Gene Summary

Gene:TIMP1; TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1
Summary:This gene belongs to the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. In addition to its inhibitory role against most of the known MMPs, the encoded protein is able to promote cell proliferation in a wide range of cell types, and may also have an anti-apoptotic function. Transcription of this gene is highly inducible in response to many cytokines and hormones. In addition, the expression from some but not all inactive X chromosomes suggests that this gene inactivation is polymorphic in human females. This gene is located within intron 6 of the synapsin I gene and is transcribed in the opposite direction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metalloproteinase inhibitor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TIMP1 (cancer-related)

Li J, Liu C, Sato T
Novel Antitumor Invasive Actions of p-Cymene by Decreasing MMP-9/TIMP-1 Expression Ratio in Human Fibrosarcoma HT-1080 Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2016; 39(8):1247-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
p-Cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) has been reported to have beneficial actions such as anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. To evaluate whether p-cymene exhibits antitumor invasive actions, we examined the effects of p-cymene on the production of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)/gelatinase B and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. p-Cymene was found to dose-dependently inhibit the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-augmented production and gene expression of MMP-9 in HT-1080 cells. In contrast, p-cymene enhanced the TPA-augmented production and gene expression of TIMP-1 in HT-1080 cells. However, there was no change in the constitutive level of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs and TIMP-1 protein in p-cymene-treated cells. In addition, we found that the in-vitro TPA-augmented invasiveness of HT-1080 cells was inhibited by p-cymene in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, p-cymene was found to suppress the constitutive and/or TPA-augmented phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in HT-1080 cells. Thus, these results provide novel evidence that p-cymene is an effective candidate for the prevention of tumor invasion and metastasis through mechanisms that include the inhibition of MMP-9 expression and the augmentation of TIMP-1 production along with the suppression of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signal pathways in tumor cells.

Walkiewicz K, Kozieł P, Bednarczyk M, et al.
Expression of Migration-Related Genes in Human Colorectal Cancer and Activity of a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 17.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:8208904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The ability to form metastases which depends on the mechanisms of cell migration is an important element of the progression of cancer. In the present study we analyzed the genes involved in the regulation of migration in colon cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 pairs of surgically removed tumoral and healthy (marginal) tissues samples from colorectal cancer patients at clinical stages I-II and III-IV were analyzed. The isolation of RNA from CRC and normal tissues and its subsequent molecular analysis were performed according to manufacturer's instructions. Microarray data analysis was performed using the GeneSpring 11.5 platform and Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). In SAM analysis to identify significantly differentially expressed genes score and q-value parameters were used.
RESULTS: The largest increase in expression of genes was shown by MMP9, ADAM17, EphA2, and TIMP.
CONCLUSIONS: Presented genes, especially ADAM17, MMP9, EphA2, TIMP1, ICAM 11, and CD4, may be used as prognostic markers of advanced stages of colorectal cancer, contributing to the development of new lines of therapy focused on reducing metastasis of the primary tumor.

Gomez-Rueda H, Palacios-Corona R, Gutiérrez-Hermosillo H, Trevino V
A robust biomarker of differential correlations improves the diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate thyroid cancers.
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 37(5):1355-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and subsequent cytological analysis is unable to determine the diagnosis in 15 to 30% of thyroid cancer cases; patients with indeterminate cytological results undergo diagnostic surgery which is potentially unnecessary. Current gene expression biomarkers based on well-determined cytology are complex and their accuracy is inconsistent across public datasets. In the present study, we identified a robust biomarker using the differences in gene expression values specifically from cytologically indeterminate thyroid tumors and a powerful multivariate search tool coupled with a nearest centroid classifier. The biomarker is based on differences in the expression of the following genes: CCND1, CLDN16, CPE, LRP1B, MAGI3, MAPK6, MATN2, MPPED2, PFKFB2, PTPRE, PYGL, SEMA3D, SERGEF, SLC4A4 and TIMP1. This 15-gene biomarker exhibited superior accuracy independently of the cytology in six datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid dataset. In addition, this biomarker exhibited differences in the correlation coefficients between benign and malignant samples that indicate its discriminatory power, and these 15 genes have been previously related to cancer in the literature. Thus, this 15-gene biomarker provides advantages in clinical practice for the effective diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

Boakye CH, Patel K, Doddapaneni R, et al.
Ultra-flexible nanocarriers for enhanced topical delivery of a highly lipophilic antioxidative molecule for skin cancer chemoprevention.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016; 143:156-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In this study, we developed cationic ultra-flexible nanocarriers (UltraFLEX-Nano) to surmount the skin barrier structure and to potentiate the topical delivery of a highly lipophilic antioxidative diindolylmethane derivative (DIM-D) for the inhibition of UV-induced DNA damage and skin carcinogenesis.
METHODS: UltraFLEX-Nano was prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, cholesterol and tween-80 by ethanolic injection method; was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Atomic Force Microscopic (phase-imaging) analyses and permeation studies were performed in dermatomed human skin. The efficacy of DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano for skin cancer chemoprevention was evaluated in UVB-induced skin cancer model in vivo.
RESULTS: DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano formed a stable mono-dispersion (110.50±0.71nm) with >90% encapsulation of DIM-D that was supported by HPLC, DSC, FT-IR and AFM phase imaging. The blank formulation was non-toxic to human embryonic kidney cells. UltraFLEX-Nano was vastly deformable and highly permeable across the stratum corneum; there was significant (p<0.01) skin deposition of DIM-D for UltraFLEX-Nano that was superior to PEG solution (13.83-fold). DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano pretreatment delayed the onset of UVB-induced tumorigenesis (2 weeks) and reduced (p<0.05) the number of tumors observed in SKH-1 mice (3.33-fold), which was comparable to pretreatment with sunscreen (SPF30). Also, DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano caused decrease (p<0.05) in UV-induced DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), skin inflammation (PCNA), epidermal hyperplasia (c-myc, CyclinD1), immunosuppression (IL10), cell survival (AKT), metastasis (Vimentin, MMP-9, TIMP1) but increase in apoptosis (p53 and p21).
CONCLUSION: UltraFLEX-Nano was efficient in enhancing the topical delivery of DIM-D. DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano was efficacious in delaying skin tumor incidence and multiplicity in SKH mice comparable to sunscreen (SPF30).

