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IL6; interleukin 6 (7p21)

Gene Summary

Gene:IL6; interleukin 6
Aliases: HGF, HSF, BSF2, IL-6, IFNB2
Location:7p21
Summary:This gene encodes a cytokine that functions in inflammation and the maturation of B cells. In addition, the encoded protein has been shown to be an endogenous pyrogen capable of inducing fever in people with autoimmune diseases or infections. The protein is primarily produced at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted into the serum and induces a transcriptional inflammatory response through interleukin 6 receptor, alpha. The functioning of this gene is implicated in a wide variety of inflammation-associated disease states, including suspectibility to diabetes mellitus and systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-6
HPRD
Source:NCBI
Updated:14 December, 2014

Gene
Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (96)

Pathways:

What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Cells and Molecules involved in local acute inflammatory response BIOCARTA
- Cytokine Network BIOCARTA
- Cytokines and Inflammatory Response BIOCARTA
- Erythrocyte Differentiation Pathway BIOCARTA
- IL 17 Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- IL 5 Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- IL 6 signaling pathway BIOCARTA
- IL-10 Anti-inflammatory Signaling Pathway BIOCARTA
- Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) pathway during atherogenesis BIOCARTA
- Regulation of hematopoiesis by cytokines BIOCARTA
- Role of ERBB2 in Signal Transduction and Oncology BIOCARTA
- Signal transduction through IL1R BIOCARTA
- Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction KEGG
- Hematopoietic cell lineage KEGG
- Jak-STAT signaling pathway KEGG
- Toll-like receptor signaling pathway KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (6)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerIL6 and Breast Cancer View Publications48
Lung CancerIL6 and Lung Cancer View Publications25
Prostate CancerIL6 and Prostate Cancer View Publications24
Liver CancerIL6 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma View Publications23
Waldenstrom's MacroglobulinemiaIL6 and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia View Publications3
Vulvar CancerIL6 and Vulvar Cancer View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: IL6 (cancer-related)

Neemat K, Rania K, Tarek M, Hamdy AA
Effect of 13q deletion on IL-6 production in patients with multiple myeloma: a hypothesis may hold true.
Clin Lab. 2014; 60(8):1393-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown a correlation between 13q deletion and poor prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM), but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Earlier studies suggest that this lesion involves large segments or the entire long arm involving the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene. In myeloma, Rb gene is believed to down regulate interleukin-6 (IL-6) which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of MM. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that loss of the Rb gene might be associated with very high expression of IL-6 and subsequent bad prognosis. Hence this study evaluates IL-6 production in MM patients with and without 13q deletions and assesses their response to conventional and new therapeutic regimens.
METHODS: Forty MM patients and 20 matched controls were included in this study. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed using LSI 13q14-specific probe. Serum levels of IL-6 were determined by ELISA. All patients received conventional chemotherapy. Refractory patients received other therapeutic regimens of Thalidomide or Bortezomib.
RESULTS: Significant increase (p < 0.001) of IL-6 production was recorded in patients with a 13q deletion compared to patients with normal chromosome 13q status. These patients were also refractory to conventional chemotherapy but showed striking response to Thalidomide or Bortezomib.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that 13q deletions are associated with increased production of IL-6 in MM and this could be a possible cause of the associated bad prognosis. In addition, the results also show the potential to improve responses in patients with refractory MM with the introduction of novel therapies.

Related: Chromosome 13 FISH Myeloma Myeloma - Molecular Biology Thalidomide Bortezomib


Fuchigami T, Kibe T, Koyama H, et al.
Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 451(4):491-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave interactively via these cytokines to create a microenvironment that leads to the extension of ameloblastomas.


Song TY, Lim J, Kim B, et al.
The role of tumor suppressor menin in IL-6 regulation in mouse islet tumor cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 451(2):308-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Menin is a gene product of multiple endocrine neoplasia type1 (Men1), an inherited familial cancer syndrome characterized by tumors of endocrine tissues. To gain insight about how menin performs an endocrine cell-specific tumor suppressor function, we investigated the possibility that menin was integrated in a cancer-associated inflammatory pathway in a cell type-specific manner. Here, we showed that the expression of IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine, was specifically elevated in mouse islet tumor cells upon depletion of menin and Men(-/-) MEF cells, but not in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Histone H3 lysine (K) 9 methylation, but not H3 K27 or K4 methylation, was involved in menin-dependent IL-6 regulation. Menin occupied the IL-6 promoter and recruited SUV39H1 to induce H3 K9 methylation. Our findings provide a molecular insight that menin-dependent induction of H3 K9 methylation in the cancer-associated interleukin gene might be linked to preventing endocrine-specific tumorigenesis.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer MEN1


Qi L, Ding Y
Involvement of the CREB5 regulatory network in colorectal cancer metastasis.
Yi Chuan. 2014; 36(7):679-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The signal regulatory network involved in colorectal cancer metastasis is complicated and thus the search for key control steps in the network is of great significance for unraveling colorectal cancer metastasis mechanism and finding drug-target site. Previous studies suggested that CREB5 (cAMP responsive element binding protein 5) might play key role in the metastatic signal network of colorectal cancer. Through colorectal cancer expression profile and enriching analysis of the effect of CREB5 gene expression levels on colorectal cancer molecular events, we found that these molecular events are correlated with tumor metastasis. Based on the feature that CREB5 could combine with c-Jun to form heterodimer, together with enriched binding sites for transcription factor AP-1, we identified 16 genes which were up-regulated in the CREB5 high-expression group, contained AP-1 binding sites, and participated in cancer pathway. The molecular network involving these 16 genes, in particular, CSF1R, MMP9, PDGFRB, FIGF and IL6, regulates cell migration. Therefore, CREB5 might accelerate the metastasis of colorectal cancer by regulating these five key genes.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer


