Gene Summary

Gene:TIMP2; TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2
Aliases: DDC8, CSC-21K
Summary:This gene is a member of the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases, a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. In addition to an inhibitory role against metalloproteinases, the encoded protein has a unique role among TIMP family members in its ability to directly suppress the proliferation of endothelial cells. As a result, the encoded protein may be critical to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by suppressing the proliferation of quiescent tissues in response to angiogenic factors, and by inhibiting protease activity in tissues undergoing remodelling of the extracellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metalloproteinase inhibitor 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TIMP2 (cancer-related)

Perez-Escuredo J, Lopez-Hernandez A, Costales M, et al.
Recurrent DNA copy number alterations in intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma.
Rhinology. 2016; 54(3):278-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC) is a rare tumour related to occupational wood dust exposure. Few studies have described recurrent genetic changes on a genome-wide scale. The aim of this study was to obtain a high resolution map of recurrent genetic alterations in ITAC.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Copy number alterations were evaluated by microarray CGH and MLPA in 37 primary tumours. The results were correlated with pathological characteristics and clinical outcome.
RESULTS: Microarray CGH identified the following recurrent aberrations, in descending order: gains at 5p15 (22 cases, 60%), 8q24 (21 cases, 57%), 20q13 (20 cases, 54%), 20q11, and 8q21 (19 cases, 51%), 20p13, and 7p11 (16 cases, 43%), and losses at 5q11-qter, 8p12-pter, and 18q12-23 (15 cases, 40%), and 17p13, and 19p13 (13 cases, 35%). MLPA analysis confirmed this global pattern of gains and losses. Chromosomal loss at 4q32-ter and gains at 1q22, 6p22 and 3q29, as well as deletion of TIMP2 and CRK correlated with unfavourable clinical outcome.
CONCLUSION: ITACs have a unique pattern of chromosomal abnormalities. The four different histological subtypes of ITAC appeared genetically similar. Four chromosomal gains and losses and two specific genes showed prognostic value and may be involved in tumour progression.

Kunz P, Sähr H, Lehner B, et al.
Elevated ratio of MMP2/MMP9 activity is associated with poor response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:223 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucially involved in the regulation of multiple stages of cancer progression. Elevated MMP levels have been associated with the development of metastases and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, the role of MMPs in osteosarcoma and their prognostic value is still unclear. Available data are conflicting, most likely due to different technical approaches. We hypothesized that in contrast to total mRNA or protein levels frequently analyzed in previous studies the enzymatic activities of MMPs and their inhibitors the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are closer related to their biological functions. We therefore aimed to evaluate the reliability of different zymography techniques for the quantification of MMP and TIMP activities in osteosarcoma biopsies in order to investigate their distribution, possible regulation and prognostic value.
METHODS: All analyses were done using cryo-conserved osteosarcoma pretreatment biopsies (n = 18). Gene and protein expression of MMPs and TIMPs were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Overall MMP activity was analyzed by in situ zymography, individual MMP activities were analyzed by gelatin zymography. Reverse zymography was used to detect and quantify TIMP activities.
RESULTS: Strong overall MMP activities could be detected in osteosarcoma pretreatment biopsies with MMP2 and MMP9 as predominant active MMPs. In contrast to total RNA or protein expression MMP2 and MMP9 activities showed significant quantitative differences between good and poor responders. While MMP9 activity was high in the good responder group and significantly decreased in the poor responder group, MMP2 activity showed a reverse distribution. Likewise, significant differences were detected concerning the activity of TIMPs resulting in a negative correlation of TIMP1 activity with MMP2 activity (p = 0.044) and negative correlations of TIMP2 and TIMP3 with MMP9 activity (p = 0.007 and p = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: In contrast to mRNA or protein levels MMP and TIMP activities showed significant differences between the analyzed good and poor responder groups. A shift from MMP9 to predominant MMP2 activity is associated with poor response to chemotherapy suggesting that the ratio of MMP2/MMP9 activity might be a valuable and easily accessible marker to predict the response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma.

Wang SQ, Zhao BX, Liu Y, et al.
New application of an old drug: Antitumor activity and mechanisms of doxycycline in small cell lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1353-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains one of the most aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis. The clinical outcome of SCLC patients has reached its plateau with the existing standard treatment and thus new therapies are urgently required. Accumulating evidences have indicated that doxycycline, a commonly used antibiotic, has antitumor activity against several malignancies. However, whether doxycycline has antitumor activity in SCLC and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our investigation demonstrated that doxycycline could significantly inhibit the proliferation and colony formulation of SCLC cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, both Hoechst 33258 dye staining and TUNEL assays indicated that doxycycline could induce remarkable apoptosis of H446 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR and western blot assays proved that apoptosis induction effect of doxycycline was achieved via inducing the expression of caspase-3 and bax, as well as attenuating the expression of survivin and bcl-2. Moreover, the wound healing assay and Transwell assay indicated that doxycycline could significantly suppress the migration and invasion of H446 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). ELISA assay proved that the inhibitory effect of doxycycline on the migration and invasion of H446 cells was achieved via decreasing the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF, as well as increasing the secretion of TIMP-2. Taken together, doxycycline dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation, colony formulation, migration and invasion of SCLC cells, as well as induced apoptosis. These findings encourage further investigations on the potential of doxycycline as a candidate drug for the treatment of SCLC.