Lu JC, Zhang YP
E2F, HSF2, and miR-26 in thyroid carcinoma: bioinformatic analysis of RNA-sequencing data.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1):15017576 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinoma (THCA) using bioinformatics. RNA-sequencing data of THCA (N = 498) and normal thyroid tissue (N = 59) were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Next, gene expression levels were calculated using the TCC package and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the edgeR package. A co-expression network was constructed using the EBcoexpress package and visualized by Cytoscape, and functional and pathway enrichment of DEGs in the co-expression network was analyzed with DAVID and KOBAS 2.0. Moreover, modules in the co-expression network were identified and annotated using MCODE and BiNGO plugins. Small-molecule drugs were analyzed using the cMAP database, and miRNAs and transcription factors regulating DEGs were identified by WebGestalt. A total of 254 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated DEGs were identified between THCA samples and controls. DEGs enriched in biological process terms were related to cell adhesion, death, and growth and negatively correlated with various small-molecule drugs. The co-expression network of the DEGs consisted of hub genes (ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, and SERPINA1) and one module (JUN, FOSB, and EGR1). Furthermore, 5 miRNAs and 5 transcription factors were identified, including E2F, HSF2, and miR-26. miR-26 may participate in THCA by targeting CITED1 and PLA2R1; E2F may participate in THCA by regulating ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, EGR1, and JUN; HSF2 may be involved in THCA development by regulating SERPINA1 and FOSB; and small-molecule drugs may have anti-THCA effects. Our results provide novel directions for mechanistic studies and drug design of THCA.

Miller MA, Oudin MJ, Sullivan RJ, et al.
Reduced Proteolytic Shedding of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Is a Post-Translational Mechanism of Kinase Inhibitor Resistance.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(4):382-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Kinase inhibitor resistance often involves upregulation of poorly understood "bypass" signaling pathways. Here, we show that extracellular proteomic adaptation is one path to bypass signaling and drug resistance. Proteolytic shedding of surface receptors, which can provide negative feedback on signaling activity, is blocked by kinase inhibitor treatment and enhances bypass signaling. In particular, MEK inhibition broadly decreases shedding of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), including HER4, MET, and most prominently AXL, an ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrate, thus increasing surface RTK levels and mitogenic signaling. Progression-free survival of patients with melanoma treated with clinical BRAF/MEK inhibitors inversely correlates with RTK shedding reduction following treatment, as measured noninvasively in blood plasma. Disrupting protease inhibition by neutralizing TIMP1 improves MAPK inhibitor efficacy, and combined MAPK/AXL inhibition synergistically reduces tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models. Altogether, extracellular proteomic rewiring through reduced RTK shedding represents a surprising mechanism for bypass signaling in cancer drug resistance.
SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression alterations often fail to explain adaptive drug resistance in cancer. This work presents a novel post-translational mechanism of such resistance: Kinase inhibitors, particularly targeting MAPK signaling, increase tumor cell surface receptor levels due to widely reduced proteolysis, allowing tumor signaling to circumvent intended drug action.

Kunz P, Sähr H, Lehner B, et al.
Elevated ratio of MMP2/MMP9 activity is associated with poor response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:223 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucially involved in the regulation of multiple stages of cancer progression. Elevated MMP levels have been associated with the development of metastases and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, the role of MMPs in osteosarcoma and their prognostic value is still unclear. Available data are conflicting, most likely due to different technical approaches. We hypothesized that in contrast to total mRNA or protein levels frequently analyzed in previous studies the enzymatic activities of MMPs and their inhibitors the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are closer related to their biological functions. We therefore aimed to evaluate the reliability of different zymography techniques for the quantification of MMP and TIMP activities in osteosarcoma biopsies in order to investigate their distribution, possible regulation and prognostic value.
METHODS: All analyses were done using cryo-conserved osteosarcoma pretreatment biopsies (n = 18). Gene and protein expression of MMPs and TIMPs were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Overall MMP activity was analyzed by in situ zymography, individual MMP activities were analyzed by gelatin zymography. Reverse zymography was used to detect and quantify TIMP activities.
RESULTS: Strong overall MMP activities could be detected in osteosarcoma pretreatment biopsies with MMP2 and MMP9 as predominant active MMPs. In contrast to total RNA or protein expression MMP2 and MMP9 activities showed significant quantitative differences between good and poor responders. While MMP9 activity was high in the good responder group and significantly decreased in the poor responder group, MMP2 activity showed a reverse distribution. Likewise, significant differences were detected concerning the activity of TIMPs resulting in a negative correlation of TIMP1 activity with MMP2 activity (p = 0.044) and negative correlations of TIMP2 and TIMP3 with MMP9 activity (p = 0.007 and p = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: In contrast to mRNA or protein levels MMP and TIMP activities showed significant differences between the analyzed good and poor responder groups. A shift from MMP9 to predominant MMP2 activity is associated with poor response to chemotherapy suggesting that the ratio of MMP2/MMP9 activity might be a valuable and easily accessible marker to predict the response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma.