Oduor CI, Chelimo K, Ouma C, et al.
Interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms and risk of endemic Burkitt lymphoma.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014; 91(3):649-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/09/2015 Related Publications
Overexpression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 in endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) may facilitate tumorigenesis by providing a permissive cytokine milieu. Promoter polymorphisms influence interindividual differences in cytokine production. We hypothesized that children genetically predisposed for elevated cytokine levels may be more susceptible to eBL. Using case-control samples from western Kenya consisting of 117 eBL cases and 88 ethnically matched healthy controls, we tested for the association between eBL risk and IL-10 (rs1800896, rs1800871, and rs1800872) and IL-6 (rs1800795) promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as IL-10 promoter haplotypes. In addition, the association between these variants and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) load was examined. Results showed that selected IL-10 and IL-6 promoter SNPs and IL-10 promoter haplotypes were not associated with risk eBL or EBV levels in EBV-seropositive children. Findings from this study reveal that common variants within the IL-10 and IL-6 promoters do not independently increase eBL risk in this vulnerable population.

Related: IL10


Lee HJ, Zhuang G, Cao Y, et al.
Drug resistance via feedback activation of Stat3 in oncogene-addicted cancer cells.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(2):207-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pathway-targeted cancer drugs can produce dramatic responses that are invariably limited by the emergence of drug-resistant cells. We found that many drug-treated "oncogene-addicted" cancer cells engage a positive feedback loop leading to Stat3 activation, consequently promoting cell survival and limiting overall drug response. This was observed in cancer cells driven by diverse activated kinases, including EGFR, HER2, ALK, and MET, as well as mutant KRAS. Specifically, MEK inhibition led to autocrine activation of Stat3 via the FGF receptor and JAK kinases, and pharmacological inhibition of MEK together with JAK and FGFR enhanced tumor regression. These findings suggest that inhibition of a Stat3 feedback loop may augment the response to a broad spectrum of drugs that target pathways of oncogene addiction.

Related: Lung Cancer Signal Transduction KRAS gene EGFR Erlotinib (Tarceva)


Korhan P, Erdal E, Atabey N
MiR-181a-5p is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and suppresses motility, invasion and branching-morphogenesis by directly targeting c-Met.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(4):1304-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase has been regarded as a promising therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown as a novel mechanism to control c-Met expression in cancer. In this study, we investigate the potential contribution of miR-181a-5p dysregulation to the biology of c-Met overexpression in HCC. Herein, we found an inverse expression pattern between miR-181a-5p and c-Met expression in normal, cirrhotic and HCC liver tissues. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-181a-5p binding to the 3'-UTR of c-Met downregulated the expression of c-Met in HCC cells. Overexpression of miR-181a-5p suppressed both HGF-independent and -dependent activation of c-Met and consequently diminished branching-morphogenesis and invasion. Combined treatment with miR-181a-5p and c-Met inhibitor led to a further inhibition of c-Met-driven cellular activities. Knockdown of miR-181a-5p promoted HGF-independent/-dependent signaling of c-Met and accelerated migration, invasion and branching-morphogenesis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that c-Met is a functional target gene of miR-181a-5p and the loss of miR-181a-5p expression led to the activation of c-Met-mediated oncogenic signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis. These findings display a novel molecular mechanism of c-Met regulation in HCC and strategies to increase miR-181a5p level might be an alternative approach for the enhancement of the inhibitory effects of c-Met inhibitors.

Related: Liver Cancer MET gene Signal Transduction


Frittoli E, Palamidessi A, Marighetti P, et al.
A RAB5/RAB4 recycling circuitry induces a proteolytic invasive program and promotes tumor dissemination.
J Cell Biol. 2014; 206(2):307-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/01/2015 Related Publications
The mechanisms by which tumor cells metastasize and the role of endocytic proteins in this process are not well understood. We report that overexpression of the GTPase RAB5A, a master regulator of endocytosis, is predictive of aggressive behavior and metastatic ability in human breast cancers. RAB5A is necessary and sufficient to promote local invasion and distant dissemination of various mammary and nonmammary tumor cell lines, and this prometastatic behavior is associated with increased intratumoral cell motility. Specifically, RAB5A is necessary for the formation of invadosomes, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. RAB5A promotes RAB4- and RABENOSYN-5-dependent endo/exocytic cycles (EECs) of critical cargos (membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease [MT1-MMP] and β3 integrin) required for invadosome formation in response to motogenic stimuli. This trafficking circuitry is necessary for spatially localized hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET signaling that drives invasive, proteolysis-dependent chemotaxis in vitro and for conversion of ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive ductal carcinoma in vivo. Thus, RAB5A/RAB4 EECs promote tumor dissemination by controlling a proteolytic, mesenchymal invasive program.