He S, Liu M, Zhang W, et al.
Over expression of p21-activated kinase 7 associates with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(2):203-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: p21-activated kinase 7 is a member of the group II p21-activated kinase (PAK) family which is known to play important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers and the correlation with clinical parameters has never been investigated.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
METHODS: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were collected and the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 was detected by immunohistochemistry. In vitro cell invasion assay was employed in EC9706 cells and EC9706PAK7 cells. Metastasis related genes were evaluated by Real-time PCR and Western Blot.
RESULTS: In 85 samples, 44 (51.8%) samples showed strong expression and expression of PAK7 was significantly correlated with lymph node stage (p= 0.013) and TNM stage (p= 0.041). In vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion ability of EC9706 PAK7 cells increased 2.5 folds compared with EC9706 cells. PAK7 could enhance the protein levels of Vimentin and MMP10, but reduce E-cadherin, TIMP1 and TIMP2.
CONCLUSION: PAK7 is overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell cancer samples and correlated with lymph node metastasis.

Kim HIe, Lee HS, Kim TH, et al.
Growth-stimulatory activity of TIMP-2 is mediated through c-Src activation followed by activation of FAK, PI3-kinase/AKT, and ERK1/2 independent of MMP inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(40):42905-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) control extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis by inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are associated with ECM turnover. Recent studies have revealed that TIMPs are implicated in tumorigenesis in both MMP-dependent and MMP-independent manners. We examined a mechanism by which TIMP-2 stimulated lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, independent of MMP inhibition. The stimulation of growth by TIMP-2 in A549 cells required c-Src kinase activation. c-Src kinase activity, induced by TIMP-2, concomitantly increased FAK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/AKT, and ERK1/2 activation. Selective knockdown of integrin α3β1, known as a TIMP-2 receptor, did not significantly change TIMP-2 growth promoting activity. Furthermore, we showed that high TIMP-2 expression in lung adenocarcinomas is associated with a worse prognosis from multiple cohorts, especially for stage I lung adenocarcinoma. Through integrated analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data, TIMP-2 expression was significantly associated with the alteration of driving genes, c-Src activation, and PI3-kinase/AKT pathway activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TIMP-2 stimulates lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation through c-Src, FAK, PI3-kinase/AKT, and ERK1/2 pathway activation in an MMP-independent manner.

Fahrioğlu U, Dodurga Y, Elmas L, Seçme M
Ferulic acid decreases cell viability and colony formation while inhibiting migration of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.
Gene. 2016; 576(1 Pt 3):476-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel and combinatorial treatment methods are becoming sought after entities in cancer treatment and these treatments are even more valuable for pancreatic cancer. The scientists are always on the lookout for new chemicals to help them in their fight against cancer. In this study, we examine the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound, on gene expression, viability, colony formation and migration/invasion in the cultured MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell. Cytotoxic effects of FA were determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test and Cell TiterGlo (CTG) assay. IC50 dose in MIA PaCa-2 cells was detected as 500μM/ml at the 72nd hour. Expression profiles of certain cell cycle and apoptosis genes such as CCND1 (cyclin D1),CDK4, CDK6, RB, p21, p16, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-10, Bcl-2, BCL-XL,BID, DR4,DR5,FADD,TRADD,PARP, APAF, Bax, Akt, PTEN, PUMA, NOXA, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 were determined by real-time PCR. The effect of FA on cell viability was determined by CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. Additionally, effects of FA on colony formation and invasion were also investigated. It was observed that FA caused a significant decrease in the expression of CCND1, CDK 4/6, Bcl2 and caspase 8 and 10 in the MIA PaCa-2 cells while causing an increase in the expression of p53, Bax, PTEN caspase 3 and 9. FA was observed to decrease colony formation while inhibiting cell invasion and migration as observed by the BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chamber guide and colony formation assays. In conclusion, FA is thought to behave as an anti-cancer agent by affecting cell cycle, apoptotic, invasion and colony formation behavior of MIA PaCa-2 cells. Therefore, FA is placed as a strong candidate for further studies aimed at finding a better, more effective treatment approach for pancreatic cancer.

