Research IndicatorsGraph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: MMP1 (cancer-related)
Wang D, Wang D, Wang N, et al.Long Non-Coding RNA BANCR Promotes Endometrial Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Regulating MMP2 and MMP1 via ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(3-4):644-656 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microarray screening had found BRAF-activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) was significantly upregulated in type 1 endometrial cancer (EC). This study aimed to assess the potential role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) BANCR in the pathogenesis and progression of type 1 EC.
METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm the expression of BANCR in type 1 EC tissue, and analyze its clinical significance. In vitro, RNA interference (siRNA) was used to investigate the biological role of BANCR in type 1 EC.
RESULTS: qRT-PCR revealed that the expression of lncRNA BANCR was higher in type 1 EC (P<0.01). BANCR expression was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, pathological grade, myometrial invasion, and lymph node metastasis. The expression of BANCR was significantly correlated with that of MMP2/MMP1. In vitro, knockdown of BANCR significantly suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion of Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells, and significantly inhibited the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway that decreased MMP2 and MMP1 expression.
CONCLUSION: BANCR is highly expressed in type 1 EC tissue and promotes EC-cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by activating ERK/MAPK signaling pathway that regulates MMP2/MMP1 expression. BANCR is expected to become a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in type 1 EC.
Pei JS, Hsu PC, Chou AK, et al.Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Genotype Contributes to the Risk of Non-solid Tumor in Childhood Leukemia.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5127-5132 [PubMed
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AIM: Up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) proteins have been shown in various types of solid cancers and the genotype of MMP1 has been associated with the risk of solid cancers. However, the contribution of MMP1 genotype to leukemia has never been investigated to our knowledge. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate the contribution of the genotypic variants in the promoter region of MMP1 to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk in Taiwan.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, 266 patients with childhood ALL and 266 non-cancer controls were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology.
RESULTS: The distribution of 2G/2G, 1G/2G and 1G/1G for MMP1 promoter rs1799750 genotype was 49.2%, 39.5% and 11.3% in the childhood ALL group and 36.8%, 43.6% and 19.5% in the non-cancer control group, respectively (p for trend=0.0046), significantly differentially distributed between childhood ALL and control groups. The carrier comparisons in dominant and recessive models also support the findings that 1G appears to be the protective allele in childhood ALL. In genotype and gender interaction analysis, it was found that boys carrying the MMP1 rs1799750 1G/2G or 1G/1G genotypes had lower odds ratios(ORs) of 0.68 and 0.43 [95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.47-0.98 and 0.26-0.73, p=0.0395 and 0.0013, respectively] for childhood ALL than those carrying the 2G/2G genotype. Analysis of genotype inaction with age of onset age showed those aged less than 3.5 years at onset carrying the 1G/2G or 1G/1G genotypes had lower ORs (0.0183 and 0.0004, respectively) for childhood ALL, but there was no such difference for those having an age at onset of 3.5 years or more.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the MMP1 rs1799750 1G allele is a protective biomarker for childhood ALL.
Davudian S, Shajari N, Kazemi T, et al.BACH1 silencing by siRNA inhibits migration of HT-29 colon cancer cells through reduction of metastasis-related genes.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:191-198 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Metastasis to distant organs is a hallmark of many tumor cells. BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1) is a transcriptional factor which promotes the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. BACH1 expression and its target genes are intimately associated with the metastasis possibility of clinical samples, and BACH1 reduction leads to meaningful depletion in metastasis. The evaluation of BACH1 role in colon cancer remains elusive. This study seeks to further investigate the role of BACH1 in colon cancer cells.
METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect BACH1 expression and other related metastatic genes following siRNA knockdown in colon cancer HT-29 cells. And the protein level assessed by Western blot. MTT assay was to measure the changed cell viability after BACH1 siRNA transfection. Scratch-wound motility assays measured capacity of tumor cell migration of HT-29 cells after BACH1 silencing.
RESULTS: The inhibitory effect of BACH1 was performed by siRNA knockdown using highly metastatic HT-29 colon cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of BACH1 mRNA and protein in HT29 cells were significantly suppressed after transfection. Conversely, the BACH1 expression increased migration. Also the CXCR4 and MMP1 expression levels decreased following BACH1 knockdown in HT-29 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that BACH1 down-regulation in HT29 CRC cells had no effect on cell growth but did inhibit cell migration by decreasing metastasis-related genes expression. Collectively, these results suggest that BACH1 may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer and may represent as a potential target of gene therapy for CRC treatment.
Su CH, Lane HY, Hsiao CL, et al.Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Genetic Polymorphism in Breast Cancer in Taiwanese.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3341-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes involved in many physiological processes, such as skeletal development, wound healing, and scar formation, as well as carcinogenesis. However, the contribution of MMP1 genotype to breast cancer has not been elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of commonly studied MMP1 promoter 1607 genotype to breast cancer risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this hospital-based case-control study, contribution of MMP1 genotype to breast cancer risk was evaluated among 1,232 patients with breast cancer and 1,232 gender-matched healthy controls.