Friedmann-Morvinski D, Narasimamurthy R, Xia Y, et al.
Targeting NF-κB in glioblastoma: A therapeutic approach.
Sci Adv. 2016; 2(1):e1501292 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of intracranial tumor. We have established a lentivirus-induced mouse model of malignant gliomas, which faithfully captures the pathophysiology and molecular signature of mesenchymal human GBM. RNA-Seq analysis of these tumors revealed high nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation showing enrichment of known NF-κB target genes. Inhibition of NF-κB by either depletion of IκB kinase 2 (IKK2), expression of a IκBαM super repressor, or using a NEMO (NF-κB essential modifier)-binding domain (NBD) peptide in tumor-derived cell lines attenuated tumor proliferation and prolonged mouse survival. Timp1, one of the NF-κB target genes significantly up-regulated in GBM, was identified to play a role in tumor proliferation and growth. Inhibition of NF-κB activity or silencing of Timp1 resulted in slower tumor growth in both mouse and human GBM models. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-κB activity or targeting of inducible NF-κB genes is an attractive therapeutic approach for GBM.

Lytle KA, Jump DB
Is Western Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Ldlr-/- Mice Reversible?
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146942 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health burden in western societies. The progressive form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is characterized by hepatosteatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hepatic damage that can progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis; risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Given the scope of NASH, validating treatment protocols (i.e., low fat diets and weight loss) is imperative.
METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of two diets, a non-purified chow (NP) and purified (low-fat low-cholesterol, LFLC) diet to reverse western diet (WD)-induced NASH and fibrosis in Ldlr-/- mice.
RESULTS: Mice fed WD for 22-24 weeks developed robust hepatosteatosis with mild fibrosis, while mice maintained on the WD an additional 7-8 weeks developed NASH with moderate fibrosis. Returning WD-fed mice to the NP or LFLC diets significantly reduced body weight and plasma markers of metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia) and hepatic gene expression markers of inflammation (Mcp1), oxidative stress (Nox2), fibrosis (Col1A, LoxL2, Timp1) and collagen crosslinking (hydroxyproline). Time course analyses established that plasma triglycerides and hepatic Col1A1 mRNA were rapidly reduced following the switch from the WD to the LFLC diet. However, hepatic triglyceride content and fibrosis did not return to normal levels 8 weeks after the change to the LFLC diet. Time course studies further revealed a strong association (r2 ≥ 0.52) between plasma markers of inflammation (TLR2 activators) and hepatic fibrosis markers (Col1A, Timp1, LoxL2). Inflammation and fibrosis markers were inversely associated (r2 ≥ 0.32) with diet-induced changes in hepatic ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content.
CONCLUSION: These studies establish a temporal link between plasma markers of inflammation and hepatic PUFA and fibrosis. Low-fat low-cholesterol diets promote reversal of many, but not all, features associated with WD-induced NASH and fibrosis in Ldlr-/- mice.

Lai CY, Chang WS, Hsieh YH, et al.
Association of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Genotypes with Lung Cancer Risk in Taiwan.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(1):155-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are a family of multifunctional proteins whose expression has been shown to be up-regulated in various types of cancer. However, the contribution of TIMPs to lung cancer is not known. The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of TIMP1 rs4898, rs6609533 and rs2070584 genetic polymorphisms to the risk of lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The contributions of these TIMP1 genotypes to lung cancer risk were investigated in 358 patients with lung cancer patients and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy controls.
RESULTS: The results showed that the percentages of TT, CT and CC for TIMP-1 rs4898 genotypes were 28.5%, 33.2% and 38.3% in the patient group and 34.5%, 41.2% and 24.3% in the non-cancer control group, respectively (p for trend=1.21×10(-5)). The CC genotype carriers were at higher risk for lung cancer (odds ratio=1.91, 95% confidence interval=1.38-2.63, p=0.0001) than the TT genotype carriers. We also analyzed the allelic frequency distributions and the results showed that the C allele of TIMP1 rs4898 increased lung cancer susceptibility (p=1.26×10(-5)). On the contrary, there was no difference in the distribution of genotypic or allelic frequencies among patients and the controls for TIMP1 rs6609533 and rs2070584.
CONCLUSION: The CC genotype of TIMP1 rs4898 compared to the TT wild-type genotype may increase lung cancer risk in Taiwan and may serve as a marker for early detective and predictive purposes.