Luo X, Yang L, Xiao L, et al.
Grifolin directly targets ERK1/2 to epigenetically suppress cancer cell metastasis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(40):42704-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Grifolin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom Albatrellus confluens, has been reported by us and others to display potent antitumor effects. However, the molecular target of grifolin has not been identified and the underlying mechanism of action is not fully understood. Here, we report that the ERK1/2 protein kinases are direct molecular targets of grifolin. Molecular modeling, affinity chromatography and fluorescence quenching analyses showed that grifolin directly binds to ERK1/2. And in vitro and ex vivo kinase assay data further demonstrated that grifolin inhibited the kinase activities of ERK1/2. We found that grifolin suppressed adhesion, migration and invasion of high-metastatic cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of grifolin against tumor metastasis was further confirmed in a metastatic mouse model. We found that grifolin decreased phosphorylation of Elk1 at Ser383, and the protein as well as the mRNA level of DNMT1 was also down-regulated. By luciferase reporter and ChIP assay analyses, we confirmed that grifolin inhibited the transcription activity of Elk1 as well as its binding to the dnmt1 promoter region. Moreover, we report that significant increases in the mRNA levels of Timp2 and pten were induced by grifolin. Thus, our data suggest that grifolin exerts its anti-tumor activity by epigenetic reactivation of metastasis inhibitory-related genes through ERK1/2-Elk1-DNMT1 signaling. Grifolin may represent a promising therapeutic lead compound for intervention of cancer metastasis, and it may also be useful as an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor as well as an epigenetic agent to further our understanding of DNMT1 function.

Artacho-Cordón F, Ríos-Arrabal S, Olivares-Urbano MA, et al.
Valproic acid modulates radiation-enhanced matrix metalloproteinase activity and invasion of breast cancer cells.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2015; 91(12):946-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and invasion after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure and to determine whether MMP could be epigenetically modulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were cultured in monolayer (2D) and in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D). Invasion capability, collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity, MMP and TIMP protein and mRNA expression and clonogenic survival were analyzed after IR exposure, with and without a HDAC inhibition treatment [1.5 mM valproic acid (VA) or 1 μM trichostatin-A (TSA)].
RESULTS: IR exposure resulted in cell line-dependent stimulation of invasion capacity. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, irradiated MDA-MB-231 showed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of mmp-1, mmp-3 and mmp-13 and of their regulators timp-1 and timp-2 relative to unirradiated controls. This translated into increased collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity and could be reduced after valproic acid (VA) treatment. Additionally, VA also mitigated IR-enhanced mmp and timp mRNA expression as well as IR-increased invasion capability. Finally, our data confirm the radiosensitizing effect of VA.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that IR cell line-dependently induces upregulation of MMP mRNA expression, which appears to be mechanistically linked to a higher invasion capability that is modifiable by HDAC inhibition.

Liang B, Yin JJ, Zhan XR
MiR-301a promotes cell proliferation by directly targeting TIMP2 in multiple myeloma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(8):9168-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow and microRNAs play a crucial role in its tumorigenesis and development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological functions of miR-301a in MM.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression level of miR-301a. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was performed to valuate cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay and western blot were conducted to determine the potential target of miR-301a in MM cells.
RESULTS: MiR-301a is significantly up-regulated in MM clinical bone marrow samples and cell lines compared with normal controls. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in MM cell line U266 showed that miR-301a acts as an oncogene in MM by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Furthermore, a tumor suppressor gene, tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidases-2 (TIMP2) was identified as a direct target of miR-301a and knockdown of TIMP2 could mimic the effect of miR-301a in MM.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-301a promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by direct targeting TIMP2 in MM, and miR-301a might represent a novel molecular in MM and may provide helpful therapeutic strategies for MM treatment.

Fidan-Yaylalı G, Dodurga Y, Seçme M, Elmas L
Antidiabetic exendin-4 activates apoptotic pathway and inhibits growth of breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2647-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exendin-4 is a GLP-1 analog used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in its synthetic form. As women with diabetes have higher breast cancer incidence and mortality, we examined the effect of the incretin drug exendin-4 on breast cancer cells. The aim of the study is to investigate anticancer mechanism of exendin-4 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cytotoxic effects of exendin-4 were determined by XTT assay. IC50 dose in MCF-7 cells were detected as 5 μM at 48th hour. Gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions were evaluated by real-time PCR. According to results, caspase-9, Akt, and MMP2 expression was reduced in dose group cells, compared with the control group cells. p53, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-10, BID, DR4, DR5, FADD, TRADD, PARP, PTEN, PUMA, NOXA, APAF, TIMP1, and TIMP2 expression was increased in dose group cells, compared with the control group cells. Effects of exendin-4 on cell invasion, colony formation, and cell migration were detected by Matrigel chamber, colony formation assay, and wound-healing assay, respectively. To conclude, it is thought that exendin-4 demonstrates anticarcinogenesis activity by effecting apoptosis, invasion, migration, and colony formation in MCF-7 cells. Exendin-4 may be a therapeutic agent for treatment of breast cancer as single or in combination with other agents. More detailed researches are required to define the pathways of GLP-1 effect on breast cancer cells because of the molecular biology of breast cancer that involves a complex network of interconnected signaling pathways that have role in cell growth, survival, and cell invasion.