Related: Breast Cancer


Yan HQ, Huang XB, Ke SZ, et al.
Interleukin 6 augments lung cancer chemotherapeutic resistance via ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/NF-kappaB pathway activation.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(9):1220-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although it is known that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) contribute to multiple drug resistance (MDR) in tumor chemotherapy, the exact role of ATM activation in MDR resulting from increased IL-6 expression is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that the activation of the ATM-NF-kappaB pathway, resulting from increased IL-6 expression, plays a central role in augmented chemoresistance in lung cancer cell lines. This result was supported by the increased expressions of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-xl, and the upregulation of MDR-associated protein ABCG2. The higher level of IL-6 reveals not only higher ATM/NF-kappaB activity but also increased expressions of ABCG2, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xl. Most importantly, lung cancer cells themselves upregulated IL-6 secretion by activating the p38/NF-kappaB pathway through treatment with cisplatin and camptothecin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that chemotherapeutic agents increase IL-6 expression, hence activating the ATM/NF-kappaB pathway, augmenting anti-apoptotic protein expression and contributing to MDR. This indicates that both IL-6 and ATM are potential targets for the treatment of chemotherapeutic resistance in lung cancer.

Related: Cisplatin Lung Cancer Risk Factors and Prevention of Lung Cancer ABCG2 MCL1


Zhang X, Blaskovich MA, Forinash KD, Sebti SM
Withacnistin inhibits recruitment of STAT3 and STAT5 to growth factor and cytokine receptors and induces regression of breast tumours.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(5):894-902 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The binding of STAT3 and STAT5 to growth factor and cytokine receptors such as EGFR and IL-6 receptor gp130 is critical to their activation and ability to contribute to malignant transformation. Therefore, interfering with these biochemical processes could lead to the discovery of novel anticancer agents.
METHODS: Co-immunoprecipitation, western blotting, microscopy, DNA binding, invasion, and soft agar assays as well as a mouse model were used to investigate the mechanism by which the natural product Withacnistin (Wit) inhibits STAT 3/5 tyrosine phosphoryaltion and activation.
RESULTS: Wit blocks EGF- and IL-6-stimulated binding of STAT3 and STAT5 to EGFR and gp130. Wit inhibits EGF-, PDGF-, IL-6-, IFNβ-, and GM-CSF-stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 but not of EGFR or PDGFR. The inhibition of P-STAT3 and P-STAT5 occurred rapidly, within minutes of Wit treatment and growth factor stimulation. Wit also inhibits STAT3 nuclear translocation, DNA binding, promoter transcriptional activation, and it suppresses the expression levels of STAT3 target genes such as Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Finally, Wit induces apoptosis, inhibits anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and invasion, and causes breast tumour regression in an ErbB2-driven transgenic mouse model.
CONCLUSIONS: These data warrant further development of Wit as a novel anticancer drug for targeting tumours that harbour hyperactivated STAT3 and STAT5.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer


Choi SW, Reddy P
Current and emerging strategies for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2014; 11(9):536-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/08/2015 Related Publications
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) represents the most serious and challenging complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). New insights on the role of regulatory T-cells, T cells, and antigen-presenting cells have led to an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of GVHD. However, little progress has been made since the introduction of calcineurin-inhibitor-based regimens in the mid-1980s. Despite standard prophylaxis with these regimens, GVHD still develops in approximately 40-60% of recipients. Thus, there is a need for developing newer approaches to mitigate GVHD, which may facilitate the use of allogeneic HSCT for the treatment of a wider range of haematological cancers. We discuss the rationale, clinical evidence, and outcomes of current (and widely employed) strategies for GVHD prophylaxis, namely calcineurin-inhibitor-based regimens (such as cyclosporine or tacrolimus) combined with methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil. We assess the clinical evidence for emerging approaches in the prevention of GVHD, including therapies targeting T cells or B cells, the use of mesenchymal stem cells, chemo-cytokine antagonists (such as maraviroc, TNF-α inhibitor, IL-2 receptor antagonist, IL-6 inhibitor), and the use of novel molecular regulators that target multiple cell types simultaneously, including atorvastatin, bortezomib, and epigenetic modulators.

Related: Cytokines Haematological Malignancies & Realted Disorders


Muendlein A, Hubalek M, Geller-Rhomberg S, et al.
Significant survival impact of MACC1 polymorphisms in HER2 positive breast cancer patients.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(12):2134-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) signalling has been associated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer and other cancers. The recently discovered metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) gene is a key regulator of the HGF/MET pathway. Potential links between genetic variants of the MACC1 gene and survival in breast cancer patients are unknown. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the influence of MACC1 polymorphisms on event-free and overall survival in patients with human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer.
METHODS: The present study included 164 consecutive white patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Three MACC1 polymorphisms, rs1990172, rs975263 and rs3735615, already associated with cancer prognosis or with potential functional effects, were genotyped by the 5' nuclease assay.
RESULTS: Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age and tumour stage showed increased risk for progression or death for carriers of the rare allele (G-allele) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1990172 (hazard ratios (HR) = 2.26; p = 0.004 and HR = 3.13; p = 0.001 for event-free survival and overall survival, respectively). In addition, we were able to demonstrate an adverse effect on cancer prognosis for carriers of the rare allele (T-allele) of SNP rs975263 (HR = 2.17; p = 0.007 and HR = 2.80; p = 0.003 for event-free survival and overall survival, respectively). The rare allele (C-allele) of SNP rs3735615 showed a significant protective impact on event-free survival as well as overall survival (HR = 0.25; p = 0.001, and HR = 0.16; p = 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides first evidence that MACC1 polymorphisms are associated with clinical outcome for HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings.