RESULTS: The distribution of 2G/2G, 1G/2G and 1G/1G for MMP1 promoter 1607 genotype was 36.0%, 41.3% and 22.7% in the breast cancer group and 34.2%, 44.5% and 21.3% in the non-cancer group, respectively (p for trend=0.2820). We also analyzed the allelic frequency distributions and found that the variant 1G allele of MMP1 promoter 1607 conferred similar breast cancer susceptibility as the wild-type 2G allele (odds ratio=0.99, 95% confidence interval=0.89-1.11, p=0.8858). There was no interaction between MMP1 promoter 1607 genotype and cigarette smoking or alcohol drinking habits.
CONCLUSION: The genotype of MMP1 promoter 1607 may not be a major determining factor for breast cancer risk. The contribution of MMP1 promoter 1607 genotype to prognosis and subtypes of breast cancer needs further investigation.
Tsai CW, Chang WS, Gong CL, et al.Contribution of Matrix Metallopeptidase-1 Genotypes, Smoking, Alcohol Drinking and Areca Chewing to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Susceptibility.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3335-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been demonstrated to be correlated with lymph node metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, the genotypic role of MMP-1 is not well understand. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of MMP-1 promoter -1607 genotypes, combined with environmental carcinogens, on the predisposition to NPC tumorigenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MMP-1 promoter -1607 genotypes were examined for 352 age- and gender-matched controls and 176 NPC patients by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology.
RESULTS: We found that the MMP-1 promoter -1607 heterozygous 1G/2G and homozygous 1G/1G genotypes, were more and more prone to be associated with NPC risk (odds ratio (OR)=0.64 and 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.43-1.03 and 0.36-0.96, p=0.0659 and 0.0932, respectively). In the dominant models, there was a significant association between the genotype of MMP-1 promoter -1607 and NPC risk (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.43-0.91, p=0.0359). In addition, individuals carrying the 1G allele at MMP-1 promoter -1607 were less susceptible to NPC (OR=0.73; 95%CI=0.59 to 0.96, p=0.0418) after adjustment for age, gender, cigarette, alcohol and areca consumption.
CONCLUSION: The 1G/1G genotype of MMP-1 promoter -1607 may independently have a protective effect on NPC risk, without interaction with behavioral factors, including cigarette, alcohol and areca consumption.
Abakumova TV, Antoneeva II, Gening TP, et al.[PHENOTYPE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN THE INITIAL STAGE OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER].
Tsitologiia. 2016; 58(1):23-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We have examined peripheral blood neutrophils from 123 patients with primary endometrial cancer at stage Ia. Receptor system and the ability of neutrophils to form extracellular traps were assessed by fluorescence microscopy, the spontaneous production of cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, g-CSF, matrix metalloproteinases-1,9,13 by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, phagocytic activity, myeloperoxidase activity, the level of cationic proteis activity in NBT-test were evaluated by cytochemical methods, activity of neutrophils in the spontaneous NBT-test was used to evaluate the oxygen-dependent bactericidal action of neutrophils. The topology and the rigidity of the membrane of neutrophils were assessed by scanning probe microscopy. We have shown that the increase in the relative number of neutrophils lead to a change in their receptor system, aerobic and anaerobic cytotoxicity and ability to phagocytosis are enchanced while reducing NET-activity. We have observed a change in the secretory activity of neutrophils, which is characterized by increased level of MMP-1, possibly initiated by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, by a reduction in the IL-2 level (inductor of cytotoxic activity) and a sharp increase in the level of the G-CSF. Architectonics of neutrophils in the case of endonetrial cancer at stage Ia is characterized by changing the shape and loss of grit. The rigidity of the cell membrane decreased. Changes in the morphology of neutrophils on the background of the continuing hyperactivity suggests that a state of balance between the immune system and the tumor is already in stage Ia endometrial cancer.
Davudian S, Mansoori B, Shajari N, et al.BACH1, the master regulator gene: A novel candidate target for cancer therapy.
Gene. 2016; 588(1):30-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional factor and a member of cap 'n' collar (CNC) and basic region leucine zipper factor family. In contrast to other bZIP family members, BACH1 appeared as a comparatively specific transcription factor. It acts as transcription regulator and is recognized as a recently hypoxia regulator and functions as an inducible repressor for the HO-1 gene in many human cell types in response to stress oxidative. In regard to studies lately, although, BACH1 has been related to the regulation of oxidative stress and heme oxidation, it has never been linked to invasion and metastasis. Recent studies have showed that BACH1 is involved in bone metastasis of breast cancer by up-regulating vital metastatic genes like CXCR4 and MMP1. This newly discovered aspect of BACH1 gene provides new insight into cancer progression study and stands on its master regulator role in metastasis process, raising the possibility of considering it as a potential target for cancer therapy.
PURPOSE: The objective of our study was to predicate candidate genes in cervical cancer (CC) using a network-based strategy and to understand the pathogenic process of CC.