Almeida FG, de Aquino PF, de Souza AD, et al.
Colorectal cancer DNA methylation patterns from patients in Manaus, Brazil.
Biol Res. 2015; 48:50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is commonly linked with the silencing of the gene expression for many tumor suppressor genes. As such, determining DNA methylation patterns should aid, in times to come, in the diagnosis and personal treatment for various types of cancers. Here, we analyzed the methylation pattern from five colorectal cancer patients from the Amazon state in Brazil for four tumor suppressor genes, viz.: DAPK, CDH1, CDKN2A, and TIMP2 by employing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific to methylation. Efforts in the study of colorectal cancer are fundamental as it is the third most of highest incidence in the world.
RESULTS: Tumor biopsies were methylated in 1/5 (20%), 2/5 (40%), 4/5 (80%), and 4/5 (80%) for CDH1, CDKN2A, DAPK, and TIMP2 genes, respectively. The margin biopsies were methylated in 3/7 (43%), 2/7 (28%), 7/7 (100%), and 6/7 (86%) for CDH1, CDKN2A, DAPK, and TIMP2, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed DAPK and TIMP2 to be methylated in most samples from both tumor tissues and adjacent non-neoplastic margins; thus presenting distinct methylation patterns. This emphasizes the importance of better understanding of the relation of these patterns with cancer in the context of different populations.

Li J, Zhu SC, Li SG, et al.
TKTL1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 74:71-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the non-oxidative part of the pentose-phosphate pathway, has been demonstrated to promote carcinogenesis through enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Dysregulation of TKTL1 expression also leads to poor prognosis in patients with urothelial and colorectal cancer. However, the expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we measured TKTL1 expression in ESCC cell lines and paraffin-embedded ESCC tumor tissues. Our results revealed that TKTL1 expression was upregulated in all of the four ESCC cell lines and in 61.25% (98/160) of ESCC specimens detected, while only 27.5% (11/40) in normal epithelium. Silencing of TKTL1 expression decreased cell proliferation through inhibiting the expression of MKI67 and cyclins including Ccna2, Ccnb1, Ccnd1 and Ccne1. Meanwhile, down-regulation of TKTL1 also associated with increased apoptotic ratio and altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family in ESCC cells. Furthermore, knockdown of TKTL1 significantly reduced the invasive potential of ESCC cells through up-regulation of anti-metastasis genes (MTSS1, TIMP2 and CTSK) and down-regulation of pr-metastasis genes (MMP2, MMP9, MMP10 and MMP13). Taken together, our results indicate that TKTL1 is associated with a more aggressive behavior in ESCC cells and suppresses its expression or enzyme activity might represents a potential target for developing novel therapies in human ESCCs.

Thakur S, Nabbi A, Klimowicz A, Riabowol K
Stromal ING1 expression induces a secretory phenotype and correlates with breast cancer patient survival.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established that levels of the Inhibitor of Growth 1(ING1) tumor suppressor are reduced in a significant proportion of different cancer types. Here we analyzed levels of ING1 in breast cancer patients to determine its prognostic significance as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.
METHODS: We used automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) to determine the levels of ING1 in the tumor associated stromal cells of 462 breast cancer samples. To better understand how high ING1 levels affect nearby epithelium, we measured the levels of cytokines and secreted matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), using an ELISA based assay in mammary fibroblasts overexpressing ING1. These cells were also used in a 3-dimensional co-culture with MCF7 cells to determine the effect of released MMPs and other cytokines on growing colonies.
RESULTS: We find that high levels of ING1 in stroma are associated with tumor grade (p = 0.001) and size (p = 0.02), and inversely associated with patient survival (p = 0.0001) in luminal, but not in non-luminal cancers, suggesting that high stromal ING1 promotes cancer development. In this group of patients ING1 could also predict patient survival and act as a biomarker (HR = 2.125). While ING1 increased or decreased the expression of different cytokines, ING1 also increased the levels of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP10 by 5-8 fold, and concomitantly decreased levels of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases TIMP2, TIMP3 and TIMP4 by 1.5-3.3 fold, resulting in significant increases in MMP activity as determined by zymography. Co-culturing of MCF7 cells with stromal cells expressing ING1 in 3-dimensional organoid cultures suggested that MCF7 colonies were less well defined, suggesting that secreted MMPs might promote migration.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that stromal ING1 expression can predict the survival of patients with luminal breast cancer. High levels of ING1 in stromal cells can promote the development of breast cancer through increased expression and release of MMPs and down regulation of TIMPs, which may be an underlying mechanism of reduced patient survival.

Hadziabdic N, Kurtovic-Kozaric A, Pojskic N, et al.
Gene-expression analysis of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 and their tissue inhibitors in chronic periapical inflammatory lesions.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2016; 45(3):224-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Periapical inflammatory lesions have been investigated previously, but understanding of pathogenesis of these lesions (granulomas and radicular cysts) at the molecular level is still questionable. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the development of periapical pathology, specifically inflammation and tissue destruction. To elucidate pathogenesis of periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, we undertook a detailed analysis of gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2.
METHODS: A total of 149 samples were analyzed using real-time PCR (59 radicular cysts, 50 periapical granulomas and 40 healthy gingiva samples as controls) for expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 genes. The determination of best reference gene for expression analysis of periapical lesions was done using a panel of 12 genes.
RESULTS: We have shown that β-actin and GAPDH are not the most stable reference controls for gene expression analysis of inflammatory periapical tissues and healthy gingiva. The most suitable reference gene was determined to be SDHA (a succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein [Fp]). We found that granulomas (n = 50) and radicular cysts (n = 59) exhibited significantly higher expression of all four examined genes, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, when compared to healthy gingiva (n = 40; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This study has confirmed that the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 genes is important for the pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. Since the abovementioned markers were not differentially expressed in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, the challenge of finding the genetic differences between the two lesions still remains.