Related: Breast Cancer


Ishiguro H, Kawahara T, Zheng Y, et al.
Differential regulation of bladder cancer growth by various glucocorticoids: corticosterone and prednisone inhibit cell invasion without promoting cell proliferation or reducing cisplatin cytotoxicity.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 74(2):249-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, was recently shown to inhibit bladder cancer cell invasion and metastasis through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway but increased cell proliferation via inhibiting apoptosis particularly induced by cisplatin. Therefore, comedication with dexamethasone in bladder cancer patients may lead to unfavorable outcomes such as chemoresistance. We here look for any glucocorticoids with inhibitory effects on tumor cell invasion yet inhibitory or at least no stimulatory effects on cell viability.
METHODS: The effects of 10 glucocorticoids on cell viability were first assessed in three bladder cancer lines. Selected compounds were further assessed for their ability in cell viability and apoptosis, with or without cisplatin, as well as in cell invasion.
RESULTS: Most of the compounds (hydrocortisone, betamethasone, flumethasone, triamcinolone, budesonide, fluticasone propionate, and fludrocortisone acetate) increased GR-positive cell growth, which was similar to or even stronger than the effect of dexamethasone. Nonetheless, two glucocorticoids (corticosterone, prednisone) showed only marginal effects on cell growth of all the lines tested. They did not significantly reduce the effects of cisplatin on cell proliferation or cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Conversely, corticosterone, prednisone, and dexamethasone similarly inhibited cell invasion and expression of related genes, including MMP-9, VEGF, and IL-6, in GR-positive lines.
CONCLUSION: Corticosterone and prednisone are suggested to have the potential of being harmless, in contrast to dexamethasone, without promoting cell proliferation or inhibiting cytotoxic activity of cisplatin, yet beneficial to bladder cancer patients via suppressing tumor invasion. Our results are thus useful in improving chemotherapy regimens, including optimal glucocorticoids, for urothelial carcinoma.

Related: Apoptosis Cisplatin MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology VEGFA


Lee DW, Gardner R, Porter DL, et al.
Current concepts in the diagnosis and management of cytokine release syndrome.
Blood. 2014; 124(2):188-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/07/2015 Related Publications
As immune-based therapies for cancer become potent, more effective, and more widely available, optimal management of their unique toxicities becomes increasingly important. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a potentially life-threatening toxicity that has been observed following administration of natural and bispecific antibodies and, more recently, following adoptive T-cell therapies for cancer. CRS is associated with elevated circulating levels of several cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon γ, and uncontrolled studies demonstrate that immunosuppression using tocilizumab, an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, with or without corticosteroids, can reverse the syndrome. However, because early and aggressive immunosuppression could limit the efficacy of the immunotherapy, current approaches seek to limit administration of immunosuppressive therapy to patients at risk for life-threatening consequences of the syndrome. This report presents a novel system to grade the severity of CRS in individual patients and a treatment algorithm for management of CRS based on severity. The goal of our approach is to maximize the chance for therapeutic benefit from the immunotherapy while minimizing the risk for life threatening complications of CRS.

Related: Cytokines Leukemia Childhood Leukaemia Leukemia - Molecular Biology


Hong TS, Ryan DP, Borger DR, et al.
A phase 1/2 and biomarker study of preoperative short course chemoradiation with proton beam therapy and capecitabine followed by early surgery for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014; 89(4):830-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and biomarkers of short-course proton beam radiation and capecitabine, followed by pancreaticoduodenectomy in a phase 1/2 study in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with radiographically resectable, biopsy-proven PDAC were treated with neoadjuvant short-course (2-week) proton-based radiation with capecitabine, followed by surgery and adjuvant gemcitabine. The primary objective was to demonstrate a rate of toxicity grade ≥ 3 of <20%. Exploratory biomarker studies were performed using surgical specimen tissues and peripheral blood.
RESULTS: The phase 2 dose was established at 5 daily doses of 5 GyE. Fifty patients were enrolled, of whom 35 patients were treated in the phase 2 portion. There were no grade 4 or 5 toxicities, and only 2 of 35 patients (4.1%) experienced a grade 3 toxicity event (chest wall pain grade 1, colitis grade 1). Of 48 patients eligible for analysis, 37 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Thirty of 37 (81%) had positive nodes. Locoregional failure occurred in 6 of 37 resected patients (16.2%), and distant recurrence occurred in 35 of 48 patients (72.9%). With median follow-up of 38 months, the median progression-free survival for the entire group was 10 months, and overall survival was 17 months. Biomarker studies showed significant associations between worse survival outcomes and the KRAS point mutation change from glycine to aspartic acid at position 12, stromal CXCR7 expression, and circulating biomarkers CEA, CA19-9, and HGF (all, P<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This study met the primary endpoint by showing a rate of 4.1% grade 3 toxicity for neoadjuvant short-course proton-based chemoradiation. Treatment was associated with favorable local control. In exploratory analyses, KRAS(G12D) status and high CXCR7 expression and circulating CEA, CA19-9, and HGF levels were associated with poor survival.