Wang F, Jin R, Zou BB, et al.
Activation of Toll-like receptor 7 regulates the expression of IFN-λ1, p53, PTEN, VEGF, TIMP-1 and MMP-9 in pancreatic cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(2):1807-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical in the induction of the immune response in tumor development. TLR7 has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the development of pancreatic cancer, and the release of cytokines and chemokines from other types of cancer cell; however, the specific expression induced by TLR7 agonists in pancreatic cancer cells remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the TLR7 agonist, gardiquimod, on ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and on the expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of cancer, including phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), p53, type Ⅲ interferon (IFN-λ1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). The results demonstrated that activation of TLR7 upregulated the expression levels of certain genes to varying degrees; the expression levels of IFN-λ1 and MMP-9 were increased by ~3 fold, whereas other genes (p53, PTEN, TIMP-1) were upregulated by ~2 fold, and VEGF was marginally upregulated after 10 min. Furthermore, gardiquimod increased the expression levels of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. In addition, PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation, inhibited the ability of gardiquimod to activate ERK1/2; consequently weakening the effect of gardiquimod on gene regulation. These findings indicated that the effect of TLR7 agonists, including gardiquimod, on gene expression in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells was partly associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

He S, Liu M, Zhang W, et al.
Over expression of p21-activated kinase 7 associates with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(2):203-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: p21-activated kinase 7 is a member of the group II p21-activated kinase (PAK) family which is known to play important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers and the correlation with clinical parameters has never been investigated.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
METHODS: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were collected and the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 was detected by immunohistochemistry. In vitro cell invasion assay was employed in EC9706 cells and EC9706PAK7 cells. Metastasis related genes were evaluated by Real-time PCR and Western Blot.
RESULTS: In 85 samples, 44 (51.8%) samples showed strong expression and expression of PAK7 was significantly correlated with lymph node stage (p= 0.013) and TNM stage (p= 0.041). In vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion ability of EC9706 PAK7 cells increased 2.5 folds compared with EC9706 cells. PAK7 could enhance the protein levels of Vimentin and MMP10, but reduce E-cadherin, TIMP1 and TIMP2.
CONCLUSION: PAK7 is overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell cancer samples and correlated with lymph node metastasis.

Mao JH, Guo H, Si N, et al.
Regulating effect of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in pituitary adenoma invasion.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):17091-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pituitary adenomas can cause endocrine disorder and organ damage, with some aggressive ones leading to a high postoperative recurrence rate. The occurrence and development of these type of tumors is closely related with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous specific tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMPs). In this study, the relationship between pituitary adenoma invasion and the changes in MMP-8 and TIMP-1 expressions is analyzed. Specimens from sixty patients with pituitary adenoma were collected in our hospital after surgery, including thirty cases of invasive pituitary adenomas and thirty cases of noninvasive pituitary adenomas. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect MMP-8/TIMP-1 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, in the two types of pituitary adenomas, while ELISA was used to detect both compounds' levels in the patient's serum. Compared with noninvasive pituitary adenomas, MMP-8 was significantly overexpressed in invasive pituitary adenomas, while TIMP-1 was obviously lower (P < 0.05 for both). Moreover, MMP-8 mRNA expression in invasive pituitary adenomas was significantly higher than in noninvasive pituitary adenomas, while TIMP-1 mRNA expression was markedly lower (P < 0.05 for both). Finally, MMP-8 expression in the serum is upregulated in patients with invasive pituitary adenomas relative to the noninvasive ones, and the expression of TIMP-1 significantly reduced (P < 0.05 for both). These results show that increased MMP-8 and decreased TIMP-1 expressions are closely related to the invasive pituitary adenoma, and can be helpful for the evaluation.

Fahrioğlu U, Dodurga Y, Elmas L, Seçme M
Ferulic acid decreases cell viability and colony formation while inhibiting migration of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.
Gene. 2016; 576(1 Pt 3):476-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel and combinatorial treatment methods are becoming sought after entities in cancer treatment and these treatments are even more valuable for pancreatic cancer. The scientists are always on the lookout for new chemicals to help them in their fight against cancer. In this study, we examine the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound, on gene expression, viability, colony formation and migration/invasion in the cultured MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell. Cytotoxic effects of FA were determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test and Cell TiterGlo (CTG) assay. IC50 dose in MIA PaCa-2 cells was detected as 500μM/ml at the 72nd hour. Expression profiles of certain cell cycle and apoptosis genes such as CCND1 (cyclin D1),CDK4, CDK6, RB, p21, p16, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-10, Bcl-2, BCL-XL,BID, DR4,DR5,FADD,TRADD,PARP, APAF, Bax, Akt, PTEN, PUMA, NOXA, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 were determined by real-time PCR. The effect of FA on cell viability was determined by CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. Additionally, effects of FA on colony formation and invasion were also investigated. It was observed that FA caused a significant decrease in the expression of CCND1, CDK 4/6, Bcl2 and caspase 8 and 10 in the MIA PaCa-2 cells while causing an increase in the expression of p53, Bax, PTEN caspase 3 and 9. FA was observed to decrease colony formation while inhibiting cell invasion and migration as observed by the BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chamber guide and colony formation assays. In conclusion, FA is thought to behave as an anti-cancer agent by affecting cell cycle, apoptotic, invasion and colony formation behavior of MIA PaCa-2 cells. Therefore, FA is placed as a strong candidate for further studies aimed at finding a better, more effective treatment approach for pancreatic cancer.