Yan A, Yang C, Chen Z, et al.
MiR-761 Promotes Progression and Metastasis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Targeting ING4 and TIMP2.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015; 37(1):55-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA miR-761 in the progression and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the mechanisms by which miR-761 regulates cell proliferation and metastatic activity of NSCLC cell lines.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to assess miR-761 expression in NSCLC serum and tissue. MTT, wound healing, and transwell assays were performed to examine the role of miR-761 in regulation of cell proliferation and metastatic activity in NSCLC cell lines. In addition, the correlations of miR-761 expression with clinical-pathologic factors were statistically analyzed. Finally, we investigated whether miR-761 promotes proliferation and metastasis in NSCLC cell lines by targeting ING4 (inhibitor of growth family, member 4) and TIMP2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2).
RESULTS: MiR-761 was significantly upregulated in both NSCLC serum and tissues as compared to normal participants and paired noncancerous tissues respectively. Ectopic expression of miR-761 promoted cell proliferation and metastasis in H460 cells, while miR-761 inhibitor reduced proliferation rates and metastasis in H23 cells. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay and functional analyses indicated that miR-761 directly targeted ING4 and TIMP2.
CONCLUSION: miR-761 promotes progression and metastasis of NSCLC by targeting ING4 and TIMP2.

Urbaniak-Kujda D, Kapelko-Slowik K, Prajs I, et al.
Increased expression of metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 (TIMP-1, TIMP-2), and EMMPRIN (CD147) in multiple myeloma.
Hematology. 2016; 21(1):26-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Activity of metalloproteinases (MMP) is controlled both by specific tissue inhibitors (TIMP) and activators (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, EMMPRIN). There are few data available concerning concentration the bone marrow of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, or EMMPRIM expression by bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 40 newly diagnosed, untreated patients: 18 males and 22 females with de novo MM and 11 healthy controls. Bone marrow was collected prior to therapy. BMSCs were derived by culturing bone marrow cells on MesenCult. Protein concentrations were determined in bone marrow plasma and culture supernatants by ELISA. EMMPRIN expression by BMSCs was assessed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The median concentrations of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in both marrow plasma and culture supernatants were significantly higher in MM patients than controls.
CONCLUSION: EMMPRIN expression and ratios MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 were higher in MM patients, our results demonstrate that in MM patients MMP-2 and MMP-9 are secreted in higher amounts and are not balanced by inhibitors.

Niu J, Huang Y, Zhang L
CXCR4 silencing inhibits invasion and migration of human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(6):6255-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CXCR4 has been reported in various types of human cancer, which is associated with cancer progression and metastasis. However, the investigation of CXCR4 in laryngeal cancer is extremely rare. In the present study, we used lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting CXCR4 to silenced CXCR4 expression in Hep-2 cells and evaluated the effect of long-term suppression of CXCR4 on Hep-2 growth and metastasis. The Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTS assay, and the invasion and metastasis potentials were analyzed using wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. Our results showed that lentivirus-mediated shRNA effectively infected Hep-2 cells and suppressed CXCR4 expression, and inhibited cell growth of Hep-2 cells. Cell invasion and apoptosis were decreased concomitantly with the reduction in CXCR4 protein expression. Further analysis revealed that CXCR4 silencing caused the reducion of CXCR4, CXCL12, TIMP2, VEGF and MMP9, and the phosphorylation levels of IκB, AKT and MAPK, and also decreased the activity of NF-κB. These results suggested that knockdown of CXCR4 inhibits the invasion and metastasis of Hep-2 through PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways, by decreasing NF-κB activities to down-regulate VEGF, TIMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of CXCR4 may be an effective interventional therapeutic strategy in laryngeal cancer.

Heo JH, Song JY, Jeong JY, et al.
Fibulin-5 is a tumour suppressor inhibiting cell migration and invasion in ovarian cancer.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(2):109-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein which has a role in the organisation and stabilisation of ECM structures and regulating cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. Here, the expression of fibulin-5 and its functional effects on the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells were assessed.
METHODS: Expression of fibulin-5 was detected in 44 ovarian tumour tissues by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. We performed cell migration and invasion assays, and cell cycle analysis in fibulin-5 transfected SKOV3 (SKOV3-FBLN5) cells and the parental SKOV3 cells. We further examined the expression of three tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and seven matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: mRNA and protein expression of fibulin-5 were down-regulated (0.05-fold and 0.1-fold) in ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues (p<0.01 and p=0.022). In wound-healing and invasion assays, significantly fewer SKOV3-FBLN5 cells than SKOV3 control cells migrated and invaded (39.1%, p=0.046 and 70%, p=0.03, respectively), which was reversed by siRNA-treatment. Overexpression of fibulin-5 induced G2/M arrest and increased cyclin B1, CDC2 and CDC25C. Expression of TIMP-2 (0.56-fold), MMP-3 (0.43-fold) and MMP-13 (0.18-fold) was lower and MMP-9 expression (2.20-fold) was higher in SKOV3-FBLN5 cells than in control cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Fibulin-5 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian carcinoma and acts as a tumour suppressor by inhibiting the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

