoptosis and increased the homing efficacy to bone marrow. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem cells improve hematopoiesis and alleviate inflammation, and modulated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway contributed to experimental leukemogenesis.

Cocchiola R, Rubini E, Altieri F, et al.
STAT3 Post-Translational Modifications Drive Cellular Signaling Pathways in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
STAT3 is an oncoprotein overexpressed in different types of tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa), and its activity is modulated by a variety of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Prostate cancer represents the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and each phase of tumor progression displays specific cellular conditions: inflammation is predominant in tumor's early stage, whereas oxidative stress is typical of clinically advanced PCa. The aim of this research is to assess the correspondence between the stimulus-specificity of STAT3 PTMs and definite STAT3-mediated transcriptional programs, in order to identify new suitable pharmacological targets for PCa treatment. Experiments were performed on less-aggressive LNCaP and more aggressive DU-145 cell lines, simulating inflammatory and oxidative-stress conditions. Cellular studies confirmed pY705-STAT3 as common denominator of all STAT3-mediated signaling. In addition, acK685-STAT3 was found in response to IL-6, whereas glutC328/542-STAT3 and pS727-STAT3 occurred upon tert-butyl hydroperoxyde (tBHP) treatment. Obtained results also provided evidence of an interplay between STAT3 PTMs and specific protein interactors such as P300 and APE1/Ref-1. In accordance with these outcomes, mRNA levels of STAT3-target genes seemed to follow the differing STAT3 PTMs. These results highlighted the role of STAT3 and its PTMs as drivers in the progression of PCa.

Ding X, Li F, Zhang L
Knockdown of Delta-like 3 restricts lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, migration and invasion of A2058 melanoma cells via blocking Twist1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Life Sci. 2019; 226:149-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of DLL3 in inflammation-mediated A2058 melanoma cell invasion and metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Melanoma A2058 cells was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with or without transfection of DLL3 siRNA, or DLL3 overexpression vector, or Twist1 siRNA. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell invasion assay. The production of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 was measured by ELISA. The expression of Notch signaling-related molecules was detected by PCR and western blot. The protein expression of MMP1, MMP9, VEGF, DLL3, and EMT-related molecules was tested by western blot.
KEY FINDINGS: LPS treatment increased migration and invasion of A2058 cells, accompanied by increased expression of TNF-α and IL-6. DLL3 was both upregulated in the LPS- or TNF-α-stimulated A2058 cells, and DLL3 knockdown inhibited LPS-induced inflammation, migration and invasion of A2058 cells, accompanied by down-regulation of MMP1, MMP9 and VEGF. Besides, DLL3 knockdown inhibits the expression of Twist1, a key EMT regulating factor, as well as the EMT hallmarks slug, N-cadherin and vimentin. Moreover, Twist1 silence inhibited EMT, and limited LPS-induced migration and invasion of A2058 cells, with decreased expression of MMP1, MMP9 and VEGF and reduced production of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated A2058 cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: Knockdown of DLL3 restricts LPS-induced inflammation, migration and invasion of A2058 melanoma cells via blocking Twist1-mediated EMT. Therefore, targeting DLL3 may be a promising therapeutic strategy against inflammation-aggravated melanoma progression.

Germini DE, Franco MIF, Fonseca FLA, et al.
Association of expression of inflammatory response genes and DNA repair genes in colorectal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 42(4):1010428319843042 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation is an important etiological factor of colorectal carcinoma and may be related to colorectal carcinoma growth and proliferation. This study aimed to verify whether the presence of chronic inflammation represented by tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 gene expression is related to hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and PMS2 gene expression and the corresponding protein levels of these genes from the DNA repair system. A total of 83 patients were operated on for curative or palliative colorectal carcinoma. Expression of the inflammatory response genes tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 as well as expression of the hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and PMS2 genes of the DNA repair system (mismatch repair) and the expression levels of the corresponding mismatch repair proteins were measured in neoplastic tissue by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Associations were observed between hMSH6 mRNA expression and interleukin-2 mRNA expression (p = 0.026) as well as between hMLH1 and hMSH2 gene expression and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression (p = 0.042). Higher tissue levels of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression were associated with lower hMSH6, hMLH1, and hMSH2 gene expression.