METHODS: A pathogenic network of CC was extracted based on known pathogenic genes (seed genes) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CC and normal controls. Subsequently, cluster analysis was performed to identify the subnetworks in the pathogenic network using ClusterONE. Each gene in the pathogenic network was assigned a weight value, and then candidate genes were obtained based on the weight distribution. Eventually, pathway enrichment analysis for candidate genes was performed.
RESULTS: In this work, a total of 330 DEGs were identified between CC and normal controls. From the pathogenic network, 2 intensely connected clusters were extracted, and a total of 52 candidate genes were detected under the weight values greater than 0.10. Among these candidate genes, VIM had the highest weight value. Moreover, candidate genes MMP1, CDC45, and CAT were, respectively, enriched in pathway in cancer, cell cycle, and methane metabolism.
CONCLUSION: Candidate pathogenic genes including MMP1, CDC45, CAT, and VIM might be involved in the pathogenesis of CC. We believe that our results can provide theoretical guidelines for future clinical application.
Enhanced secretion of tumorigenic effector proteins is a feature of malignant cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying this feature are poorly defined. We identify PITPNC1 as a gene amplified in a large fraction of human breast cancer and overexpressed in metastatic breast, melanoma, and colon cancers. Biochemical, molecular, and cell-biological studies reveal that PITPNC1 promotes malignant secretion by binding Golgi-resident PI4P and localizing RAB1B to the Golgi. RAB1B localization to the Golgi allows for the recruitment of GOLPH3, which facilitates Golgi extension and enhanced vesicular release. PITPNC1-mediated vesicular release drives metastasis by increasing the secretion of pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic mediators HTRA1, MMP1, FAM3C, PDGFA, and ADAM10. We establish PITPNC1 as a PI4P-binding protein that enhances vesicular secretion capacity in malignancy.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has been found to be involved in multiple cancers. However, the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑induced knockdown of TRAF6 on the biological behaviors of cancer cells remains unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of siRNA-induced knockdown of TRAF6 on the biological behaviors of human lung cancer SPC-A1 cells. The expression of TRAF6 was determined in human lung adenocarcinoma A549, non-small cell lung cancer H1650, human airway epithelial Calu-3 and human lung cancer SPC-A1 cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT‑PCR) and western blotting at the transcriptional and translational levels. TRAF6 expression was knocked down in the SPC-A1 cells using an siRNA technique, and the effects of TRAF6 knockdown on NF-κB activity, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion and migration of the SPC-A1 cells were determined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, Transwell invasion assay and scratch wound assay. In addition, the protein expression of CD24, CXCR4, MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, TWIST, TIMP-2 and Slug was quantified using western blotting assay. Western blotting and qRT-PCR assays showed upregulation of TRAF6 at both the translational and transcriptional levels in the Calu-3 and SPC-A1 cells, and K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and constitutive NF-κB activation were detected in the SPC-A1 cells. Knockdown of TRAF6 inhibited the migration and invasion and promoted the apoptosis of the SPC-A1 cells, but had little effect on cell proliferation and the cell cycle. In addition, siRNA-induced TRAF6 knockdown caused a marked reduction in the protein expression of CD24 and CXCR4, but had little effect on MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, Twist, TIMP-2 or Slug expression. The present study demonstrated that TRAF6 is upregulated in human lung cancer cells, and siRNA-induced TRAF6 knockdown inhibits the invasion of lung cancer cells and promotes apoptosis. It is suggested that TRAF6 may be a promising target for the therapy of lung cancer.
Bone metastases occur in up to 70% of advanced breast cancer. For most patients with breast cancer, bone metastases are predominantly osteolytic. Interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells in the bone microenvironment drive osteolytic bone metastasis, a process that requires the activation of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone. We report that ABL kinases promoted metastasis of breast cancer cells to bone by regulating the crosstalk between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. ABL kinases protected tumor cells from apoptosis induced by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), activated the transcription factor STAT5, and promoted osteolysis through the STAT5-dependent expression of genes encoding the osteoclast-activating factors interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Furthermore, in breast cancer cells, ABL kinases increased the abundance of the Hippo pathway mediator TAZ and the expression of TAZ-dependent target genes that promote bone metastasis. Knockdown of ABL kinases or treatment with ABL-specific allosteric inhibitor impaired osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. These findings revealed a role for ABL kinases in regulating tumor-bone interactions and provide a rationale for using ABL-specific inhibitors to limit breast cancer metastasis to bone.