Li YY, Zhou CX, Gao Y
Moesin regulates the motility of oral cancer cells via MT1-MMP and E-cadherin/p120-catenin adhesion complex.
Oral Oncol. 2015; 51(10):935-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to clarify the role of Moesin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression, especially in regulation of cell motility.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to investigate the expression of Moesin, E-cadherin, p120-catenin and MT1-MMP in normal epithelia, dysplasia and OSCCs. Then, Moesin was knockdown by siRNA in OSCC cell lines, WSU-HN6 and CAL27, and the biological role of Moesin in cell adhesion and motility was evaluated by transwell system, cell spreading and aggregation assays. The interactions between Moesin, MT1-MMP and E-cadherin/p120-catenin complex were determined by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: Moesin expression was found decreased in the membrane and increased in cytoplasm during the malignant transformation of oral epithelia, and cytoplasmic overexpression of Moesin correlated with nodal metastasis and poor prognosis of OSCCs. Furthermore, Moesin-silencing induced an increased cell-cell adhesion but decreased invasiveness, which was subsequently demonstrated might due to Moesin-mediated E-cadherin and p120-catenin interaction. Meantime, Moesin-silencing significantly down-regulated MT1-MMP expression, accompanied by reduced cell motility and impaired filopodia formation, which was also observed when MT1-MMP knockdown by RNAi or tissue inhibitor (TIMP2), indicating the involvement of MT1-MMP in Moesin-mediated cell motility. Finally, the relationship between Moesin, E-cadherin and MT1-MMP was confirmed in OSCC tissue samples.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results indicate Moesin may regulate cell motility through its interactions with MT1-MMP and E-cadherin/p120-catenin adhesion complex and cytoplasmic expression of Moesin correlates with nodal metastasis and poor prognosis of OSCCs, indicating Moesin may be a potential candidate for targeted gene therapy for OSCCs.

Lu GJ, Dong YQ, Zhang QM, et al.
miRNA-221 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting TIMP2 in renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):5224-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-221 in the development and progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression level of miR-221 in ccRCC tissues and cell lines. Then, we investigated the role of miR-221 to determine its potential roles on renal cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm the target gene of miR-221 and the results were validated in renal cancer cells.
RESULTS: In the present study, we found that miR-221 was significantly increased in ccRCC tissues and cell lines. Knocked-down expression of miR-221 remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cancer cells. Moreover, at the molecular level, our results suggested that TIMP2 as a direct target of miR-221 through which miR-221 promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that miR-221 play an oncogenic role in the renal cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion by directly inhibiting the tumor suppressor TIMP2, indicating miR-221 act as a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of ccRCC.

Zhang S, Gao X, Yang J, Ji Z
TIMP-2 G-418C polymorphism and cancer risk: A meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Apr-Jun; 11(2):308-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) plays a critical role in human carcinogenesis. However, the association between TIMP-2 G-418C polymorphism and risk of cancer was reported with inconclusive results.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis of 11 published studies involving 2,658 cases and 3,433 controls was performed to assess the strength of association using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: The results indicated that no significant association between TIMP-2 G-418C polymorphism and cancer risk in overall population (GC vs. GG: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.87-1.83; CC vs. GG: OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.50-1.63; GC/CC vs. GG: OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.87-1.82; C vs. G: OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 0.87-1.62). However, stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that TIMP-2 G-418C polymorphism was associated with cancer risk among Caucasian population (GC vs. GG: OR = 20.00, 95%CI = 9.90-40.38; GC/CC vs. GG: OR = 10.70, 95%CI = 1.11-103.20; C vs. G: OR = 14.98, 95%CI = 7.66-29.32) but not among Asian population.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that TIMP-2 G-418C polymorphism may not influence the susceptibility of total cancer in overall population, but it was associated with cancer risk among Caucasian population.

Dang L, Wang Y, Xue Y, et al.
Low-dose UVB irradiation prevents MMP2-induced skin hyperplasia by inhibiting inflammation and ROS.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(3):1478-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Skin cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in the world. UV radiation is known as the primary environmental carcinogen responsible for skin cancer development. However, UV radiation is a ubiquitous substance existing in the environment and the physiological effect of UV radiation is consistently ignored. Therefore, in the present study, the physiological effect of UV radiation on inhibition of skin cancer was investigated. Normal mouse skin was processing by no pre-radiation or pre-radiation of low-dose UV before a medium or high dose of UV radiation. We found that the low-dose pre-radiated mouse skin tissue exhibited low skin inflammation, skin ROS production and consequently low skin epithelial hyperplasia after the medium-dose UV radiation compared with the no pre-radiated mouse. However, this inhibition was not indicated in the high-dose UV radiation group after low-dose pre-radiation. Furthermore, western blot analysis and gelatin zymography showed low expression and activation of MMP2 in the skin tissues processed following medium-dose radiation, but not in tissues treated with high-dose radiation after a low-dose pre-radiation. Further investigation of MMP2 inhibitors of TIMP2/TIMP4 showed an upregulated TIMP2 expression, but not TIMP4. Collectively, these data indicate that low-dose pre-radiation attenuates the skin inflammation and ROS production induced by medium-dose UV radiation and also elevates TIMP2 to withstand MMP2, therefore suppressing skin hyperplasia. The present study indicates a novel concept or prophylactic function of moderate UV radiation as a preventative strategy.