Zhang Q, Shu FL, Jiang YF, Huang XE
Influence of Expression Plasmid of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 shRNA on Hepatic Precancerous Fibrosis in Rats.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(16):7205-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this study, influence caused by expression plasmids of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on mRNA expression of CTGF,TIMP-1,procol-α1 and PCIII in hepatic tissue with hepatic fibrosis, a precancerous condition, in rats is analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To screen and construct shRNA expression plasimid which effectively interferes RNA targets of CTGF and TIMP-1 in rats. 50 cleaning Wistar male rats are allocated randomly at 5 different groups after precancerous fibrosis models and then injection of shRNA expression plasimids. Plasmid psiRNA-GFP-Com (CTGF and TIMP-1 included), psiRNA-GFP-CTGF, psiRNA-GFP-TIMP-1 and psiRNA- DUO-GFPzeo of blank plasmid are injected at group A, B, C and D, respectively, and as model control group that none plasimid is injected at group E. In 2 weeks after last injection, to hepatic tissue at different groups, protein expression of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1and PC III is tested by immunohistochemical method and,mRNA expression of CTGF,TIMP-1,procol-α1 and PCIII is measured by real-time PCR. One-way ANOVA is used to comparison between-groups.
RESULTS: Compared with model group, there is no obvious difference of mRNA expression among CTGF,TIMP-1,procol-α1,PC III and of protein expression among CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1, PC III in hepatic tissue at group injected with blank plasmid. Expression quantity of mRNA of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1 and PCIII at group A, B and C decreases, protein expression of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1, PC III in hepatic tissue is lower, where the inhibition of combination RNA interference group (group A) on procol-α1 mRNA transcription and procol-α1 protein expression is superior to that of single interference group (group B and C) (P<0.01 or P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: RNA interference on CTGF and/or TIMP-1 is obviously a inhibiting factor for mRNA and protein expression of CTGF, TIMP-1, procol-α1 and PCIII. Combination RNA interference on genes of CTGF and TIMP-1 is superior to that of single RNA interference, and this could be a contribution for prevention of precancerous condition.

Artacho-Cordón F, Ríos-Arrabal S, Olivares-Urbano MA, et al.
Valproic acid modulates radiation-enhanced matrix metalloproteinase activity and invasion of breast cancer cells.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2015; 91(12):946-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and invasion after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure and to determine whether MMP could be epigenetically modulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were cultured in monolayer (2D) and in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D). Invasion capability, collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity, MMP and TIMP protein and mRNA expression and clonogenic survival were analyzed after IR exposure, with and without a HDAC inhibition treatment [1.5 mM valproic acid (VA) or 1 μM trichostatin-A (TSA)].
RESULTS: IR exposure resulted in cell line-dependent stimulation of invasion capacity. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, irradiated MDA-MB-231 showed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of mmp-1, mmp-3 and mmp-13 and of their regulators timp-1 and timp-2 relative to unirradiated controls. This translated into increased collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity and could be reduced after valproic acid (VA) treatment. Additionally, VA also mitigated IR-enhanced mmp and timp mRNA expression as well as IR-increased invasion capability. Finally, our data confirm the radiosensitizing effect of VA.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that IR cell line-dependently induces upregulation of MMP mRNA expression, which appears to be mechanistically linked to a higher invasion capability that is modifiable by HDAC inhibition.

Qian W, Tao L, Wang Y, et al.
Downregulation of Integrins in Cancer Cells and Anti-Platelet Properties Are Involved in Holothurian Glycosaminoglycan-Mediated Disruption of the Interaction of Cancer Cells and Platelets in Hematogenous Metastasis.
J Vasc Res. 2015; 52(3):197-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activated platelets have been recognized as an accessory character in the cascade of tumor hematogenous metastasis, and intervention of tumor cell attachment to the activated platelets or microemboli formation might be a leading strategy to prevent tumor cells surviving in the blood vessels and sequential metastasis. Recently, we have demonstrated that holothurian glycosaminoglycan (hGAG), a sulfated polysaccharide with potent anticoagulant activity extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota Brandt, was highly efficacious against tumor metastasis. In this study, we identified the potential effects of hGAG on the disruption of interactions of cancer cells and platelets and the underlying mechanisms, which were supported by the following evidence: hGAG (1) inhibited thrombin-induced platelet activation and aggregation, (2) reduced adhesion between platelet and breast cancer cells, and abrogated platelets/cancer cells adhering to fibrinogen, (3) attenuated platelet-cancer cell complex formation (the number and size of aggregates) and (4) suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of β1 and β3 integrins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while increasing the expression of the MMP inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggested that both the antiplatelet properties and mitigation of the levels of cellular adhesion molecules contributed to the anticancer effects of hGAG, and might thus be exploited for clinical adjuvant therapy to attenuate tumor hematogenous metastasis.

Fidan-Yaylalı G, Dodurga Y, Seçme M, Elmas L
Antidiabetic exendin-4 activates apoptotic pathway and inhibits growth of breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2647-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exendin-4 is a GLP-1 analog used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in its synthetic form. As women with diabetes have higher breast cancer incidence and mortality, we examined the effect of the incretin drug exendin-4 on breast cancer cells. The aim of the study is to investigate anticancer mechanism of exendin-4 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cytotoxic effects of exendin-4 were determined by XTT assay. IC50 dose in MCF-7 cells were detected as 5 μM at 48th hour. Gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions were evaluated by real-time PCR. According to results, caspase-9, Akt, and MMP2 expression was reduced in dose group cells, compared with the control group cells. p53, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-10, BID, DR4, DR5, FADD, TRADD, PARP, PTEN, PUMA, NOXA, APAF, TIMP1, and TIMP2 expression was increased in dose group cells, compared with the control group cells. Effects of exendin-4 on cell invasion, colony formation, and cell migration were detected by Matrigel chamber, colony formation assay, and wound-healing assay, respectively. To conclude, it is thought that exendin-4 demonstrates anticarcinogenesis activity by effecting apoptosis, invasion, migration, and colony formation in MCF-7 cells. Exendin-4 may be a therapeutic agent for treatment of breast cancer as single or in combination with other agents. More detailed researches are required to define the pathways of GLP-1 effect on breast cancer cells because of the molecular biology of breast cancer that involves a complex network of interconnected signaling pathways that have role in cell growth, survival, and cell invasion.