Berrondo C, Flax J, Kucherov V, et al.Expression of the Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR Correlates with Disease Progression in Bladder Cancer and Is Contained in Bladder Cancer Patient Urinary Exosomes.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0147236 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology. As the number of recognized tumor-associated lncRNAs continues to increase, there is a parallel need to include lncRNAs into biomarker discovery and therapeutic target algorithms. The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) has been shown to facilitate tumor initiation and progression and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. The importance of HOTAIR in cancer biology has sparked interest in using HOTAIR as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target. Here we show HOTAIR and several tumor-associated lncRNAs are enriched in UEs from UBC patients with high-grade muscle-invasive disease (HGMI pT2-pT4). Knockdown of HOTAIR in UBC cell lines reduces in vitro migration and invasion. Importantly, loss of HOTAIR expression in UBC cell lines alters expression of epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) genes including SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZO1, MMP1 LAMB3, and LAMC2. Finally, we used RNA-sequencing to identify four additional lncRNAs enriched in UBC patient UEs. These data, suggest that UE-derived lncRNA may potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Hu F, Zhang Y, Li M, et al.BMP-6 inhibits the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by regulating MMP-1 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1823-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) is a multifunctional molecule with distinct abilities in embryogenesis and organogenesis. In the present study, our results showed that the rate of BMP-6-negative expression was 30.56% in breast cancer tissues, but was 9.58% in normal tissues by immunohistochemical staining. This implied that BMP-6 expression is absent in breast cancer tissues and may suppress breast cancer metastasis. In addition, stable overexpression of BMP-6 in MDA-MB‑231 cells was established to analyze the metastatic ability. The Boyden chamber assay showed that BMP-6 inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed that BMP-6 markedly downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in the MDA-MB‑231 cells. Importantly, the results of luciferase and CHIP assays revealed that BMP-6 inhibited MMP-1 promoter activity through the AP-1 response element. In MDA-MB-231 cells treated with BMP-6, a significant decrease in the recruitment of AP-1 components, c-Jun/c-Fos, to the endogenous MMP-1 promoter was noted. We also demonstrated that BMP-6 inhibited the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, and this effect was significantly attenuated by overexpression of MMP-1. In contrast, MMP-1 knockdown by RNA interference or MMP-1 inhibitor exhibited an opposite effect. These observations suggest a novel role of BMP-6 in the inhibition of breast cancer metastasis by regulating secretion of MMPs in the tumor microenvironment.
Han XG, Li Y, Mo HM, et al.TIMP3 regulates osteosarcoma cell migration, invasion, and chemotherapeutic resistances.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):8857-67 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to limit degradation of the extracellular matrix. Low levels of TIMP3 have been demonstrated in cancer tissues at advanced clinical stages, with positive distant metastasis and chemotherapeutic resistance. We examined the role of TIMP3 in osteosarcoma (OS) cell invasiveness and chemoresistance. TIMP3 was overexpressed or knocked down in the human OS cell lines Saos2 and MG63. Cell migration and invasion capacities were then evaluated using Transwell assays, and resistance to cisplatin was assessed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to investigate activation of signaling pathways downstream of TIMP3. Overexpression of TIMP3 inhibited the migration and invasion of Saos2 and MG63 cells, while knockdown of TIMP3 had the opposite effect. Cell survival after exposure to cisplatin was inhibited by TIMP3 overexpression in both Saos2 and MG63 cells. Consistently, downregulation of TIMP3 gene expression significantly decreased the sensitivity of OS cells to cisplatin treatment. MMP1, MMP2, Bcl-2, and Akt1 were all downregulated following TIMP3 overexpression, while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated. TIMP3 knockdown had opposite effects on the regulation of these genes. Taken together, our findings suggest TIMP3 as a new target for inhibition of OS progression and chemotherapeutic resistance.
Entire or partial deletions of the male-specific Y chromosome are associated with tumorigenesis, but whether any male-specific genes located on this chromosome play a tumor-suppressive role is unknown. Here, we report that the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase JARID1D (also called KDM5D and SMCY), a male-specific protein, represses gene expression programs associated with cell invasiveness and suppresses the invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that JARID1D specifically repressed the invasion-associated genes MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, and Slug by demethylating trimethyl H3K4, a gene-activating mark, at their promoters. Our additional results demonstrated that JARID1D levels were highly downregulated in metastatic prostate tumors compared with normal prostate tissues and primary prostate tumors. Furthermore, the JARID1D gene was frequently deleted in metastatic prostate tumors, and low JARID1D levels were associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer patients. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that an epigenetic modifier expressed on the Y chromosome functions as an anti-invasion factor to suppress the progression of prostate cancer. Our results also highlight a preclinical rationale for using JARID1D as a prognostic marker in advanced prostate cancer.
Xiang T, Yu F, Fei R, et al.CHRNA7 inhibits cell invasion and metastasis of LoVo human colorectal cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(2):999-1005 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) is widely expressed in both the brain and periphery whereas its encoding protein of α7 neuronal acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family. Considerable evidence suggests that α7nAChR plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain signaling and thus has been proposed as a potential target for treating cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of endogenous α7nAChR signaling in human colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. pLVX‑CHRNA7 encoding the full length of CHRNA7 was constructed and transfected into LoVo human colorectal cancer cells. Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8), and cell migration and invasion were detected by Transwell chamber assays. Expression and activity of metastasis‑related metalloproteinases (MMPs) were analyzed by western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. Activation of metastasis-related signaling molecules was detected by western blotting. LY294002 was used to specifically block the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/v‑akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue (PI3K/Akt) pathway. We showed that concomitantly with an increase in α7nAChR expression after transfection, LoVo cells presented reduced abilities for migration and invasion, which was accompanied by reduced expression levels of MMP‑1 and MMP‑9 as well as activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The application of LY294002 restored the migration and invasion abilities of the LoVo cells bearing CHRNA7. Collectively, we conclude that overexpression of CHRNA7 negatively controls colorectal cancer LoVo cell invasion and metastasis via PI3K/Akt pathway activation and may serve as either a diagnostic marker or a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer metastasis.