Related: Fluorouracil Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer KRAS gene Capecitabine


Gacche RN, Meshram RJ
Angiogenic factors as potential drug target: efficacy and limitations of anti-angiogenic therapy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1846(1):161-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) has been demonstrated to be a basic prerequisite for sustainable growth and proliferation of tumor. Several growth factors, cytokines, small peptides and enzymes support tumor growth either independently or in synergy. Decoding the crucial mechanisms of angiogenesis in physiological and pathological state has remained a subject of intense interest during the past three decades. Currently, the most widely preferred approach for arresting tumor angiogenesis is the blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway; however, the clinical usage of this modality is still limited by several factors such as adverse effects, toxicity, acquired drug resistance, and non-availability of valid biomarkers. Nevertheless, angiogenesis, being a normal physiological process imposes limitations in maneuvering it as therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. The present review offers an updated relevant literature describing the role of well-characterized angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), placenta growth factor (PLGF), hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and angiopoetins (ANGs) in regulating tumor angiogenesis. We have also attempted to discuss tumor angiogenesis with a perspective of 'an attractive target with emerging challenges', along with the limitations and present status of anti-angiogenic therapy in the current state-of-the-art.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Angiogenesis and Cancer


Montales MT, Melnyk SB, Simmen FA, Simmen RC
Maternal metabolic perturbations elicited by high-fat diet promote Wnt-1-induced mammary tumor risk in adult female offspring via long-term effects on mammary and systemic phenotypes.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(9):2102-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Many adult chronic diseases are thought to be influenced during early life by maternal nutrition; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Obesity-related diseases may be due partly to high fat consumption. Herein, we evaluated mammary tumor risk in female mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic (Tg) offspring exposed to high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) (45% and 17% kcal from fat, respectively) during gestation and lactation, with CD provided to progeny at weaning. In Tg offspring, maternal HFD exposure increased mammary tumor incidence and decreased tumor latency without affecting tumor volume. Tumor risk was associated with higher tumor necrosis factor-α and insulin and altered oxidative stress biomarkers in sera and with early changes in mammary expression of genes linked to tumor promotion [interleukin 6 (Il6)] or inhibition [phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)]. Corresponding wild-type progeny exposed to maternal HFD displayed accelerated mammary development, higher mammary adiposity, increased insulin resistance and early changes in Pten, Bcl2 and Il6, than CD-exposed offspring. Dams-fed HFD showed higher serum glucose and oxidative stress biomarkers but comparable adiposity compared with CD-fed counterparts. In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, sera from maternal HFD-exposed Tg offspring elicited changes in PTEN, BCL2 and IL6 gene expression, mimicking in vivo exposure; increased cell viability and mammosphere formation and induced measures [insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2] of insulin sensitivity. Serum effects on IRS-1 were recapitulated by exogenous insulin and the PTEN-specific inhibitor SF1670. Hyperinsulinemia and PTEN loss-of-function may thus, couple maternal HFD exposure to enhanced insulin sensitivity via increased mammary IRS-1 expression in progeny, to promote breast cancer risk.


Cary LH, Noutai D, Salber RE, et al.
Interactions between endothelial cells and T cells modulate responses to mixed neutron/gamma radiation.
Radiat Res. 2014; 181(6):592-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
Detonation of an improvised nuclear device near a population center would cause significant casualties from the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to exposure to mixed neutron/gamma fields (MF). The pathophysiology of ARS involves inflammation, microvascular damage and alterations in immune function. Interactions between endothelial cells (EC) and hematopoietic cells are important not only for regulating immune cell traffic and function, but also for providing the microenvironment that controls survival, differentiation and migration of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in blood-forming tissues. Endothelial cells/leukocyte interactions also influence tumor progression and the results of anticancer therapies. In this study, we hypothesized that irradiation of endothelial cells would modulate their effects on hematopoietic cells and vice versa. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and immortalized T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells) were cultured individually and in co-culture after exposure to mixed fields. Effects of nonirradiated cells were compared to effects of irradiated cells and alterations in signaling pathways were determined. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p44/42 (ERK1/2) in HUVEC exhibited higher levels of phosphorylated protein after exposure to mixed field radiation. IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and angiopoietin 2 (ANG2) protein expression were upregulated in HUVEC by exposure to mixed field radiation. PCR arrays using HUVEC mRNA revealed alterations in gene expression after exposure to mixed fields and/or co-culture with Jurkat cells. The presence of HUVEC also influenced the function of Jurkat cells. Nonirradiated Jurkat cells showed an increase in proliferation when co-cultured with nonirradiated HUVEC, and a decrease in proliferation when co-cultured with irradiated HUVEC. Additionally, nonirradiated Jurkat cells incubated in media from irradiated HUVEC exhibited upregulation of activated caspase 3. Irradiation of Jurkat cells caused a G2/M arrest and increased adherence to HUVEC. When co-cultured with HUVEC, irradiated Jurkat cells exhibited G0/G1 arrest and increased apoptosis. The data indicate that gene expression and cell function of endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells are influenced by radiation and by interactions between the two cell types. These phenomena may affect the success of therapies for ARS and cancer.

Related: CASP3 Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction


Zhu Y, Liu C, Cui Y, et al.
Interleukin-6 induces neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) through suppression of RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST).
Prostate. 2014; 74(11):1086-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Paracrine interleukin-6 (IL-6) can mediate neuroendocrine (NE) features, including the acquisition of a neurite-like phenotype and growth arrest in prostate cancer cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying neuroendocrine differentiation induced by IL-6.
METHODS: Immunoblotting was performed to determine the status of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and of neuroendocrine markers such as Neuron-specific Enolase (NSE), chromogranin A and synaptophysin in LNCaP cells treated with IL-6. To further study the impact of REST-mediated repression on neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in LNCaP cells, either wild-type REST or a dominant-positive form of REST, REST-VP16, in which both repressor domains of REST were replaced with the activation domain of the herpes simplex virus protein VP16, was introduced into LNCaP cells.
RESULTS: In this study, we show that REST is suppressed in IL-6-induced neuroendocrine differentiation in LNCaP cells. Overexpression of exogenous REST abrogated IL-6-induced NED in prostate cancer cells. Expression of the recombinant REST-VP16 fusion protein activated REST target genes and other neuronal differentiation genes and produced neuronal physiological properties. In addition, REST protein turnover was accelerated in IL-6 induced NE differentiated LNCaP cells via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the deubiquitylase HAUSP, indicating that pathway(s) priming REST degradation may be involved in IL-6 induced NE differentiation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that REST functions as a major switch of IL-6 induced neuroendocrine differentiation in LNCaP cells.