Wei Z, Zhou C, Liu M, et al.
MicroRNA involvement in a metastatic non-functioning pituitary carcinoma.
Pituitary. 2015; 18(5):710-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pituitary carcinomas are extremely rare neoplasms, and molecular events leading to malignant pituitary transformation are largely unknown. Enhanced understanding of molecular mechanisms driving malignant pituitary progression would be beneficial for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis and treatment.
METHODS: Differential microRNA expression in paired primary and metastatic pituitary carcinoma specimens were detected using high-throughput human microRNA microarrays and TaqMan microRNA arrays. Three of significantly deregulated miRNAs were further confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR in the metastatic carcinoma, six atypical pituitary adenomas and eight typical pituitary adenomas. Target genes of microRNAs were bioinformatically predicated and verified in vitro by Western blotting and real-time PCR and in vivo by immunohistochemistry respectively.
RESULTS: We present a case of a 50-year-old woman harboring non-functioning pituitary carcinoma with multiple intracranial metastases, and identified up-regulation of miR-20a, miR-106b and miR-17-5p in the metastatic carcinoma as compared to the primary neoplasm. Furthermore, miR-20a and miR-17-5p were increased in the metastatic carcinoma and six atypical pituitary adenomas as compared to eight typical pituitary adenomas as measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Both PTEN and TIMP2 were bioinformatically predicated and confirmed in vitro as target genes of these three microRNAs. As semi-quantified by immunohistochemistry, PTEN was absent and TIMP2 was decreased in the metastatic pituitary carcinoma as compared to pituitary adenomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest microRNA involvement in malignant pituitary progression, whereby increased miR-20a, miR-106b and miR-17-5p promote metastasis by attenuating PTEN and TIMP2 in pituitary carcinoma.

Xia Y, Wu S
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 inhibits activation of the β-catenin signaling in melanoma cells.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(11):1666-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) family, including TIMP-2, regulates the activity of multifunctional metalloproteinases in pathogenesis of melanoma. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is constitutively activated and plays a critical role in melanoma progression. However, the relationship between TIMP-2 expression and β-catenin activity is still unclear. We hypothesize that TIMP-2 over expression inhibits the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in melanoma cells. Protein expression, distribution, and transcriptional activity of β-catenin were assayed in established stable melanoma cell lines: parental A2058 expressing, A2058 T2-1 over-expressing (T2-1), and A2058 T2R-7 under-expressing (T2R-7) TIMP-2. Compared to T2-1 cells at the basal level, T2R-7 showed significantly lower amount protein and weaker immunofluorescence staining of β-catenin. This regulation is through posttranslational level via ubiquitination. Functionally, proliferation and cell growth were lower in T2R-7 compared to A2058 and T2-1. Lithium treatment was used to mimics activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In T2R-7 cells under-expressing TIMP2, lithium significantly increased total β-catenin, nuclear β-catenin, and its downstream protein phosphor-c-Myc (S62). Nuclear β-catenin staining was enhanced in T2R-7. Beta-catenin transcriptional activity and cell proliferation were also increased significantly. Axins inhibit β-catenin pathway via GSK-3 β. We further found the ratio of p-GSK-3 β (S9) to β-catenin and protein levels of Axins were significantly lower, whereas downstream Wnt 11 was high in T2R-7 treated with lithium. Collectively, the high level of TIMP-2 protein inhibits the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, thus suppressing proliferation. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of TIMP-2 may provide promising opportunities for anti-proliferative therapeutic intervention.

Kim EK, Tang Y, Kim YS, et al.
First evidence that Ecklonia cava-derived dieckol attenuates MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell migration.
Mar Drugs. 2015; 13(4):1785-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the effect of Ecklonia cava (E. cava)-derived dieckol on movement behavior and the expression of migration-related genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Phlorotannins (e.g., dieckol, 6,6'-biecko, and 2,7″-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol) were purified from E. cava by using centrifugal partition chromatography. Among the phlorotannins, we found that dieckol inhibited breast cancer cell the most and was selected for further study. Radius™-well was used to assess cell migration, and dieckol (1-100 µM) was found to suppress breast cancer cell movement. Metastasis-related gene expressions were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, dieckol inhibited the expression of migration-related genes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, it stimulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. These results suggest that dieckol exerts anti-breast cancer activity via the regulation of the expressions of metastasis-related genes, and this is the first report on the anti-breast cancer effect of dieckol.