SET7/9, a histone methyltransferase, has two distinct functions for lysine methylation. SET7/9 methylates non-histone proteins, such as p53, and participates in their posttranslational modifications. Although SET7/9 transcriptionally activate the genes via H3K4 mono-methylation, its target genes are poorly understood. To clarify whether or not SET7/9 is related to carcinogenesis, we studied alterations of SET7/9 in gastric cancers (GCs). Among the 376 primary GCs, 129 cases (34.3%) showed loss or weak expression of SET7/9 protein compared to matched non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. Reduced SET7/9 expression was significantly correlated with clinical aggressiveness and worse prognosis. Knockdown of SET7/9 in GC cells markedly increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Expression of SREK1IP1, PGC and CCDC28B were inhibited in GC cells with SET7/9 knockdown, while matrix metalloproteinase genes (MMP1, MMP7 and MMP9) were activated. SET7/9 bound and mono-methylated H3K4 at the region of the approximately 4-6 kb upstream from the SREK1IP1 transcriptional start site and the promoters of PGC and CDC28B. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and expression of three MMPs were increased in GC cells with SREK1IP knockdown, which were similar to those of SET7/9 knockdown. These data suggest that SET7/9 has tumor suppressor functions, and loss of SET7/9 may contribute to gastric cancer progression.
Warnecke-Eberz U, Metzger R, Hölscher AH, et al.Diagnostic marker signature for esophageal cancer from transcriptome analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6349-58 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Diagnostic markers are needed for achieving a cure in esophageal cancer detecting and treating tumor cells earlier. In patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), we profiled the gene expression of ESCC compared to corresponding normal biopsies for diagnostic markers by genome microarrays. Profiling of gene expression identified 4844 genes differentially expressed, 2122 upregulated and 2722 downregulated in ESCC. Twenty-three overexpressed candidates with best scores from significance analysis have been selected for further analysis by TaqMan low-density array-technique using a validation cohort of 40 patients. The verification rate was 100 % for ESCC. Twenty-two markers were additionally overexpressed in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (EAC). The markers significantly overexpressed already in earlier tumor stages (pT1-2) of both histological subtypes (n = 19) have been clustered in a "diagnostic signature": PLA2G7, PRAME, MMP1, MMP3, MMP12, LIlRB2, TREM2, CHST2, IGFBP2, IGFBP7, KCNJ8, EMILIN2, CTHRC1, EMR2, WDR72, LPCAT1, COL4A2, CCL4, and SNX10. The marker signature will be translated to clinical practice to prove its diagnostic impact. This diagnostic signature may contribute to the earlier detection of tumor cells, with the aim to complement clinical techniques resulting in the development of better detection of concepts of esophageal cancer for earlier therapy and more favorite prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of the M2 phenotype are known to promote tumor proliferation and to be associated with a poor prognosis in numerous cancers. Here, we investigated whether M2 macrophages participate in the development of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.
METHODS: The characteristics of peritoneal macrophages in gastric cancer patients with or without peritoneal dissemination were examined by flow cytometry and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effects of M2 macrophages on phenotypic changes of the gastric cancer cell line MKN45 were assessed with a direct or indirect co-culture system in vitro and an in vivo mouse xenograft model.
RESULTS: The number of peritoneal macrophages with the M2 phenotype (CD68(+)CD163(+) or CD68(+)CD204(+)) was significantly higher in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination than in those without peritoneal dissemination. Higher expression of the M2-related messenger RNAs (IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor A, vascular endothelial growth factor C, matrix metalloproteinase 1, and amphiregulin) and lower expression of M1-related messenger RNAs (TNF-α, CD80, CD86, and IL-12p40) were also confirmed in the TAMs. Macrophage co-culture with gastric cancer cells converted M1 phenotype into M2 phenotype. Moreover, the coexistence of MKN45 cells with M2 macrophages resulted in cancer cell proliferation and an acceleration of tumor growth in the xenograft model.
CONCLUSIONS: Intraperitoneal TAMs in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination were polarized to the M2 phenotype, and could contribute to tumor proliferation and progression. Therefore, intraperitoneal TAMs are expected to be a promising target in the treatment of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.