Related: Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction


de Vivar Chevez AR, Finke J, Bukowski R
The role of inflammation in kidney cancer.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 816:197-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes more than 90 % of primary kidney tumors with the development of metastatic disease in the lung, bone, liver, and brain. Clear-cell RCC (CCRCC) is the most common histologic form of sporadic kidney cancer where the majority of tumors have inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor-suppressor gene resulting in the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) leading to dysregulation of cell growth and angiogenesis. Understanding of the genetic changes in RCC and the downstream events have led to the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that target HIF-regulated proteins which currently represents front-line therapy for metastatic disease although resistance develops in most patients overtime. Despite the fact that RCC is an immunogenic tumor, there is mounting evidence that immune cells and inflammatory pathways can enhance tumor growth and immune escape. However, recent studies are beginning to uncover the mechanisms of immune escape in RCC, and the role inflammatory immune cells and cytokines play is this process. These new findings have led to renewed interest in the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of this disease that includes strategies to regulate inflammatory responses. Here, we will discuss the different inflammatory signaling pathways (e.g., VHL, hypoxia, TNF-α, STAT, and TGF-β) and the downstream transcription factors, cytokines, and chemokines involved in tumor development, and disease progression. This will include assessment of the role inflammatory molecules (e.g., pVHL, TGFb, IL6, select chemokines/chemokine receptors) play in promoting cell transformation, survival, proliferation of tumor cells, and metastasis derived from in vitro and in vivo studies. Included is a section on how select inflammatory cells (TAM, MDSC, and neutrophils) promote tumor evasion of immune cells. We also provide examples of molecules/cells that correlate negatively (CXCL12, CXCR4, and MMP, neutrophils, and MDSC) and positively (TH1 cells, IP-10, and MIG) with tumor progression and survival. Finally, there is a discussion of different inhibitors of inflammation that may be useful in the treatment of RCC.

Related: Kidney Cancer Signal Transduction


Kwon MJ, Kim DH, Park HR, et al.
Frequent hepatocyte growth factor overexpression and low frequency of c-Met gene amplification in human papillomavirus-negative tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma and their prognostic significances.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(7):1327-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important prognostic factor for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCCs are considered distinct in terms of prognosis and sensitivity to chemo/radiotherapy. However, to date, no study has thoroughly evaluated the individual prognostic factors for these 2 disease subgroups. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-Met signaling pathway can be a predictive marker for prognosis or therapy response, especially in HPV-negative TSCC. We therefore investigated the prognostic values of HGF and c-Met expression in TSCC according to HPV status. Immunohistochemical analyses of HGF and c-Met protein expression and silver in situ hybridization of c-Met gene copy number were performed in 79 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. In HPV-negative TSCC, HGF overexpression, regional lymph node category, and ipsilateral cervical nodal metastasis predicted decreased overall survival (OS) (P = .017, P = .024, and P = .003, respectively). The latter 2 were also independent prognostic factors for progression-free survival (P = .023 and P = .002, respectively). In HPV-positive TSCC, heavy alcohol consumption and advanced primary tumor category were predictive of progression-free survival, whereas no independent prognostic factor for OS was identified. HGF overexpression had a significant effect on OS in HPV-negative TSCC but not in HPV-positive TSCC. HPV-negative/HGF-high expression tumors exhibited the worst survival outcomes, whereas HPV-positive/HGF-low expression tumors had the most favorable prognosis. c-Met expression and c-Met gene amplification were not associated with survival outcomes in TSCC patients. In conclusion, HGF may be a potential prognostic marker in HPV-negative TSCC, whereas c-Met exhibited limited clinical significance in TSCC.

Related: MET gene


Yan F, Fu Q
PLCε1: a potential target of RNA interference therapy for gastric cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 448(4):409-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1) has been recently identified as a novel potential biomarker for gastric cancer because of its critical role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. Until now, there are no further reports to investigate the feasibility of gene therapy by suppressing PLCε1 expression for gastric cancer. In this study, a small interfering RNA (shRNA) targeting PLCε1 was firstly transfected into gastric cancer cells in order to silence PLCε1 expression. Both mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 in gastric cancer cells significantly reduced by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Moreover, subsequent results revealed that PLCε1 shRNA depressed the in vitro and in vivo growth of gastric cancer cells by using MTT assay and tumor xenograft experiment. Furthermore, after PLCε1 shRNA transfection, the expression of proinflammatory molecules including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1 were unaffected, but only chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-2 expression decreased in the gastric cancer cells. It is implied that PLCε1 may inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells via CCL-2 protein mediated pathway. These results suggest that PLCε1 might be an alternative molecular target for gastric cancer gene therapy.