Liu X, Chen H, Hou Y, et al.
Adaptive EGF expression sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to ionizing radiation through activation of the cyclin D1/P53/PARP pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(4):1466-1480 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is well-known that the activation status of the P53, signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathways determines the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. However, the function of these pathways in radiosensitive vs radioresistant cancer cells remains elusive. The present study demonstrated that adaptive expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) may induce radiosensitization of pancreatic cancer (PC) cells through induction of the cyclin D1/P53/poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase pathway. By contrast, adaptively expressed interleukin (IL)‑6 and insulin‑like growth factor (IGF)‑1 may promote radioresistance of PC cells, likely through activation of the Stat3 and NF‑κB pathways. In addition, cyclin D1 and survivin, which are specifically expressed in the G1/S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle, respectively, are mutually exclusive in radiosensitive and radioresistant PC cells, while Bcl‑2 and Bcl‑xL expression does not differ between radiosensitive and radioresistant PC cells. Therefore, adaptively expressed EGF and IL‑6/IGF‑1 may alter these pathways to promote the radiosensitivity of PC cancers. The findings of the present study highlight potential makers for the evaluation of radiosensitivity and enable the development of effective regimens for cancer radiotherapy.

Jaafari-Ashkvandi Z, Shirazi SY, Rezaeifard S, et al.
Cytotoxic Effects of Pistacia Atlantica (Baneh) Fruit Extract on Human KB Cancer Cell Line.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2019; 62(1):30-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plants with anticancer properties are considered as cancer preventive and treatment sources, due to their some biological effects. Apoptosis induction and anti-proliferative effects of Baneh extract on various cancer cell lines have been reported. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of this fruit on KB and human gingival fibroblast cell lines (HGF). KB and HGF cells were treated with various concentrations of ethanolic Baneh extract and cisplatin as positive control. Cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction were investigated using WST-1 and Annexin V assays. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and student's t-tests. IC50 after 24 and 48 hours treatment were respectively 2.6 and 1 mg/mL for KB cell line, and 1.5 and 1.6 mg/mL for HGF cell. During 48 hours Baneh extract induced apoptosis without significant necrosis, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis in KB cells was significantly higher than HGF. It seems that ethanolic extract of Baneh contains compounds that can suppress KB cell growth through the induction of apoptosis. Within 48 hours, less cytotoxic effects were observed on normal fibroblast cells; therefore, it might be a potential anticancer agent.

Wei C, Yang C, Wang S, et al.
Crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor associated macrophages is required for mesenchymal circulating tumor cell-mediated colorectal cancer metastasis.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of tumor microenvironment that frequently associated with tumor metastasis in human cancers. Circulating tumor cell (CTC), originating from primary tumor sites, is considered to be the precursors of tumor metastasis. However, the regulatory mechanism of TAMs in CTC-mediated tumor metastasis still remains unclear.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the macrophages infiltration (CD68 and CD163), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (E-cadherin and Vimentin) expression in serial sections of human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Then, the correlations between macrophages infiltration and clinicopathologic features, mesenchymal CTC ratio, and patients' prognosis were analyzed. A co-culture assay in vitro was used to evaluate the role of TAMs on CRC EMT, migration and invasion, and ELISA, luciferase reporter assay and CHIP were performed to uncover the underlying mechanism. Furthermore, an in vivo model was carried out to confirm the effect of TAMs on mesenchymal CTC-mediated metastasis.
RESULTS: Clinically, CD163
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that TAMs induce EMT program to enhance CRC migration, invasion, and CTC-mediated metastasis by regulating the JAK2/STAT3/miR-506-3p/FoxQ1 axis, which in turn leads to the production of CCL2 that promote macrophage recruitment, revealing a new cross-talk between immune cells and tumor cells in CRC microenvironment.