Aili A, Chen Y, Zhang HMicroRNA‑10b suppresses the migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells by targeting brain‑derived neurotrophic factor.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(1):441-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) can lead to mRNA degradation or inhibit protein translation through directly binding to the 3'‑untranslational region (UTR) of their target mRNAs. Deregulation of miR‑10b has been reported to be associated with chondrosarcoma. However, the role of miR‑10b in chondrosarcoma cell migration and invasion, as well as the underlying mechanisms, has not been investigated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that miR‑10b was notably downregulated in the JJ012 and SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell lines compared with the TC28a2 normal chondrocyte line. Treatment with DNA demethylating agent 5‑aza‑2'‑deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor 4‑phenylbutyric acid, or transfection with miR‑10b mimics promoted the expression of miR‑10b, which further suppressed the migratory and invasive capacities of JJ012 chondrosarcoma cells. Moreover, brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was identified as a novel target of miR‑10b, and its protein expression level was negatively regulated by miR‑10b in JJ012 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of BDNF reversed the inhibitory effect of miR‑10b upregulation on the migration and invasion of JJ012 cells. In addition, the data suggest that matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) may be involved in the miR‑10b/BDNF‑mediated chondrosarcoma cell migration and invasion in JJ012 cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that miR‑10b/BDNF may serve as a potential therapeutic target for chondrosarcoma.
The role of death receptor 5 (DR5), a well-known cell surface pro-apoptotic protein, in the negative regulation of invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown and were hence the focus of this study. In this report, we have demonstrated that DR5 functions to suppress invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells, as evidenced by enhanced cancer cell invasion and metastasis upon genetic suppression of DR5 either by gene knockdown or knockout. When DR5 is suppressed, FADD and caspase-8 may recruit and stabilize TRAF2 to form a metastasis and invasion signaling complex, resulting in activation of ERK and JNK/AP-1 signaling that mediate the elevation and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) and eventual promotion of cancer invasion and metastasis. Our findings thus highlight a novel non-apoptotic function of DR5 as a suppressor of human cancer cell invasion and metastasis and suggest a basic working model elucidating the underlying biology.
BACKGROUND: The progression of malignant tumors does not depend exclusively on the autonomous properties of cancer cells; it is also influenced by tumor stroma reactivity and is under strict microenvironmental control. By themselves, stromal cells are not malignant, and they maintain normal tissue structure and function. However, through intercellular interactions or by paracrine secretions from cancer cells, normal stromal cells acquire abnormal phenotypes that sustain cancer cell growth and tumor progression. In their dysfunctional state, fibroblast and immune cells produce chemokines and growth factors that stimulate cancer cell growth and invasion. In our previous work, we established an in vitro model based on a monolayer co-culture system of healthy human fibroblasts (HFs) and human osteosarcoma cells (the MG-63 cell line) that simulates the microenvironment of tumor cells and healthy cells. The coexistence between MG-63 cells and HFs allowed us to identify the YKL-40 protein as the main marker for verifying the influence of tumor cells grown in contact with healthy cells.
METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the interactions of HFs and MG-63 cells in a transwell co-culture system over 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h. We analyzed the contributions of these populations to the tumor microenvironment during cancer progression, as measured by multiple markers. We examined the effect of siRNA knockdown of YKL-40 by tracking the subsequent changes in gene expression within the co-culture. We validated the expression of several genes, focusing on those involved in cancer cell invasion, inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis: TNF alpha, IL-6, MMP-1, MMP-9, and VEGF. We compared the results to those from a transwell co-culture without the YKL-40 knockdown.
RESULTS: In a pro-inflammatory environment promoted by TNF alpha and IL-6, siRNA knockdown of YKL-40 caused a down-regulation of VEGF and MMP-1 expression in HFs.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that the tumor microenvironment has an influence on the gene expression of healthy surrounding tissues and on the process of tumorigenicity and it is emerging as attractive targets for therapeutic strategies.
Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study delineates both unique and overlapping functions of distinct TFs that cooperatively promote aberrant expression of target genes, leading to malignant tumor phenotypes.
Pan D, Zhu Y, Zhou Z, et al.The CBM Complex Underwrites NF-κB Activation to Promote HER2-Associated Tumor Malignancy.
Mol Cancer Res. 2016; 14(1):93-102 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The HER2/Neu protein is overexpressed in a large fraction of human breast cancers. NF-κB is one of several transcription factors that are aberrantly activated in HER2-positive breast cancers; however, the molecular mechanism by which HER2 activates NF-κB remains unclear. The CARMA3-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex is required for GPCR- and EGFR-induced NF-κB activation. In the current study, the role of the CBM complex in HER2-mediated NF-κB activation and HER2-positive breast cancer was investigated. Interestingly, HER2-mediated NF-κB activation requires protein kinase C (PKC) activity rather than AKT activity. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, it was shown that the CBM complex is required for HER2-induced NF-κB activation and functionally contributes to multiple properties of malignancy, such as proliferation, avoidance of apoptosis, migration, and invasion, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, CARMA3-mediated NF-κB activity was required for the upregulation of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), MMP1 and MMP13, both of which contribute to tumor metastasis. To further access the physiologic role of CBM complex-mediated NF-κB activation in HER2-positive breast cancer progression, Malt1 knockout mice (Malt1(-/-)) were crossed with MMTV-Neu mice, in which mammary tumors spontaneously developed with HER2 overexpression. We observed delayed onset and prolonged progression time in mammary tumors in Malt1 knockout mice compared with control mice. In summary, these data demonstrate that the CBM complex is a crucial component mediating HER2-induced NF-κB signaling and tumor malignancy in HER2-positive breast cancer.