Nalluri S, Ghoshal-Gupta S, Kutiyanawalla A, et al.
TIMP-1 Inhibits Apoptosis in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells via Interaction with Bcl-2.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0137673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are multifaceted molecules that exhibit properties beyond their classical proteinase inhibitory function. Although TIMP-1 is a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells, the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects are not well-established. Our earlier studies using H2009 lung adenocarcinoma cells, implanted in the CNS, showed that TIMP-1 overexpressing H2009 cells (HB-1), resulted in more aggressive tumor kinetics and increased vasculature. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of TIMP-1 in the context of apoptosis, using the same lung cancer cell lines. Overexpressing TIMP-1 in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line H2009 resulted in an approximately 3-fold increased expression of Bcl-2, with a marked reduction in apoptosis upon staurosporine treatment. This was an MMP-independent function as a clone expressing TIMP-1 mutant T2G, lacking MMP inhibition activity, inhibited apoptosis as strongly as TIMP1 overexpressing clones, as determined by inhibition of PARP cleavage. Immunoprecipitation of Bcl-2 from cell lysates also co-immunoprecipitated TIMP-1, indicative of an interaction between these two proteins. This interaction was specific for TIMP-1 as TIMP-2 was not present in the Bcl-2 pull-down. Additionally, we show a co-dependency of TIMP-1 and Bcl-2 RNA and protein levels, such that abrogating Bcl-2 causes a downregulation of TIMP-1 but not TIMP-2. Finally, we demonstrate that TIMP-1 dependent inhibition of apoptosis occurs through p90RSK, with phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD at serine 112, ultimately reducing Bax levels and increasing mitochondrial permeability. Together, these studies define TIMP-1 as an important cancer biomarker and demonstrate the potential TIMP-1 as a crucial therapeutic target.

Dodurga Y, Eroğlu C, Seçme M, et al.
Anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects of ferulic acid in TT medullary thyroid cancer cells interacting with URG4/URGCP.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):1933-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; FA), a common dietary plant phenolic compound, is abundant in fruits and vegetables. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of FA on cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and colony formation in the TT medullary thyroid cancer cell line. The effect of FA on cell viability was determined by using CellTiter-Glo assay. IC50 dose in the TT cells was detected as 150 μM. URG4/URGCP (upregulated gene-4/upregulator of cell proliferation) is a novel gene in full-length mRNA of 3.607 kb located on 7p13. It was determined that FA caused a decrease in the expression of novel gene URG4/URGCP, CCND1, CDK4, CDK6, BCL2, MMP2, and MMP9, a significant increase in the expression of p53, PARP, PUMA, NOXA, BAX, BID, CASP3, CASP9, and TIMP1 genes in TT human thyroid cancer cell line by using real-time PCR. It was found that FA in TT cells suppressed invasion, migration, and colony formation by using matrigel invasion chamber, wound healing, and colony formation assay, respectively. In conclusion, it is thought that FA indicates anticarcinogenesis activity by affecting cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and colony formation on TT cells.

Hadziabdic N, Kurtovic-Kozaric A, Pojskic N, et al.
Gene-expression analysis of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 and their tissue inhibitors in chronic periapical inflammatory lesions.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2016; 45(3):224-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Periapical inflammatory lesions have been investigated previously, but understanding of pathogenesis of these lesions (granulomas and radicular cysts) at the molecular level is still questionable. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the development of periapical pathology, specifically inflammation and tissue destruction. To elucidate pathogenesis of periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, we undertook a detailed analysis of gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2.
METHODS: A total of 149 samples were analyzed using real-time PCR (59 radicular cysts, 50 periapical granulomas and 40 healthy gingiva samples as controls) for expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 genes. The determination of best reference gene for expression analysis of periapical lesions was done using a panel of 12 genes.
RESULTS: We have shown that β-actin and GAPDH are not the most stable reference controls for gene expression analysis of inflammatory periapical tissues and healthy gingiva. The most suitable reference gene was determined to be SDHA (a succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein [Fp]). We found that granulomas (n = 50) and radicular cysts (n = 59) exhibited significantly higher expression of all four examined genes, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, when compared to healthy gingiva (n = 40; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This study has confirmed that the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 genes is important for the pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. Since the abovementioned markers were not differentially expressed in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, the challenge of finding the genetic differences between the two lesions still remains.