Related: Signal Transduction Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Pan D, Zeng X, Yu H, et al.
Role of cytokine gene polymorphisms on prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma after radical surgery resection.
Gene. 2014; 544(1):32-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to determine whether SNPs of cytokine genes influence survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after radical surgery resection. We evaluated 14 SNPs of eight cytokine genes in 263 patients treated with radical surgery resection of HCC. Categorical variables were compared by the χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used to compare survival of resected HCC patients according to the genotype. Among the 14 studied SNPs of cytokine genes, only the TNF-α-863 (CA+CC) genotypes were revealed to be significant independent predictors of prolonged overall survival (OS) after HCC radical surgery resection (HR: 0.586, 95% CI: 0.355-0.968), considering for other clinical factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between the 14 SNPs and relapse-free survival (RFS) of resected HCC patients. In addition, combination analysis with the Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12B, TGF-β1) or Th2 cytokine (IL-6, IL-10) genetic polymorphisms by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate analysis did not reveal any significant association between OS and RFS of resected HCC patients.

Related: IL10 Interleukin 2 (Aldesleukin) Liver Cancer TGFB1 TNF IL12B


Miao LJ, Huang FX, Sun ZT, et al.
Stat3 inhibits Beclin 1 expression through recruitment of HDAC3 in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):7097-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that Beclin 1, a key regulator of autophagic process, is frequently downregulated and may serve as an independent prognostic biomarker for nonsmall cell lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its downregulation remain poorly understood. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a transcription factor which plays a crucial role for multiple tumor growth and progression. Here, we demonstrate that Beclin 1 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in lung cancer cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) treatment or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in AGS and NCI-H1650 cells inhibited Beclin 1 expression. At the molecular level, we further revealed that Stat3 could directly bind to the promoter region of Beclin 1 and repressed its transcription through recruiting histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3). Collectively, our results suggest that the activated Stat3 may represent an important mechanism for Beclin 1 downregulation in nonsmall cell lung cancer development.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Signal Transduction


Hope C, Ollar SJ, Heninger E, et al.
TPL2 kinase regulates the inflammatory milieu of the myeloma niche.
Blood. 2014; 123(21):3305-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/05/2015 Related Publications
Targeted modulation of microenvironmental regulatory pathways may be essential to control myeloma and other genetically/clonally heterogeneous cancers. Here we report that human myeloma-associated monocytes/macrophages (MAM), but not myeloma plasma cells, constitute the predominant source of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α at diagnosis, whereas IL-6 originates from stromal cells and macrophages. To dissect MAM activation/cytokine pathways, we analyzed Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in human myeloma CD14(+) cells. We observed coregulation of TLR2 and TLR6 expression correlating with local processing of versican, a proteoglycan TLR2/6 agonist linked to carcinoma progression. Versican has not been mechanistically implicated in myeloma pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the most readily accessible target in the versican-TLR2/6 pathway would be the mitogen-activated protein 3 (MAP3) kinase, TPL2 (Cot/MAP3K8). Ablation of Tpl2 in the genetically engineered in vivo myeloma model, Vκ*MYC, led to prolonged disease latency associated with plasma cell growth defect. Tpl2 loss abrogated the "inflammatory switch" in MAM within nascent myeloma lesions and licensed macrophage repolarization in established tumors. MYC activation/expression in plasma cells was independent of Tpl2 activity. Pharmacologic TPL2 inhibition in human monocytes led to dose-dependent attenuation of IL-1β induction/secretion in response to TLR2 stimulation. Our results highlight a TLR2/6-dependent TPL2 pathway as novel therapeutic target acting nonautonomously through macrophages to control myeloma progression.

Related: Cytokines Myeloma Myeloma - Molecular Biology


Plantinga TS, Heinhuis B, Gerrits D, et al.
mTOR Inhibition promotes TTF1-dependent redifferentiation and restores iodine uptake in thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1368-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCEPT: Redifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma cells has the potential to increase the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy in treatment-refractory, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (TC), leading to an improved disease outcome. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell fate affecting survival and differentiation, with autophagy and inflammation as prominent downstream pathways.
METHODS: The effects of mTOR inhibition were studied for its redifferentiation potential of the human TC cell lines BC-PAP, FTC133, and TPC1 by assessment of mRNA and protein expression of thyroid-specific genes and by performance of iodine uptake assays.
RESULTS: In thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1)-expressing cell lines, mTOR inhibition promoted redifferentiation of TC cells by the up-regulation of human sodium-iodine symporter mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, these cells exhibited markedly elevated iodine uptake capacity. Surprisingly, this redifferentiation process was not mediated by autophagy induced during mTOR inhibition or by inflammatory mediators but through transcriptional effects at the level of TTF1 expression. Accordingly, small interfering RNA inhibition of TTF1 completely abrogated the induction of human sodium-iodine symporter by mTOR inhibition.
CONCLUSION: The present study has identified the TTF1-dependent molecular mechanisms through which the inhibition of mTOR leads to the redifferentiation of TC cells and subsequently to increased radioactive iodine uptake.

Related: Thyroid Cancer


Cho HY, Lee SW
TLR5 activation by flagellin induces doxorubicin resistance via interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in two multiple myeloma cells.
Cell Immunol. 2014 May-Jun; 289(1-2):27-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). MM cells interact with various cells within the BM microenvironment, leading to skeletal destruction, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Therefore, control of the cell-host interaction and growth factors is important to improve patient outcome with conventional treatments. In this study, we investigated flagellin-induced cell proliferation, cytokines expression, and the mechanisms of cancer drug resistance that lead to the failure of cytotoxic therapies for MM. The human MM line KMS28BM expresses the TLR5 gene as well as the protein at high levels. When treated with the specific TLR5 ligand flagellin, KMS28BM cells showed increased proliferation, increased IgG λ production, and high-level expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, via NF-κB activation through p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling. Furthermore, flagellin-stimulated KMS28BM cells were shown to have "increased doxorubicin and apoptosis resistance" through the inhibition of caspases and PARP activity, and this result was reversed by blocking IL-6. Thus, increased cell viability and the chemoresistance of flagellin-stimulated KMS28BM cells may result from autocrine or paracrine signaling mediated by secreted IL-6. These findings indicate that TLR5 activation by flagellin may elicit chemoresistance in MM patients who have suffered from recurrent bacterial infections.