Braun R, Ronquist S, Wangsa D, et al.
Single Chromosome Aneuploidy Induces Genome-Wide Perturbation of Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(4):401-412 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal aneuploidy is a defining feature of carcinomas and results in tumor-entity specific genomic imbalances. For instance, most sporadic colorectal carcinomas carry extra copies of chromosome 7, an aneuploidy that emerges already in premalignant adenomas, and is maintained throughout tumor progression and in derived cell lines. A comprehensive understanding on how chromosomal aneuploidy affects nuclear organization and gene expression, i.e., the nucleome, remains elusive. We now analyzed a cell line established from healthy colon mucosa with a normal karyotype (46,XY) and its isogenic derived cell line that acquired an extra copy of chromosome 7 as its sole anomaly (47,XY,+7). We studied structure/function relationships consequent to aneuploidization using genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), RNA sequencing and protein profiling. The gain of chromosome 7 resulted in an increase of transcript levels of resident genes as well as genome-wide gene and protein expression changes. The Hi-C analysis showed that the extra copy of chromosome 7 is reflected in more interchromosomal contacts between the triploid chromosomes. Chromatin organization changes are observed genome-wide, as determined by changes in A/B compartmentalization and topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries. Most notably, chromosome 4 shows a profound loss of chromatin organization, and chromosome 14 contains a large A/B compartment switch region, concurrent with resident gene expression changes. No changes to the nuclear position of the additional chromosome 7 territory were observed when measuring distances of chromosome painting probes by interphase FISH. Genome and protein data showed enrichment in signaling pathways crucial for malignant transformation, such as the HGF/MET-axis. We conclude that a specific chromosomal aneuploidy has profound impact on nuclear structure and function, both locally and genome-wide. Our study provides a benchmark for the analysis of cancer nucleomes with complex karyotypes.

Yu G, Wang Z, Zeng S, et al.
Paeoniflorin Inhibits Hepatocyte Growth Factor- (HGF-) Induced Migration and Invasion and Actin Rearrangement via Suppression of c-Met-Mediated RhoA/ROCK Signaling in Glioblastoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:9053295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paeoniflorin (PF), as one of the important valid natural compounds of the total glucosides of peony, has displayed a potential effect in cancer prevention and treatment. Aggressive migration and invasion, as an important process, can contribute to tumor progression through infiltrating the surround normal tissue. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangement plays a key role in cells migration and invasion, involving multiple signal pathways. HGF/c-Met signal, as an important couple of oncoprotein, has been demonstrated to regulate actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. In our study, we aim to explore whether paeoniflorin can inhibit migration and invasion and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement via regulation of HGF/c-Met/RhoA/ROCK signal. Various approaches were applied to demonstrate the mechanism of paeoniflorin-mediated anticancer effect, including cell wound healing assay, invasion assay, immunofluorescence staining and transfection, and western blotting. We observed that paeoniflorin inhibited HGF-induced migration and invasion and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of HGF-induced migration and invasion and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement involved c-Met-mediated RhoA/ROCK signaling in glioblastoma. Thus, our study proved that paeoniflorin could inhibit migration and invasion and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement through inhibition of HGF/c-Met/RhoA/ROCK signaling in glioblastoma, suggesting that paeoniflorin might be a candidate compound to treat glioblastoma.

Weng YS, Tseng HY, Chen YA, et al.
MCT-1/miR-34a/IL-6/IL-6R signaling axis promotes EMT progression, cancer stemness and M2 macrophage polarization in triple-negative breast cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a poor prognostic breast cancer with the highest mutations and limited therapeutic choices. Cytokine networking between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) maintains the self-renewing subpopulation of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) that mediate tumor heterogeneity, resistance and recurrence. Immunotherapy of those factors combined with targeted therapy or chemoagents may advantage TNBC treatment.
RESULTS: We found that the oncogene Multiple Copies in T-cell Malignancy 1 (MCT-1/MCTS1) expression is a new poor-prognosis marker in patients with aggressive breast cancers. Overexpressing MCT-1 perturbed the oncogenic breast epithelial acini morphogenesis and stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and matrix metalloproteinase activation in invasive TNBC cells, which were repressed after MCT-1 gene silencing. As mammary tumor progression was promoted by oncogenic MCT-1 activation, tumor-promoting M2 macrophages were enriched in TME, whereas M2 macrophages were decreased and tumor-suppressive M1 macrophages were increased as the tumor was repressed via MCT-1 knockdown. MCT-1 stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion that promoted monocytic THP-1 polarization into M2-like macrophages to increase TNBC cell invasiveness. In addition, MCT-1 elevated the soluble IL-6 receptor levels, and thus, IL-6R antibodies antagonized the effect of MCT-1 on promoting M2-like polarization and cancer cell invasion. Notably, MCT-1 increased the features of BCSCs, which were further advanced by IL-6 but prevented by tocilizumab, a humanized IL-6R antibody, thus MCT-1 knockdown and tocilizumab synergistically inhibited TNBC stemness. Tumor suppressor miR-34a was induced upon MCT-1 knockdown that inhibited IL-6R expression and activated M1 polarization.
CONCLUSIONS: The MCT-1 pathway is a novel and promising therapeutic target for TNBC.