Urbaniak-Kujda D, Kapelko-Slowik K, Prajs I, et al.
Increased expression of metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 (TIMP-1, TIMP-2), and EMMPRIN (CD147) in multiple myeloma.
Hematology. 2016; 21(1):26-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Activity of metalloproteinases (MMP) is controlled both by specific tissue inhibitors (TIMP) and activators (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, EMMPRIN). There are few data available concerning concentration the bone marrow of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, or EMMPRIM expression by bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 40 newly diagnosed, untreated patients: 18 males and 22 females with de novo MM and 11 healthy controls. Bone marrow was collected prior to therapy. BMSCs were derived by culturing bone marrow cells on MesenCult. Protein concentrations were determined in bone marrow plasma and culture supernatants by ELISA. EMMPRIN expression by BMSCs was assessed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The median concentrations of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in both marrow plasma and culture supernatants were significantly higher in MM patients than controls.
CONCLUSION: EMMPRIN expression and ratios MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 were higher in MM patients, our results demonstrate that in MM patients MMP-2 and MMP-9 are secreted in higher amounts and are not balanced by inhibitors.

Wieczorek E, Jablonowski Z, Tomasik B, et al.
MMP, VEGF and TIMP as prognostic factors in recurring bladder cancer.
Clin Biochem. 2015; 48(18):1235-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical correlates and prognostic utility of MMP, VEGF and TIMP genes expression in bladder cancer (BCa) recurrence.
METHODS: Expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, VEGFA and TIMP1, TIMP3 was analyzed by qRT-PCR using SYBR Green in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of BCa patients at two time points (diagnosis (n=40), and first recurrence (n=40)) and an age-matched group of healthy controls (n=100). Plasma concentrations of MMP1 (pro- and active forms) were measured using ELISA in BCa patients.
RESULTS: The expression of MMP1 mRNA was significantly lower in BCa patients with first recurrence compared to control (p=0.019). Expression of other genes did not differ significantly between the groups. MMP9 gene expression was associated with differentiation grade (p=0.043), with the highest expression in poorly differentiated tumors (G3) and was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p=0.039) in BCa patients at diagnosis. The results at two time points showed that MMP9 and VEGFA genes expression was increased in patients with moderately differentiated BCa (p=0.029), and advanced pathologic stage (p=0.048), respectively. Moreover, gene expression of TIMP1 was increased for G3 (p=0.043), and was decreased for early recurrence (p=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the expression of MMP9 in PBLs of BCa patients at diagnosis is associated with the differentiation grade of the BCa, and smoking status. Genes expression of MMP9, VEGFA and TIMP1 in PBLs may play a pivotal role in regulation of progression of BCa. Additionally, TIMP1 gene expression may be important factor for early recurrence of BCa.

Wen X, Wu JQ, Peng W, et al.
MicroRNA-377 predicts poor clinical outcome of gastric cancer and induces tumorigenesis by targeting multiple tumor-suppressor genes.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(1):203-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are evolutionally conserved small non-coding RNAs that are critical for the regulation of gene expression. The aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) is involved in tumorigenesis and prognosis. In the present study, the clinical significance of miR-377 was assessed using RT-qPCR and MTT assay. The results showed that the expression of miR-377 was upregulated in GC compared with normal gastric tissues, and its expression level was increased in GC cell lines compared with normal gastric cells. In addition, there was a significant association between miR-377 expression and clinicopathological characteristics, in particular distant metastasis, TNM stage and early recurrence. GC patients with a higher miR-377 expression showed significantly poorer overall survival (OR) and shorter time to recurrence than those with a lower miR-377 expression. The Cox regression analysis identified miR-377 overexpression as an independent prognostic factor for GC. Overexpression of miR-377 in MKN-45 GC cells significantly promoted cell proliferation, whereas the suppression of miR-377 inhibited these effects. Furthermore, miR-377 downregulated p53, PTEN and TIMP1 expression by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of these target genes. Collectively, miR-377 potentially served as a new molecular predictive biomarker of GC tumorigenesis and prognosis, which may be useful in targeted therapy and the prognosis of GC patients.

Tung YT, Huang PW, Chou YC, et al.
Lung tumorigenesis induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF)-A165 overexpression in transgenic mice and amelioration of tumor formation by miR-16.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(12):10222-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), especially the human VEGF-A165 (hVEGF-A165) isoform, is a key proangiogenic factor that is overexpressed in lung cancer. We generated transgenic mice that overexpresses hVEGF-A165 in lung-specific Clara cells to investigate the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In this study, three transgenic mouse strains were produced by pronuclear microinjection, and Southern blot analysis indicated similar patterns of the foreign gene within the genomes of the transgenic founder mice and their offspring. Accordingly, hVegf-A165 mRNA was expressed specifically in the lung tissue of the transgenic mice. Histopathological examination of the lung tissues of the transgenic mice showed that hVEGF-A165 overexpression induced bronchial inflammation, fibrosis, cysts, and adenoma. Pathological section and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses demonstrated a positive correlation between the development of pulmonary cancer and hVEGF expression levels, which were determined by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses. Gene expression profiling by cDNA microarray revealed a set of up-regulated genes (hvegf-A165, cyclin b1, cdc2, egfr, mmp9, nrp-1, and kdr) in VEGF tumors compared with wild-type lung tissues. In addition, overexpressing hVEGF-A165 in Clara cells increases CD105, fibrogenic genes (collagen α1, α-SMA, TGF-β1, and TIMP1), and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α) in the lungs of hVEGF-A165-overexpressing transgenic mice as compared to wild-type mice. We further demonstrated that the intranasal administration of microRNA-16 (miR-16) inhibited lung tumor growth by suppressing VEGF expression via the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, hVEGF-A165 transgenic mice exhibited complex alterations in gene expression and tumorigenesis and may be a relevant model for studying VEGF-targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma.