IMPLICATIONS: The CBM complex bridges key signaling pathways to confer malignant phenotypes and metastatic potential in HER2-associated breast cancer.
Carpenter BL, Chen M, Knifley T, et al.Integrin α6β4 Promotes Autocrine Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Signaling to Stimulate Migration and Invasion toward Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF).
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(45):27228-38 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Integrin α6β4 is up-regulated in pancreatic adenocarcinomas where it contributes to carcinoma cell invasion by altering the transcriptome. In this study, we found that integrin α6β4 up-regulates several genes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, including amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and ectodomain cleavage protease MMP1, which is mediated by promoter demethylation and NFAT5. The correlation of these genes with integrin α6β4 was confirmed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Pancreatic Cancer Database. Based on previous observations that integrin α6β4 cooperates with c-Met in pancreatic cancers, we examined the impact of EGFR signaling on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-stimulated migration and invasion. We found that AREG and EREG were required for autocrine EGFR signaling, as knocking down either ligand inhibited HGF-mediated migration and invasion. We further determined that HGF induced secretion of AREG, which is dependent on integrin-growth factor signaling pathways, including MAPK, PI3K, and PKC. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase activity and integrin α6β4 signaling were required for AREG secretion. Blocking EGFR signaling with EGFR-specific antibodies or an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor hindered HGF-stimulated pancreatic carcinoma cell chemotaxis and invasive growth in three-dimensional culture. Finally, we found that EGFR was phosphorylated in response to HGF stimulation that is dependent on EGFR kinase activity; however, c-Met phosphorylation in response to HGF was unaffected by EGFR signaling. Taken together, these data illustrate that integrin α6β4 stimulates invasion by promoting autocrine EGFR signaling through transcriptional up-regulation of key EGFR family members and by facilitating HGF-stimulated EGFR ligand secretion. These signaling events, in turn, promote pancreatic carcinoma migration and invasion.
AIM: To investigate the potential role of CXCR3 expression on prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion and to illustrate its mechanism.
METHODS: Human PC-3 cells were transfected with siRNA-CXCR3A and siRNA-CXCR3B plasmids respectively. The mRNA expressions of CXCR3A and CXCR3B in PC-3 cells from each group were analyzed using RT-PCR. Besides, cell proliferation ability and cell invasion ability of PC-3 cells in each group were analyzed using MTT assay and Matrige assay respectively. Additionally, expressions of CXCR3 downstream proteins were detected using Western blotting.
RESULTS: mRNA level of CXCR3A was decreased while CXCR3B mRNA level was increased in PC-3 cells (P<0.05). Compared with the controls, down-regulation of CXCR3A but up-regulation of CXCR3B significantly inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation and cell invasion ability (P<0.05). Besides, aberrant CXCR3 expression significantly increased expressions of phospholipase C (PLCβ), matrix metallo proteinase (MMP-1), and MMP-3 except MMP-7 in PC-3 cells (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The data presented in our study suggested that aberrant CXCR3 expression may play crucial roles in suppressing PC metastasis via inhibiting cell proliferation and invasion ability through the PCLβ signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) was a common event in tumor tissues and miRNAs would be treated as ideal tumor biomarkers or therapeutic targets. miR-195-5p (termed as miR-195 for briefly in the following part) was suggested to function as a tumor suppressor in cancer development and progression. However, the roles of miR-195 in human prostate cancer are still elusive. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the biological functions and its molecular mechanisms of miR-195 in human prostate cancer cell lines, discussing whether it has a potential to be a therapeutic way of prostate cancer.
METHODS: Two human prostate cancer cell lines were analyzed for the expression of miR-195 by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A gain-of-function study of miR-195 was conducted by transfecting mimics into DU145 and PC3 cells and cell motility and invasion ability were evaluated by wound healing assay and transwell assay. Tissue microarray, and immunohistochemistry with antibodies against Fra-1 was performed using the peroxidase and DAB methods. The target gene of miR-195 was determined by luciferase assay, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. The regulation of motility by miR-195 was analyzed by western blot.
RESULTS: miR-195 was frequently down-regulated in both prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3. Overexpression of miR-195 significantly repressed the capability of migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. In addition, we identified Fra-1, a cell motility regulator, as a novel target of miR-195. Fra-1 was up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. We also observed that inhibition of miR-195 or restoration of Fra-1 in miR-195-over-expressed prostate cancer cells partially reversed the suppressive effects of miR-195. Furthermore, we demonstrated miR-195 could inhibit prostate cancer cell motility by regulated the expression of c-Met, MMP1, MMP9.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-195 can repress the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells via regulating Fra-1. Our results indicate that miR-195 could be a tumor suppressor and may have a potential to be a diagnostics or therapeutic target in prostate cancer.