Tuponchai P, Kukongviriyapan V, Prawan A, et al.
Myricetin ameliorates cytokine-induced migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells via suppression of STAT3 pathway.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jan-Mar; 15(1):157-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim of Study: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Various cytokines secreted by tumor cells or cells in the tumor environment can promote the metastasis of CCA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of myricetin on the inhibition of cytokine-induced migration and invasion and the associated cellular mechanisms in human CCA cells.
Materials and Methods: CCA KKU-100 cells were treated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture consisting of interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α. The migratory and invasive ability of KKU-100 cells were determined using a wound-healing assay and transwell invasion assay. The effect of myricetin on cytokine-induced STAT3 activation in CCA cells was determined using Western blot analysis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine messenger RNA expression.
Results: Myricetin significantly inhibited cytokine-induced migration and invasion of KKU-100 cells. Detailed molecular analyses revealed that myricetin suppressed the activation of the STAT3 pathway, evidently by a decrease of the active phospho-STAT3 protein expression after myricetin treatment. The cytokine-mediated upregulation of metastasis- and inflammatory-associated genes, which are downstream genes of STAT3 including the intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), were also significantly abolished by myricetin treatment. Moreover, the anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of a widely prescribed COX inhibitor, indomethacin, were also revealed.
Conclusion: This finding reveals the anti-metastatic effect of myricetin against CCA cells which is mediated partly through suppression of the STAT3 pathway. This compound could be potentially useful as a therapeutic agent against CCA.

Lian S, Xie R, Ye Y, et al.
Simultaneous blocking of CD47 and PD-L1 increases innate and adaptive cancer immune responses and cytokine release.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 42:281-295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment multiple tumors by immune therapy can be achieved by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. The programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1; or CD274, B7-H1) is a critical "don't find me" signal to the adaptive immune system. Equally CD47 is a critical "don't eat me" signal to the innate immune system and a regulator of the adaptive immune response.
METHOD: Both of CD47 and PD-L1 are overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells to enable to escape immune-surveillance. We designed EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule)-targeted cationic liposome (LPP-P4-Ep) containing si-CD47 and si-PD-L1 could target high-EpCAM cancer cells and knockdown both CD47 and PD-L1 proteins.
FINDINGS: Efficient silencing of CD47 and PD-L1 versus single gene silencing in vivo by systemic administration of LPP-P4-Ep could significantly inhibited the growth of solid tumors in subcutaneous and reduced lung metastasis in lung metastasis model. Target delivery of the complexes LPP-P4-Ep increased anti-tumor T cell and NK cell response, and release various cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-6 in vivo and in vitro.
INTERPRETATION: This multi-nanoparticles showed significantly high-EpCAM tumor targeting and lower toxicity, and enhanced immune therapeutic efficacy. Our data indicated that dual-blockade tumor cell-specific innate and adaptive checkpoints represents an improved strategy for tumor immunotherapy. FUND: This research supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (grant number 2015CB931804); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, grant numbers 81703555, U1505225 and 81773063), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant number 2017 M620268).