Related: Apoptosis Doxorubicin Myeloma Myeloma - Molecular Biology AKT1 Signal Transduction


Celegato M, Borghese C, Umezawa K, et al.
The NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ decreases survival factors, overcomes the protective activity of microenvironment and synergizes with chemotherapy agents in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 349(1):26-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ has shown preclinical activity in classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL). Here we evaluated if DHMEQ could affect microenvironmental interactions and formation and improve the activity of drugs used in relapsed/refractory cHL. We demonstrated that DHMEQ down-regulated the NF-κB target genes IRF4 and CD40, the secretion of IL-6, CCL5, CCL17 and generated ROS. Cytotoxicity, CD30 down-modulation and CD30 shedding by DHMEQ were prevented by ROS scavenger NAC. DHMEQ overcame stimuli from CD40 engagement and fibroblasts and enhanced doxorubicin, cisplatin and gemcitabine activity. Our results suggest that DHMEQ may be a promising agent for future therapeutic strategies in cHL.

Related: CD40 (TNFRSF5) Hodgkin's Lymphoma


Matouk IJ, Raveh E, Abu-lail R, et al.
Oncofetal H19 RNA promotes tumor metastasis.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1843(7):1414-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
The oncofetal H19 gene transcribes a long non-coding RNA(lncRNA) that is essential for tumor growth. Here we found that numerous established inducers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition(EMT) also induced H19/miR-675 expression. Both TGF-β and hypoxia concomitantly induced H19 and miR-675 with the induction of EMT markers. We identified the PI3K/AKT pathway mediating the inductions of Slug, H19 RNA and miR-675 in response to TGF-β treatment, while Slug induction depended on H19 RNA. In the EMT induced multidrug resistance model, H19 level was also induced. In a mouse breast cancer model, H19 expression was tightly correlated with metastatic potential. In patients, we detected high H19 expression in all common metastatic sites tested, regardless of tumor primary origin. H19 RNA suppressed the expression of E-cadherin protein. H19 up-regulated Slug expression concomitant with the suppression of E-cadherin protein through a mechanism that involved miR-675. Slug also up-regulated H19 expression and activated its promoter. Altogether, these results may support the existence of a positive feedback loop between Slug and H19/miR-675, that regulates E-cadherin expression. H19 RNA enhanced the invasive potential of cancer cells in vitro and enhanced tumor metastasis in vivo. Additionally, H19 knockdown attenuated the scattering and tumorigenic effects of HGF/SF. Our results present novel mechanistic insights into a critical role for H19 RNA in tumor progression and indicate a previously unknown link between H19/miR-675, Slug and E-cadherin in the regulation of cancer cell EMT programs.

Related: Breast Cancer AKT1 Signal Transduction


Lertpiriyapong K, Handt L, Feng Y, et al.
Pathogenic properties of enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. isolated from rhesus macaques with intestinal adenocarcinoma.
J Med Microbiol. 2014; 63(Pt 7):1004-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of Helicobacter pylori in inflammation and gastric cancer; however, far less is known about the roles of enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) in carcinogenesis and their zoonotic or pathogenic potential. We determined the prevalence of EHS infection in a cohort of geriatric rhesus monkeys in which intestinal adenocarcinoma (IAC) is common and investigated the association between EHS infection and IAC. The cohort consisted of 36 animals, 14 of which (age 26-35 years) had IAC. Of the 36 rhesus, 35 (97%) were positive for EHS using PCR or bacterial isolation from faeces, colonic or tumour tissues. Only a single rhesus, which had IAC, was negative for EHS by all detection methods. The EHS identified by 16S rRNA sequencing in this study were from three Helicobacter taxa: Helicobacter macacae (previously rhesus monkey taxon 1), Helicobacter sp. rhesus monkey taxon 2, previously described from strain MIT 99-5507, and Helicobacter sp. rhesus monkey taxon 4, related to Helicobacter fennelliae. Thirteen of 14 monkeys with IAC were positive for either H. macacae (7/13, 54%), EHS rhesus monkey taxon 4 (4/13, 31%) or a mixture of the two EHS (2/13, 15%). These results indicate that EHS are prevalent among aged rhesus macaques with IAC. Using Helicobacter genus-specific florescent in situ hybridization, EHS were detected on the surface of colonic epithelia of infected monkeys. All Helicobacter isolates, including H. macacae, effectively adhered to, invaded, and significantly induced proinflammatory genes, including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and iNOS, while downregulating genes involved in the function of inflammasomes, particularly IL-1β, CASPASE-1, NRLP3, NLRP6 and NLRC4 in the human colonic T84 cell line (P<0.0001). These results suggest that EHS may represent an aetiological agent mediating diarrhoea, chronic inflammation, and possibly intestinal cancer in non-human primates, and may play a role in similar disease syndromes in humans. Downregulation of inflammasome function may represent an EHS strategy for long-term persistence in the host and play a role in inducing pathological changes in the host's lower bowel.


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. IL6, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/IL6.htm Accessed: date

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