Solov'eva NI, Timoshenko OS, Kugaevskaia EV, et al.
[Key enzymes of degradation and angiogenesis as a factors of tumor progression in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix].
Bioorg Khim. 2014 Nov-Dec; 40(6):743-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
A key role in tumor progression play two processes--the destruction and angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play a leading role during tissue degradation. Tissue collagenase--MMP-1 and MT1-MMP hydrolyze fibrillar collagens, which are the basis of connective tissue matrix, and ensure the development of an invasive process. Gelatinase A and B (MMP-2 and MMP-9) hydrolyze collagen type IV, which is the basis of the basal membrane, and facilitate the development of metastasis. Endogenous tissue inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 are involved in the regulation of MMP expression and activity. It has been established that MMP-9 release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) associated with the STM--the primary inductor angiogenesis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) participates in the induction of VEGF synthesis. ACE--a key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system, forms angiotensin II, which interactes with the receptor ATIR and induces VEGF synthesis, as well as stimulates endothelial cell proliferation. Our experimental studies devoted to the study of particularity expression of key enzymes of destruction and angiogenesis in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCC). It was studied: MMP-1, MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and their endogenous regulators: TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and as well as ACE. Work was performed on clinical specimens containing the tumor tissue, taking into account the presence or absence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes and the specimens of adjacent morphologically normal tissue. It was shown that the increase of MMP-1, MT1-MMP and MMP-9 expression and low of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression makes the main contribution to the destructive (invasive) potential of SCC. The change of MMP-2 expression is not so significant and it is less influenced to the destructive potential. It was shown dramatic increasing of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activity in metastasizing tumor tissue ACE activity in a tumor in most of the samples was higher than the activity in normal tissues. It was established that the expression of key enzymes degradation and angiogenesis occurs not only in tumor but also in normal tissues. Data are important for understanding the mechanisms of tumor progression and have prognostic value and may affect the therapeutic strategy for patients.

Seto KK, Andrulis IL
Atypical protein kinase C zeta: potential player in cell survival and cell migration of ovarian cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123528 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the most aggressive gynaecological cancers, thus understanding the different biological pathways involved in ovarian cancer progression is important in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of Protein Kinase C Zeta (PRKCZ) in ovarian cancer. The atypical protein kinase C isoform, PRKCZ, is involved in the control of various signalling processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell motility, all of which are important for cancer development and progression. Herein, we observe a significant increase in cell survival upon PRKCZ over-expression in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells; additionally, when the cells are treated with small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting PRKCZ, the motility of SKOV3 cells decreased. Furthermore, we demonstrate that over-expression of PRKCZ results in gene and/or protein expression alterations of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. Collectively, our study describes PRKCZ as a potential regulatory component of the IGF1R and ITGB3 pathways and suggests that it may play critical roles in ovarian tumourigenesis.

Chitikova Z, Pusztaszeri M, Makhlouf AM, et al.
Identification of new biomarkers for human papillary thyroid carcinoma employing NanoString analysis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(13):10978-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously reported an upregulation of the clock transcript BMAL1, correlating with TIMP1 expression in fresh-frozen samples from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Since frozen postoperative biopsy samples are difficult to obtain, we aimed to validate the application of high-precision NanoString analysis for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) thyroid nodule samples and to screen for potential biomarkers associated with PTC. No significant differences were detected between fresh-frozen and FFPE samples. NanoString analysis of 51 transcripts in 17 PTC and 17 benign nodule samples obtained from different donors and in 24 pairs of benign and PTC nodules, obtained from the same donor (multinodular goiters), confirmed significant alterations in the levels of BMAL1, c-MET, c-KIT, TIMP1, and other transcripts. Moreover, we identified for the first time alterations in CHEK1 and BCL2 levels in PTC. A predictive score was established for each sample, based on the combined expression levels of BMAL1, CHEK1, c-MET, c-KIT and TIMP1. In combination with BRAF mutation analysis, this predictive score closely correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the analyzed thyroid nodules. Our study identified new thyroid transcripts with altered levels in PTC using the NanoString approach. A predictive score correlation coefficient might contribute to improve the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

Choi EJ, Tang Y, Lee CB, et al.
Effect of Taurine on In Vitro Migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Carcinoma Cells.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 803:191-201 [PubMed] Related Publications

Kim EK, Tang Y, Kim YS, et al.
First evidence that Ecklonia cava-derived dieckol attenuates MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell migration.
Mar Drugs. 2015; 13(4):1785-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the effect of Ecklonia cava (E. cava)-derived dieckol on movement behavior and the expression of migration-related genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Phlorotannins (e.g., dieckol, 6,6'-biecko, and 2,7″-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol) were purified from E. cava by using centrifugal partition chromatography. Among the phlorotannins, we found that dieckol inhibited breast cancer cell the most and was selected for further study. Radius™-well was used to assess cell migration, and dieckol (1-100 µM) was found to suppress breast cancer cell movement. Metastasis-related gene expressions were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, dieckol inhibited the expression of migration-related genes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, it stimulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. These results suggest that dieckol exerts anti-breast cancer activity via the regulation of the expressions of metastasis-related genes, and this is the first report on the anti-breast cancer effect of dieckol.

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