Moustaka K, Maleskou E, Lambrianidou A, et al.
Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Proliferation of EoL-1 Leukemia Cells and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Differentiation.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Τhe effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) upon the proliferation of EoL-1 (Eosinophilic leukemia) cell line was assessed, while additional cellular events during the antiproliferative action were recorded. DHA inhibited EoL-1 cells growth dose-dependently by inducing growth arrest at G0/1 phase of the cell cycle. After DHA addition to the cells, the expression of

Li T, Li M, Xu C, et al.
miR‑146a regulates the function of Th17 cell differentiation to modulate cervical cancer cell growth and apoptosis through NF‑κB signaling by targeting TRAF6.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2897-2908 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether miRNA‑146a regulated the function of Th17 cell differentiation to modulate cervical cancer cell growth and apoptosis. miR‑146a expression was increased in human cervical cancer. Both overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS) of low miR‑146a expression were higher than those of high miR‑146a expression. Additionally, IL‑17a expression was lower in patients with high miR‑146a expression compared to that of patients with lower miR‑146a expression. In a co‑culture of cervical cancer and CD4+ T cells, downregulation of miR‑146a inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis of cervical cancer cells, while overexpression of miR‑146a promoted cell growth and reduced apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. Downregulation of miR‑146a induced TRAF6 and NF‑κB protein expression, increased IL‑6, IL‑17A and IL‑21 levels, and enhanced p‑STAT3 protein expression. The inhibition of TRAF6 attenuated the effects of anti‑miR‑146a on the function of Th17 cell differentiation to modulate cervical cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Collectively, miR‑146a regulated the function of Th17 cell differentiation to modulate cervical cancer cell growth and apoptosis through NF‑κB signaling by targeting TRAF6. miR‑146a may function as an oncogene in cervical cancer via Th17 cell differentiation by targeting TRAF6.

Xiao L, Luo Y, Tai R, Zhang N
Estrogen receptor β suppresses inflammation and the progression of prostate cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3555-3563 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) signaling alleviates systemic inflammation in animal models, and suggested that ERβ‑selective agonists may deactivate microglia and suppress T cell activity via downregulation of nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB). In the present study, the role of ERβ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced inflammation and association with NF‑κB activity were investigated in PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with LPS to induce inflammation, and ELISA was performed to determine the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‑1), interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6. MTT and Transwell assays, and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining were conducted to measure cell viability, apoptosis and migration, respectively. Protein expression was determined via western blot analysis. LPS‑induced inflammation resulted in elevated expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6 compared with controls. ERβ overexpression significantly inhibited the LPS‑induced production of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6. In addition, the results indicated that ERβ suppressed viability and migration, and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which was further demonstrated by altered expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, caspase‑3, E‑cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase‑2. These effects were reversed by treatment with the ERβ antagonist PHTPP or ERβ‑specific short interfering RNA. ERβ overexpression reduced the expression levels of p65 and phosphorylated NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα), but not total IκBα expression in LPS‑treated cells. In conclusion, ERβ suppressed the viability and migration of the PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, it reduced inflammation and suppressed the activation of the NF‑κB pathway, suggesting that ERβ may serve roles as an anti‑inflammatory and anticancer agent in prostate cancer.

Liu F, Cox CD, Chowdhury R, et al.
SPINT2 is hypermethylated in both IDH1 mutated and wild-type glioblastomas, and exerts tumor suppression via reduction of c-Met activation.
J Neurooncol. 2019; 142(3):423-434 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Both IDH1-mutated and wild-type gliomas abundantly display aberrant CpG island hypermethylation. However, the potential role of hypermethylation in promoting gliomas, especially the most aggressive form, glioblastoma (GBM), remains poorly understood.
METHODS: We analyzed RRBS-generated methylation profiles for 11 IDH1
RESULTS: We identified SPINT2 as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene within a group of CpG islands (designated G
CONCLUSIONS: We defined a previously under-recognized group of coordinately methylated CpG islands common to both IDH1

Cai J, Cui K, Niu F, et al.
Genetics of IL6 polymorphisms: Case-control study of the risk of endometrial cancer.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(4):e00600 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy. Cytokines gene may be important in endometrial cancer development. This study sought to investigate whether the IL4, IL6 two gene genetic variants were associated with susceptibility to endometrial cancer (EC) in Hainan Chinese Han women by a hospital-based study.
METHODS: The genetic polymorphisms for IL4 and IL6 were analyzed by Agena MassARRAY method. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer of rs1524107 (IL6) (T/C, OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.09-2.37, p = 1.55 × 10
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that IL6 gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with increased EC susceptibility in Hainan Chinese Han women.