Zhao S, Yao D, Chen J, et al.
MiR-20a promotes cervical cancer proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0120905 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are critical regulators of various diseases. MicroRNA-20a (miR-20a) has previously significantly altered in a range of cancers. In this study, we detected the relationship between miR-20a and the development of cervical cancer by qRT-PCR, we found that the expression level of miR-20a was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients than in normal controls, the aberrant expression of miR-20a was correlated with lymph node metastasis, histological grade and tumor diameter. Then we successfully established the stable anti-miR-20a cervical cancer cell lines by lentivirus. Inhibited miR-20a prevented tumor progression by modulating cell cycle, apoptosis, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. TIMP2 and ATG7 were proved to be direct targets of miR-20a, using luciferase assay and western blot. These results indicate that miR-20a suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cell through targeting ATG7 and TIMP2. Our results support the involvement of miR-20a in cervical tumorigenesis, especially lymph node metastasis. We propose that miRNAs might be used as therapeutic agent for cervical cancer.

Yang F, Wang W, Zhou C, et al.
MiR-221/222 promote human glioma cell invasion and angiogenesis by targeting TIMP2.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3763-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-221/222 are two highly homologous microRNAs that are frequently upregulated in solid tumors. However, the effects of miR-221/222 in malignant gliomas have not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we found that miR-221/222 were significantly upregulated in human glioma samples and glioma cell lines. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-221/222 regulate cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis, in addition to, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis in glioma cell lines. Subsequent investigations revealed that TIMP2 is a direct target of miR-221/222, and overexpression of TIMP2 reduced the miR-221/222-mediated invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of glioma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the suppression of miR-221/222 may be a feasible approach for inhibiting the malignant behaviors of glioma.

Mei PJ, Chen YS, Du Y, et al.
PinX1 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cells.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):73 [PubMed] Related Publications
PinX1 induces apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation in some cancer cells, and the expression of PinX1 is frequently decreased in some cancer and negatively associated with metastasis and prognosis. However, the precise roles of PinX1 in gliomas have not been studied. In this study, we found that PinX1 obviously reduced the gliomas cell proliferation through regulating the expressions of cell cycle-relative molecules to arrest cell at G1 phase and down-regulating the expression of component telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in human), which is the hardcore of telomerase. Moreover, PinX1 could suppress the abilities of gliomas cell wound healing, migration and invasion via suppressing MMP-2 expression and increasing TIMP-2 expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that PinX1 may be a potential suppressive gene in the progression of gliomas.

Jiang F, Chen L, Yang YC, et al.
CYP3A5 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Regulating mTORC2/Akt Signaling.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(7):1470-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
CYP3A5 is a cytochrome P450 protein that functions in the liver metabolism of many carcinogens and cancer drugs. However, it has not been thought to directly affect cancer progression. In this study, we challenge this perspective by demonstrating that CYP3A5 is downregulated in many hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), where it has an important role as a tumor suppressor that antagonizes the malignant phenotype. CYP3A5 was downregulated in multiple cohorts of human HCC examined. Lower CYP3A5 levels were associated with more aggressive vascular invasion, poor differentiation, shorter time to disease recurrence after treatment, and worse overall patient survival. Mechanistic investigations showed that CYP3A5 overexpression limited MMP2/9 function and suppressed HCC migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting AKT signaling. Notably, AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 was inhibited in CYP3A5-overexpressing HCC cells, an event requiring mTORC2 but not Rictor/mTOR complex formation. CYP3A5-induced ROS accumulation was found to be a critical upstream regulator of mTORC2 activity, consistent with evidence of reduced GSH redox activity in most clinical HCC specimens with reduced metastatic capacity. Taken together, our results defined CYP3A5 as a suppressor of HCC pathogenesis and metastasis with potential utility a prognostic biomarker.

Nho KJ, Chun JM, Kim DS, Kim HK
Ampelopsis japonica ethanol extract suppresses migration and invasion in human MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(5):3722-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ampelopsis japonica (AJ) is a well‑known traditional oriental herb with anti‑inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms by which AJ inhibits metastasis in breast cancer cells remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AJ ethanol extract (EAJ) on highly metastatic human MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells in vitro. AJ was extracted and chemically characterized. Cell proliferation was determined using a CCK‑8 assay and migration was detected using a wound healing motility assay. A Transwell assay was used to evaluate the invasion and metastatic capabilities of the MDA‑MB‑231 cells. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)‑1 and TIMP‑2 were evaluated using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in vitro. The results of the present study characterized the signaling cascades that mediated the antimetastatic activity of AJ in the human MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cell line. EAJ significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA‑MB‑231 cells in vitro and inhibited the expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9. These findings identified the biological activity of EAJ in an in vitro model of cancer metastasis and provided a rationale for further investigation.

Bose KS, Sarma RH
Delineation of the intimate details of the backbone conformation of pyridine nucleotide coenzymes in aqueous solution.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975; 66(4):1173-9 [PubMed] Related Publications

Bose KS, Sarma RH
Delineation of the intimate details of the backbone conformation of pyridine nucleotide coenzymes in aqueous solution.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975; 66(4):1173-9 [PubMed] Related Publications

Moroi K, Sato T
Comparison between procaine and isocarboxazid metabolism in vitro by a liver microsomal amidase-esterase.
Biochem Pharmacol. 1975; 24(16):1517-21 [PubMed] Related Publications

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