Hui L, Yang N, Yang H, et al.Identification of biomarkers with a tumor stage-dependent expression and exploration of the mechanism involved in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2627-35 [PubMed
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The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers with a tumor stage-dependent expression manner and explore the regulatory mechanisms of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) progression. Microarray data GSE59102 was used for differential analysis using a limma package. Enrichment analyses were performed for the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tumor tissues and normal tissues at different stages. A co-expressed network involving the overlapped DEGs in two stages was established based on Pearson's correlation coefficients. Furthermore, for the tumor stage‑dependent expressed DEGs, a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by mapping the genes using the STRING database. Transcription factors (TFs), oncogenes and tumor‑associated genes (TSGs) among the DEGs were predicted, following a search of the TRANSFAC, tumor-associated gene (TAG) and TSG databases. The CDT database was used to identify LSCC‑associated genes. In total, 696 DEGs from early stage and control samples and 622 DEGs from advanced sttage and control samples were selected, which were mainly enriched in the cell cycle pathway. In the co-expressed network, BUB1, TTK, E2F1 and CEP55 were prominent, with E2F1 being predicted as a TSG and CEP55 as an oncogene. The HOX family members were predicted as TFs. MMP1, MMP9, MMP3 and PLAU were the most evident nodes in the PPI network, where MMP3 was connected with MMP1. The ADH family was correlated with LSCC. Several biomarkers with tumor stage-dependent expression were identified including MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, PLAU and ADHs. Additionally, the dysregulated cell cycle pathway involving BUB1, TTK, E2F1 and CEP55, and the mediation of MMP1 by MMP3 as well as the predicted TF HOX, may all play significant roles in LSCC progression.
Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein or RKIP was initially identified as a Raf-1 binding protein using the yeast 2-hybrid screen. RKIP inhibits the activation phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1 by competitively inhibiting the binding of MEK to Raf-1 and thus exerting an inhibitory effect on the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway. RKIP has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene. Expression of RKIP is low in cancer metastases. Although primary tumor growth remains unaffected, re- expression of RKIP inhibits cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, RKIP constrains metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis, local invasion, intravasation, and colonization. The molecular mechanism of how RKIP inhibits these individual steps remains undefined. In our present study, using an unbiased PCR based screening and by analyzing DNA microarray expression datasets we observe that the expression of multiple metalloproteases (MMPs) including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP13 are negatively correlated with RKIP expression in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Since expression of MMPs by cancer cells is important for cancer metastasis, we hypothesize that RKIP may mediate suppression of breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting multiple MMPs. We show that the expression signature of RKIP and MMPs is better at predicting high metastatic risk than the individual gene. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we find that MMP13 is the cause of RKIP-mediated inhibition of local cancer invasion. Interestingly expression of MMP13 alone is not sufficient to reverse the inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis to the lung due to the expression of RKIP. We find that RKIP negatively regulates MMP13 through the Erk2 signaling pathway and the repression of MMP13 by RKIP is transcription factor AP-1 independent. Together, our findings indicate that RKIP inhibits cancer cell invasion, in part, via MMP13 inhibition. These data also implicate RKIP in the regulation of MMP transcription, suggesting a potential mechanism by which RKIP inhibits tumor progression and metastasis.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established that levels of the Inhibitor of Growth 1(ING1) tumor suppressor are reduced in a significant proportion of different cancer types. Here we analyzed levels of ING1 in breast cancer patients to determine its prognostic significance as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.
METHODS: We used automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) to determine the levels of ING1 in the tumor associated stromal cells of 462 breast cancer samples. To better understand how high ING1 levels affect nearby epithelium, we measured the levels of cytokines and secreted matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), using an ELISA based assay in mammary fibroblasts overexpressing ING1. These cells were also used in a 3-dimensional co-culture with MCF7 cells to determine the effect of released MMPs and other cytokines on growing colonies.
RESULTS: We find that high levels of ING1 in stroma are associated with tumor grade (p = 0.001) and size (p = 0.02), and inversely associated with patient survival (p = 0.0001) in luminal, but not in non-luminal cancers, suggesting that high stromal ING1 promotes cancer development. In this group of patients ING1 could also predict patient survival and act as a biomarker (HR = 2.125). While ING1 increased or decreased the expression of different cytokines, ING1 also increased the levels of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP10 by 5-8 fold, and concomitantly decreased levels of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases TIMP2, TIMP3 and TIMP4 by 1.5-3.3 fold, resulting in significant increases in MMP activity as determined by zymography. Co-culturing of MCF7 cells with stromal cells expressing ING1 in 3-dimensional organoid cultures suggested that MCF7 colonies were less well defined, suggesting that secreted MMPs might promote migration.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that stromal ING1 expression can predict the survival of patients with luminal breast cancer. High levels of ING1 in stromal cells can promote the development of breast cancer through increased expression and release of MMPs and down regulation of TIMPs, which may be an underlying mechanism of reduced patient survival.