Labib PL, Goodchild G, Pereira SP
Molecular Pathogenesis of Cholangiocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):185 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from a number of cells of origin along the biliary tree. Although most cases in Western countries are sporadic, large population-based studies have identified a number of risk factors. This review summarises the evidence behind reported risk factors and current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma, with a focus on inflammation and cholestasis as the driving forces in cholangiocarcinoma development.
RISK FACTORS FOR CHOLANGIOCARCINOGENESIS: Cholestatic liver diseases (e.g. primary sclerosing cholangitis and fibropolycystic liver diseases), liver cirrhosis, and biliary stone disease all increase the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Certain bacterial, viral or parasitic infections such as hepatitis B and C and liver flukes also increase cholangiocarcinoma risk. Other risk factors include inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis), toxins (e.g. alcohol and tobacco), metabolic conditions (diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) and a number of genetic disorders.
MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA: Regardless of aetiology, most risk factors cause chronic inflammation or cholestasis. Chronic inflammation leads to increased exposure of cholangiocytes to the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, Tumour Necrosis Factor-ɑ, Cyclo-oxygenase-2 and Wnt, resulting in progressive mutations in tumour suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and DNA mismatch-repair genes. Accumulating bile acids from cholestasis lead to reduced pH, increased apoptosis and activation of ERK1/2, Akt and NF-κB pathways that encourage cell proliferation, migration and survival. Other mediators upregulated in cholangiocarcinoma include Transforming Growth Factor-β, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor and several microRNAs. Increased expression of the cell surface receptor c-Met, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and the sodium iodide symporter lead to tumour growth, angiogenesis and cell migration. Stromal changes are also observed, resulting in alterations to the extracellular matrix composition and recruitment of fibroblasts and macrophages that create a microenvironment promoting cell survival, invasion and metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Regardless of aetiology, most risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma cause chronic inflammation and/or cholestasis, leading to the activation of common intracellular pathways that result in reactive cell proliferation, genetic/epigenetic mutations and cholangiocarcinogenesis. An understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma is vital when developing new diagnostic biomarkers and targeted therapies for this disease.

Wu Y, Xu M, He R, et al.
ARHGAP6 regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2281-2888 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer, a leading cause of cancer‑related deaths, is frequently diagnosed in both males and females worldwide. In the present study, the Ras homologue GTPase activation protein 6 (ARHGAP6), which belongs to the Rho GTPase‑activating protein (RhoGAP) family, was found to have low expression in tumor tissues from patients with lung cancer, accompanied by high expression of matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In A549 and H1299 cells, upregulation of ARHGAP6 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis and reduced the levels of MMP9, VEGF and p‑STAT3, while the levels STAT3 were unchanged, as demonstrated by CCK‑8, migration and invasion assays as well as western blot analysis. In addition, interleukin 6 (IL‑6)‑induced migration, invasion and MMP9 and VEGF expression, and STAT3 signaling activity were suppressed by ARHGAP6 upregulation. Based on these data, we concluded that ARHGAP6 is critically important in lung cancer progression and that upregulation of ARHGAP6 benefits the treatment and prevention of lung cancer, possibly through the suppression of MMP9, VEGF and STAT3 signaling activation.

Miyake S, Ogo A, Kubota H, et al.
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Suppresses NF-ĸB Activation and IL-6 Production in TE-1 Cancer Cells.
In Vivo. 2019 Mar-Apr; 33(2):353-358 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Stress reactions, especially those related to surgery, cause poor convalescence of cancer patients. β-Hydroxyβ-methylbutyrate (HMB) is known to regulate excessive inflammation in the body. The objective of this work was to investigate the capacity of HMB to suppress activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (TE-1).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured using the water-soluble tetrazolium-1 method, while tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced IL-6 production was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. Nuclear translocation of NF-ĸB was detected by immunofluorescence staining.
RESULTS: HMB did not affect cell proliferation. However, HMB suppressed the TNFα-induced increase in IL-6 production in TE-1 cells by inhibiting NF-ĸB activation.
CONCLUSION: HMB did not influence TE-1 cell proliferation, but inhibited activation of NF-ĸB and IL-6 production. This result may be useful for improving excessive stress reactions during and after surgery.

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